Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Post-Civil ar Reconstruction
In 1860, the federal budget was $63 million and in 1865, federal government expenditures totaled approximately $1.3 billion, not including the money spend by the Confederate government (Civil pp). In 1879, an estimate placed war-related costs to that date at $6.1 billion, and one estimate places expenditures for the Confederacy through 1963 at $2 billion, after that date, records are not available (Civil pp).
The Confederate states lost two-thirds of their wealth during the war, resulting in wide-scale economic destruction in the South (Civil pp). The loss of slave property through emancipation accounted for much of this, however the economic infrastructure was severely damaged, including railroads and industries, more than one-half of all farm machinery destroyed, and forty percent of all livestock had been killed (Civil pp). Between 1860 and 1870, Northern wealth increased by fifty percent, while Southern wealth decreased by sixty percent (Civil pp).
Civil War, American. Retrieved July 26, 2005 from:
Reconstruction (U.S. history). Retrieved July 26, 2005 from:
Failures of Civil War Reconstruction
After the close of the Civil War in 1865, the U.S. government initiated a wide-ranging policy of reconstruction aimed at rebuilding the American South. This policy, made up of a first and second reconstruction, offered the promise of creating enduring racial justice. The goals of the first reconstruction included equality for black Americans in politics, voting and the use of public properties, while the second reconstruction promised integration, the end of the Jim Crow laws and the creation of a true biracial democracy. Yet both of these policies failed to bring about the desired goals, mainly due to the lack of economic justice for all black Americans. On October 31, 1865, the Stanton Spectator addressed this with "There is no problem more difficult than the future of the "freedmen." Half a million of ignorant and helpless people have been turned loose... with no capital to…
American Passages: A History of the United States. Chapter 15. Ayers website. http://azimuth.harcourtcollege.com/history/ayers/MainAP/welcome.html
Andrew Johnson Impeachment. Internet. http://www.impeach-andrewjohnson.com.Harper's Weekly Online Resources.
In the North, however, abolitionists groups began to see slavery another way. Finally, when Lincoln -- who was perceived as anti-slavery -- was elected, the South fought to exercise what it believed were its states rights by seceding.
After the war concluded, these cultural and economic differences were not gone with the wind. Instead, they were prominent during reconstruction and continue to characterize the culture of the North and South today. McElrath's timeline of reconstruction shows several attempts at making the South racially equal, which can be defined as one of the goals of reconstruction. The Civil Rights Bill and 14th amendment were methods by which this was accomplished. However, Civil ar era culture has left such an impact on the region as to make race relations in the American South still stereotypically tenacious.
Kelly, Martin. "Top Five Causes of the Civil ar." About.com 2009. 26 July 2009.…
Kelly, Martin. "Top Five Causes of the Civil War." About.com 2009. 26 July 2009.
McElrath, Jessica. "Timeline of the Reconstruction Era." About.com. 2009. 26 July 2009.
The war and the years that preceded it led to the creation of social classes in our country. These classes consisted of the rich upper-class down to the poor immigrants; and each class had its own rules and regulations by which it lived. To this day, a large part of our society is based on classes. Socially, the war divided races and started what would lead to racism, bigotry, and the separation of black and whites. The war had served as a pathway to change but it would be several decades before the racial views of whites would change and allow for blacks to be treated fairly. Another thing that changed shortly after the war was women's rights. This movement paved the way for women to be considered equal and treated fairly (Ferland, 2009).
Ever since the Civil ar ended there has been great discussion over whether or not the…
"Civil War Overview." 2008. Son of the South. 26 April 2009
Ferland, R.W. 2009. AuthorsDen.com. 26 April 2009
Economic and social differences between the North and the South, states' rights verses federal rights, the fight between the proponents of slavery and abolitionists, and the election of Abraham Lincoln all contributed to the Civil ar. However, all of these causes can trace their roots in the institution of slavery. The major reason the southern states succeed was to maintain slavery, the conflict over western lands was about slavery, Lincoln couldn't maintain the union because of slavery, and the production of cotton demanded slavery.
Ultimately, though both sides claimed to want to achieve their objectives peacefully, the South viewed the North as a threat to its way of life, while the North preferred war rather than let the nation perish.
It seems incredible today that the institution of slavery was only abolished less than a century and a half ago. The idea that one person…
"Abraham Lincoln." The White House. Whitehouse.gov. (2011). 7 August 2011.
Goodwin, Doris Kearns. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln. Simon & Schuster: New York, 2005.
Roark, James L., Micheal P. Johnson, Patricia Cline Cohen, Sarah Stage, Alan Lawson, & Susan M.Hartmann. The American Promise: A History of the United States, 4th ed. Volume1: To 1877. Bedford/St. Martin's:Boston-New York, 2009.
Lee decided to run even before Sherman was able to come, and escaped from Petersburg. Grant was able to catch him at Appomattox, and then was the surrendered. There were 360,000 dead on the Union side and 260,000 dead on the Confederate side, but the union continued. This war made United States as a nation and a state. Earlier secession and state veto power had been disturbing the government from the beginning. (United States (History): The South Secedes) From here started econstruction, but that is another story.
Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. etrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005
The Compromise of 1850. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
United States (History): Bleeding Kansas. etrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html#s85Accessed on 26 May, 2005
United States (History):…
Coming of the Civil War: An Overview. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Bleeding Kansas. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Bleeding-KansasAccessed on 26 May, 2005
Encyclopedia: Missouri Compromise. Retrieved at http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Missouri-CompromiseAccessed on 26 May, 2005
The Compromise of 1850. Retrieved at (http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_16/United_States_(History).html. Accessed on 26 May, 2005
The belief was that eventually the North would have to give up, as long as the South could maintain a unified defense (McPherson). The Confederate Army was not well organized in the beginning, however, and the widespread and largely independent militias defending the Confederate borders were stretched too thin in places, allowing the Union Army to break through (McPherson). Technological advancements had large effects on the strategies of both the Union and Confederate armies as well.
The railroad was one of the most important advancements of the time; it was used to ship troops and supplies, and the destruction of railroad lines was common practice by both armies.
McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/confederatestrategy.htm
Smith, Page. Trial By Fire, A People's History of the Civil War and econstruction. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/unionstrategy.htm
McPherson, James. Battle Cry of Freedom. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/confederatestrategy.htm
Smith, Page. Trial By Fire, A People's History of the Civil War and Reconstruction. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/unionstrategy.htm
updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.
April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm
Litwak, Leon. "Results of the Civil ar." Funk & agnalls® New Encyclopedia. 2005 orld
Almanac Education Group. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: Bleeding Kansas." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: Dred Scott." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
John B. Gordon, "Causes of the Civil ar," Reminiscences of the Civil ar, page updated June 1, 2002, April 23, 2009, http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
"Causes of the Civil ar," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html
Gordon Leidner, "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer," Great American History. April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm
"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise," The Civil ar, April 23, 2009, http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/secessioncrisis/200303.html
"Causes of the Civil War," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html
Gordon, John B. "Causes of the Civil War." Reminiscences of the Civil War. Page
updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil War: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.
