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Such performances can only be influenced by variables like one's age and his or her backgrounds.
According to Diane Halpern, social scientists are inclined to believe that men are more aggressive than women. Most violent crimes on the territory of the U.S. are being committed by men, with women having committed lesser aggression-related felonies. However, this does not necessarily mean that men are generally more aggressive than women. Apparently, men are usually more unpredictable than women are, as the number of men that have committed crimes is compensated by the number of men that are honest.
"Scientific studies "proving" that men are smarter or more analytical and less emotional than women, or that men and women use their brains differently, are periodically trumpeted and more quietly debunked." (Kaminer)
There have been a great number of statements in history relating to the differences existing between women and men. omen have been…
1. Halpern, Diane F. "Sex differences in cognitive abilities." Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000.
2. Kaminer, Wendy. (2002). Gender Bender. The American Prospect, Vol. 13, September 9.
Kaminer, Wendy. (2002). Gender Bender. The American Prospect, Vol. 13, September 9.
Cognitive Ability Testing
Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.
Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…
Aiken, L.R. & Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological assessment and Psychological testing, (12th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 0205457428.
Bermingham D, Hill RD, Woltz D, Gardner MK (2013) Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information. PLoS ONE 8(3).
Lakin, J.M. (2012).Multidimensional ability tests in the linguistically and culturally diverse students: The Evidence of the measurement invariance. Learning and Individual Differences. 22(3):397-403.
Lohman, D.F. (2006). The Woodcock-Johnson III and the Cognitive Abilities Test (Form 6): A Concurrent Valid Study. University of Iowa.
One area that was missed in the literature was the effectiveness of various intervention strategies in reducing stress in families with persons with disabilities. It is not known what interventions have been tried and which ones were most effective in helping families to build coping mechanisms and reduce stress. This is the obvious next step into developing a thorough understanding of the topic area.
This literature review revealed several key trends into research regarding families and cognitive impairment. This area continues to be an area of interest. However, the focus seems to be shifting from a psychological perspective into a sociological based approach. There is much more interest in recent years regarding the issues of cognitive disability and its impact on society at large. In the area of persons with cognitive disability, having families of their own, politics will play a factor in the direction of research in the future.…
Anderson, V., Catroppa, C., & Haritou., M. et al. (2005). Identifying factors contributing to child and family outcome 30 months after traumatic brain injury in children. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 76(3):401-408,
Family Village. (2006). Cognitive Disability/Mental Retardation. Retrieved April 9, 2009 from http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/lib_cdmr.htm
Feldman, M., Varghese, J., Ramsay, J., & Rajska, D. (2002). Relationships between social
support, stress, and mother-child interactions in mothers with intellectual disabilities.
Cognitive Behavior Abilities in Men and Women
Three major differences cognitive behavior abilities men women: higher verbal abilities, higher spatial abilities, higher arithmetical abilities
Neuropsychologists and psychologists have widely analyzed the difference in cognitive abilities expressed by members of the male and female genders. The analysis of these professionals has revealed the existence of three major cognitive differences between the genders. The differences include higher verbal abilities in women; higher arithmetic abilities in males and higher spatial abilities in males. However, the possession of superior arithmetic abilities by males has been closely related their possession of top notch spatial abilities. This implies that the differences in cognitive abilities can be condensed or summarized into two.
Close look at the differences in verbal abilities among males and females reveal that women perform best in verbal tests as compared to their male counterparts. Additionally, a woman's language development cycle is faster than…
Ackerman, P.L. (2006). Cognitive sex differences and mathematics and science achievement. American Psychologist, 61(7), 722-723.
Ballinger, T.P., Hudson, E., Karkoviata, L., & Wilcox, N.T. (2011). Saving behavior and cognitive abilities. Experimental Economics, 14 (3), 349-374.
Jean Piage is a luminary as far as cognitive development theory goes. This is because of his contributions in his intellectual development theory. According to Piaget, intellectual development is a continuation of innate biological processes. He emphasizes that children go through four sequential processes of development. These four stages also occur with sub stages within them.
The sensory motor stage: 0 to 2 years; intuitive stage: 2 to 7 years; concrete operations stage: 7 to 11 years; and the formal operations stage: 11 to 15 years (Simatwa, 366).
hat "Active Construction of Knowledge and Understanding" Means
A person's way of understanding occurs in five ways that are related. These are referred to as cognition domains. These ways include understanding as a representation, understanding as connectivity between knowledge types, understanding that forms active knowledge construction and understanding as cognition situation. Understanding as a representation refers to owning internalized ideas,…
Aleven, Vincent and Koeginger, Kenneth. "An Effective Metacognitive Strategy: Learning by Doing and Explaining with A Computer-Based Cognitive Tutor." Cognitive Science, 26 (2002): 147-179. Print.
Casey, Betty, Jones, Rebecca, and Hare, Todd. "The Adolescent Brain." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124 (2008): 111-126. Print.
Hill, Patrick and Lapsley, Daniel. "Egocentrism." Education.com, http://www.education.com/reference/article/egocentrism/ . Accessed 23 August 2016.
Hurst, Melissa. "Differences between Piaget and Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theories." Study.com, http://study.com/academy/lesson/differences-between-piaget-vygotskys - cognitive-development-theories.html. Accessed 23 August 2016.
Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.
Developmental and cognitive changes
The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).
Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…
Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.
Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.
Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...
Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
Cognitive Stimulation Therapy for Early Stages of Dementia
With an aging population, issues related to cognitive abilities and impairment, including dementia, are increasing in relevance to public health officials. Being able to delay the negative results of dementia can contribute to increased quality of life for a number of aging individuals and their families. At present, many health care professionals view dementia as a condition that will deteriorate over time and do not view it as something that can be effectively stalled or reversed (Hodges & Graham, 1999). Many of the programs available for individuals dealing with cognitive deterioration or dementia are designed to provide for their safety and contentedness, but do not focus much on improving or maintaining cognitive abilities. Furthermore, the emphasis of many day programs is on providing a safe place for individuals so that their caregivers can have the much-needed respite in their care routines. Caregivers…
Banks, M.R., & Banks, W.A. (2002). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on loneliness in an elderly population in long-term care facilities. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A, 57(7), M428-M432.
Barker, S. & Dawson, K.S. (1998). The effects of animal-assisted therapy on anxiety ratings of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Psychiatric Services, 49, 797-801.
Breuil, V., De Rotrou, J., Forette, F., et al. (1994). Cognitive stimulation of patients with dementia: preliminary results. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 9, 211-217.
Cochran, S.D., Mays, V.M., Bown, D., Gage, S., Bybee, D., Roberts, S.J, Goldstein, R.S., Robinson, A., Rankow, E.J., & White, J. (2001). Cancer-related risk indicators and preventative screening behaviours among lesbian and bisexual women. American Journal of Public Health, 91(4), 591-597.
Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly -- ACTIVE) was a randomized controlled, single-blind trial; the group design was with four groups, which included " ... 3 treatment groups and a control group" (illis, et al., 2006).
Participant selection: the researchers had recruited 2,832 elder persons (who lived independently, not in nursing homes, for example) that averaged 73.6 years of age; the researchers located the participants from community centers, senior housing, clinics and hospitals in 6 American cities (Birmingham; Detroit; Indianapolis; State College, PA; Boston; and Baltimore). These individuals were originally recruited in April 1998 and there was a follow-up in December 2004; 67% of the original sample participated in 2004.
Assignment to groups: those who were disqualified from the study included: younger than 65; or had serious cognitive decline; had other "substantial impairments"; had Alzheimer disease; were near death or in serious decline; nearly blind, nearly deaf or had…
Willis, S.L., Tennsdedt, S. L., Marsiske, M., Ball, K., Elias, J., Koepke, K.M., Morris, J.N.,
Rebok, G.W., Unverzagt, F.W., Stoddard, A.M., and Wright, E. (2006). Long-Term
Effects of Cognitive Training on Everyday Functional Outcomes in Older Adults.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 296(23). 2805-2014.
