Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence:
Cognitive intelligence and emotional intelligence are concepts that have been widely used and examined in relation to their impact on the workplace performance of employees. Actually, these two concepts are largely considered to be significant individual differences in the organizational behavior field. Some theories have argued that cognitive intelligence is the most basic probable indicator for individual workplace performance since the recruitment of individuals based on intelligence is one of the major contributors to enhanced performance that lead to high economic value to the organization. On the other hand, other theorists claim that emotional intelligence is the foundation for various competencies that assist a person to become more effective in the organization's working environment. However, cognitive intelligence and emotional intelligence are closely related and equally important in the field of organizational behavior. Since none of these concepts can stand alone in the workplace, they can be…… [Read More]
Emotional Intelligence (EI) Defined. Despite the common usage of defining intelligence in terms of numbers there are many psychologists that do not agree with the concept that intelligence is measurable and quantifiable and representative strictly on the basis of cognition. Some theorists believe that intelligence not only includes analytical and problem solving ability but creativity and practical problem solving components as well. In fact there are even some theorists who have totally abandoned the idea of measuring intelligence and purport that intelligence is not measurable visa via a pencil and paper test. These particular theorists believe that ethnicity, cultural heritage, and even religious factors (i.e., Emotional Intelligence factors) have a tremendous influence on that which is commonly called the Intelligence Quotient. More than likely the safest way in which to view intelligence is to consider the concept as one being influenced by dietary factors, physical and mental exercise, emotional states,…… [Read More]
This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.
Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…… [Read More]
The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.
Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.
Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…… [Read More]
Cognitive Ability Testing
Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.
Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…… [Read More]
One recent study defined purpose as "an extraordinary achievement" (Moran, 2009, p. 143), yet the there are many individuals in the world who believe that the purpose of intelligence is to prevent surprise. Contemplating the contradiction, the question that could be asked is "how then does an extraordinary achievement translate into everyday intelligence?" This author believes that the purpose of intelligence is not to prevent surprise, instead that the purpose of intelligence is to determine a pathway for the life of the individual.
Measuring the successful pathway of an individual life can be a difficult venture, especially if such measurements are based on the person's intelligence. My belief is that preventing a surprise by showing intelligence can be applied to these type of scenarios with very limited success. There are a myriad of methods used to determine ones intelligence, including but certainly not limited to: measuring intelligent quotient as…… [Read More]
Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).
Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).
Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…… [Read More]
Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)
These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.
Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…… [Read More]
While it is almost certain that intelligence ahs a neurological basis, the extent to which intelligence is determined by neurological and chemical changes is not fully understood. A recent study suggests that changing hormone levels prior to and during puberty have a large effect on intelligence; high salivary testosterone levels in ten-year-old boys showed a positive correlation with intelligence, but a negative correlation in twelve-year-olds (Shangguan & Shi 2009). This shows that intelligence can be quite fluid, and can even be affected quite differently by the same mechanisms. The exact nature of the changing influence testosterone seems to provide or signal is not known, but the correlation demands further study.
These three different research studies display very different theories of intelligence. In the first study, accepted methods of cognitive relationships with the environment are valid, if perhaps somewhat inaccurate at the extremes of the intelligence spectrum. The second study points…… [Read More]
More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).
In the arrangement of science there…… [Read More]
Jean Piage is a luminary as far as cognitive development theory goes. This is because of his contributions in his intellectual development theory. According to Piaget, intellectual development is a continuation of innate biological processes. He emphasizes that children go through four sequential processes of development. These four stages also occur with sub stages within them.
The sensory motor stage: 0 to 2 years; intuitive stage: 2 to 7 years; concrete operations stage: 7 to 11 years; and the formal operations stage: 11 to 15 years (Simatwa, 366).
hat "Active Construction of Knowledge and Understanding" Means
A person's way of understanding occurs in five ways that are related. These are referred to as cognition domains. These ways include understanding as a representation, understanding as connectivity between knowledge types, understanding that forms active knowledge construction and understanding as cognition situation. Understanding as a representation refers to owning internalized ideas,…… [Read More]
Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Impacts Business Today
The article discusses how emotional intelligence (EQ) impacts business today in light of its increased use in the modern business environment. The discussion begins with an evaluation of the concept of emotional intelligence and the reasons it was introduced by Daniel Goleman in 1998. This is followed by an evaluation of the difference between emotional intelligence and intelligence quotient and the use of the concept of emotional intelligence in business today. The last two sections examine the effect of the use of emotional intelligence on business today and the reason for the increased demand for employees with high emotional intelligence.
