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Intelligence One of the Most
Words: 971 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11699370
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Emotional Intelligence (EI) Defined. Despite the common usage of defining intelligence in terms of numbers there are many psychologists that do not agree with the concept that intelligence is measurable and quantifiable and representative strictly on the basis of cognition. Some theorists believe that intelligence not only includes analytical and problem solving ability but creativity and practical problem solving components as well. In fact there are even some theorists who have totally abandoned the idea of measuring intelligence and purport that intelligence is not measurable visa via a pencil and paper test. These particular theorists believe that ethnicity, cultural heritage, and even religious factors (i.e., Emotional Intelligence factors) have a tremendous influence on that which is commonly called the Intelligence Quotient. More than likely the safest way in which to view intelligence is to consider the concept as one being influenced by dietary factors, physical and mental exercise, emotional states,…


Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experimental Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Mayer, J.D., DiPaolo, M.T., and Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality.

Assessment. 54: 772-781.

Salovey, P., and Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9: 185-211.

Cognitive Theories of Development Piaget's
Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88820358
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This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.

Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…


Gallagher, C. (1999, May). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from 

Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from 

"Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky). (n.d.). The Theory Into Practice Database.

Retrieved July 25, 2011, from

Cognitive and Affective Psychology According
Words: 2587 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25257859
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The psychotherapist's role is then to enhance the already existing tools to help those who need it develop their intelligence and problem-solving abilities in order to promote the healing process.

Question 2


Both the cognitive and affective domains are important considerations within psychotherapy. Indeed, the two often function within a causal relationship to each other. In the Communicative Theory of emotion, as expounded by Brett et al. (2003), for example, emotions are directly related to conscious or unconscious cognitive evaluations. These cognitive evaluations then cause an emotional response, which might include happiness, sadness, or anger. The subconscious internalization of the original cognitive evaluation and accompanying emotion could then result in behavior-related problems such as prejudice. Sometimes such behavior problems are so deeply seated that they need to be treated by means of psychotherapy.

Cognitive therapy, as explained by Michael Herkov (2010), acknowledges the relationship between thought (the cognitive aspect)…

References (2010). Cognitive Neuroscience. 

Brett, a., Smith, M., Price, E., & Huitt, W. (2003). Overview of the affective domain. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], from http:/

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. 

Eysenck, Michael W. & Keane, Mark T. (2005). Cognitive Psychology: a student's handbook. East Sussex: Psychology Press Ltd.

Cognitive Testing Tool
Words: 2446 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 55190613
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Cognitive Ability Testing

Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.

Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…


Aiken, L.R. & Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological assessment and Psychological testing, (12th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 0205457428.

Bermingham D, Hill RD, Woltz D, Gardner MK (2013) Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information. PLoS ONE 8(3).

Lakin, J.M. (2012).Multidimensional ability tests in the linguistically and culturally diverse students: The Evidence of the measurement invariance. Learning and Individual Differences. 22(3):397-403.

Lohman, D.F. (2006). The Woodcock-Johnson III and the Cognitive Abilities Test (Form 6): A Concurrent Valid Study. University of Iowa.

Intelligence One Recent Study Defined Purpose as
Words: 1022 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56005497
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One recent study defined purpose as "an extraordinary achievement" (Moran, 2009, p. 143), yet the there are many individuals in the world who believe that the purpose of intelligence is to prevent surprise. Contemplating the contradiction, the question that could be asked is "how then does an extraordinary achievement translate into everyday intelligence?" This author believes that the purpose of intelligence is not to prevent surprise, instead that the purpose of intelligence is to determine a pathway for the life of the individual.

Measuring the successful pathway of an individual life can be a difficult venture, especially if such measurements are based on the person's intelligence. My belief is that preventing a surprise by showing intelligence can be applied to these type of scenarios with very limited success. There are a myriad of methods used to determine ones intelligence, including but certainly not limited to: measuring intelligent quotient as…


Anderson, R.; (2006) Body intelligence scale: Defining and measuring the intelligence of the body, The Humanistic Psychologist, Vol. 34, Issue 4, pp. 357 -- 367

Bond, M.; (2009) It's how you use it that counts, New Scientist, Vol. 204, Issue 2732, pp. 36 -- 39

Hardy, J.B.; Welcher, D.W.; Mellits, E.D.; Kagan, J.; (1976) Pitfalls in the measurement of intelligence: Are standard intelligence tests valid instruments for measuring the intellectual potential of urban children? Journal of Psychology, Vol. 94, Issue 1, pp. 43-52

Moran, S.; (2009) Purpose: Giftedness in intrapersonal intelligence, High Ability Studies, Vol. 20, Issue 2, pp. 143 -- 159

Cognitive Counseling This Is a
Words: 5805 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 29574321
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Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).

Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).

Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…


American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. 15

May 2009 .

Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. 15 May 2009 .

Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.

Cognitive Modification the Needs of
Words: 1324 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82252365
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Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)

These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.

Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…


Bouck, E.C. (2004). Exploring Secondary Special Education for Mild Mental Impairment: A Program in Search of Its Place. Remedial and Special Education, 25(6), 367-377

Bray, P., & Cooper, R. (2007). The Play of Children with Special Needs in Mainstream and Special Education Settings. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 32(2), 37-48

Gersten, R., Schiller, E.P., & Vaughn, S. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary Special Education Research: Syntheses of the Knowledge Base on Critical Instructional Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (2004). Cognitive Therapy: 100 Key Points. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Intelligence Current Literature on Testing
Words: 846 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 34036127
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While it is almost certain that intelligence ahs a neurological basis, the extent to which intelligence is determined by neurological and chemical changes is not fully understood. A recent study suggests that changing hormone levels prior to and during puberty have a large effect on intelligence; high salivary testosterone levels in ten-year-old boys showed a positive correlation with intelligence, but a negative correlation in twelve-year-olds (Shangguan & Shi 2009). This shows that intelligence can be quite fluid, and can even be affected quite differently by the same mechanisms. The exact nature of the changing influence testosterone seems to provide or signal is not known, but the correlation demands further study.

These three different research studies display very different theories of intelligence. In the first study, accepted methods of cognitive relationships with the environment are valid, if perhaps somewhat inaccurate at the extremes of the intelligence spectrum. The second study points…


CJ. (2009). "Working memory predicts learning outcomes." Psychologist 22910), pp. 827.

Shangguan, F. & Shi, J. (2009). "Puberty timing and fluid intelligence: A study of correlations between testosterone and intelligence in 8- to 12-year-old Chinese boys." Psychoneuroendocrinology 34(7), pp. 983-8.

Whitaker, S. & Wood, J. (2007). "The Distribution of Scaled Scores and Possible Floor Effects on the WISC-III and WAIS-III." Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, 21(2), pp. 136-41.

Intelligence the Role of Scientific
Words: 2772 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 38343941
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More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).

In the arrangement of science there…


A Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes. (1997). Retrieved from

Botkin, D.B. (2011). Absolute Certainty Is Not Scientific. Retreived from 

Clauser, J. (2008). An introduction to intelligence research and analysis. Lanham, Maryland:

The Scarecrow Press.

Cognitive Development
Words: 1516 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25723502
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Cognitive Development

Jean Piage is a luminary as far as cognitive development theory goes. This is because of his contributions in his intellectual development theory. According to Piaget, intellectual development is a continuation of innate biological processes. He emphasizes that children go through four sequential processes of development. These four stages also occur with sub stages within them.

The sensory motor stage: 0 to 2 years; intuitive stage: 2 to 7 years; concrete operations stage: 7 to 11 years; and the formal operations stage: 11 to 15 years (Simatwa, 366).

hat "Active Construction of Knowledge and Understanding" Means

A person's way of understanding occurs in five ways that are related. These are referred to as cognition domains. These ways include understanding as a representation, understanding as connectivity between knowledge types, understanding that forms active knowledge construction and understanding as cognition situation. Understanding as a representation refers to owning internalized ideas,…

Works Cited

Aleven, Vincent and Koeginger, Kenneth. "An Effective Metacognitive Strategy: Learning by Doing and Explaining with A Computer-Based Cognitive Tutor." Cognitive Science, 26 (2002): 147-179. Print.

Casey, Betty, Jones, Rebecca, and Hare, Todd. "The Adolescent Brain." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124 (2008): 111-126. Print.

Hill, Patrick and Lapsley, Daniel. "Egocentrism.", . Accessed 23 August 2016.

Hurst, Melissa. "Differences between Piaget and Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theories.", - cognitive-development-theories.html. Accessed 23 August 2016.

How Emotional Intelligence Eq Impacts Business Today
Words: 2005 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95998743
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Emotional Intelligence (EQ) Impacts Business Today

The article discusses how emotional intelligence (EQ) impacts business today in light of its increased use in the modern business environment. The discussion begins with an evaluation of the concept of emotional intelligence and the reasons it was introduced by Daniel Goleman in 1998. This is followed by an evaluation of the difference between emotional intelligence and intelligence quotient and the use of the concept of emotional intelligence in business today. The last two sections examine the effect of the use of emotional intelligence on business today and the reason for the increased demand for employees with high emotional intelligence.

Companies once believed that hiring individuals with high Intelligence Quotients (IQs) was a reflection of a sound recruiting strategy until the concept of Emotional Intelligence (EQ) emerged. Emotional Intelligence introduces a new way of looking at the root cause of the successes and failures…


Chastukhina, N. (2002). On the Role of Emotional Intelligence in Organizations. Retrieved November 29, 2013, from 

Goleman, D. (2004, January). What Makes a Leader? Best of HBR 1998. Harvard Business


Maddocks, J. (2013, August 6). IQ vs. EQ in the Digital Age is Emotional Intelligence More

Emotional Intelligence in Young Children
Words: 2728 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70778905
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" (2001) Atkins-urnett relates that a "key index of competence in childhood and adolescence" is 'peer competence'. Stated is that: "Relationships with peers, as measured by sociometric indicators are strong indicators of both concurrent and future adaptive functioning." (2001) Longitudinal studies all show that there are similar characteristics "among resilient children: strong sense of competence and self-efficacy, well-liked by peers and adults, reflective rather than impulsive, use of flexible coping strategies, internal locus of control and good intellectual skills" (urnett-Atkins, 2001)

The work of Qualter, Gardner and Whiteley (2007) entitled: "Emotional Intelligence: Review of Research and Educational Implications" states that there is: "...continuing controversy over how to define and measure EI, and how significant the concept of EI is in predicting various aspects of life success. Two predominant perspectives are those adopting an Ability EI and a Trait EI approach." (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007) Emotional Intelligence has been portrayed…


Bar-on, R. (in press). Emotional and Social Intelligence: Insights from the Emotional

Berry, D.J.; Bridges, L.J.; and Zaslow, M.J. (2004) Early Childhood Measures Profiles. Prepared by Child Trends: Washington DC.