The differences between the Northern and Southern states regarding states' rights issues and industrialization also affected federal policies toward new territories acquired during Westward Expansion. Before the Civil War, the federal government had issued a series of "compromises" designed to appease both northern and southern interests. The Fugitive Slave Law and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill were both issued in response to Southern interests but they reflected weakness in the federal government. The Compromise of 1850, for instance, sparked controversy over admitting California to the nation as a free state. Southerners had hoped that new states would at least be able to choose their own policies regarding slavery: to have "the power to choose whether it entered the United States as a slave or free state," ("Causes of the Civil War").
Finally, the issue of slavery itself became a major cause of the Civil War. Southern states prospered as a result of…
American Civil War." (nd). Spartacus. Retrieved Sept 17, 2006 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAcivilwar.htm
The Causes." (nd). The American Civil War: The Struggle to Preserve the Union. Retrieved Sept 17, 2006 at http://www.swcivilwar.com/cw_causes.html
Causes of the War Between the States - a Southern Perspective." The Blue and Gray Trail. Retrieved Sept 17, 2006 at http://blueandgraytrail.com/features/southerncauses.html
Golden, R. (nd). Causes of the Civil War. About North Georgia. Retreived Sept 17, 2006 at http://ngeorgia.com/history/why.html
California was particularly problematic. Taken from Mexico after the war, California was geographically cut in half along the 36°30, and was therefore legally and politically cut in half. However, residents applied for statehood as a free state in 1850. Congress responded with a set of complicated compromises: California would be admitted as a free state in exchange for the Fugitive Slave Law, which required that citizens residing in free states hand over runaway slaves, who would not be afforded any legal rights. Additionally, the District of Columbia would cease trading slaves, but the institution itself would not be abolished; slaves would not be emancipated. The admission of California as a free state upset the balance of power in Congress. The Fugitive Slave Law fueled the Underground Railroad and underscored the deepening divisions between North and South.
The Missouri Compromise was shot to pieces in 1854, when Kansas and Nebraska were…
Bleeding Kansas." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html .
The Compromise of 1850." Africans in America. PBS Online. Online at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html .
Cozzens, Lisa. "Impact of Dred Scott." African-American History. Online at http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/scott/impact.html .
Kansas-Nebraska Act." The Columbia Encyclopedia. Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press, 2001. Online at http://www.bartleby.com/65/ka/KansasNe.html .
Civil War Freedmen: Freedmen's Bureau ecords In The Aftermath
In the years following the American Civil war, fought between 1961 and1965, many freedmen lost their homes, got separated from their families, and lost all claim to the little property they had. Although nearly four million slaves were freed, towns and cities in the region lay in ruins and the economy was destroyed. Faced with the challenge of restoring social order and providing assistance to the distressed freedmen, the U.S. government came up with the Freedmen's Bureau, also known as the Bureau of efugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands. Established in March 1965 by President Abraham Lincoln, the main aim of this Bureau was to provide relief effort to the former slaves from the south; and to facilitate the social reconstruction that would make the freedmen full citizens. The Bureau also helped them reunite with families, purchase land, establish schools, and even…
The Valley of the Shadow (1865-1870). Freedmen's Bureau Records: Race Relation, Family, Education. The Aftermath. Retrieved 9 April 2015 from http://vshadow.vcdh.virginia.edu/fbureau/bureau_topics_race.html
Instead of being a source of "organized social power" (Elkins 28) the church had "undergone a relentless process of fragmentation." People were religious, but Elkins asserts that people were seeking "individual satisfaction" rather than building "institutional needs." Elkins (150) delves into the Transcendentalists' view of the church, which was very cynical; "the church as an institution was corrupt..." The two author views are radically different one from the other.
SLAVES & MASTERS: Elkins explains that Southerners had "...a paternal affection of the good master for his blacks" and there were "warm sentiments" in southern Society for "faithful slave" (Elkins 61). However, on page 57 Elkins reports a case where a Virginia Judge in 1827 declined to punish the master who had cruelly battered his slave. Slaves had no legal rights and hence masters could take total control over their lives. Elkins does assert that a master could not kill his…
Elkins, Stanley M. (1968). Slavery: A Problem in American Institutional and Intellectual Life.
Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
McPherson, James M. (1982). Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. New York:
Alfred a. Knopf.
Civil War and by the mid-20th century, the United States was a prevailing and influential nation in the global politics. This was enhanced by the high level of involvement in controlling the events that take place across the world. The U.S. has been an active player in working with other international players in the processes of promoting peace and coexistence among the nations. Its large stake in a number of countries politically or economically has made the U.S. A major player in the international politics. The high involvement of the United States in international relations has led many to argue that it to be considered as the 'policemen of the world'. "The United States acts as the world's police, through taking policy and practical military action/missions in war/conflict torn areas across the world, with the focus to enforce global security."
Indeed, many people have argued that the U.S.…
Benhabib, S. (2008). U.S. Foreign Policy; The legitimacy of human rights. Daedalus, Vol. 137, Issue 3, p. 94-104.
Cameron, F. (2005). U.S. Foreign Policy After The Cold War. London: Routledge.
Kerstin, M. (2004). Security and Human rights; less liberty for greater security? Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 42, No. 27, p. 14-20.
In some ways, the Civil War was the analogue of the Terror for Americans: It was the bloodthirsty incestuous violence that allowed the nation to move onward to a full embrace of democracy, joining itself to Europe as the world began to tip toward democratic ideas and ideals.
Stephen Kantrowitz's biography of Benjamin Tillman demonstrates how he can be seen as a symbol for an entire cohort of Southerners of his generation, people (mostly but not exclusively men) who could neither understand nor tolerate the new order that had formally instituted itself after Emancipation. They could not understand a world in which black men were suddenly their legal equals. Tillman, and others like him, lived in a world that told them that blacks had to be treated like equals even though many white Southerners did not see their black compatriots as even being fully human.
This set up…
civil war on the American economics, military and diplomatic ties. The paper will discuss the effects of the victory of the Unions and the defeat of the Confederates.
The victory of the North in the American Civil War put an end to slavery and to the South's effort to secede from the Union. The years during which the Civil War settlement continued to be contested are known as the econstruction period. econstruction lasted roughly from the end of the war in April 1865 to the withdrawal of the last federal troops from the South in April 1877.
Effects of Civil War
The most important result of the Civil War was the liberation of nearly 4 million Southern slaves. The sudden release of so many people would have been a tremendous problem even in an atmosphere free from the bitterness that had been created by a civil war. Postwar…
Civil War: The Effects, Last viewed: 19th May'04
United States History, Civil War Effects and Reconstruction, last viewed: 19th May'04
During this time he was known for allowing his troops to engage in tactics that were considered to be brutal. This is because he felt that the constant Indian attacks on the railroads and settlers were unacceptable. As a result, he allowed soldiers to attack women, children and men when they were sweeping villages. At the same time, he helped to establish the Command and General Staff College along with writing his autobiography called Memoires. Once he retired from the army he was inducted into the Kappa Psi fraternity and the Irving Literary Society. Upon his death in 1891, Sherman was remembered for being brilliant military tactician and as someone who was willing to give something back to society. This is significant, because it is showing how Sherman's life was focused on military and public service after the end of the Civil War. The answers the question we are studying,…
"George Meade." History of War, 2007. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
"Joshua Chamberlin." Defense Media Network, 2011. Web. 20 Nov. 2011
Lanning, Michael. The Civil War 100. Naperville, IL: Source Books, 2006. Print.