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive Therapist Behavioral Techniques
Case of the Fat Lady
Cognitive behaviorist therapy is a blend of two therapies; cognitive therapy and behavioral therapy. Cognitive therapy first developed by Aaron Beck in 1960 has its focus on individual beliefs and their influences on actions and moods. Its core aims are to alter an individual mindset to be healthy and adaptive (Beck, 1976; athod, Kingdon, Weiden, & Turkington, 2008). Behavioral therapy focuses on individual aims and actions towards changing patterns in unhealthy behaviors (athod et al., 2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy assists an individual to focus on their current difficulties and relate on how to resolve them. Active involvement of both the therapist and the patient helps in identification of the thinking patterns in distort bringing into foresight a recognizable change in thought and behavior (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). Exploring and encouraging discussions…
Beck, A.T. (1976). Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
Burns, Kubilus, Breuhl, Harden, R.N., & Lofland, K. (2003). Do changes in cognitive factors influence outcome following multidisciplinary treatment for chronic pain? A cross-lagged panel analysis. . Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 81-91.
Leichsenring, F., & Leibing, E. (2007). Psychodynamic psychotherapy: a systematic review of techniques, indications and empirical evidence. Psychology and Psychotherapy, 80(2), 217-228.
Rathod, S., Kingdon, D., Weiden, P., & Turkington, D. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for medication-resistant schizophrenia: a review. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 14(1), 22-33.
Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease
The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.
Literature eview: Cognitive Effects
The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age,…
Aaro, Jonsson C., Smedler, AC., Leis, Ljungmark M., & Emanuelson, I (2009). Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury: ISSN: 1362-301X, Vol. 23 (13-14), pp. 1008-16. doi:10.3109/02699050903379354
Cozzarelli, Tara A. (2010). Evaluation and Treatment of Persistent Cognitive Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. LCDR USPHS. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 10, Edition 1.pg 39-42. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
Howard, RS., Holmes, PA & Koutroumanidis, MA. (2011). Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Practical Neurology [Pract Neurol], ISSN: 1474-7766, Vol. 11 (1), pp. 4-18; PMID: 21239649. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.235218
Kinnunen, Kirsi Maria., Greenwood, Richard., Powell, Jane Hilary., Leech, Robert., Hawkins, Peter Charlie., Bonnelle, Valerie., Patel, Maneesh Chandrakan., Counsell, Serena Jane., and Sharp, David James (2011). White matter damage and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury. Brain A Journal Of Neurology. 134; 449 -- 463. doi:10.1093/brain/awq347
As a conclusion, the authors suggest a functional architecture of cognitive emotional control. The review ends with suggestions for future study, including a consideration of cultural differences and their effect on the individual's ability to control emotion in a cognitive way.
Since the study is a review, the research methodology involves an overview of recent studies in the field of cognitive emotional control. The researchers appear to have made thorough work of this purpose, while also offering insight and into potential future applications of such research. Furthermore, their synthesis of research information is logical and relevant to the questions posed at the beginning of the document.
In conclusion, it is always fascinating to consider the different ways and preference types in how individuals might view and experience the world around them. Having an understanding of cognitive types is particularly useful in fields like education and leadership. Such an understanding…
Felder, R.M. And Brent, R. (2005). Understanding Student Differences. Journal of Engineering Education, Vol. 94, No. 1. Retrieved from: http://eprints.me.psu.ac.th/ILS/info/Understanding_Differences.pdf
Kay, W.K., Francis, L.J., and Robbins, M. (2011). A distinctive leadership for a distinctive network of churches? Psychological type theory and the apostolic networks. University of Warwick. Retrieved from: http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/41317/1/WRAP_Francis_Psychological_type_and_Apostolic_networks_final_version.pdf
Nardi, D. (2007). The 8 Jungian Cognitive Processes. Retrieved from: http://www.keys2cognition.com/cgjung.htm
Ochsner, K.N. And Gross, J.J. (2005, May). The cognitive control of emotion. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 5. Retrieved from: http://icdl.com/graduate/Portal/IMH212/documents/ochsner-gross.pdf
God has created every person with different nature and interests that builds ones personality. The idea of studying different personalities was proposed in 1920s by some of the famous scholars and scientists. Carl Jung was the first scholar who described the Psychological Types. He categorized people as extroverted and introverted. People with extroverted personality are more oriented towards external world and goes through new experiences whereas the introvert personalities are more oriented towards internal worlds and memories. Later on, Jung identified other differences in the personalities and named them functions which are now called as Cognitive Processes.
Types of Cognitive Processes
The extroverts and introverts deal with the world in their own style. According to Jung there are four main styles that are sensing, intuition, thinking and feeling. Jung categorized these four types under two main headings perception and judgment.
Perception -- (Sensation and Intuition)
Judgment -- (Thinking…
Barrett, L., Sorensen, R. & Hartung, T. (1985). Personality Type Factors of Faculty and Students Implications for Agricultural College Teaching. NACTA, 1-5.
Berens, L.V. & Nardi, D. (2004). Understanding Yourself and Others: An Introduction to the Personality Type Code. Telos Publications.
Boeree, G. (2006). Personality Theories. C. George Boeree, 1-17
Henden, G. (2004). Intuition and its Role in Strategic Thinking. Sandvika: Nordberg Hurtigtrykk.
This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.
Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…
Gallagher, C. (1999, May). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/vygotsky.htm
Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html
"Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky). (n.d.). The Theory Into Practice Database.
Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://tip.psychology.org/vygotsky.html
The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…
AudioEnglish.net. (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience. http://www.audioenglish.net/dictionary/cognitive_neuroscience.htm
Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/www.edpsycinteractive.org/brilstar/chapters/affectdev.doc
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. http://web.uvic.ca/psyc/tuokko/Ethical%20Principles%20of%20Psychologists.pdf
Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.
It thus becomes the concern of CT researchers and clinicians to address and investigate sex differences as an aspect in depression and to confront how they understand and treat women, who comprise 2/3 of clients. A feminist framework may be adopted for a more comprehensive and sensitive approach to the problem in order to benefit the large group of women clients. The new understanding must also be incorporated into the mainstream of cognitive writings and practice and treated as only a special interest topic (Hurst).
Cognitive behavior therapy, based on the five foregoing studies, has shown important gains greater than traditional counseling approach, but needs follow-up work. It has also demonstrated efficacy in producing lower relapse rate than the standard clinical treatment. The discourse approach to the negative self-perception of depressed patients has showed limitations as a technique. ut it can be useful in reducing symptoms among injection drug users.…
1. Brown, KM. (1999). Social Cognitive Theory. University of South Florida. http://www.med.usf.edu/~kmbrown/Social_Cognitive_Theory_Overview.htm
2. Dobson, K.S. And Drew, M.L. (1999). Negative Self-Concept in Clinical Diagnosis. Canadian Psychology. Canadian Psychological Association.
3. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2001). Depression. Encyclopedia of Psychology. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_q2699/is_0004/ai_2699000439
4. Hawkins, W.E. (2005). Depression Therapy with Injection Drug Users. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or (CBT) is currently the popular method to provide therapy to the client with weight control maladies. CBT is ostensibly necessary to assist binge eaters and those whom suffer from tendencies to bulimic episodes. According to Brody (2007), "Most popular at the moment is cognitive-behavioral therapy, with or without medication. Since binge eaters have highly irregular eating habits, the behavioral aspect introduces structure to their eating behavior: regular meals, including breakfast, and an afternoon snack if needed." (Brody, 2007)
apoport, Clark, & Wardle further ascribe CBT as a comprehensive methodology to address the psychological, not neurological, deficiencies with regard to how the client addresses their weight problem. According to apoport, Clark & Wardle (2000), "Cognitive -- behavioural treatment (CBT) for obesity also focuses on weight loss, but incorporates psychological strategies to promote lifestyle change. ecent reviews show that CBT programmes achieve weight losses…
Brody, J.E. (2007, Feb 20). Out of control: A true story of binge eating. New York Times, pp. F.7-F.7. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/433509755?accountid=13044
Marchesini, G., Natale, S., Chierici, S., Manini, R., Besteghi, L., Domizio, S.D., . . . . (2002). Effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy on health-related quality of life in obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder.International Journal of Obesity, 26(9), 1261-1261-1267. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0802073
Mefferd, K., Nichols, J.F., Pakiz, B., & Rock, C.L. (2007). A cognitive behavioral therapy intervention to promote weight loss improves body composition and blood lipid profiles among overweight breast cancer survivors.Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 104(2), 145-145-52. doi:10.1007/s10549-006-9410-x
Rapoport, L., Clark, M., & Wardle, J. (2000). Evaluation of a modified cognitive-behavioural programme for weight management. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 24(12), 1726-1726-1737. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801465
Cognitive Strategies in Education
The purpose of this work is the first define metacognition and explain the four cognitive strategies of chunking, mnemonics, advance organizers and rehearsals and then to consider how each one might be useful in helping facilitate understanding of metacognition. Finally this work intends to create a sample lesson plan that represents the strategies.
Metacognition can be defined as the learner's awareness of the knowledge they possess as well as their ability in understanding, controlling and manipulating of their own metacognitive processes. Metacognitive skills are important both from an educational perspective and throughout the individual's life. Metacognition is a new field which has left theorists in a vague position in terms of conventional terminology. The primary factor in metacognition is the "conscious awareness" on the part of the individual in learning as to the learning taking place and their control of the learning process.
Barrett, Nancy F. (nd) Cognitive Styles and Strategies [Online] available at:
Metacognitive Skills (nd) available [Online] at: http://education.calumet. pur due.edu/vockell/EdPsyBook/Edpsy7/edpsy7_meta.htm
Jacobson, Rebecca (1998) Teachers improving learning using metacognition with self-monitoring learning strategies Education, 1998 June
Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).
Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).
Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…
American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. TheFreeDictionary.com. 15
May 2009 .
Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. Beckinstitute.org. 15 May 2009 .
Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.
Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)
These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.
Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…
Bouck, E.C. (2004). Exploring Secondary Special Education for Mild Mental Impairment: A Program in Search of Its Place. Remedial and Special Education, 25(6), 367-377
Bray, P., & Cooper, R. (2007). The Play of Children with Special Needs in Mainstream and Special Education Settings. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 32(2), 37-48
Gersten, R., Schiller, E.P., & Vaughn, S. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary Special Education Research: Syntheses of the Knowledge Base on Critical Instructional Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (2004). Cognitive Therapy: 100 Key Points. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Both types of reflection are ways to restructure cognition. Dynamic reflection focuses on problems and problem solving, while existential reflection seeks to discover meaning in life. In either case, the helper's role is to facilitate the reflection process.
Congruence with Social Work Values and Ethics
To determine the congruence between cognitive therapy and social work values and ethics, the writer consulted the National Association of Social Worker's (NASW) Code of Ethics (NASW, 2008). NASW's ethical principles are based on its six core values of service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. The overriding purpose of cognitive therapy is service to the client -- helping her identify, challenge, and change the cognitive misconceptions that result in unhealthy emotions and dysfunctional behavior. Perhaps the most obvious congruence is between the values of dignity and worth of the person and social justice. The former…
Lantz, J. (2007). Cognitive theory and social work treatment. In M. Mattaini & C. Lowery (Eds.), Foundations of social work practice: a graduate text (4th ed.), 94-115. Washington D.C. NASW Press.
National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from http://www.socialworkers.org/pub/code/code.asp .
Therefore, it makes no sense to force companies to administer such tests.
2. On the topic of learning at work and having this knowledge assessed and recognized; "should there be a resurgence of traditional apprenticeships (construction trades, transportation, etc.); and a movement for apprenticeship programs that would apply to most occupations that do not presently recognize such training and education?" (Medicine, manufacturing, education, etc.)
Apprenticeships offer opportunities that can never be acquired through formal education and training. One of the casualties of the industrial revolution, apprenticeship should come back into the fore of job training. Employees are empowered, supervisors enjoy improved and more personal communications with their apprentices, and learning takes place on an organic level. Apprenticing offers the opportunity to witness the real-world workings of a business, skill, or artisan trade.
The prevailing model of job training is also unfairly skewed toward those who can afford expensive education and…
CHILD'S DAWING ABILITY
Drawing complexity as the complexity or the level of difficulty involved in children's drawing. Drawings from younger children can be less simple with fewer features but as the age of the child progresses the complexity of the drawings increases due to the complex cognitive development.
Drawings are mirror representation of the child's development. Children's drawings have significant roles in the cognitive development of the child. Other roles include training the brain of the child to pay attention and to sustain attention, stimulating individual cells and clusters of cells in the visual cortex for line and shape, practicing and to organizing the shapes and patterns of thought and, through an increasing affinity for marks, to prepare the mind of the child for its determining behavior
Understanding children's cognitive development has implications for many fields, and in particular for education. There exists many possible approaches to the study of…
Bensur, B.J., Eliot, J., and Hegde, L. (1997). Cognitive correlates of complexity of children's drawings. Perceptual and motor skills, 85, 1079 to 1089.
Callaghan, T.C. (2000). Factors affecting children's graphic symbol use in the third year.
Language, similarity, and iconicity. Cognitive Development, 15, 185 -- 214.
Cherney, I. D & Seiwert, C. S & Dickey, T.M. & Flichtbail, J.D. (2006). Children's drawings: a mirror to their minds. Educational psychology, 26(1), 127-142.
Piaget's And Bruner's Theories For Cognitive Development
Cognitive theory, to some extent, is complex and multipart proposition. It puts forward the idea that development in humans is a function of an interaction with their upbringing, surroundings and individual understanding and experiences. Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner are the two great theorists who constructed cognitive theories (William). Both theories have some similarities and differences which would be discussed in the paper.
Piaget's and Bruner's Cognitive Theories: Similarities and Differences
According to Piaget, the cognitive development of a child depends on four factors. These are genetic maturation, familiarity with the physical environment, understanding of the social environment and equilibration. His cognitive theory also gives an explanation of the four stages of cognitive development. The Sensory Motor Stage (Birth -- 2 years). During this stage, children act impulsively. They demonstrate an egocentric behavior and are indifferent to the needs, wants and interests of…
Cherry G. 2004. An Overview of Jerome Brunner His Theory of Constructivism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Class_Websites/761_Spring_04/Assets/course_docs/ID_Theory_Reps_Sp04/Bruner-Cherry.pdf [Accessed 26 May 2012].
Seta, C.E., Seta, J., Paulus, P., & Andrews, E.A. 2001. Study Guide for Psychology, Third Canadian edition, by Baron, R., Earhard, B., & Ozier, M. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada Inc. [Print].
William, R.T. Social Cognitive Theories of Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner., [Online]. 41, 117-123. Available at: http://www.takamatsu-u.ac.jp/library/06_gakunaisyupan/kiyo/no41/41_117-123_williams.pdf [Accessed 26 May 2012].