Companies once believed that hiring individuals with high Intelligence Quotients (IQs) was a reflection of a sound recruiting strategy until the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EQ) emerged. Emotional Intelligence introduces a new way of looking at the root cause of the successes and failures…… [Read More]
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
1.2 Objective…… [Read More]
" (2001) Atkins-urnett relates that a "key index of competence in childhood and adolescence" is 'peer competence'. Stated is that: "Relationships with peers, as measured by sociometric indicators are strong indicators of both concurrent and future adaptive functioning." (2001) Longitudinal studies all show that there are similar characteristics "among resilient children: strong sense of competence and self-efficacy, well-liked by peers and adults, reflective rather than impulsive, use of flexible coping strategies, internal locus of control and good intellectual skills" (urnett-Atkins, 2001)
The work of Qualter, Gardner and Whiteley (2007) entitled: "Emotional Intelligence: Review of Research and Educational Implications" states that there is: "...continuing controversy over how to define and measure EI, and how significant the concept of EI is in predicting various aspects of life success. Two predominant perspectives are those adopting an Ability EI and a Trait EI approach." (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007) Emotional Intelligence has been portrayed…… [Read More]
The role of leaders in the present-day service-oriented organizations entails inspiring and motivating subordinates, promoting positive work-related attitudes, and developing a feel of both importance and involvement in and with subordinates. The aforementioned modern leadership tasks place novel demands on programs designed to teach people requisite skills and transform them into leaders. There are also increased demands on companies engaged in choosing leaders, to identify key leadership skills in the candidate pool. Consequently, researchers have focused on examining the fundamental characteristics and performance of successful leaders who effectively assume the mentioned modern leadership responsibilities, to determine leadership training and selection conditions for recruiting and developing efficient corporate leaders. Emotional intelligence, defined as a collection of skills, partly indicating an individual's effectiveness in tackling personal as well as others' emotions, is one of the variables (that have recently become popular) identified as a prospective fundamental leadership trait (Palmer et al. 2001).…… [Read More]
The above quotation refers to forms of intuition and perception of the spiritual that in fact advocates the "blocking' of the normal modes of understanding and apprehension. As one commentator state;
The spiritual is all that is beyond the conscious awareness and would include God or gods, demons, spirits and nature spirits, ghosts, non-incarnate entities, angels, devas, guardians of the threshold, guardian angels and all the intangible entities and realities of the religions where the cloud of the unknowable things exists.
(Roze, Janis, Toward the New Humanity: From Emotional Intelligence
to Spiritual Intuition)
It is this perception of the intuitive forms of spiritual intelligence that, it also needsto be taken into account in a discussion of this subject.
2. Literature review
There are many modern as well as more traditional perspectives on the issue of spiritual intelligence. A broad and inclusive view of the central terms in this study…… [Read More]
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…… [Read More]
intelligence analysis process have been discussed. This paper puts light on what basically is intelligence analysis and how can it be improved. It discusses ways via which intelligence analysis can be made more focused and more effective. It puts light on how better sharing and provision of information, collection and analysis of correct data and fact and figures can benefit the intelligence analysis process.
This paper also puts light on different psychological issues that are being faced by intelligence analysts and it also examines the ways through which analysts can overcome such hurdles.
Before discussing how to improve intelligence analysis it is necessary to have proper understanding of the terms intelligence and analysis. Intelligence can be defined as an information which has added value in it whereas analysis is a process via which you can evaluate your intelligence, it helps you to understand a situation and then to…… [Read More]
Charles Spearman and his General Intelligence Theory
Spearman, a British psychologist, noted that individuals whose score on one mental ability test was excellent tended to maintain an impressive score in other tests as well (Nevid, 2012). On the other hand, those whose score on one cognitive test was unimpressive tended to perform badly in other tests administered. It is on the strength of this observation that Spearman concluded that being a general cognitive ability, intelligence could be expressed numerically or measured. In the words of Nevid (2012, p. 247), "he reasoned there must be an underlying general factor of intelligence that allows people to do well on mental tests, a factor he labeled 'g' for general intelligence."
It is, however, important to note that Spearman was also convinced that in addition to "g," intelligence included some other abilities that contributed "to performance on individual tests" (Nevid, 2012, p. 274).…… [Read More]
Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.
Developmental and cognitive changes
The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).
Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…… [Read More]
Because of the difficulties he analyzed in a testtaker's response to a task, he called for more complex measurements of intellectual ability than previously undertaken.