MLA Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/
The dead were those that were remembered and martyred in the South, and the survivors had to do just that - survive. Northern soldiers eventually got some kind of pension as a reward for their valor, but the South was in disarray, and Southern soldiers really did not gain anything for their valor. The reactions to this were difficult to read, because many soldiers turned to drugs, alcohol, violence, and many suffered from mental problems. This is an area not often explored, and it made this book more interesting. It would have been nice if the editors had included even more essays and evaluations in this section of the book, because it was definitely the most commanding of all the sections.
This was a difficult book to read, because the essays the editor's chose were extremely academic (and some were very dry), and so it made it more difficult to…
Barton, Michael and Logue, Larry M. The Civil War Veteran: A Historical Reader. New York: New York University Press, 2007.
Civil War in American history [...] why the North won the Civil War, considering how the North and South developed during the 19th century, how the political, economic, and cultural development of the nation placed the North at an advantage and the South at a disadvantage, and finally, how the North ultimately prevailed over the South militarily. The North prevailed in the Civil War for a variety of reasons, from economic to industrial. The South simply did not have the resources the North enjoyed, and they were at a disadvantage from the start of the war. The end was inevitable, but the South resisted much longer than most people had believed, thus dragging the war on and accumulating the losses.
The North won the Civil War not because of wily generals and greater manpower, although that helped. The North won the Civil War for a wide variety of reasons, and…
Woodworth, Steven E. Cultures in Conflict -- The American Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2000.
Three major industries emerged: cotton, tobacco and iron. It's arguable that the cotton and tobacco industries did not stray far from their antebellum roots; however, the majority of the factories were funded by Northern investors. No different was the emerging iron and steel industry of the post-Civil War South - by the early 1900s, the factories were owned almost exclusively by the Northern Andrew Carnegie (Schultz, Tishler).
The emergence of factories did more than impact society as a whole with a race to the cities; race relations were impacted as well. The majority of the new factory jobs were held by whites, with blacks doing only unskilled labor. Mill owners justified the hiring of all whites as making up for the antebellum disparity that had existed when blacks had the majority of agricultural "jobs," if their former slave labor could be called that. At the political level, after the ratification…
Ransom, Roger L. "The Economics of the Civil War." University of California, Riverside, 02-01-2010.
Retrieved from: http:/ / the.net/encyclopedia/article/ransom.civil.war.us
The Reconstruction Acts: 1867. Texas State Library and Archives Commission. Retrieved from:
Certainly, Lincoln was extremely upset with the notion that while some Americans were free to pursue their own personal agendas, others were not free in any respect whatsoever, these being African-American slaves. Thus, in order to end this situation, Lincoln dedicated his life to seeing the institution of slavery eradicated from the face of the earth which he accomplished in some small measure in 1863 with his Emancipation Proclamation.
Furthermore, in 1860, the editor for the Charleston Mercury, a staunch advocate of slavery, wrote an editorial called "The Terrors of Submission," a reference to the South falling under the control of the abolitionists who wished to see slavery destroyed and the slaves given their freedom. This unidentified editor points out that if Abraham Lincoln becomes President in 1861, then an "immediate danger will be brought to slavery. . . all slave property will be weakened. . . And all the…
"Causes of the Civil War." 2009. Internet. Retrieved May 25, 2009 from http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html .
Horwitz, Tony. Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches From the Unfinished Civil War.
New York: Random House, 2002.
Taylor, Alan. American Colonies. New York: Penguin Group, 2003.
Northerners saw this as a deliberate effort to bring more slave states into the Union, while Southerners felt it did not go far enough in stating what states would enter free and what would enter as slave states. The debate in the House and Senate was so emotional, that fights broke out on the floors. Eventually, the bill, with the repeal of the Missouri Compromise passed, and the new territories of Kansas and Nebraska came into the Union. It forced an even deeper wedge between Northern and Southern legislators, and many people were so disgusted with the agreement that they split off from both parties. They began to form a new political party, the epublican Party, which would come together to nominate Abraham Lincoln, who had spoken out against slavery during his campaign, but as McPherson notes, "He had condemned slavery as a moral evil but deprecated radical action against…
McPherson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Therefore, the South felt she could count on the aid of France and Great Britain at some time during the war. This of course, did not happen, and so, the South did not have the luxury of external support that the United States had enjoyed during the evolutionary War (Donald, 1996, p. 15-16).
The South also had over 3 million slaves they could conscript into the Army, but these slaves could also stay behind and work, while the whites fought the war, and this gave the South a distinct advantage over the North. While she did not have more manpower, their operations were smaller, and they could move more effectively. They were also on the defensive, which gave additional impetus to their cause, and their coastline was short and sheltered, which held off blockading of supplies they needed (Donald, 1996, p.16). In addition, they were more attuned to the war…
Donald, DH Why the north won the Civil War.
McPherson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
consequences of the interventions by the UN in Somalia and Mozambique demonstrates a better scope of identifying situations to predict that the conditionality under which the interference might or might not entail the coveted consequences. A successful intervention is considered to be one where the conflict between adversaries concluded with the effectuation of a formal peace pact. A failure activity on the other hand refers to one where the adversities persistently go on intermittently during the process of interference. The demarcation of an effective act of interference having been instituted makes it easier to probe into the reasons behind the failed intervention in Somalia and the effective intervention in Mozambique. (UN intervention in Somalia and Mozambique: Why Success is not always cast in Stone)
Let us first consider the successful UN intervention in Mozambique, the causes for the success and the reasons which had made the successful intervention to become…
Bethany, Lacina. International Interventions and Imperialism: Lessons from the 1990s. SAIS Review Sample Article. Volume 23, Number 2, Summer-Fall 2003. Retrieved from http://www.press.jhu.edu/journals/sais_review/sample.html Accessed on 10 May, 2005
Jett, Dennis C. Lessons Unlearned - or why Mozambique's successful Peacekeeping Operation might not be replicated elsewhere. The Journal of Humanitarian Assistance. 20 January 2002. Retrieved from http://www.jha.ac/Ref/aar008.htm Accessed on 10 May, 2005
Limitations of African Peacekeeping Efforts. Monograph. No: 33: Constructive Disengagement. December, 1998. Retrieved from http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/Monographs/No33/Limitations.html Accessed on 10 May, 2005
UN intervention in Somalia and Mozambique: Why Success is not always cast in Stone.