Applied Behavioral Analysis on How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels
How Brain Injuries Impact One's Cognitive Ability Levels
A traumatic brain injury (TBI) has considerable impacts on the normal functioning or operation of the brain. In most cases, brain injuries damage nerve cells to an extent that these cells no longer transmit information to each other in the ordinary manner. Brain injuries are usually divided into three major categories i.e. mild, moderate and severe depending on the extent of neurological damage that takes place. Given their impact on neurological functioning, brain injuries have impact on one's cognitive ability levels. Some of these impacts include cognitive disabilities, depressive symptoms, life satisfaction, and effect on life roles at different development stages and ages. Therefore, the extent with which brain injuries affect a person's cognitive ability levels is an important topic of study. Is there a direct link between brain injuries…
Juengst, S.B., Adams, L. M., Bogner, J.A., Arenth, P.M., O'Neil-Pirozzi, T.M., Dreer, L.E., & Wagner, A.K. (2015, November). Trajectories of Life Satisfaction after Traumatic Brain Injury: Influence of Life Roles, Age, Cognitive Disability, and Depressive Symptoms. Rehabilitation Psychology, 60(4), 353-364. Doi: 10.1037/rep0000056
Massy. J. S., Meares, S., Batchelor, J., & Bryant, R.A. (2015, July). An Exploratory Study of the Association of Acute Posttraumatic Stress, Depression and Pain to Cognitive Functioning in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Neuropsychology, 29(4), 530-542. Doi: 10.1037/meu000192
McDonald, S., Gowland, A., Randall, R., Fisher, A., Osborne-Crowley, K., & Honan, C. (2014, September). Cognitive Factors Underpinning Poor Expressive Communication Skills after Traumatic Brain Injury: Theory of Mind or Execution Function? Neuropsychology, 28(5), 801-811. Doi: 10.1037/neu0000089
Meyers. N. M., Chapman, J.C., Gunthert, K.C., & Weissbrod, C.S. (2016, January). The Effect of Masculinity on Community Reintegration Following TBI in Military Veterans. Military Psychology, 28(1), 14-24. Doi:10.1037/mil0000097
It includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics (Grammar, n.d.).
Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated; it is the ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; and an utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic (Pragmatics, n.d.).
The ole of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology
Jean Piaget, the founder of cognitive development, was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language, at the Centre oyaumont pour une Science de l'Homme, where he had a discussion about his opinion with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin (McKinney, & Parker, 1999). Piaget discussed that his cognitive constructivism has two main parts: an "ages and stages" component which foretells what children can and cannot understand at different…
Language. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language .
Lexicon (2001). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Online Etymology Dictionary:
Lexicon. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia:
The assessment was done in one session which included estimation of verbal, attention, memory, working memory, intellectual and language functions of the participants. The researchers used the American Adult eading Test to estimate the premorbid verbal intelligence of the participants where they were required to read irregular words which cannot be pronounced correctly using the rules of phonics out loud. This provided a good estimate of the Verbal IQ of the participants on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. It was also a stable and valid measure of the premorbid intellectual functioning of the older demented and non-demented adults.
The verbal intelligence and general intellectual ability of the study participants was estimated through the administration of the information subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and it provided a stable and valid measure despite the advanced age of the participants. The performance of the subject's verbal memory was measuring using the…
Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda, and Alicia MacKay. "The Relation between Instrumental Musical Activity and Cognitive Aging." Neuropsychology 25.3 (2011): 378 -- 86. Print.
Bruner's Three Modes Of Cognitive epresentation
Jerome Bruner's Educational Theory firm believer of cognitive development of the thinking process, Jerome Bruner have revolutionarized the theory of cognitive development through his various theories. One such theory is Three Modes of Cognitive epresentation. According to him a well-developed mind would create from experience generic code of systems that allow the individual to utilize educations to make learning more autonomous then directed by curriculum. Learning is the process of how human process information and take in narrative [stories] to understand the complexities of life as culture views them.
According to his Modes of Cognitive epresentation [see appendix] in a teaching environment, one could use enactive, iconic, or symbolic tools to teach and integrate cultural values into learning models. To demonstrate this the researcher will incorporate a 3rd grade curriculum and explain how ordinary learning tools could utilize real life examples using these three…
Futrell, Mary Hartwood, The Culture of Education.(book reviews). Vol. 77, National Forum, 01-01-1997, pp 42(1)..
Bruner, J.S. (1966). Toward a theory of instruction. New York: Norton. http://www.gigglepotz.com/thirdgrade.htm
Nature of Cognition
Ever since Simon and inet developed the first intelligence test in 1905, the field of psychology has maintained a strong interest in the nature of intelligence. How do we think? Why are some people better problem solvers than others? What is cognition, the ability to think about our environment? Why are some people consistently more able to use their brains to think, to remember, and to problem-solve than others?
The first IQ tests were devised to determine which children were mentally retarded. These children were pulled away from mainstream education. However, the tests did an effective job of predicting school success for all students, and their use was broadened (Sternberg, 1999). Multiple tests were developed to measure cognition, which might be defined as the ability to think abstractly. Markman (2001) described it in this way:
Cognition depends on the ability to imagine or represent objects and events…
American Academy of Pediatrics. August, 2000. "Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorders." Pediatrics.
Baker, O. Oct. 1999. "Faulty control gene underlies retardation (Rett Syndrome)." Science News.
Bower, B. Nov 20, 1999. "DNA furnishes tips to mental retardation." Science News.
Eliez, Stephan. Feb, 2000. "Genetics of Childhood Disorders: XI. Fragile X Syndrome." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
ockstein and Sussman (1979) defined senescence as the period of life where the human body weakens and declines in function rather than grows, a period which is of course associated with physical aging. There is much individual and cultural variation in this process, this is a gradual process, and it occurs across all cultures and in all individuals. Cultural perceptions of aging were also noted by ockstein and Sussman to affect functional abilities as individuals grow older. An acceleration of senescence that occurs due to external factors such as disease, tobacco use, alcohol and drug abuse, poor diet, or physical trauma is known as secondary aging, and for the sake of brevity these factors will not be considered here. As people age there are numerous physical changes that take place that affect functional abilities, some obvious and some not so obvious. There are also cognitive changes that occur as a…
Al-Abdulwahab, S.S. (1999). The Effects of Aging on Muscle Strength and Functional Ability of Healthy Saudi Arabian Males. Annals of Saudi Medicine, 19 (3), 211-215.
Birren, J.E., Butler, R.N., Greenhouse, S.W., Sokoloff, L. & Yarrow, M.R. (Eds.) (1963). Human Aging: A Biological and Behavioral Study. (HSM Publication Number 71-9051). Washington DC: U.S. Publishing Office.
Paterson, DH, Jones, D.R., & Rice, C.L. (2007). Ageing and physical activity: evidence to develop exercise recommendations for older adults. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 98 (Supplement 2), S69 -- S108.
Rockstein, M. & Sussman, M. (1979). Biology of aging. CA: Wadsworth.
Music and Cognitive Theory
Music tends to have a phenomenal power over the human mind and emotions. A movie without a soundtrack would seem so dull and boring. If you try closing your eyes and picture a scene with music, it gives a completely different mood and emotion to it. Even before the music culture that exists today, human beings were still making some kind of music. They made flutes with the bones and jaw harps. Music has always had an innate appreciation for humans. Pleasant sounds lure a person to identify its source, whereas a shrill, unpleasant sound makes a person uncomfortable.
Studies show that while an orchestral concert, the pleasure centers of a human brain are activated. These are also active while a person has chocolate, engages in sexual acts or during the intake of stimulants like hash and cocaine. hen a baby is being formed inside a…
Mursell, J. (1970). The Psychology of Music. New York: Prentice Hall.
Schlaug, G.L. Jancke, Y. Huang, and H. Steinmetz. 1995. In vivo evidence of structural brain asymmetry in musicians. Science 267: 699-701.
Ratey, J. (2002). A Users Guide to the Brain. New York: Vintage.
Strickland, S. (2001). Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Childhood Education, 78(2), 98-109.