Wechsler built upon these views, compiling a more complete definition of intelligence but as parochial as that examined by Sternberg. "Intelligence, operationally defined, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individually to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal with his environment." (235)
Wechsler critically added that intelligence is not just the sum of the abilities included in the definition, but it is something only understandable by the measurement of the various aspects of those abilities. (235) Likewise, he added that an individual's ability to perceive and respond to social, moral, and aesthetic values contributed to a personality of intelligence.
Examining the cognitive process of young children, Piaget found that intelligence was an evolving process of a certain adaptation to the outside world.…… [Read More]
According to him, a theory of intelligence can be adequately mapped with three components: analytic (academic) intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence. This theory accounts for both cognition and context is also referred as Sternberg's "triarchic" theory of human intelligence.
According to Sternberg, intelligence has three aspects. These are not multiple intelligences, as in Gardner's scheme. Where Gardner viewed the various intelligences as separate and independent, Sternberg posited three integrated and interdependent aspects of intelligence. These aspects relate intelligence to what goes on internally within a person, to what goes on in the external world, and to experience, which mediates between the internal and external worlds.
The first aspect consists of the cognitive processes and representations that form the core of all thought. Sternberg distinguished three kinds of processes: those involved in deciding what to do and in deciding how well it was done, those involved in doing what one…… [Read More]
The standard IQ tests based on the work of Alfred Binet and Lewis Terman are also based on the idea of a single-ability measure of intelligence.
The idea of a single g factoring intelligence, however, has numerous critics. As early as 1938, psychologist L.L. Thurstone criticized the narrowness of Spearman's model. Thurstone argued that mental abilities such as verbal comprehension, spatial visualization and reasoning were distinct forms of intelligences that should be considered separate from one another (Huffman 2003).
Howard Gardner, a cognitive theorist, pursued this idea further by proposing a theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner devised a criteria of eight intelligences, including linguistic skills, bodily-kinesthetic skills and logical-mathematical skills. According to Gardner, people can have different profiles of intelligence, meaning that they can have challenges in some areas but exhibit strengths in others. Because of these different forms of intelligence, Gardner proposed that people also have distinct…… [Read More]
Ian J. And Dr., Geoff (2005). Reaction time explains IQ's association with death, Psychological Science. American Psychological Association, 16:1, 64-69
As all learning, on the basis of one's composite mental ability structure, can be thought of as a puzzle that is intricately formatted on the basis of one's neurological, physiological, psychological, and sociological parts, and, when blended together, produce a healthy functioning individual. Therefore, before an understanding is garnered as to how learning comes about, or the variables that affect its outcome, one must first understand the concept of intelligence. Most individuals, professional or lay, have an almost intuitive idea of what constitutes that which we call intelligence. Broadly defined intelligence is an individual's total ability to solve problems. The more complex the problem the more it is thought that the individual possess a higher level of intelligence. Unfortunately, however, most definitions do not differentiate intelligence as general ability or…… [Read More]
Neuropharmacology & the Military
It is hard to argue with the basic premise -- the U.S. military exists to promote, by means of force or by means of deterrence backed by the threat of force -- American interests. In military situations, winning is the most important thing, and all other factors are secondary. This has always been true of military endeavors, and that has not changed today. Given that, the U.S. military seeks to be the world's best military. It is the best-funded, and it is the largest. It is also the most technologically-advanced. Where on one side of the technology ledger, the U.S. military is looking at robotics as the next innovation in combat, it is also examining the role that neuropharmacology can provide with respect to its human members, especially combatants. The United States military has a keen interest in neuropharmacology and the effects that it can have…… [Read More]
It also breaks down the inevitable hierarchies that may exist in a class between students who believe they 'aren't as smart' as their peers.
Address how information is transformed into knowledge as it passes through the three stages of sensory, short-term, and long-term memory in these students. Cite examples of strategies employed during working memory to ensure processing into long-term processing.
The sensory memory stage is very transient. "Sensory memory briefly holds the tremendous amount of information coming in from the senses. Unless you focus your attention on some part of that information, the memory disappears in about one second" (Bennoit 2001). To retain the memory of a particular sight, sound, smell, texture or taste, the individual must usually be mindful and conscious of creating the memory. He or she must make an association with the sensory stimuli and currently-existing knowledge. Auditory memory tends to last a few seconds longer…… [Read More]
When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.
ognitive Theory of Learning
The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…… [Read More]
In today's increasingly culturally diverse world, cultural competence, or what has become known as "cultural intelligence (CQ)" has received increasing research attention. Several authors, with various purposes and audiences, have developed assessment instruments to help individuals and groups understand their level of cultural intelligence. Included among these is the instrument developed by Earley and Mosakowski (2004), under the title "Diagnosing Your Cultural Intelligence."