After the last shots of Civil ar were heard, and following the issuance of the Emancipation Proclamation by President Lincoln, the South had been humiliated and devastated. The repercussions of war included loss of life, land, and livelihood. Patriarchy and racism remained entrenched, but the emancipation of slaves significantly transformed the social landscape of the South. Liberated slaves started from scratch without access to cultural or social capital, and many eventually migrated North. African-American culture was able to emerge, and in many cases, to flourish. Meanwhile, the white power structures in the South resigned themselves to ignorance, causing the South to remain the most backwards, uneducated, and poor region of the United States for over a century. Far from inspiring the South to transform its social, cultural, economic, and political institutions, the entrenched plantation society and Confederate identity took deep root there. Jim Crow symbolizes the extent to…
American Civil War Center (2014). Legacies of the Civil War. Retrieved online: http://www.tredegar.org/legacies-civil-war.aspx
Blight, David W. Race and Reunion.
Faust, Drew Gilpin. Mothers of Invention. University of North Carolina Press, 1996.
Lincoln, Abraham. "Emancipation Proclamation." 22 Sept, 1862. Retrieved online: http://www.civilwar.org/education/history/primarysources/emancipation.html
Industrialization After the Civil War
Introduce your paper with your previously crafted thesis statement.
After the Civil War, the United States became a much-industrialized society. The country was characterized by several industrial developments. More investments were put on establishing industries that could facilitate the production capacity of the country. Key policies were laid to drive the growth of industries in many of the sectors leading to the growth of industrialization in the country. These developments took place amidst an agrarian society that characterized America before the civil war. Before the civil war, many investments were made in agriculture with farming being a major economic activity for the American people. However, this affected the growth of the economy as the American population shot up (ees, 2008).
The nation resorted to industrialization after the civil war. This saw a change in lifestyle among many Americans as more people got jobs in the…
Aronowitz, S. (1999). Industrialization: the Shaping of American Working Class Consciousness. New York: SAGE.
Dubofsky, M. (1996). Industrialism and the American worker, 1865-1920. New York: Davidson.
Rees, J. (2008). Industrialization and the Transformation of American Life: A Brief Introduction. New York: M.E. Sharpe.
Vapnek, L. (2009). Breadwinners & Industrialization 1865-1920. New York: University of Illinois Press.
From Slavery to African-American
By the beginning of the Civil ar, there were some four million African-Americans living in the United States, 3.5 million slaves lived in the South, while another 500,000 lived free across the country (African pp). The Emancipation Proclamation of 1863 granted freedom to all slaves in the Confederacy, and the 13th Amendment of 1865 freed the remaining slaves throughout the nation (African pp). During the Reconstruction Era, African-Americans in the South gained a number of civil rights, including the right to vote and to hold office, however, when Reconstruction ended in 1877, white landowners initiated racial segregation that resulted in vigilante violence, including lynchings (African pp).
This resulted in the Great Migration of African-Americans from the South to the North during the beginning of the twentieth century (African pp).
From this Great Migration came an intellectual and cultural elite group of African-Americans that grew…
Slavery, The Civil ar and the Preservation of the Union
In the face of oppression and harsh treatment, slaves formed communities as a coping mechanism and to resist the belief that they were simply property. Members of these slave communities came together often to sing, talk, and even plan covert plots to runaway or sabotage the system in which they were living. Slaves married, had children and worked to keep their families together. Families were often broken up as members were sold off to different masters, but when a family was kept together, nuclear families of two parents and their children working for the same master were common. It was in these communities that countless elements of African-American slave culture were passed on for generations, including skills such as medical care, hunting, and fishing as well as how to act in front of whites, hiding their feelings and escaping punishment.…
Buchanan, James." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/B/BuchannJ1.asp .
Lincoln, Abraham," Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/L/LincolnA1.asp .
Missouri Compromise." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m/missrc1omp.asp .
The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America. PBS Online. 14 December 2002. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/title.html .
Race After the Civil War
lack or white, which is the color of your skin?
Some time in history, the color of a person's skin had been an essential element in his life's journey. To be socially accepted, people sees to it that you have the right skin color. ut which is the right color? Does there exist a right color of skin? This issue seems to be a very narrow and senseless matter that our ancestors were implicated centuries and years ago. Especially after the Civil War, the element of race became an issue in every aspect of their daily lives.
Unfortunate to the discrimination of race in the society of man in America after the Civil War are the black colored people. They were considered and grouped among the minorities who were prohibited with equal rights, not by law, but by human nature of men. lack colored people…
Douglass, Frederick. The Color Line.
African-American History. 26 July 2003.
Fitzhugh, George. Sociology for the South or The Failure of Free Society.
On the other hand, most businessmen found new opportunities in the South and tried to benefit from the political and economic vacuum. This orientation however, created new tensions between the Northerners and the Southerners, the latter feeling an increased aversion especially towards the economic initiatives of the former. Even so, the Northern part of the country was considered to be more prosperous and to represent the future of a modern nation.
The West was the least explored part of the country up to the Civil War. The expansion towards west provided businessmen and farmers alike with an immense availability of land, as that territory had been very little explored, a possibility which catered for the needs of the American nation to populate remote areas in the West. This was encouraged by legislative acts such as the Homestead Act which encouraged people to move west. Meanwhile, the Gold Rush had drawn…
Franklin, John Hope. "A century of Civil War Observance." The Journal of Negro History. Vol 47, no. 2. 1962. Accessed 8 November, 2007, at http://www.jstor.org/view/00222992/dm990511/99p0197y/0?currentResult=00222992%2bdm990511%2b99p0197y%2b0%2cFF0F&searchUrl=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.jstor.org%2Fsearch%2FBasicResults%3Fhp%3D25%26si%3D1%26gw%3Djtx%26jtxsi%3D1%26jcpsi%3D1%26artsi%3D1%26Query%3DA%2Bcentury%2Bof%2BCivil%2BWar%2BObservance%26wc%3Don
Hesseltine, William B. The Tragic Conflict: The Civil War and Reconstruction. New York: George Braziller, 1962.
Jenkins, Philip. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Weinberg, Meyer. A Short History of American Capitalism. Gloucester: New History Press, 2002
Even "Porter Alexander, Lee's ordnance chief and one of the most perceptive contemporary observers of Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia, called his decision to stand at Antietam 'the greatest military blunder that Gen. Lee ever made'" (Owens 2004). Historians are divided as to the real purpose behind the Maryland campaign, which seems like an "isolated maneuver, another manifestation of Lee's innate aggressiveness as a commander. Some have gone so far as to suggest that Lee's forays into Union territory were undertaken primarily to maintain his claim on scarce Confederate resources that might have been used to greater strategic purpose in the est" (Owens 2004).
hether a demoralization strategy or an effort merely to show Confederate aggression, the focus on Lee in most historians' analysis shows how Lee dominated this conflict, and defined the terms of the battle. Thus, even if Lee acted unwisely, he was clearly 'in control,'…
The beginning of the American Civil War. (2009). BBC. Retrieved February 22, 2009. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3245140
Bleeding Kansas 1853-1861. (2009). Africans in America. PBS. Retrieved February 22, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html
Faust, Patricia. (2005, March 26). The Anaconda Plan. Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War. Retrieved from Strategy and Tactics: Civil War Home on February 22, 2005 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/anacondaplan.htm
Owens, Mackubin T. (2004, September). September 17, 1862: High tide of the Confederacy?