Boyatzis, R.E. (1994). Stimulating self-directed learning thought the Managerial Assessment and Development Course, Journal of Management Eduaction,18(3), 304-323.

Chapman, B.P. And Hayslip, B. (2005) Incremental Validity of a Measure of Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment. Vol. 85 No. 2. 2005.

Psychology Testing Psychometric Emotional Intelligence
Words: 12427 Length: 45 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 79715879
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As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.

Aims and Objectives


To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.

esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.

Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.

1.2 Objective…


Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.

Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. .


Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.

Style of Leadership and Emotional Intelligence
Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84667218
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The role of leaders in the present-day service-oriented organizations entails inspiring and motivating subordinates, promoting positive work-related attitudes, and developing a feel of both importance and involvement in and with subordinates. The aforementioned modern leadership tasks place novel demands on programs designed to teach people requisite skills and transform them into leaders. There are also increased demands on companies engaged in choosing leaders, to identify key leadership skills in the candidate pool. Consequently, researchers have focused on examining the fundamental characteristics and performance of successful leaders who effectively assume the mentioned modern leadership responsibilities, to determine leadership training and selection conditions for recruiting and developing efficient corporate leaders. Emotional intelligence, defined as a collection of skills, partly indicating an individual's effectiveness in tackling personal as well as others' emotions, is one of the variables (that have recently become popular) identified as a prospective fundamental leadership trait (Palmer et al. 2001).…

Spiritual Intelligence and the Intuitive
Words: 5721 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 52985661
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The above quotation refers to forms of intuition and perception of the spiritual that in fact advocates the "blocking' of the normal modes of understanding and apprehension. As one commentator state;

The spiritual is all that is beyond the conscious awareness and would include God or gods, demons, spirits and nature spirits, ghosts, non-incarnate entities, angels, devas, guardians of the threshold, guardian angels and all the intangible entities and realities of the religions where the cloud of the unknowable things exists.

(Roze, Janis, Toward the New Humanity: From Emotional Intelligence

to Spiritual Intuition)

It is this perception of the intuitive forms of spiritual intelligence that, it also needsto be taken into account in a discussion of this subject.

2. Literature review

There are many modern as well as more traditional perspectives on the issue of spiritual intelligence. A broad and inclusive view of the central terms in this study…


Blitz, Mark. (2001) "Understanding Heidegger." Public Interest Fall 2001: 106.

Bunge, M. (1962). Intuition and Science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Diedrich William Frank ( 2007) "What is Spiritual Intelligence and Why Should You Care?" Retrieved May 10, 2009, from 

Gardner, Howard. (1993) Multiple Intelligences: The Theory in Practice. New York: Basic.

intelligence learning memory cognition
Words: 1665 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41677365
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Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.

Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…

Intelligence Analysis Process Have Been Discussed This
Words: 1457 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40715020
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intelligence analysis process have been discussed. This paper puts light on what basically is intelligence analysis and how can it be improved. It discusses ways via which intelligence analysis can be made more focused and more effective. It puts light on how better sharing and provision of information, collection and analysis of correct data and fact and figures can benefit the intelligence analysis process.

This paper also puts light on different psychological issues that are being faced by intelligence analysts and it also examines the ways through which analysts can overcome such hurdles.

Intelligence Analysis:

Before discussing how to improve intelligence analysis it is necessary to have proper understanding of the terms intelligence and analysis. Intelligence can be defined as an information which has added value in it whereas analysis is a process via which you can evaluate your intelligence, it helps you to understand a situation and then to…


Federation of American Scientists. (1996). Improving Intelligence Analysis. USA: FAS. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from .

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes. (2011). Criminal Intelligence. New York: UNODC. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from .

Heuer, R.J. (1999). Psychology of Intelligence Analysis. USA: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 21, 2012 from .

Heuer, R.J. (2005). Limits of Intelligence Analysis. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from

Intelligence Theories
Words: 586 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68155643
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Charles Spearman and his General Intelligence Theory

Spearman, a British psychologist, noted that individuals whose score on one mental ability test was excellent tended to maintain an impressive score in other tests as well (Nevid, 2012). On the other hand, those whose score on one cognitive test was unimpressive tended to perform badly in other tests administered. It is on the strength of this observation that Spearman concluded that being a general cognitive ability, intelligence could be expressed numerically or measured. In the words of Nevid (2012, p. 247), "he reasoned there must be an underlying general factor of intelligence that allows people to do well on mental tests, a factor he labeled 'g' for general intelligence."

It is, however, important to note that Spearman was also convinced that in addition to "g," intelligence included some other abilities that contributed "to performance on individual tests" (Nevid, 2012, p. 274).…


Comer, R. & Gould, E. (2012). Psychology Around Us (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Nevid, J. (2012). Psychology: Concepts and Applications (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Stenberg, R. (2008). Cognitive Psychology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Weiner, I.B. (2012). Handbook of Psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Cognitive Changes Developmental Cognitive Occur Starting Age
Words: 2472 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19195806
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Cognitive Changes

Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.

Developmental and cognitive changes

The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).

Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…


Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.

Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.

Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...

Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.