Earley and Mosakowski's instrument addresses three areas of CQ: The cognitive, the physical, and the emotional/motivational. The cognitive component can be regarded as the "head" of cultural competence. On a cognitive level, this areas focuses on an individual's understanding of differences between cultures. This involves asking questions and investigations to identify any differences that might exist among cultures. Being aware of these on a cognitive level can greatly enhance a person's ability to understand and interact with foreign cultures.
The physical component focuses on a…… [Read More]
Perceptions of Intelligence
Intelligence is a concept that has numerous meanings across time, geography and culture. Typically, most of the definitions connect some sort of skill, plan or understanding of concepts, new things, etc. -- and the way that knowledge is combined with other ideas to form something new or adaptive. Numerous psychologists and neurologists continue to debate the differing types of intelligence and the ways individuals combine them to form a unique (and individual) basis for the way they view the world (Garlick, 2010). Creative intelligence, for instance, is the way individuals perceive their universe -- the world around them, and how that changes. Of course, because of the differences in the way people perceive their world, and the differences in the way and manner the external world is constructed, all individuals may be creative in one way or another. For instance, imagine how creative it was for our…… [Read More]
Chess and Cognitive Ability Revision
Does Chess Enhance Cognitive Ability?
PSYC 317, Fall 2012
Psychologists and cognitive researchers have long suspected a link between the ability to play chess proficiently and superior intelligence levels. By conducting a thorough review of the prevailing research concerning chess and the enhancement of cognitive abilities, as well as studies which fail to establish conclusive links between the two, it is possible to form a more fully informed conclusion. Research studies focused on deductive reasoning, mathematics, and logical analysis and their use in the game of chess will be compared and examined for error or bias, in an effort to synthesize the findings of several researchers over a period of decades into a coherent conclusion.
Does Chess Enhance Cognitive Ability
Chess is a complex game of strategy, the best practitioners of which excel at deductive reasoning, visualization and memorization of concrete events that transpire on…… [Read More]
Therefore, it makes no sense to force companies to administer such tests.
2. On the topic of learning at work and having this knowledge assessed and recognized; "should there be a resurgence of traditional apprenticeships (construction trades, transportation, etc.); and a movement for apprenticeship programs that would apply to most occupations that do not presently recognize such training and education?" (Medicine, manufacturing, education, etc.)
Apprenticeships offer opportunities that can never be acquired through formal education and training. One of the casualties of the industrial revolution, apprenticeship should come back into the fore of job training. Employees are empowered, supervisors enjoy improved and more personal communications with their apprentices, and learning takes place on an organic level. Apprenticing offers the opportunity to witness the real-world workings of a business, skill, or artisan trade.
The prevailing model of job training is also unfairly skewed toward those who can afford expensive education and…… [Read More]
He hypothesized that certain parts within the brain could map with certain areas of cognitive functioning, such as social, cognitive, or creative functions. To prove this, Gardner cites cases of brain damage that leads to the loss of some, but not all, cognitive functions. On this basis, one could also say that pearman's test findings, while all located in the brain, relate to different parts of the brain and nervous system rather than a single location, as originally assumed.
Comparisons between the two models include the fact that both theorists believe that intelligence relates to more than one human function. pearman for example used a variety of different tasks to test intelligence, as does the IQ test he uses to base his assumptions on. Gardner agrees with pearman on the fact that intelligence does indeed relate to different tasks, but simply adds more to the already existing ones in order…… [Read More]
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV, Pearson Assessments, 2012) was designed to evaluate cognitive functioning in adults aged 16 to 90. The WAIS-IV is the most recent updated version (released in 2008) of the most commonly administered intelligence test for adolescents and adults (Canivez, 2010). The test has its roots in the Wechsler -- Bellevue Intelligence Scale (Wechsler, 1939). David Wechsler, a psychologist who was dissatisfied with the standard of intelligence testing of the times, based his original tests on his notion of intelligence as "the global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment" (Wechsler, 1939, p. 229). All versions of the WAIS attempt to measure general intelligence and other facets of intelligence via the administration of numerous subtests. Each of these subtests is an estimate of a particular cognitive…… [Read More]
2001 1. Then, they could sort taxonomically. In other words, one man's 'smart' is another man's 'dopey', concepts that have little to do with the "intelligence" IQ tests are designed to measure. This is certainly, as well, a clear indication of how completely IQ tests are based in a narrow range of cultural norms. Indeed, they could be viewed as impoverished measures for failing to account for the values, intellectual and otherwise, of any society except the well-defined, homogenized and 'unjuicy' western society that invented the tests. Sternberg et al. concluded that, regarding IQ tests, "scores from tests used in cultures or subcultures other than those for which the tests were specifically created are suspect, and probably of doubtful validity in many if not most cases (2001 1).