Northern and Southern Colonies before the Civil War
In the middle of the 19th century, the industrial revolution that was growing depicted the presence of the two countries all of the most progressive independent states. The symbolic status in England laid the foundation of working class exploitation, urbanization and industrialization and the other one based on village, farmhouse, agriculture, and trustworthy relations between tenants and squires in 1845. egarding the census of the 1850, the population of the United States was about twenty-three million; this was a rise from thirteen million in the year 1830. As of 1850, the North saw increased populations of immigrants incoming. The census that was carried out in 1860 showed the population of the United States to be about thirty-one million. This represented a thirty-nine percent increase in a span of ten years where the South only had eighth million whites compared to twenty million…
Fitzhugh, George. Cannibals All! Or, Slaves Without Master. (Port Royal, Caroline, VA: 1857). A. Morris, Publisher, chapter 1, 1-4
Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon "Commercial development and immigration in the North at midcentury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 11, 304-334
Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs, and Gjerde Jon. "Agriculture and Slavery in the South at Midcetury" in Hoffman, Elizabeth Cobbs and Gjerde Jon. Major Problems in American History: To 1877. (Boston, Massachusetts: 2007). Houghton Mifflin Company, chapter 12, 335-360
McPherson James M. "The United States at Midcetury" in McPherson James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era. (Oxford: 1988). Oxford University Press, Chapter 1, 7-46
Industrialization after U.S. Civil War
AMERICAN INDUSTRIALIZATION AFTER THE U.S. CIVIL WAR (1865-1920)
It is a truism that large-scale warfare tends to increase industrial production and innovation, and that societies benefit from this industrialization after the war is over. In America, the Civil War was followed by the economic prosperity of the Gilded Age -- I would like to argue that the chief effect of this prosperity was to cause new conflicts in American society, which had to be settled by reform rather than Civil War. This is in some ways a counterintuitive argument, when in 2014 many have been conditioned to believe that a prosperous economy benefits everyone, when (in the words of the old cliche) a rising tide lifts all boats. But did the booming economy of America between the end of the Civil War and the onset of the First World War actually benefit child laborers or…
The Civil War was one of the most defining events in the nation’s history, and at the time was the most important event since the American Revolution. Whereas the Revolution embodied the ideals, values, and principles of the new nation, setting it apart from the British Crown and forever altering the geopolitical landscape, the Civil War revealed the persistent hypocrisy that continues to plague American society. Unresolved conflicts left brewing in the American psyche led to built-up tensions, exposing fissures in the society along the lines of culture, ethnicity, religion, race, gender, and socioeconomic class. The causes of the Civil War can be traced in fact to the inability of the original framers to take a firm stance on slavery, and to divest too much of the federal government’s power to the states. At the same time, protecting states’ rights was critical in the late eighteenth century when the nation…
Industrialization After the Civil War
Industrialization was, in all aspects, a game changer in the U.S. because it brought about a complete transformation in people's ways of life. It changed how businesses were run, transformed how people earned money, made transportation easier, and caused a social and economic revolution.
Within four decades (1865-1920), the U.S. had "transformed from a predominantly rural agrarian society to an industrial economy centered in large metropolitan cities" (Hirschman & Mogford, 2009). In addition to the unity that had been created by the uniting states, three other factors played a crucial role in the rapid diffusion of technology during this period. These are;
Legislative representation - the pieces of legislation that furthered the efforts of reconstruction and promoted civil rights for the marginalized. For instance, the 13th, 14th and 15th econstruction Amendments which illegalized slavery, awarded citizenship to all people naturalized or born in the U.S.,…
Berkin, C., Miller, C., Cherny, R. & Gormly, J. (2007). Making America: A History of the United States, Vol. II from 1865 (5th ed.). Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Hirschman, C. & Mogford, E. (2009). Immigration and the American Industrial Revolution from 1880-1920. Social Science Research, 38(4), 897-920.
Weinberg, M. (2002). Chapter 7: Capitalism Dominant, 1865-1920. A Short History of American Capitalism. Retrieved from http://www.newhistory.org/CH07.htm
" The more the freedmen resumed the habits and postures of slaves, the better the planters were able to accept the new system.
Thus reconstruction even with all the good intentions of some people was still a major failure. It had failed to bring the kind of peace and freedom for blacks that it was intended to. Since the blacks had become more or less accustomed to being treated as chained men, it took them a long time to accept freedom in true manner. The transition was slow and highly painful. It wasn't easy to shift power to the masses and it certainly took a long time to bring an end to slave mentality. ights were not granted easily and even after equality had been established on paper; it was not completely given in practice for a very long time.
econstruction., the Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, 01-01-1993
Reconstruction., the Columbia Encyclopedia, Fifth Edition, 01-01-1993
Eric Foner, a Short History of Reconstruction, 1863-1877, Harper & Row Publishers, December 1989
Trotter, Joe W., Reflections on the African-American experience, Vol. 29, Journal of Social History, 02-05-1996, pp 85(6)
Otto H. Olsen, Carpetbagger's Crusade: The Life of Albion Winegar Tourgee (John Hopkins Press, 1965). http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/procamn.htm
Southerners did not flock to become Republicans as the North desired, but when they were allowed to be Democrats, they worked hard to restore legitimate legislation and patriotism.
Meanwhile the attitude of Southerners toward the Blacks remained the same as before the war. Declaring a people free did not erase the subordinate and inferior image that the hites had of the Blacks. Even those blacks who had served in the military faced persecution and prejudice. A Colonel hittlesey testified before the Joint Committee on Reconstruction in 1866 and described several acts of violence he had witnessed:
Another case is that of Charles Everett, late 2d sergeant in the United States colored troops. Mr. Everett, since his discharge, has lived in this town, a quiet, peaceful citizen, has taken to himself a wife, and attended to his own business. He has had no quarrel nor unpleasant controversy with anyone, white or…
McPhearson, James M. Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction. 3rd ed. 2001
Mintz, S. "Testimony of Colonel Whittlesey before The Joint Committee on Reconstruction." 2006. (Online) http://chnm.gmu.edu/courses/122/recon/whittlesey.html
So, even in such situations as when the countryside has also been hit by war, the local administrators are much more likely to be able to function productively as they are fundamentally closer to the need and have strong community ties and possible a strong desire for social order but more importantly for the meeting of the local publics' needs.
The importance of establishing a public administration theoretical framework that prioritizes citizenship over consumerism, in a society where so much of the citizenry relies on public services is foundational to social order and to mitigating the change that has occurred as a result of war. There is no one right answer to all the functional changes to public administration, with regard to war as the many facets of war also create many facets of change in public administration. The level of degradation to physical and psychological networks must be analyzed…
Boleman, L., & Deal, T. (2003). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. Third Ed. . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bruck, T. (1997). Macroeconomic Effects of the War in Mozambique. QEH Working Paper Series QEHWPS11, 1-63.