Intelligence the Idea of Intelligence
Words: 889 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42602384
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Because of the difficulties he analyzed in a testtaker's response to a task, he called for more complex measurements of intellectual ability than previously undertaken.

Wechsler built upon these views, compiling a more complete definition of intelligence but as parochial as that examined by Sternberg. "Intelligence, operationally defined, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individually to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal with his environment." (235)

Wechsler critically added that intelligence is not just the sum of the abilities included in the definition, but it is something only understandable by the measurement of the various aspects of those abilities. (235) Likewise, he added that an individual's ability to perceive and respond to social, moral, and aesthetic values contributed to a personality of intelligence.

Examining the cognitive process of young children, Piaget found that intelligence was an evolving process of a certain adaptation to the outside world.…

Charles Spearman was the first to develop techniques that measured "intercorrelations" between different tests of intelligence. The development of these theories lead to the evolution of the two-factor theory of intelligence, in which he postulated that the existence of a general intellectual ability factor that can and is tapped by all other mental abilities such as linguistic, mechanical, and arithmetic abilities. (238) Spearman instituted tests that measured the magnitude of this general intelligence and concluded that the higher the general intelligence, the greater a subject's overall intelligence would be. (237)

Spearman's work led directly to the development of multi-intelligence models, like those of Guilford (1967), that attempt to explain the varied types of identifiable intelligence witnessed throughout the general population. Evolving from the discussion of intelligence as a general idea accepted by the lay population but without real definition, psychologists from Sternberg to Spearman attempted to decipher the popular idea of intelligence, capture it within an acceptable definition, and understand its origins, growth, possibilities, and application. Each scientist presented a new way to examine the nebulous idea, mollifying its uncertain nature with an infusion of definition and standards, shedding light on the wholly inconspicuous concept of brilliance.

Cohen and Swerdlik, Jay and Mark E. Psychological Testing and Assessment. 6th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Intelligence Theories of Intelligence Have
Words: 784 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77544989
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According to him, a theory of intelligence can be adequately mapped with three components: analytic (academic) intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence. This theory accounts for both cognition and context is also referred as Sternberg's "triarchic" theory of human intelligence.

According to Sternberg, intelligence has three aspects. These are not multiple intelligences, as in Gardner's scheme. Where Gardner viewed the various intelligences as separate and independent, Sternberg posited three integrated and interdependent aspects of intelligence. These aspects relate intelligence to what goes on internally within a person, to what goes on in the external world, and to experience, which mediates between the internal and external worlds.

The first aspect consists of the cognitive processes and representations that form the core of all thought. Sternberg distinguished three kinds of processes: those involved in deciding what to do and in deciding how well it was done, those involved in doing what one…

Intelligence - Spearman and Gardner
Words: 780 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92459324
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The standard IQ tests based on the work of Alfred Binet and Lewis Terman are also based on the idea of a single-ability measure of intelligence.

Multiple intelligence

The idea of a single g factoring intelligence, however, has numerous critics. As early as 1938, psychologist L.L. Thurstone criticized the narrowness of Spearman's model. Thurstone argued that mental abilities such as verbal comprehension, spatial visualization and reasoning were distinct forms of intelligences that should be considered separate from one another (Huffman 2003).

Howard Gardner, a cognitive theorist, pursued this idea further by proposing a theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner devised a criteria of eight intelligences, including linguistic skills, bodily-kinesthetic skills and logical-mathematical skills. According to Gardner, people can have different profiles of intelligence, meaning that they can have challenges in some areas but exhibit strengths in others. Because of these different forms of intelligence, Gardner proposed that people also have distinct…

Works Cited

Huffman, Karen. 2003. Psychology in Action. New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Intelligence and Mental Abilities
Words: 1201 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11470639
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Ian J. And Dr., Geoff (2005). Reaction time explains IQ's association with death, Psychological Science. American Psychological Association, 16:1, 64-69

As all learning, on the basis of one's composite mental ability structure, can be thought of as a puzzle that is intricately formatted on the basis of one's neurological, physiological, psychological, and sociological parts, and, when blended together, produce a healthy functioning individual. Therefore, before an understanding is garnered as to how learning comes about, or the variables that affect its outcome, one must first understand the concept of intelligence. Most individuals, professional or lay, have an almost intuitive idea of what constitutes that which we call intelligence. Broadly defined intelligence is an individual's total ability to solve problems. The more complex the problem the more it is thought that the individual possess a higher level of intelligence. Unfortunately, however, most definitions do not differentiate intelligence as general ability or…

Cognitive Enhancers in the Military
Words: 1282 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 21047574
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Neuropharmacology & the Military

It is hard to argue with the basic premise -- the U.S. military exists to promote, by means of force or by means of deterrence backed by the threat of force -- American interests. In military situations, winning is the most important thing, and all other factors are secondary. This has always been true of military endeavors, and that has not changed today. Given that, the U.S. military seeks to be the world's best military. It is the best-funded, and it is the largest. It is also the most technologically-advanced. Where on one side of the technology ledger, the U.S. military is looking at robotics as the next innovation in combat, it is also examining the role that neuropharmacology can provide with respect to its human members, especially combatants. The United States military has a keen interest in neuropharmacology and the effects that it can have…


Farah, M., Smith, M., Ilieva, I. & Hamilton, R. (2014). Cognitive enhancement. Wires. Vol. 5 (2014) 95-103.