What about race?
The myths about race and IQ go back a long way, to a time before IQ tests. Philosophers Hume,…… [Read More]
The assessment was done in one session which included estimation of verbal, attention, memory, working memory, intellectual and language functions of the participants. The researchers used the American Adult eading Test to estimate the premorbid verbal intelligence of the participants where they were required to read irregular words which cannot be pronounced correctly using the rules of phonics out loud. This provided a good estimate of the Verbal IQ of the participants on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. It was also a stable and valid measure of the premorbid intellectual functioning of the older demented and non-demented adults.
The verbal intelligence and general intellectual ability of the study participants was estimated through the administration of the information subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and it provided a stable and valid measure despite the advanced age of the participants. The performance of the subject's verbal memory was measuring using the…… [Read More]
Explain the Global Ability Index and when to use it
The alternative global score, the General Ability Index (GAI) is calculated when the test-taker "meets certain criteria that involve variability with respect to the cognitive factors of working memory and processing speed" (Cheramie 2008). For example, learning-disabled children often have lower levels of processing speed, thus the GAI is an acceptable scoring alternative to the usual method which does take memory and processing speed into account when norming the results.
Discuss the main uses for the WAIS-IV and WISC-IV
All forms of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales are standardized tests, "meaning that as part of the test design, they were administered to a large representative sample of the target population, and norms were determined from the results" (Encyclopedia of Children's Health, 2010). All IQ tests are limited in their ability to describe the individual's full range of ability and should be…… [Read More]
Cultural Differences in the Perception of Intelligence
For the purposes of this assignment, two cultures will be compared with respect to how they perceive intelligence. Culture is relative, as is perception, as will be demonstrated in this paper with specific regard to intelligence. The two cultures that will be compared are American culture and Japanese culture. These two cultures have an intense past and interconnected present; they are very different with respect to social context, perspective, and perception. The paper will consider how these cultures interpret and perceive intelligence differently. The paper will reflect upon how intelligence, among other characteristics and elements, is measured differently because of variations in culture. The paper will further consider how, within varying social contexts and cultures, one might test for a spectrum of cognitive abilities, with respect to the two cultures of focus, Japanese and American.
American culture is very self-centered relative to…… [Read More]
A psychologist named Ulric Nessier believes that flashbulb memories are formed because they represent an intersection of historical and personal trajectories, and this makes them events that people want to retell and rehearse again and again. t is through these rehearsals and retellings that inaccuracies manage to creep in, and as they are reinforced through repeated retellings they become just as much a part of the memories as the actual events. That is, retelling the flashbulb memory to others is the same as rehearsing the memory, or reliving it to a certain degree, and when there are inaccurate elements in this reliving they eventually become as firmly entrenched in the memory of the true-life event as the factual memories. This explains why so many people remember seeing both planes hit on 9/11 when this was actually impossible.
For this assignment, completed the test found at http://www.intelligencetest.com/, after searching…… [Read More]
Such performances can only be influenced by variables like one's age and his or her backgrounds.
According to Diane Halpern, social scientists are inclined to believe that men are more aggressive than women. Most violent crimes on the territory of the U.S. are being committed by men, with women having committed lesser aggression-related felonies. However, this does not necessarily mean that men are generally more aggressive than women. Apparently, men are usually more unpredictable than women are, as the number of men that have committed crimes is compensated by the number of men that are honest.
"Scientific studies "proving" that men are smarter or more analytical and less emotional than women, or that men and women use their brains differently, are periodically trumpeted and more quietly debunked." (Kaminer)
There have been a great number of statements in history relating to the differences existing between women and men. omen have been…… [Read More]
Measurement and Statistics
Intelligence: Definition and assessment
Two major interpretations of intelligence exist -- the concept of 'general intelligence,' which is often pitted against the concept of 'multiple intelligences.' For many years, it was though that only one kind of intelligence existed, known as the 'g-factor,' or general intelligence. "In recent decades, psychologists have devoted much effort to isolating that general factor, which is abbreviated g, from the other aspects of cognitive ability gauged in mental tests" (Gottfredson 2010). However, some researchers such as Howard Gardner have attempted to reframe the g-factor and advocate that intelligence is a multi-faceted concept.