The ability to create a common culture of nursing can be difficult. However, the stresses and joys of a nursing ward create a common life culture amongst nurses, even nurses from different backgrounds. The commiseration about long hours, or engaging in sympathetic discourse about patients or patient's suffering is a common bond. Even with patients, however, the commonality of a bond can exist when one talks about grandchildren, bonding over similar life experiences and stages, for example, a bond that transcends culture. This intersection makes the process of care less frightening and confusing, as now the nurse wears a human face. Likewise, inter-staff conflict is minimized through such bonding of commonality of gender, age, life experience, or vocational experiences. The life spaces that are most important in the culture of health care can be found in health, wellness, and concern about the body -- about caring for others such…
Bigge & Shermis. (2002) Learning Theories for Teachers. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Threat or perception of threat is best described by protection motivation theory:
This theory states that the extent to which people show preventive behavior in light of a threat depends on their protection motivation (. W. ogers, 1975, 1983). According to this theory, the level of protection motivation depends on the seriousness of the threat, the probability that the threat will manifest itself, the judged efficacy of the recommended behavior (called response or outcome efficacy), and the self-efficacy expectation relating to that behavior. (Wiegman & Gutteling, 1995, p. 235)
In a practical sense what this theory says about the perceived threat is that as incidences of observation occur in the lives of individuals, be they real or imagined they will likely become more protective and therefore attempt to engage in avoidance of behaviors that have been identified with the production of environmental threat. By doing so this the individual, and…
Agnew, R. (1985). A Revised Strain Theory of Delinquency. Social Forces, 64(1), 151-167.
Lesko, Wayne a (2006). Readings in Social Psychology (6th ed).
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Lyddon, W.J., & Sherry, a. (2001). Developmental Personality Styles: An Attachment Theory Conceptualization of Personality Disorders. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 405.
Riley's Behavior Analysis
Theories of moral and cognitive development can be used in understanding Riley's case and behavior. According to the Piaget's theory of development, children go through various stages in life. Theories of development reveal that when a student is in high school or the 10th grade, he or she undergoes through a period of personal development through the creation of identities. At this stage, individuals are preparing for adulthood and gaining more independence just as adolescents become experimenters in their lives. Piaget proposed a theory of development where moral reasoning for children develops from what he calls a naive understanding of morality. This naive understanding is usually based on behavior and outcomes. However, as they develop, they can have a more advanced understanding that is based on intentions. This means that Riley is using his independence in the wrong way. The identity crisis as described in the theories…
In addition, small frequent feeds, and a large amount of fluid is provided to maintain the nutritional needs of the patient and prevent dehydration. The r suctioning of secretions proves necessary in preventing aspiration of secretions. The loss of voluntary muscle's activity increases the risks of accumulation of secretions hence, the need for regular suctioning. Bulbar involvement often results in communication complications such as dysarthria and muscle paralysis of the muscles of the face, throat, and tongue. As such, it requires the provision of management strategies such as augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) techniques and other forms of speech therapy that improves the communication abilities of patients with ALS. Pseudobulbar effects that often accompany those brought by the frontotemporal lobe degeneration often require the administration of antidepressants. The antidepressants manage mood disorder that presents through disproportionate crying, and inappropriate response to the external stimuli. Maximizing patients' comfort and…
Brettschneider, J., Libon, D.J., Toledo, J.B., Xie, S.X., McCluskey, L., Elman, L., & #8230;
Trojanowski, J.Q. (2012). Microglial activation and TDP-43 pathology correlate with executive dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Acta Neuropathologica, 123(3),
395 -- 407. doi:10.1007/s00401-011-0932-x
Crespi, C., Cerami, C., Dodich, a., Canessa, N., Arpone, M., Iannaccone, S., & #8230; Cappa, S.F. (2014). Microstructural white matter correlates of emotion recognition impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Cortex, 53, 1 -- 8
This paper explores two fundamental theories that are considered to be worthy guides and reference points in different discourses of early childhood cognitive development and education. Scientists and scholars world over hold the principles established in the two theories in high esteem. However, the theories, though explicably analyzed the behaviors and learning abilities at each developmental stage of early childhood, but have divergent opinions on how those behaviors early are formed. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) theory basically attributed a child development and learning process to self-discovery and natural abilities. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) on the other hand, believed a child’s learning abilities and mental development are facilitated by his immediate socio-cultural environment. This paper focuses more on early childhood as presented in the preoperational stage of Piaget's theory’s, and the information processing, language development and individual differences in mental development as established in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.
Keywords: early childhood, cognitive development…
This indicated a significantly higher intent to return to the institution the following semester. While more study was necessary, it was clear here that even amongst university students, their motivation was focused on analytical rather than intuitive types of thinking (Luke, iv).
Constantine Sedikides and John J. Skowronski proposed what they called the "Law of Cognitive Structure Activation." This was presented in the journal called Psychological Inquiry in 1991.
In the first part of the study, sufficient already existing studies showing that a mental stimulus that is ambiguous enough to be encodable in response to multiple cognitive structures (such as constructs, scripts, events, or specific objects). The stimulus was to be encoded as an instance of a structure that is the most highly active in memory and the most semantically similar to the stimulus. Luke parameters for his law in the first part of the article. In the second part,…
Gruber, H.E., and J.J. Voneche. The Essential Piaget. Anv ed.. New York: Jason
Aronson, Inc., 1995. 651. Print.
Luke, C.C. "An Examination of Psychological Factors That Predict College
Student Success and Retention." Dissertation. University of Tennessee.
It also breaks down the inevitable hierarchies that may exist in a class between students who believe they 'aren't as smart' as their peers.
Address how information is transformed into knowledge as it passes through the three stages of sensory, short-term, and long-term memory in these students. Cite examples of strategies employed during working memory to ensure processing into long-term processing.
The sensory memory stage is very transient. "Sensory memory briefly holds the tremendous amount of information coming in from the senses. Unless you focus your attention on some part of that information, the memory disappears in about one second" (Bennoit 2001). To retain the memory of a particular sight, sound, smell, texture or taste, the individual must usually be mindful and conscious of creating the memory. He or she must make an association with the sensory stimuli and currently-existing knowledge. Auditory memory tends to last a few seconds longer…
Benoit, Anthony G. "Memory." Introduction to Psychology. November 21, 2001. April 9, 2011.
Rebora, Andrea. "Survey: Teachers concerned about resources for students with diverse learning needs." Education Week. March 23, 2011. April 9, 2011. http://www.edweek.org/tm/articles/2011/03/23/metlife_diverse.html?tkn=VVCEN/ZXptFZ
This essay discusses cognitive psychology and a specific scenario within that scientific term. It starts out with an introduction or definition of cognitive psychology, then discusses a specific scenario, and perspectives of the scenario. The body of this essay covers treatments, therapies, and interventions for the scenario, as well as effectiveness of therapies, before summing up the paper with a conclusion.
Cognitive Psychology: Modern Approach to Human Behavior
Cognitive Psychology Advancements
Introduction to Applied Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive Psychology of Planning
B. Psychological Perspectives
C. Treatment, Therapies, Interventions
D. Effectiveness of Therapies
Title: Cognitive Psychology Scenario Essay
Cognitive psychology is a relatively new or modern approach to human behavior whose main focus is how people think. This approach in psychology focuses on how people think because of the belief that thought processes affect peoples behaviors. In essence, an individuals…
Teaching & Learning the Cognitive, Affective, & Psychomotor Domains
Janice is a 28-year-old financial advisor. She is now 7 months pregnant with her first child. She is complaining of many symptoms including fatigue, shortness of breath, dizziness, leg cramps and mouth/tongue sores. She is diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia. Write learning objectives to guide your teaching about how diet modification could improve her health and well-being.
In nursing, patients who are pregnant represent a category that can be especially complex given the fact that there are a range of various implications due to the prenatal needs of the expecting mother. The fetus is especially vulnerable in the early stages of development and symptoms that the mother has could potentially cause a lifetime full of health issues if the symptoms are sufficiently problematic. esearch has even confirmed data that supports the efficacy of certain kinds of prenatal stimulation and the future child…
All, A., & Havens, R. (1997). Cognitive/concept mapping: a teaching strategy for nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 1210-1219.