Forlini, C. (2013). Should physicians prescribe cognitive enhancers to healthy people? Retrieved April 16, 2015 from 

Giordano, J. & Wurzman, R. (2011). Neurotechnologies as weapons in national intelligence and defense -- an overview. Synesis. Vol. 2011, T55-T71.

Ilieva, I., Boland, J. & Farah, M. (2012). Objective and subjective cognitive enhancing effects of mixed amphetamine salts in healthy people. Neuropharmacology. Retrieved April 16, 2015 from

Cognitive Processes Differ for Students
Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91136447
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It also breaks down the inevitable hierarchies that may exist in a class between students who believe they 'aren't as smart' as their peers.

Address how information is transformed into knowledge as it passes through the three stages of sensory, short-term, and long-term memory in these students. Cite examples of strategies employed during working memory to ensure processing into long-term processing.

The sensory memory stage is very transient. "Sensory memory briefly holds the tremendous amount of information coming in from the senses. Unless you focus your attention on some part of that information, the memory disappears in about one second" (Bennoit 2001). To retain the memory of a particular sight, sound, smell, texture or taste, the individual must usually be mindful and conscious of creating the memory. He or she must make an association with the sensory stimuli and currently-existing knowledge. Auditory memory tends to last a few seconds longer…

Works Cited

Benoit, Anthony G. "Memory." Introduction to Psychology. November 21, 2001. April 9, 2011. 

Rebora, Andrea. "Survey: Teachers concerned about resources for students with diverse learning needs." Education Week. March 23, 2011. April 9, 2011.

Learning Cognitive Theory of Learning
Words: 5035 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10711915
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When children are given the option between a reward they would like and the internal desire to learn something, most children would rather have the reward. That is also true of many adults, whether they are in an educational setting or a business setting. Still, that does not mean that intrinsic interest cannot come along with extrinsic reward, or that operant theory is completely wrong. Many educators mix operant theory with cognitive theory in an effort to provide those with different learning styles more of an opportunity to learn and develop. This helps to reach the largest number of students per educator, improving the overall educational goal.

ognitive Theory of Learning


The cognitive theory of learning has been part of education since the late 1920's, when a Gestalt psychologist focused on the issue of Gestalt teaching and learning, and what that could offer to students who were not learning…

Carton, J.S. (1996). The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory. The Behavior Analyst, 19, 237-255.

Cavalier, a.R., Ferretti, R.P., & Hodges, a.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.

Davidson, P., & Bucher, B. (1978). Intrinsic interest and extrinsic reward: The effects of a continuing token program on continuing nonconstrained preference. Behavior Therapy, 9, 222-234.

Perception of Intelligence
Words: 1710 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 99159141
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Perceptions of Intelligence

Intelligence is a concept that has numerous meanings across time, geography and culture. Typically, most of the definitions connect some sort of skill, plan or understanding of concepts, new things, etc. -- and the way that knowledge is combined with other ideas to form something new or adaptive. Numerous psychologists and neurologists continue to debate the differing types of intelligence and the ways individuals combine them to form a unique (and individual) basis for the way they view the world (Garlick, 2010). Creative intelligence, for instance, is the way individuals perceive their universe -- the world around them, and how that changes. Of course, because of the differences in the way people perceive their world, and the differences in the way and manner the external world is constructed, all individuals may be creative in one way or another. For instance, imagine how creative it was for our…


Yuri Bronfenbrenner. (2005, September 26). Retrieved from Cornell University News: 

Benjamin, L. (2009). The Birth of American Intelligence Testing. Monitor on Psychology.

40(1): Retrieved from:

Bias of Cognitive Assessments Which
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Therefore, it makes no sense to force companies to administer such tests.

2. On the topic of learning at work and having this knowledge assessed and recognized; "should there be a resurgence of traditional apprenticeships (construction trades, transportation, etc.); and a movement for apprenticeship programs that would apply to most occupations that do not presently recognize such training and education?" (Medicine, manufacturing, education, etc.)

Apprenticeships offer opportunities that can never be acquired through formal education and training. One of the casualties of the industrial revolution, apprenticeship should come back into the fore of job training. Employees are empowered, supervisors enjoy improved and more personal communications with their apprentices, and learning takes place on an organic level. Apprenticing offers the opportunity to witness the real-world workings of a business, skill, or artisan trade.

The prevailing model of job training is also unfairly skewed toward those who can afford expensive education and…

Memory Thinking and Intelligence the
Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35110981
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He hypothesized that certain parts within the brain could map with certain areas of cognitive functioning, such as social, cognitive, or creative functions. To prove this, Gardner cites cases of brain damage that leads to the loss of some, but not all, cognitive functions. On this basis, one could also say that pearman's test findings, while all located in the brain, relate to different parts of the brain and nervous system rather than a single location, as originally assumed.

Comparisons between the two models include the fact that both theorists believe that intelligence relates to more than one human function. pearman for example used a variety of different tasks to test intelligence, as does the IQ test he uses to base his assumptions on. Gardner agrees with pearman on the fact that intelligence does indeed relate to different tasks, but simply adds more to the already existing ones in order…


Armstrong, Thomas (1998-2002). Multiple Intelligences. 

Paik, Han S. (1998). One Intelligence or Many? Alternative Approaches to Cognitive Abilities. Washington University. 

RiCharde, Stephen. (2007). The Learning Thinking Styles Inventory. VMI.