Chopra, J., & Hohe, T. (2004). Participatory Intervention. Global Governance, 10-27.
Denhart, J., & Denhardt, R.B. (2007). The New Public Service. Revised Edition. Armonk, NY:: M.E. Sharpe.
Meanwhile the Soviets and its Afganistan government forces brace for the complete deterioration of the nation
Soviet newspapers report that some Afghan army units have begun looting their strongholds and abandoning them to guerrillas. (VOA)the last Soviet troops fly out of Kabul, ending a nine-year occupation of Afghanistan ahead of schedule. Moslem rebels launch rocket attacks on Kabul hours before the final withdrawal. (BBC)
The value of the early assumptions proved very real, though the soviet controlled government was able to hold the nation until 1992, despite many rebel attempts to take over the nation, and especially Kabul. Again on February 16th the U.S. pledges to continue to support the rebels, stating that the ultimate goal of the support is, "...Afghan self-determination. Secretary of State James Baker says the Soviets should assist in the reconstruction of Afghanistan. (NYT)"
Defections of government troops to rebel forces continues, unabated. In one…
Chipman, Don. "Air Power and the Battle for Mazar-E Sharif." Air Power History 50, no. 1 (2003): 34.
Corwin, Phillip. Doomed in Afghanistan: A UN Officer's Memoir of the Fall of Kabul and Najibullah's Failed Escape, 1992. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003.
Edwards, David B. Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Rogers, Tom. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Analysis and Chronology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.
Reconstruction a splendid failure?
The Reconstruction period after the Civil ar was a time when America attempted to rebuild the structures and things that had been lost during the war. However, the reconstruction was not only about building the building again, but was about rebuilding and redefining I American values. The entire economic structure and socioeconomic culture was to be re-defined. America had to rediscover itself and many of the institutions that it had held dear had to be reexamined. Some consider the Reconstruction Period to be one of the most splendid failures in American History. They content that the Civil ar did nothing to raise the economic or political status of the black person or other minorities. It also contends that the Reconstruction was a miserable failure on the part of industry as well.
One of the key issues surrounding the Civil ar was the issue of slavery. There…
Foner, Eric. "Rights and the Constitution in Black Life during the Civil War and Reconstruction," Journal of American History (December 1987), 74:3. Pp. 863-83.
Foner, Eric. ed., The New American History. rev. ed., Temple, 1997.
Foner, Eric. "Slavery, the Civil War, and Reconstruction," in Foner, The New American History.
A rev. ed., Temple, 1997.
By enacting the Black Codes, starting in 1865, following the 13th Amendment, however, and by giving birth, in 1866, to the Ku Klux Klan and its reign of terror over the freedmen, the southern states successfully circumvented the actual enjoyment by blacks of most of the freedoms granted them by the 13th Amendment.
The Constitution of the United tates of America [Article II]. A History of the American People.
Ed. Harry J. Carman et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Knopf, 1960. 776.
Hill, Elias. "Testimony before Congressional Committee Investigating the Ku Klux Klan, 1871." Reading the American Past: elected Historical Documents. Ed. Michael
Johnson. 2nd ed. Vol. 2. New York: Bedford, 2002. 9-13.
Jefferson, Thomas. The Declaration of Independence. A History of the American People.
Ed. Harry J. Carman et al. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Knopf, 1960. 759.
Mississippi Black Code, November 1865." Reading…
Black Codes in the Former Confederate States." December 15, 2004. http://www.civilwar home.com/blackcodes.htm>. 5 pages.
Brinkley, Douglas. History of the United States. New York: Viking, 2002. 237-8.
Carman, Harry J. et al., Ed. A History of the American People. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York:
Knopf, 1960. 738.
One of the policies that black leaders fought for was the granting of land to blacks following the Civil War. Freedman saw "land represented as their chance to farm for themselves, to have an independent life. It represented compensation for generation of travail and bondage" (438). Although this demand has strong logical backing in that once freed, black farmers should have equal legal status as white, the reality of the situation did not support such a reformation. The general feeling of race within the northern landscape was very mixed, despite the fight for emancipation; Northerners still saw themselves as the superiors of the black population. Therefore, black leaders were not able to gain strong land-rights for African-American throughout the west. However, the government did relent to giving out equitable land rights to African-Americans during the mass-migration to the West; this was one of the impetus that spawned the greater push…
This "education" convinces the white person to give up their sons for wars that oppress the dark peoples, votes money for the wars, makes him believe he should make up the lynch mobs and to oppress blacks with Jim Crow. The fact that his philosophy was realistic was because it was the activism of his NAACP exposing the reality of lynching in the South in the 1920s It was very realistic, because the in their face activism was what was reversing the trends in the South. Other African-Americans such as ashington saw him as a radical, but he know how to get what he wanted from the white through activism in the NAACP (DuBois, 2010).
Booker T. ashington had a very strange view of education for blacks. He had to apologize to the hites of the South in the Atlanta speech for blacks sought out political careers and teaching assignments…
DuBois, W.E.B. (2010). The negro mind reaches. Retrieved from http://www.yale.edu/glc/archive/1114.htm .
The meaning of freedom: the failure of reconstruction. In (2010). D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), The African-American Odyssey (pp. New York, NY). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
The meaning of freedom: the promise of reconstruction. In (2010). D. Hine, W. Hine & S. Harold (Eds.), The African-American Odyssey (pp. New York, NY). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
U.s. public health service syphilis study at tuskegee. (2009). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/tuskegee/timeline.htm
Regarding the report of the joint committee on reconstruction -- can it be considered the first major event after reconstruction? The answer is yes, this report was the first major event and in fact it led to the reentry of the Confederate States back into the Union of the United States with certain requirements prior to that reentry. Even though the Emancipation Proclamation is thought of in terms of what happened first, in fact the Emancipation Proclamation was delivered by President Lincoln before the war had officially ended. Hence, it would seem fair to contend that this committee report the first major event in the era of reconstruction.
hat does this report ask the nation to do in terms of the task of reconstruction of the former confederacy? The report from the fifteen elected officials (nine members from the House of Representatives and six United States Senators) asked that…
From Revolution to Reconstruction. (2010). Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction
June 20, 1866. Retrieved September 11, 2011, from http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/D/1851-1875/reconstruction/repojc.htm.
ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics
The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period.