Intelligence tests are often contrasted against personality tests, in which different characteristics are viewed to exist as unrelated to one another. For example, in a standard Myers-Briggs personality test, a person can be 'extroverted' and a 'judging' type or 'introverted' and a 'judging' type. Different personality characteristics do not necessarily…… [Read More]
The theory of multiple intelligences is a good way to explain the different ways that people learn. This theory has been used in education, psychology and business to help people understand how they learn, and how others learn. This paper will explain what the theory of multiple intelligences is, how it works and why this is valuable in a number of different settings.
What is the Theory of Multiple Intelligences
The theory of multiple intelligences was crafted by Howard Gardner as a means of explaining why different teaching styles are effective for some people and ineffective for others. Gardner noted that traditional views of intelligence held that intelligence was fixed (Smith, 2008). People were measured on things like their IQ, and this was considered to be the sum total of their intelligence. Gardner began to realize from working with people that they tended to excel in different areas.…… [Read More]
.....humans interact with technology in increasingly sophisticated and meaningful ways, the ethical and philosophical questions posed by artificial intelligence start to become more pressing than ever before. The science fiction genre has promoted as ambivalent a relationship between humans and technology as scientists and futurists have. Both the potential benefits and drawbacks of artificial intelligence have been explored, asking human beings involved in the development of AI technology to consider the ramifications of their work. For example, Nick Bostrom has indicated the need for developers of artificially intelligent systems to work with cognitive scientists to mitigate risk by programming AI from the beginning to act only in the best interests of humans (Shead 1). However, the assumption that AI will somehow eventually need or want to compete with human beings with the potential to overcome or conquer human beings is just that: an assumption. It is a flawed assumption because…… [Read More]
Different leaders espouse differing styles of leadership. The managers in various organizations benefit from diverse approaches comprising transformational leadership, transactional leadership, enigmatic leadership, dictatorial leadership or visionary leadership (Esfahani and Soflu, 2011). In the contemporary, there is increased consideration regarding the role that quality relationships play in the workplace and how they can profit the organization. Emotional intelligence is delineated as the subsection of social intelligence that takes into account the capability of an individual to monitor his or her own feelings and emotions as well as those of others, to distinguish amidst them and to utilize this information for guiding the individual's thoughts and actions (Hunt and Fitzgerald, 2013). In other words, emotional intelligence is the power of rational, coherent response and comprehending a sequence of emotions and belief that the managers with high social intelligence, through the assistance of ideal self-assurance and inherent control center have high capability…… [Read More]
It includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics (Grammar, n.d.).
Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated; it is the ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; and an utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic (Pragmatics, n.d.).
The ole of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology
Jean Piaget, the founder of cognitive development, was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language, at the Centre oyaumont pour une Science de l'Homme, where he had a discussion about his opinion with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin (McKinney, & Parker, 1999). Piaget discussed that his cognitive constructivism has two main parts: an "ages and stages" component which foretells what children can and cannot understand at different…… [Read More]
Nature of Intelligence
In the world of global diversity, creativity, sustainability and computer technologies it seems hard not to assume that the multiple theory of intelligence is preferable to the more general one. Naturalistic, verbal, musical and interpersonal examples of this type of thinking seem more aligned with the way we see the universe today (ardner, H., 2003).
On the other hand, the educational system in the country is acting as if it believes the model of general intelligence is necessary for academic success. The movement toward young people being taught highly standardized school subjects so that they can all take similar tests matches this assumption because it allows for using scientific tools to measure achievement and one's supposed intelligence. It was this philosophy that allowed Spearman and others to first use their ideas of finding common personal characteristics to identify intelligence (ottfredson, 1998). Eventually this would be the foundation…… [Read More]
Once each student graduates from the various colleges and training institutions, it is their expectations that they will be able to either get gainful employment that is equivalent to their academic and training levels and one that is sustainable. If the graduates will not be able to get the gainful employment, then it is hoped that they should be able to create employment as the contemporary trends are. There are however some other intervening factors that can help in achieving this, some of them are the emotional intelligence of that particular graduate or job seeker and the academic achievement of that particular candidate. These three factors, employability, emotional intelligence and the academic achievement interact in specific manner to shape the ultimate quality of employability of a given candidate. They have a symbiotic relationship particularly in the current competitive environment where education and innovation has influenced change and in…… [Read More]
" Often, conflicts arise when the individual wants two conflicting things: for example, I have occasionally wanted a long-term committed relationship at the same time as I have wanted to date different people. Avoidance-avoidance conflict is almost the opposite. Using a similar example, I have sometimes not wanted to be alone but simultaneously did not want to deal with being in a committed relationship. Approach-avoidance conflict can perhaps be best explained when I want something that is expensive: I want the item badly but I do not want to have to pay for it or work longer hours in order to pay for it.