WAIS-IV Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth
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Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV)

The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV, Pearson Assessments, 2012) was designed to evaluate cognitive functioning in adults aged 16 to 90. The WAIS-IV is the most recent updated version (released in 2008) of the most commonly administered intelligence test for adolescents and adults (Canivez, 2010). The test has its roots in the Wechsler -- Bellevue Intelligence Scale (Wechsler, 1939). David Wechsler, a psychologist who was dissatisfied with the standard of intelligence testing of the times, based his original tests on his notion of intelligence as "the global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment" (Wechsler, 1939, p. 229). All versions of the WAIS attempt to measure general intelligence and other facets of intelligence via the administration of numerous subtests. Each of these subtests is an estimate of a particular cognitive…


Canivez, G., L. (2010). Test review of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition. In R.A. Spies, J.F. Carlson, & K.F. Geisinger (Eds.), The eighteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 684-688). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.

Frazier, T.W., & Youngstrom, E.A. (2007). Historical increase in the number of factors measured by commercial tests of cognitive ability: Are we overfactoring? Intelligence, 35(2), 169-182.

Pearson Assessments. (2012). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV):

Assessment and information. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from

Race IQ and Intelligence in
Words: 2609 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83843279
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2001 1. Then, they could sort taxonomically. In other words, one man's 'smart' is another man's 'dopey', concepts that have little to do with the "intelligence" IQ tests are designed to measure. This is certainly, as well, a clear indication of how completely IQ tests are based in a narrow range of cultural norms. Indeed, they could be viewed as impoverished measures for failing to account for the values, intellectual and otherwise, of any society except the well-defined, homogenized and 'unjuicy' western society that invented the tests. Sternberg et al. concluded that, regarding IQ tests, "scores from tests used in cultures or subcultures other than those for which the tests were specifically created are suspect, and probably of doubtful validity in many if not most cases (2001 1).

What about race?

The myths about race and IQ go back a long way, to a time before IQ tests. Philosophers Hume,…


Keita, L. (1999). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 23(1), 65. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database, .

Reeve, C.L. (2002). Race and Intelligence: Separating Science from Myth. Personnel Psychology, 55(3), 778+. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database,

Musical Activity and Cognitive Aging
Words: 880 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 94152998
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The assessment was done in one session which included estimation of verbal, attention, memory, working memory, intellectual and language functions of the participants. The researchers used the American Adult eading Test to estimate the premorbid verbal intelligence of the participants where they were required to read irregular words which cannot be pronounced correctly using the rules of phonics out loud. This provided a good estimate of the Verbal IQ of the participants on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. It was also a stable and valid measure of the premorbid intellectual functioning of the older demented and non-demented adults.

The verbal intelligence and general intellectual ability of the study participants was estimated through the administration of the information subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and it provided a stable and valid measure despite the advanced age of the participants. The performance of the subject's verbal memory was measuring using the…


Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda, and Alicia MacKay. "The Relation between Instrumental Musical Activity and Cognitive Aging." Neuropsychology 25.3 (2011): 378 -- 86. Print.

Wechsler Intelligence Scales An Overview
Words: 818 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 36114281
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Explain the Global Ability Index and when to use it

The alternative global score, the General Ability Index (GAI) is calculated when the test-taker "meets certain criteria that involve variability with respect to the cognitive factors of working memory and processing speed" (Cheramie 2008). For example, learning-disabled children often have lower levels of processing speed, thus the GAI is an acceptable scoring alternative to the usual method which does take memory and processing speed into account when norming the results.

Discuss the main uses for the WAIS-IV and WISC-IV

All forms of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales are standardized tests, "meaning that as part of the test design, they were administered to a large representative sample of the target population, and norms were determined from the results" (Encyclopedia of Children's Health, 2010). All IQ tests are limited in their ability to describe the individual's full range of ability and should be…


Cheramie, Gail M., Mary E. Stafford, & Sarah S. Mire. (2008). The WISC-IV General Ability

Index in a non-clinical sample. Graduate Journal of Education and Human

Development. 2.2. Retrieved February 03, 2010 at

Groth-Marnat, Gary. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. Wiley.

Memory Intelligence My First Memory the
Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34345674
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A psychologist named Ulric Nessier believes that flashbulb memories are formed because they represent an intersection of historical and personal trajectories, and this makes them events that people want to retell and rehearse again and again. t is through these rehearsals and retellings that inaccuracies manage to creep in, and as they are reinforced through repeated retellings they become just as much a part of the memories as the actual events. That is, retelling the flashbulb memory to others is the same as rehearsing the memory, or reliving it to a certain degree, and when there are inaccurate elements in this reliving they eventually become as firmly entrenched in the memory of the true-life event as the factual memories. This explains why so many people remember seeing both planes hit on 9/11 when this was actually impossible.

ntelligence Test

For this assignment, completed the test found at, after searching…

Intelligence Test

For this assignment, I completed the test found at , after searching the term "intelligence test" at While many of the questions did seem to be fairly accurate ways of gauging intelligence in certain areas, such as pattern recognition or mathematical abilities, many of the questions seemed to depend on knowledge that would have to be acquired prior to taking the test. While this information was fairly basic for the most part, it was easy to see that someone who simply hadn't been exposed to the facts would be gauged as having a lower intelligence than they might actually possess based on this feature of the test. While I feel that I possessed the knowledge that was required in these certain items on the test, this reflects the cultural bias that exists in many intelligence tests, and arguably in all intelligence tests. It also calls into question the definition of intelligence as it is defined in various intelligence tests, including this one.