There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…
Bell, P.M.H. "The World Since 1945: An International History.": New York: Oxford University Press, 2001
Dower, John W. "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." New York: Norton/Free Press:, 1999
Dower, John W. "Why Iraq is not Japan." Mercury News. Apr. 27, 2003. July 2, 2003. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/editorial/5728557.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp
Gordon, Bill. "The Allied Occupation of Japan." May 2000. July 2, 2003 http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/alliedoc.htm
America Moves West
econstruction is the name for the period in United States history that covers the post-Civil War era, roughly 1865-1877. Technically, it refers to the policies that focused on the aftermath of the war; abolishing slavery, defeating the Confederacy, and putting legislation in effect to restore the nation -- per the Constitution. Most contemporary historians view econstruction as a failure with ramifications that lasted at least 100 years later: issues surrounding the Civil ights were still being debated in the 1970s, corrupt northern businessmen "carpetbaggers" brought scandal and economic corruption, monetary and tariff policies were retributive and had legal results in the north as well. Despite the failure of this period as an equalizer or integrator of races in the Old South, there was an equally robust push westward that not only encouraged individuals of all ethnicities to move, but changed the political and economic texture of the…
Immigration and Labor. (2009). Encarta.MSN. Retrieved from: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761552683_11/new_york.html.
Railroads Following the Panic. (2001). U.S. History.com. 2001. Retrieved from:
Teaching With Documents: The Homestead Act of 1862. (2007). National Archives.
One of the most dramatic consequences of the Civil ar and Reconstruction was that the South was effectively driven from national power for roughly six decades. Southerners no longer claimed the presidency, wielded much power on the Supreme Court, or made their influence strongly felt in Congress But beginning in the 1930s, the South was able to flex more and more political muscle, and by the 1970s some began to think that American politics and political culture were becoming 'southernized'.u How did this happen and what difference did it make to the development of the South and the United States?
Under segregation most blacks in the U.S. still lived in the South and were employed as sharecroppers, laborers and domestic servants, but the system of segregation and discrimination was also found everywhere in other sections of the country. Certainly virtually nothing was done for civil rights during the…
Brinkley, Allen. American History: A Survey, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2012.
Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.
Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. NY: Knopf, 2005.
Gold, S.D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Marshall Cavendish, 2010.
Lincoln's econstructions Plans
Lincoln's econstruction Plans
In 1863, Abraham Lincoln was in a very difficult position. What was happening is the Union was not able to secure total victory against the South. Instead, everything hinged on: a series of miscalculations or the inability of the generals to effectively lead their forces into battle. This caused the war to drag on and the opposition to increase surrounding the policies that Lincoln had enacted in order to keep the nation united.
Then, after the victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, is when Lincoln felt confident that the South's days were numbered. This is because several situations occurred that created a fundamental shift in the momentum of the war. In the case of Vicksburg, the Union victory allowed Grant's forces to seize control of the entire Mississippi iver (effectively cutting the South in two).
To relieve pressure on the Western Confederacy, Lee believed that…
Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan. Spark Notes. http://www.sparknotes.com/history/american/reconstruction/section1.html (accessed March 5, 2012)
Campbell, James. Reconstruction. New York, NY: ABC CLIO, 2008.
Foner, Eric. Reconstruction. New York, NY: Peter Smith Publication, 2001.
Haltway, Herman. How the North Won. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2001.
This made the United States the only estern nation to criminalize contraception at that time (Time). hile women (and men) continued to illegally access birth control, often using devices labeled differently for contraceptive purposes, it would be decades before birth control could be openly used within the United States. In 1916, Margaret Sanger opens the first birth control clinic in the United States, but it is shut down in 10 days (Time). It was not until 1938 that the federal ban against birth control was lifted by a federal judge (Time).
hile women did not enjoy an abrupt increase in civil rights following the Civil ar, it is important to realize that there was a gradual increase in attention towards civil rights and support for women's rights after the Civil ar. In 1868, the National Labor Union supported equal pay for equal work, which was the first real call for…
A&E Television Networks. "The Fight for Women's Suffrage." History.com. N.p. 2012.
Web. 16 May 2012.
The Prism. "The Path of the Women's Rights Movement: A Timeline of the Women's Rights
Movement 1848-1998." The Prism. N.P. Mar. 1998. Web. 16 May 2012.
Gradually, though, the war effort eroded the practical and theoretical underpinnings of racism in the United States. The war stimulated the domestic economy, particularly in the industrial and manufacturing sectors. Jobs were opening up rapidly, and because so many white men were fighting the war, many black men were available to work. "For black workers orld ar II opened up opportunities that had never before existed," (O'Neil 1). The same was true for women, as the war left gaping holes in the labor market that needed to be filled in untraditional ways. At the same time as the war exposed American prejudice, "orld ar II gave many minority Americans -- and women of all races -- an economic and psychological boost." (Harris 1). The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded, and overall, the war "jump-started the civil rights movement" in the United States (Harris 1; "Identify the impact of…
Harris, Michael. "How WWII Affected America's Minorities." Los Angeles Times. 13 June, 2000. Retrieved online: http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jun/13/news/cl-40272
"Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America." (U.S. History)." Retrieved online: http://share.ehs.uen.org/node/6217
O'Neil, William L. "Minorities and Women During World War II." Retrieved online: http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/WWII_Women/RA/NCraig/Minorities.html
Takaki, Ronald. Double Victory. New York: Time Warner/Little Brown.
Ethics of ar: Justified and Unjustified ar
hen countries launch hostile military actions against other nations to the point where war occurs, the belligerents will inevitably have fundamentally opposing views concerning the legitimacy of the conflict and each opposing side will offer its poignant justification for its respective moral, legal and political positions regarding the conflict. In many cases, all belligerents in a war may have equally compelling just causes, and these causes can change from just to unjust even as the war is being fought. Indeed, scarcity of resources is frequently at the heart of many wars, but virtually all wars throughout history have also been justified on the basis of both sound and spurious rationales, the veracity of which depends on who is asking and who is being asked, questions that quickly become heated when religious reasons are included in the mix. To get at the heart of…
Alexandrov, Stanimir A. (1997, January 1). "Self-Defense against the Use of Force in International Law." The George Washington Journal of International Law and Economics 30(2/3): 605-610.
Dagi, Ihsan. (2013, Winter). "Editor's Note." Insight Turkey 15(1): 4-5.
Elshtain, Jean Bethke. (2005, October). "Against the New Utopianism: Response to 'Against the New Internationalism.' Ethics & International Affairs 19(2): 91-93.
Nardin, Terry. (2002, April). "The Moral Basis of Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics & International Affairs 16(1): 57-63.
Chapter 17 entitled "In the Wake of War," chronicles the political aftermath of the American Civil War, the Reconstruction Era, and the settlement of the American West during the latter half of the 19th century. In the words of the chapter, although civil conflict had been stemmed in America, there were just as many new problems for the emerging union as there were new, proffered solutions regarding racial tensions in the wake of reunification. Many of these problems were 'solved' with political half-measures as the triumphs of self-interest of politicians wishing to capitalize upon the South's weakened state became ascendant over the real interests of Blacks in the union. The promises made to African-Americans were eventually subsumed to the perceived needs of a unified nation and an ascendant federal congress.
The ultimate aftermath of the war saw only a technically freed African-American people, but a people whose rights were…
(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)
Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."
Isby, David C. (1999) War in a Distant Country. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Taliban. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
Terrorism Project. (2001) "Lessons from History: U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1978-2001." 5 October 2001. Online available at; .