Burchum, J. (2002). Cultural Competence: An Evolutionary Perspective. Nursing Forum, 5-15.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). The Process of Cultural Competence in the Delivery of Healthcare Services: A Model of Care. Journal of Transactional Nursing, 181-184.
Lafuente, M., & Grifol, R. (2001). Effects of the Firstart Method of Prenatal Stimulation on Psychomotor Development: From Six to Twelve Months. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 207-216.
The issue of perception in various fields, including philosophy and psychology has been debated with vigor over the last fifty years. In fact, a large amount of experimental work has been completed regarding questions such as the object of perception, the relationship between perception and though, and the nature of perception representational.
In general it is believed that perception occurs without apparent effort. What is seen is imposed upon the brain and perception is the natural consequence. Theorists have however argued that this is not the case. There are a number of factors involved in the perception process. These factors influence the way that objects are perceived. It has for example been argued that perception is a process of information transmission and elaboration. The cognitivist paradigm holds that a flow of information in the mind, similar to computer software, influences the way that objects are perceived.
Davidoff, J.B. (1975). Differences in Visual Perception. London: Crosby Lockwood Staples.
Gibson, J.J. (1979). The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Hamlyn, D.W. (1957). The Psychology of Perception. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Kennedy, J.M. & C.D. Green (2003). "Inference and Pattern in Perception Theory." http://citd.scar.utoronto.ca/Psychology/PSYB51/INFERENC.B51.html
As people age, there are three main types of cognitive changes that can impair or alter cognitive functioning: mild cognitive impairment (MCI), Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. All of these syndromes are more severe than the normal decline that is expected with aging, though they do not all reach the severity of dementia. Dementia refers to the "the loss of cognitive functioning- thinking, remembering, and reasoning- and behavior abilities, to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities" (NIH, 2013). While there are some similarities between these three conditions, there are also significant differences between the three syndromes. These differences can impact treatment options and also help predict impact on the patient and the family.
MCI is an intermediate stage, which features a more significant cognitive decline than that expected with normal aging, but is not as severe as full-blown dementia. "It can involve problems…
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2012, August 21). Mild Cognitive Impairment. Retrieved October 21, 2013
from Mayo Clinic website: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mild-cognitive-impairment/DS00553
National Institutes on Health. (2013, October 17). Alzheimer's Fact Sheet. Retrieved October
21, 2013 from the National Institute on Aging website: http://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/publication/alzheimers-disease-fact-sheet
Importance of Cognitive-enhancing drugs
Methods of boosting an individual's brain power
esearch for cognitive enhancers
The interest in Cognitive enhancement
The neuroethics associated with cognitive enhancements
The article titled "Neuroethical issues in cognitive enhancement" was written by the authors Barbara Sahakian and Sharon Morein-Zamir and was first published online on March 8, 2010. Neuroethics is a field that addresses the applied ethical issues that are brought directly or indirectly about by neuroscience advancements. One area is on the research and development of enhancers in pharmaceutical cognition. These drugs are mainly developed for the treatment of cognitive disabilities and improving the quality of life of patients with brain injuries and neuropsychiatric disorders. This report endeavors to review the impact that such drugs have in both healthy and neuropsychiatric individuals and the overall implications on the society as a new development in the field of psychology (Sahakian & Morein-Zamir,…
Sahakian, B.J. & Morein-Zamir, S. (2011). Neuroethical issues in cognitive enhancement. Journal of Psychopharmacology. 25(2) 197 -- 204 originally published online 8 March 2010 DOI: 10.1177/0269881109106926
Cakic, V. (2009). Smart drugs for cognitive enhancement: ethical and pragmatic considerations in the era of cosmetic neurology. J Med Ethics, 35:611-615 doi:10.1136/jme.2009.030882
Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study
K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…
Bladek, M. (2014). Against memory: Acts of remembering in Jamaica Kincaid's My Brother. Retrieved from http://criticism.english.illinois.edu/2007%20Fall%20Documents/Affect%20Abstracts/Abstracts.htm
DeJong, P. & . Berg I.K (1998): Interviewing for solutions. Thomson: Brooks/Cole.
Drisko, J. (2014). Research Evidence and Social Work Practice: The Place of Evidence-Based Practice. Clin Soc Work J. 42:123-133 DOI 10.1007/s10615-013-0459-9
Freud, S. (1924) A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni & Liveright.
Cognitive Development of Infants
Piaget's sensorimotor model provides the stage of cognitive human development showing that human experience consists of four stages of mental or cognitive starting from the first day a child is born to the adulthood. The first stage of human development is referred as the sensorimotor stage that starts at birth and end when a child is 24 months old. After the age of 24 months, a child moves to the operational stage starts when a child is 2 years old through the age of 7. A child moves into the final stage of behavioral and cognitive development at the age of adolescence that spans through adulthood. The objective of this study is to discuss the "six stages of Piaget's sensorimotor development." (Shaffer, & Kipp, 2010 p 253).
Piaget's sensorimotor Development
Piaget identifies the first two years of a child as the "sensorimotor stage of development." (Shaffer,…
Shaffer, D.D.R., & Kipp, K. (2010). Developmental Psychology: Childhood & Adolescence: Childhood and Adolescence. Cengage Learning
Is ability grouping the way to go, or should it go away?
Whether or not ability grouping is an effective strategy for the instruction of students of different academic abilities is a hotly debated issue, with divergent evidence. Some research has indicated that grouping students according to ability promotes increased achievement, while other research has demonstrated that stratifying students according to achievement has detrimental effects. This study aims at evaluating whether students in grouped vs. non-grouped learning situations differ in academic and personal factors, and whether differences also exist within the grouped situation between low and high-ability students.
Introduction and Literature eview
Ability grouping in schools has been a continuously debated topic among teachers, administrators and researchers. Whether it is beneficial or not to separate students according to aptitude or ability level has been extensively discussed and researched, and evidence has been provided in support of both sides…
Benson, L. (2002). Serving gifted students through inclusion: A teacher's perspective. Roeper Review, 24(3), 126-8.
Borland, J., Horton, D., Subotnik, R., Shiang-Jiun, C., Miran, C., Freeman, C., Goldberg, S., Yu, J. (2002). Ability grouping and acceleration of gifted students: Articles from the Roeper Review. Roeper Review, 24(3), 100-2.
Borland, J., Horton, D., Subotnik, R., Shiang-Jiun, C., Miran, C., Freeman, C., Goldberg, S., Yu, J. (2002). Grouping the gifted and the talented. Roeper Review, 24(3), 103-8.
Cheung, C. & Rudowicz, E. (2003). Academic outcomes of ability grouping among junior high school students in Hong Kong. Journal of Educational Research, 96(4), 241-55.
When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.
ognitive Theory of Learning
The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…
Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.
Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.
Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.
A Cognitive Behavioral Study of Steven Henderson: Case Conceptualization and Treatment Plan
Theories of Counseling
This is a case conceptualization of a 26-year-old man who experienced sexual abuse as a child and the haunting memories of the abuse have led to difficulties in his personal, social, and educational functioning as an adult. The client is experiencing anxiety, depression, problems with motivation, an inability to confide in those close to him, and difficulties in developing educational and occupational goals for himself. He complained of very low self-esteem and believes that his inability to deal with his past sexual abuse has led to these issues. The case conceptualization explores the proposed treatment of this individual's issues using a cognitive behavioral approach. Empirical evidence for the use of cognitive behavioral treatment for trauma victims is discussed. The specific issues that the individual is experiencing as a result of the abuse are…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.-text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, A.T., Rush, J.A., Shaw, B.F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression.
New York: The Guilford Press.