Conflict." From Mastering Human Relations 3rd Edition, a Falikowski, 2002. Online at http://webhome.idirect.com/~kehamilt/ipsyconf.html.
Constructive Suggestions Regarding Motivation." Virginia Tech. Online at http://www.ucc.vt.edu/stdysk/motivate.html.
Davidson, et. al. "Emotion: Journal Description." APA Online. Online at http://www.apa.org/journals/emo/description.html.
Goleman, Daniel. "Test Your Emotional IQ." Utne. November-December 1005. Online at…… [Read More]
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Stanford -- Binet Intelligence Scales
Analysis of Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Stanford -- Binet Intelligence
Present use of Stanford -- Binet Intelligence and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
esults from Studies
The performance IQ
Assessment of Intellectual Functioning
Psychological testing -- also known as the psychological assessment -- is basically the foundation of how psychologists are able to get a better understanding a person and their behavior. It is a process of problem solving for many professionals -- to try and regulate the core components of a person's psychological or mental health difficulties, personality, IQ, or some other element. It is likewise some kind of process that aids and identifies not just flaws of a person, but also all of their strengths. Psychological testing are done to measure a person's performance at a particular point in time. Psychologists discuss about an individual's…… [Read More]
These studies show that while EI is being integrated into the British educational policy, many concrete steps still have to be taken to make full use of EI skills.
Evidence in favor of Emotional Literacy
There is growing scholarly evidence that shows definitive links between higher emotional intelligence (EI) and overall success in life. For instance, ubin (1999) in his study found that students with high EI skills are less likely to indulge in violent and aggressive acts and more likely to be social. Similarly, Ciarrochi, Chan and Chaputi (2000) in their study found that adolescents with high EI skills show empathy and understanding. In the same way, other scholars too have found positive relationships between high EI and disengagement with use of alcohol and tobacco (Trinidad and Johnson, 2002; Trinidad, Unger, Chou and Anderson Johnson, 2004). Furnham and Petrides (2003) found that students with high EI are generally happy…… [Read More]
Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job."
Kinesthetic learners also tend to absorb information when given a great deal of tactile stimulation. I will explore this in greater detail below.
Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways. This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he (a visual learner) might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her.
It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…… [Read More]
Evolution of the Concept of Intelligence
The concept of IQ is relatively recent, despite the widespread cultural tendency to regard intelligence as a discrete and measurable category that has existed since time began. Intelligence tests were initially constructed with a relatively straightforward purpose -- to discern which children could flourish in the rigid French school system. After the French government passed a law requiring all French children attend school, it commissioned Alfred Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon to identify which children exhibited cognitive deficits. Binet focused upon skills that were not necessarily 'taught' to children, such as "attention, memory and problem-solving skills," to ensure that children from more privileged backgrounds did not have an advantage on the test (Cherry 2010). Binet also created a distinction between children able to answer more advanced questions only older children were capable of solving and average children. "Based on this observation, Binet suggested…… [Read More]
2 million more in profit annually. Further, high EQ partners consistently showed a 139% gain in profit. (Kreitner: 2005).
Goleman also bases his argument on the study of an international soft-drink corporation. In this study it was found that division leaders with developed EQ competencies regularly outperform their goals by more than 15%. On the other hand, division leaders who did not develop their EQ regularly missed their targets by 15%. (Goleman: 2000).
Finally, Goleman also points to the results produced by an independently conducted study by L'Oreal. According to this study, L'Oreal realized a $91,370 increase per person for salespeople hired based on EQ skills. The company also experienced a 63% decrease in turnover in their EQ hired sales staff. (Goleman: 2000).
On the other hand, as is clearly argued by the Kreitner text and only briefly touched upon by Goleman, critics point out that business can misuse EI…… [Read More]
Nurturing and Intelligence
Intelligence has traditionally been regarded as a standardized cognitive ability that people are born with and can be easily measured through the use of various tests including short-answer exams or tests. However, recent research has challenged the conventional belief that intelligence is a static structure by stating that it is a dynamic system that can constantly development throughout various stages in life. Therefore, intelligence is not a static structure that is fixed at birth but different combinations that are utilized in different settings such as creating products or dealing with problems. In essence, intelligence is a term used to refer to capability to create or find solutions to problems or establish skills that help in problem solving in real life.