United States Department of State (1976) Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976.
Under Saddam Hussein, Iraq experienced years of turmoil, resulting in a war with Iran, economic mismanagement, and U.N.-imposed sanctions. Now, after 4 years of occupation by the U.S., Iraq experiences extreme poverty, unemployment and has millions of homeless. The country's infrastructure is in ruins and U.S. plans for reconstruction of its schools, infrastructure and civic buildings have been mired in fraud, mismanagement and incompetence. Commentators expect the country to suffer from the effects the war for years to come.
On November 15, 2007, the House of Representatives passed a bill that provides $50 billion to fund the war in Iraq and attached a timetable for the withdrawal of troops by the end of 2008. The bill prevented the White House from using funds to construct permanent bases in Iraq or assert U.S. control over Iraq's oil. President ush vetoed the bill, while Republicans supported this move. Congressional Democrats countered that…
Bull, Alister. "Civil War or Not, Iraq Economy Faces Vast Challenge: If the Violence in Iraq Ceased Tomorrow, Its Economy Would Still Be in Deep Trouble." Reuters. August 16, 2006
Button, Karen. "IMF in Iraq: The Second Invasion." Uruknet. May 20, 2006.
Cockburn, Patrick. "U.S. Issues Threat to Iraq's 50bn Dollars Foreign Reserves in Military Deal." Independent. June 6, 2008
Herbert, Bob. "Now and Forever" New York Times. December 4, 2007.
Post War Iraq: A Paradox in the Making: Legitimacy vs. legality
The regulations pertaining to the application of force in International Law has transformed greatly from the culmination of the Second World War, and again in the new circumstances confronting the world in the aftermath of the end of the Cold War. Novel establishments have been formed, old ones have withered away and an equally enormous quantity of intellectual writing has studied this, which is debatably the most significant sphere of international law. Any discussion on the lawful use of armed force ought to start with the United Nations Charter. The Charter redefined understanding of the legitimacy of the application of force by outlining situations under which it is allowed.1
The guiding theory of the Charter is affirmed in its Preamble that armed forces should not be used except in the general interest. Article 2(4) of the Charter preserves this…
Bailey, Sydney D. Four Arab-Israeli Wars and the Peace Process. Palgrave: Macmillan, 1990
Barber, Benjamin. Fear's Empire: War, Terrorism and Democracy. W.W. Norton and Company, 2003
Barton, F.D; Crocker, B. Winning the Peace in Iraq. Washington Quarterly Volume: 26, Number: 2. Spring 2003, pp. 7-22.
Bijl, Nick van der. Nine Battles to Stanley. Pen and Sword Books, 1999
The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…
They other group that faced quiet a bit of resistance was that of the colored women. In a work by Watkins Harper, Colored Women of America, the plight of colored women during this era was discussed in detail. The white and black women during this time period were constantly aggravated by the lack of backing for reprieve, land transformation, and compensations that they believed as just. This radical position was thwarted by a male biased society that dishonored female restructuring and tried to stop black reliance on the federal government. The women's visualization of liberty, turned out to be very different from that of the men's.
Black women played a vital role in econstruction. In numerous manners these militant women had further in common with their white equals than the freed women whose agony they wanted to alleviate. All through the Civil War, abolitionist and ex- slave Harriet Jacobs toiled…
In short, the United States became more aggressive in attaining foreign resources and access to trade. This was a result of the expansive nature of empires, and the fact that America, as characterized by Boot, was gradually becoming a "great power."
Largely, the Great Powers of the modern world have come into being as emerging economic and political trends have allowed. The ever shifting tides of the world's social foundations have tended to produce successive powers that rise and fall over the course of history. Generally, what make these powers great are their military capabilities, but of course, these are commanded by the economic base supporting them. A powerful economy can allow for enormous military expenditures, and generate vast influence across the planet.
Naturally, the economic crux of a great power can vary in form. Most obviously, the great power of the ancient world -- Rome -- relied upon the…
Boot, Max. The Savage Wars of Peace: Small Wars and the Rise of American Power. New York: Basic Books, 2002.
This will continue to be the case for the foreseeable decades as the United States fights wars that are so far not yet even imagined. If these wars have been fought (as many have suggested) over the presence of the scarce resource of oil, the next wars may be fought over the even more precious resource of water.
Looking not too far into the future, the next wars may be fought over the consequences (the magnitude of which has not been determined) of climate change. As the surface of the world itself changes with rising seawater and increasing disastrous floods, hurricanes, and droughts, the nature of war is likely to change ever more dramatically and ever more quickly. Petraeus has proven to be the kind of military leader who can understand that strength is based on intelligence and flexibility, not a clinging to traditions and -- most importantly -- the…
Bacevich, a. (2008). thinks our political system is busted. In "The Limits of Power: The End of American Exceptionalism. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Petraeus, D. (2007). The U.S. Army / Marine Corps Counterinsurgency Field Manual. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/irp/doddir/army/fm3-24fd.pdf .
Smith, R. (2007). The Utility of Force: The Art of War in the Modern World. New York: Knopf.
On the other hand there was growing opposition in intelligentsia circles to pro-soviet regimes in all East European countries and Eastern Germany. If in earlier years Soviet Union was able to aid economies of these countries in order to support communist regimes, then starting from the years fro stagnation in late 1970's the situation changed. Findings were shortening and the U.S.S.. was not able to support unprofitable industries of its partners as its own economy was experiencing troubles:
The growth of the Soviet economy has been systematically decelerating since the 1950s as a consequence of dwindling supplies of new labor, the increasing cost of raw material inputs, and the constraints on factor productivity improvement imposed by the rigidities of the planning and management system. The average annual growth of Soviet GNP dropped from 5.3% in the late 1960s to 3.7% in the early 1970s, to 2.6% in the late 1970s.…
Berkowitz, Bruce D. Richelson, Jeffrey T. The CIA vindicated: the Soviet collapse was predicted. The National Interest, No. 41, Fall 1995
Morewood, Steven Gorbachev and the Collapse of Communism History Review, No. 31, 1998
Fleming, D.F. The Cold War and Its Origins, 1917-1960 Vol. 2 Doubleday, 1961
Militant Vol. 61, no. 24. 23 June 1997
Teacher Wars: Questions
On page 32 at the end of chapter 1, Goldstein (2014) notes that both Beecher and Mann viewed morality as "the end of public education." Goldstein suggests that this view evolved into one that would later prioritize academic learning over morality, or what Goldstein calls faith.
How connected would you say are faith and morality, and can morality/ethics be pursued in the public classroom in a way that is academic? For example, Socrates pursued a moral/ethical line of inquiry in his dialogues and the schools of Plato and Aristotle acted similarly. While faith may have played a role in their society at the time, it did not act as an obstacle to their students academic learning but rather as an instrument by which their ability to reason could gain higher ground in the metaphysical/philosophical spheres. Thus, there is the assertion that faith rests upon reason as the…
Goldstein, D. (2014). The Teacher Wars: A History of Americas Most Embattled
Profession. New York: Doubleday