Cloitre, M. (2009). Effective psychotherapies for posttraumatic stress disorder: A review and critique. CNS Spectrums, 14(1), S1, 32-43.
Social Cognitive, Behavioral Drinking
Social Cognitive/behavioralist Drinking
Drinking behavior provides informative demonstration of how social cognitive and behavioralist theories provide complementary rather than competing explanations of human agency. Bandura (1999) casts social cognitive theory against various determinist and materialist theories on the assertion humans are "sentient agents of experiences rather than simply undergoers of experiences" because people explore, manipulate and influence the environment they discover (p. 4). This contrasts against "automaticity," habit, "tendencies to repeat responses given a stable supporting context" (Oullette and Wood, 1998, p. 55). Oullette & Wood (1998) compare habit learning to skill development, where practice can lead to "nonvolitional, frequent, and consistent experiences in a given context" but new situations require deliberation (p. 55). Wood and Neal (2007) largely reiterate this summary as repeated learned behavior (843). The present inquiry is particularly interested in how and why particular behaviors become repeated after negative consequences have been…
Bandura, A. (1999). A social cognitive theory of personality. In L. Pervin & O. John (Ed.),
Handbook of personality (2nd ed., pp. 154-196). New York: Guilford Publications. (Reprinted in D. Cervone & Y. Shoda [Eds.], The coherence of personality. New York: Guilford Press.)
Ouellette, J. & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychological Bulletin 124(1), 54-74.
Wood, w. & Neal, D.T. (2007). A new look at habits and the habit -- goal interface. Psychological Review 114(4), 843 -- 863. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1037/0033-295X.114.4.843
Cognitive Restructuring on Rape Victims
Recently, the growing numbers of research have been focused on psychological trauma which can be caused by physical, sexual and life threatening events. he survivors of traumatic events would exhibit great variation of symptoms, especially, self-blaming, guilt, negative beliefs about self and others, cognitive distortions, and inaccurate thoughts related to their traumatic experiences. Sobel, Resick and Rabalais (2009) proposed a cognitive processing therapy (CP) to reduce the posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and increase the positive thought and accurate cognition of the survivors. In this seminal paper, they reviewed the literature, classified the syndromes before and after the CP, reported the statistical results and suggested a cognitive restructuring method. Cognitions are assessed using coding and analyzing the participants' statements before and after the therapy and the scaling systems used are the Clinician-Administered PSD Scale and PSD Symptom Scale. hey scaled two cognitive processes, accommodation, and assimilation…
The writers suggested that it was possible to observe, record, and reliably code the number and percentage of assimilated, overaccommodated, and accommodated statements that rape survivors produced in their impact statements at the beginning and end of a course of CPT. As hypothesized, there were significant decreases in the overaccommodated and assimilated processes from start to the end of therapy whereas there was an increase in the accommodated processes. Although there was a clear relationship between decreased PTSD and accommodation, this study was not able to make a clear statement about the relationship between assimilation and PTSD. Another limitation of this study is the ethnicity classification because of the limited number of participants.
This study is parallel to the studies of Foa and Rothbaum (2001), and Koss, Jose Figueredo, & Prince (2002) and the results are compatible. However, these two studies employed self-report inventories of cognitive distortions, which limited the response options available to participants and focus on content rather than process. Sobel et al. (2009) developed a more flexible strategy to evaluate the effects of CPT.
Overall, the study by Sobel et al. (2009) is chosen because it is up-to-date, rich in the literature review and very clear to provide results and limitations of the study.
Piaget vs. Vygotsky
Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism are both theories in the field of Cognitive Development which focuses on the development of how people attain knowledge about their surroundings and come to understand their world throughout their life span. Both psychologists, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, came up with their own theories on cognitive development. Piaget came up with the idea of Cognitive Constructivism, while Vygotsky came up with Social Constructivism, both of which have become the most studied theories in this branch of psychology.
Piaget focused on categorizing children's cognitive development into stages and made note of the different approaches that children at a given stage and age has toward acquiring new knowledge. Vygotsky's focus was on a more social perspective and suggested that children's ability to learn comes from their social and daily interactions with their surroundings and culture. It is this that helps them think and…
Martin, J. & Sugarman, J. (1997). The social-cognitive construction of psychotherapeutic change: Bridging the social constructionism and cognitive constructivism. Review of General Psychology. 1(4): 375-388.
Palincsar, A.S. (1998). Social contructivist persepctives on teaching and learning. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 49: 345-375.
Davies, D. (2004). Child Development. Second Edition. Guilford Press.
Kall, R.V. & Cavanaugh, J.C. (2010). Human development: A life-span view. Wadsworth Publishing.
As expected, NIHSS scores indicated mild stroke severity, while the FIM scores suggested moderate motor deficits. A comparison of the demographic variables for the patients that met the inclusion criteria with those that did not, revealed no significant differences except in terms of stroke severity, laterality, and comprehension impairment.
The results of the cognitive evaluations (MMSE vs. MoCA, r = .79, p < .001; MMSE vs. cFIM, r = .56, p < .000; MoCA vs. cFIM, r = .67, p < .000) revealed good agreement between the three instruments (Toglia et al., 2011) and mirrored the results of Stewart et al. (2012). A comparison of the mean scores for MMSE and MoCA, however, revealed a significant difference (24.4 vs. 17.8, respectively, p < .001) in terms of sensitivity to subtle changes in cognition. This finding supports the conclusion that the MoCA may be more sensitive to MCI than the MMSE.…
AHRQ. (2013). Assessing cognitive functioning. in: Evidence-based geriatric nursing protocols for best practice. Retrieved 3 Apr. 2014 from http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=43917 .
Alzheimer's Association. (2012). Mild cognitive impairment. Retrieved 3 Apr. 2014 from http://www.alz.org/dementia/downloads/topicsheet_mci.pdf .
Alzheimer's Association. (2013). 2013 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 9(2), 1-69. Retrieved 3 Apr. 2014 from http://www.alz.org/downloads/facts_figures_2013.pdf .
Aslam, S., Georgiev, H., Mehta, K., & Kumar, a. (2012). Matching research design to clinical research questions. Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 33(1), 49-53.
The higher the humor score, the more the individual was able to place positive distance between their actions and tangible outcomes; they did not interpret their performance on the exams to be as indicative of their own personal worth as much.
Theoretical Support - The key to the brain mind connection can be found in a complex set of molecules called neuropeptides. Petptides are made up of amino acids, the very basic building blocks of protein strucutres. There are, in fact, 23 different amino acids, and peptides are amino acids strung together very much like a string of beads on a necklace. Peptides are found in most areas of the body, but especially the brain and immunie system. Neurally, there are a number of different peptides, including endorphins. Neuropeptides are the way that cellular communication occurs, including brain-to-brain messages, brain-to-body messages, body-to-body messages, and body-to-brain messages. Individual cells have receptro…
Kupier, N., Martin, R. (1993). Coping Humour, Stress and Cognitive Appraisals. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science. 251 (1): 81-96.
Human infants are perceptually competent hence; infants use senses mostly in everything. Moreover, learning has a lot of effect on children's decision-making.
esearchers divide children's development into three: cognitive, language, and physical. All these relate to contribute to the kids general development. Cognitive development entails the need for a better means of speech that will help in expressing knowledge. Language helps a child to capture new words and ideas. Physical development allows a kid to do tasks that seem tough hence helping them encounter other people socially. It results from both heredity factors and forces from the environment. Perceptual abilities develop more during childhood than in adulthood. They learn actively to explore the environment so that they can fully develop their perceptual abilities.