Based on the findings of recent studies, intelligence is not a static structure fixed at birth implying that there are multiple intelligences that can be developed throughout…… [Read More]
Artificial intelligence has been at the center of many science fiction stories in the last fifty years. Some have become obsessed with proving or disproving the idea that computers can possess real minds, real consciousness. The latest take on this has been HBO's Westworld, a show about androids achieving consciousness. However, realistically many say this is an impossibility. While true artificial intelligence seems, unrealistic many have tried to actualize such a dream through AI projects and development of new, robotic technologies. However, will the goal of real consciousness derived from artificial intelligence be achieved in the future? Will humanity ever possess the technology and understanding to cultivate life from machine?
In "The Library of Toshiba" the chapter opens up with a quote from John Maynard Smith. He shares the notion that humans are just programmed robots designed to keep their genes going through copulation and breeding. Humans are after all,…… [Read More]
Being dismissed coldly by a partner can be a bit like having a partner die, haram writes on page 62. And when you go through the grief of losing a sweetheart who has been with you for years, "being present in the emotion is the best way forward" even though it "just doesn't feel" right at the time.
Emotional intelligence can be implemented into any situation, especially a situation where death is involved. and, as this paper pointed out through the literature, emotional intelligence helps the sufferer understand why it is necessary to "cry…scream or get angry" when the shock of sudden loss hits. In the end, the emotionally intelligent person will be thankful that he or she did not ignore the emotions. hether or not omens appear in dreams, when the loved one is near death, the steps that are taken to deal effectively with the situation…… [Read More]
In the spaces provided beneath the flowchart, list the term that corresponds with the definition in each box.
ABC/123 Version X
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Hopper, C. How memory works. PowerPoint. etrieved from:
Computing IQ Essay
Consider the following scenario:
Kara is 10 years old. She has been given an intelligence test. Her mental age is 13.
According to Sternberg, what is Kara's IQ? Conduct research and interpret her score.
Kara's IQ is 130. One formulation of an intelligence quotient is that of mental age and a child with a superior mental age to her actual years thus has a higher IQ. "Sternberg's discussions on intelligence are very different from a lot of others because he appears to think that other than a static score, intelligence is somewhat malleable and should…… [Read More]
e. between 85 and 115) on a normal bell-shaped distribution.
An abbreviated four-subtest version of the WAIS-III (called the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)) has been released enabling clinicians to perform a validated verbal, performance and full-scale IQ in approximately 30 minutes.
Some clinicians use the WAIS with psychiatric illness or brain injury in order to assess impediments in cognitive reasoning, but use of the WAIS in this connection is controversial. The WAIS is also used as an instrument on a neurologically impaired population in order to link regions of the brain to specific variables of reasoning, as well as to gauge regions and extent of affected neural matter (the digit span, for instance, may be used to test attention and/or memory). Oftentimes, however, the WAIS- NI (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-evised) is a preferred neuropsychological instrument. The WAIS was developed for average, brain-healthy individuals, and separate norms, patterned on…… [Read More]
workplace are job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, and personality tests.
Job Knowledge Tests
Achievement tests or job knowledge tests are composed of questions designed to measure technical or professional expertise in a specific area of knowledge. Therefore job knowledge tests assess the knowledge of the test taker at the point in time of the assessment. Job knowledge tests are most often utilized in conditions that require applicants to possess a specific set or type of information prior to being hired (Dye, eck, & McDaniel, 1993). Job knowledge tests are useful for positions that require some type of specialized skill or technical knowledge. Typically this type of skill or knowledge has been acquired over a long period. Given this, job knowledge tests are not appropriate to use when the applicants will are going to be trained in the areas tested following their selection. The most common format of job knowledge…… [Read More]
acial Socialization Practices on the Cognitive and Behavioral Competence of African-American Preschoolers: Article eview
In the September issue of Child Development, the article The Influence of acial Socialization Practices on the Cognitive and Behavioral Competence of African-American Preschoolers discusses how African-American children are affected by their parent's acclimation to the African-American culture. In other words, how do young children react to being black in a predominantly white society. According to the authors of this study "African-American children and the parents raising them face many challenges, both unique to them as a specific ethnic group and shared across all racial or cultural groups." (O-Brien-Caughy et al., 2002)
African-Americans have a unique dilemma in raising their young children. They must deal with three realms of experience: mainstream society, being a minority in mainstream society, and maintaining their own African culture in mainstream society. Based on these three realms, the authors presented a…… [Read More]
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…… [Read More]