Piaget uses four stages in describing the development of perception. This starts with sensorimotor stage whereby behavior lacks to consider logic. Therefore, a child starts to move…
Brown, T., Mapleston, J., Nairn, A., & Molloy, A. (2013). Relationship of Cognitive and Perceptual Abilities to Functional Independence in Adults Who Have Had a Stroke. Occupational Therapy International, 20(1), 11-22. doi:10.1002/oti.1334
Budnik, U., Bompas, A., & Sumner, P. (2013). Perceptual strength is different from sensorimotor strength: Evidence from the centre -- periphery asymmetry in masked priming. Quarterly Journal Of Experimental Psychology, 66(1), 15-22. doi:10.1080/17470218.2012.741605
Dommes, A., & Cavallo, V. (2011). The role of perceptual, cognitive, and motor abilities in street-crossing decisions of young and older pedestrians. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics, 31(3), 292-301. doi:10.1111/j.1475-1313.2011.00835.x
Tucker-Drob, E.M., & Harden, K. (2012). Early childhood cognitive development and parental cognitive stimulation: evidence for reciprocal gene-environment transactions. Developmental Science, 15(2), 250-259. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01121.x
Humanistic vs. Social-Cognitive Perspectives
This paper compares and contrasts the main themes of the social-cognitive perspective with the themes of the humanistic perspective. Both perspectives are reviewed and presented and the differences are made clear as well. The limitations of each perspective will also be presented.
The Humanistic Perspective
The authors of Humanistic Perspectives on Contemporary Counseling Issues (a book with no page numbers) explain that humanistic approaches to mental health used to dominate the profession of counseling -- and that humanism should not be "placed on a shelf in the intellectual museum of the profession" nor should it be seen as a "bygone trend" (Scholl, et al., 2013). And rather than putting humanism on the list of perspectives that have been "eclipsed" by newer trends in the field of psychology, the authors believe that humanism is "not just a theory or treatment orientation, but also a 'moral imperative'" (Scholl).…
Heiphetz, L., and Young, L. (2014). A social cognitive developmental perspective on moral judgment. Behavior, Vol. 151, 315-335.
Luszczynska, A., and Schwarzer, R. (2005). "Social Cognitive Theory" in Predicting Health
Behavior: Research and Practice with Social Cognition Models. Editors Conner, M., and Norman, P. New York: McGraw-Hill.
National Institutes of Health. 2010). Consumer Health Informatics Research Resource -- Self
Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
In this paper, there is going to an examination of Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic theories. This is accomplished by focusing on: the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these ideas. These elements will show how each one can address issues impacting the patient and the long-term effects upon them.
In the world of psychology, there are different theories which are used to explain how someone reacts to various stimuli. The result is that there has been contrasting ideas about the best way to understand human behavior. Two schools of thought which are very popular are the psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral approaches. (Okun, 2008)
To fully understand them requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by focusing on the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these…
Larson, P. (2012). How Important is an Understanding of the Clients Early Attachments. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (1), 10 -- 18.
Lucia, M. (2012). Therapeutic Activities and Psychological Interventions. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 12 (2), 118 -- 127.
Okun, B. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. New York, NY: Brooks and Cole.
Parpottis, P. (2012). Working with the Therapeutic Relationship. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (3), 91-97
" (Anderson, et al., 2003) The study reported by Roberts, Christenson and Gentile (2003) provided a summary of a study that is unpublished but that states findings of a "positive correlation between amount of MTV watching and physical fights among third- through fifth-grade children. In addition, children who watched a lot of MTV were rated by peers as more verbally aggressive, more relationally aggressive, and more physically aggressive than other children. Teachers rated them as more relationally aggressive, more physically aggressive, and less helpful." (Anderson, et al., 2003) Anderson et al. also reports the study of Rubin, West, and Mitchell (2001) who state findings that young people listening to heavy metal music "held more negative attitudes toward women." (Anderson et al., 2003)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The male child is more likely to view violence against females as well as sexual aggression against females to be acceptable if the male child…
Gentile, D.A. And Sesma, A. (2003) Developmental Approaches to Understanding Media Effects on Individuals. Online available at http://www.psychology.iastate.edu/~dgentile/106027_02.pdf
Nevins, Tara (2004) The Effects of Media Violence on Adolescent Health. Physicians for Global Survival, Canada, Summer 2004. Online available at http://pgs.wemanageyour.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/03/effectsofmediaviolence_final.pdf
Anderson, C. et al. (2003) The Influence of Media Violence on Youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest. VOL. 4, NO. 3, December 2003. Online available at http://www.psychologicalscience.org/pdf/pspi/pspi43.pdf
Learning and Cognitive Psychology Related to Memory
Memory has control over everything that an individual does and is a part of cognitive psychology that deals with all the human behavior and mental processes. It is divided into different categories with each of them performing their particular functions. The paper investigates the different types of memories and their purpose as each one plays its part in keeping the memory part of the brain functioning. The nature, maintenance, retrieval and capacity of memory are also discussed along with the different factors that influence it. The paper also discusses the application of TRS model on the working memory, which leads to the prediction that maintenance activities should postpone concurrent processing.
Memory is what drives our everyday life, makes us relate to or recollect things from the past and in many ways defines our behavior. We take it for granted as the effort…
Baddeley, A.D., Thomson, N., & Buchanan, M. (1975).World length and the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 575-589.
Blankenship, A.B. (1938). Memory span: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 35, 1-25.
Brener, R. (1940). An experimental investigation of memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 467-482
Bousfield, W.A. (1953). The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 229 -- 240. doi:10.1080/00221309.1953.9710088
The research adopted pre-test, quasi-experimental, within subject's model that demanded testing before and after introduction of photomurals. The research is based in Sonoma County Male Adult Detention Facility (MADF) in California.
12 officers participated in the pre and post-tests. 8 males and 4 females constituted this population. The subjects' ages ranged between 25 and 50 years with mean age falling at 33.4 years. The experienced years of the subjects varied from 10 to 152 months (mean experience 51.25 months).
Staff members were invited to help in the collection of data through training on the use of polar monitors, their application, and data recording techniques. In the process of data collection, subjects were required to rest quietly during briefing with monitors for about ten minutes. They attended their booking areas with monitors on. They recorded time and nature of unusual activities, scenes or situations during their shifts. Six weeks…
Overall, the research suggests that CBT is an effective treatment for PTSD, though there definitely certain caveats that need to be raised. CBT is not entirely effective and is not necessarily more effective than certain other treatments, specifically EMD, while there is also a need for greater knowledge and understanding when it comes to PTSD and its treatment in general. As this more detailed and refined understanding is achieved, the research analyzed above and other related research will become more meaningful and more effectively situated.
Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, . (2004). A Multi-Site, andomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-elated PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.
Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic…
Cohen, J., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, a. & Steer, R. (2004). A Multi-Site, Randomized Controlled Trial for Children With Abuse-Related PTSD Symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43(4): 393-402.
Hinton, D., Pham, T., Tran, M., Safren, S., Otto, M. & Pollack, M. (2004). CBT for Vietnamese refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: A pilot study. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(5): 429-33.
Seidler, G. & Wagner, F. (2006). Comparing the efficacy of EMDR and trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of PTSD: a meta-analytic study. Psychological Medicine 36(11): 1515-22.
Zayfert, C. & DeViva, J. (2004). Residual insomnia following cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress 17(1): 69-73.
Ian J. And Dr., Geoff (2005). Reaction time explains IQ's association with death, Psychological Science. American Psychological Association, 16:1, 64-69
As all learning, on the basis of one's composite mental ability structure, can be thought of as a puzzle that is intricately formatted on the basis of one's neurological, physiological, psychological, and sociological parts, and, when blended together, produce a healthy functioning individual. Therefore, before an understanding is garnered as to how learning comes about, or the variables that affect its outcome, one must first understand the concept of intelligence. Most individuals, professional or lay, have an almost intuitive idea of what constitutes that which we call intelligence. Broadly defined intelligence is an individual's total ability to solve problems. The more complex the problem the more it is thought that the individual possess a higher level of intelligence. Unfortunately, however, most definitions do not differentiate intelligence as general ability or…