As far as how it felt to take this test, I actually found it kind of exciting -- especially when I was pretty sure (or positive) that I had the right answer. Many of the items appeared incredibly easy, while others were less so, and the fact that I didn't get a perfect score means that the test obviously had some items that were more difficult than I thought. I was very eager to see my results, and throughout the test I found it difficult to concentrate only on the questions/items as they were presented because I kept wondering what each specific item was supposed to measure and what my answer would say about my intelligence. Ultimately, I don't think any internet-administered test that takes a maximum of fifteen minutes to complete can accurately assess anyone's intelligence, so I do not have a great deal of faith in my score, but the experience was definitely fun and made taking the test worthwhile.

Perception of Intelligence
Words: 1207 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94638219
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Cultural Differences in the Perception of Intelligence


For the purposes of this assignment, two cultures will be compared with respect to how they perceive intelligence. Culture is relative, as is perception, as will be demonstrated in this paper with specific regard to intelligence. The two cultures that will be compared are American culture and Japanese culture. These two cultures have an intense past and interconnected present; they are very different with respect to social context, perspective, and perception. The paper will consider how these cultures interpret and perceive intelligence differently. The paper will reflect upon how intelligence, among other characteristics and elements, is measured differently because of variations in culture. The paper will further consider how, within varying social contexts and cultures, one might test for a spectrum of cognitive abilities, with respect to the two cultures of focus, Japanese and American.

American culture is very self-centered relative to…


Furnham, A., & Fukumoto, S. (2008). Japanese parents' estimates of their own and their children's multiple intelligences: Cultural modesty and moderate differentiation. Japanese Psychological Research, 50(2), 63 -- 76.

Smith, M.K. (2002, 2008). Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education, Web, Available from: . 2012 December 20.

Sternberg, R.J., & Grigorenko, E.L. (2004). Why We Need to Explore Development in Its Cultural Context. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(3), 369 -- 386.

artificial intelligence and futurism transhumanism
Words: 1986 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72467429
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.....humans interact with technology in increasingly sophisticated and meaningful ways, the ethical and philosophical questions posed by artificial intelligence start to become more pressing than ever before. The science fiction genre has promoted as ambivalent a relationship between humans and technology as scientists and futurists have. Both the potential benefits and drawbacks of artificial intelligence have been explored, asking human beings involved in the development of AI technology to consider the ramifications of their work. For example, Nick Bostrom has indicated the need for developers of artificially intelligent systems to work with cognitive scientists to mitigate risk by programming AI from the beginning to act only in the best interests of humans (Shead 1). However, the assumption that AI will somehow eventually need or want to compete with human beings with the potential to overcome or conquer human beings is just that: an assumption. It is a flawed assumption because…

Measurement and Statistics Intelligence Definition and Assessment
Words: 1550 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58010095
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Measurement and Statistics

Intelligence: Definition and assessment

Two major interpretations of intelligence exist -- the concept of 'general intelligence,' which is often pitted against the concept of 'multiple intelligences.' For many years, it was though that only one kind of intelligence existed, known as the 'g-factor,' or general intelligence. "In recent decades, psychologists have devoted much effort to isolating that general factor, which is abbreviated g, from the other aspects of cognitive ability gauged in mental tests" (Gottfredson 2010). However, some researchers such as Howard Gardner have attempted to reframe the g-factor and advocate that intelligence is a multi-faceted concept.

Intelligence tests are often contrasted against personality tests, in which different characteristics are viewed to exist as unrelated to one another. For example, in a standard Myers-Briggs personality test, a person can be 'extroverted' and a 'judging' type or 'introverted' and a 'judging' type. Different personality characteristics do not necessarily…


Achievement tests. (2011). Institute of Mental Measurements. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at 

Becker, Kirt. (2003). History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales. Houghton-Mifflin.

Retrieved June 8, 2011 at 

Gilman, Linda. (2001). Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Intelligence Theory.

Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
Words: 898 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 27570372
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Multiple Intelligences

The theory of multiple intelligences is a good way to explain the different ways that people learn. This theory has been used in education, psychology and business to help people understand how they learn, and how others learn. This paper will explain what the theory of multiple intelligences is, how it works and why this is valuable in a number of different settings.

What is the Theory of Multiple Intelligences

The theory of multiple intelligences was crafted by Howard Gardner as a means of explaining why different teaching styles are effective for some people and ineffective for others. Gardner noted that traditional views of intelligence held that intelligence was fixed (Smith, 2008). People were measured on things like their IQ, and this was considered to be the sum total of their intelligence. Gardner began to realize from working with people that they tended to excel in different areas.…


Chapman, A. (2012). Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theories model. Retrieved March 22, 2014 from 

Cherry, K. (2014). Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Retrieved March 22, 2014 from 

PBS. (2014). Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory. Retrieved March 22, 2014 from

Smith, M. (2008). Howard Gardner, multiple intelligences and education. InFed. Retrieved March 22, 2014 from

Leadership and Emotional Intelligence
Words: 1038 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32128792
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Different leaders espouse differing styles of leadership. The managers in various organizations benefit from diverse approaches comprising transformational leadership, transactional leadership, enigmatic leadership, dictatorial leadership or visionary leadership (Esfahani and Soflu, 2011). In the contemporary, there is increased consideration regarding the role that quality relationships play in the workplace and how they can profit the organization. Emotional intelligence is delineated as the subsection of social intelligence that takes into account the capability of an individual to monitor his or her own feelings and emotions as well as those of others, to distinguish amidst them and to utilize this information for guiding the individual's thoughts and actions (Hunt and Fitzgerald, 2013). In other words, emotional intelligence is the power of rational, coherent response and comprehending a sequence of emotions and belief that the managers with high social intelligence, through the assistance of ideal self-assurance and inherent control center have high capability…

Language Cognitive Psychology Language Is
Words: 1095 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 27483814
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It includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics (Grammar, n.d.).

Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated; it is the ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; and an utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic (Pragmatics, n.d.).

The ole of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology

Jean Piaget, the founder of cognitive development, was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language, at the Centre oyaumont pour une Science de l'Homme, where he had a discussion about his opinion with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin (McKinney, & Parker, 1999). Piaget discussed that his cognitive constructivism has two main parts: an "ages and stages" component which foretells what children can and cannot understand at different…


Language. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia: .

Lexicon (2001). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Online Etymology Dictionary: 

Lexicon. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia:

Nature of Intelligence
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Nature of Intelligence

In the world of global diversity, creativity, sustainability and computer technologies it seems hard not to assume that the multiple theory of intelligence is preferable to the more general one. Naturalistic, verbal, musical and interpersonal examples of this type of thinking seem more aligned with the way we see the universe today (ardner, H., 2003).

On the other hand, the educational system in the country is acting as if it believes the model of general intelligence is necessary for academic success. The movement toward young people being taught highly standardized school subjects so that they can all take similar tests matches this assumption because it allows for using scientific tools to measure achievement and one's supposed intelligence. It was this philosophy that allowed Spearman and others to first use their ideas of finding common personal characteristics to identify intelligence (ottfredson, 1998). Eventually this would be the foundation…

Gardner, H. (2003). Multiple Intelligences after twenty years. Harvard School of Education. Viewable at

Gottfredson, L. (1998). The General Intelligence Factor. Scientific America. Viewable at .

Sternberg, R.J. (2007). Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity Synthesized. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Emotional Intelligence and employability of graduates
Words: 2505 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34124258
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Graduate Employability

Once each student graduates from the various colleges and training institutions, it is their expectations that they will be able to either get gainful employment that is equivalent to their academic and training levels and one that is sustainable. If the graduates will not be able to get the gainful employment, then it is hoped that they should be able to create employment as the contemporary trends are. There are however some other intervening factors that can help in achieving this, some of them are the emotional intelligence of that particular graduate or job seeker and the academic achievement of that particular candidate. These three factors, employability, emotional intelligence and the academic achievement interact in specific manner to shape the ultimate quality of employability of a given candidate. They have a symbiotic relationship particularly in the current competitive environment where education and innovation has influenced change and in…

Motivation Emotional Intelligence Can Be
Words: 434 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 5123391
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" Often, conflicts arise when the individual wants two conflicting things: for example, I have occasionally wanted a long-term committed relationship at the same time as I have wanted to date different people. Avoidance-avoidance conflict is almost the opposite. Using a similar example, I have sometimes not wanted to be alone but simultaneously did not want to deal with being in a committed relationship. Approach-avoidance conflict can perhaps be best explained when I want something that is expensive: I want the item badly but I do not want to have to pay for it or work longer hours in order to pay for it.

orks Cited

Conflict." From Mastering Human Relations 3rd Edition, a Falikowski, 2002. Online at

Constructive Suggestions Regarding Motivation." Virginia Tech. Online at

Davidson, et. al. "Emotion: Journal Description." APA Online. Online at

Goleman, Daniel. "Test Your Emotional IQ." Utne. November-December 1005. Online at…

Works Cited

Conflict." From Mastering Human Relations 3rd Edition, a Falikowski, 2002. Online at .

Constructive Suggestions Regarding Motivation." Virginia Tech. Online at .

Davidson, et. al. "Emotion: Journal Description." APA Online. Online at

Goleman, Daniel. "Test Your Emotional IQ." Utne. November-December 1005. Online at .

Intellectual Functioning Your IQ Wechsler Adult Intelligence
Words: 3350 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51020723
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Intellectual Functioning

Your IQ

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

Stanford -- Binet Intelligence Scales

Analysis of Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Stanford -- Binet Intelligence

Present use of Stanford -- Binet Intelligence and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale


esults from Studies

The performance IQ

Assessment of Intellectual Functioning

Psychological testing -- also known as the psychological assessment -- is basically the foundation of how psychologists are able to get a better understanding a person and their behavior. It is a process of problem solving for many professionals -- to try and regulate the core components of a person's psychological or mental health difficulties, personality, IQ, or some other element. It is likewise some kind of process that aids and identifies not just flaws of a person, but also all of their strengths. Psychological testing are done to measure a person's performance at a particular point in time. Psychologists discuss about an individual's…


Arrigo, B.A. (2009). Police corruption and psychological testing: A strategy for preemployment screening. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 12(3), 23-45.

Emerson, E., Einfeld, S., & Stancliffe, R.J. (2010). The mental health of young children with intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(21), 21-34.

Gonzalez-Gordon, R.G., Salvador-Carulla, L., Romero, C., Gonzalez-Saiz, F., & Romero, D. (2012). Feasibility, reliability and validity of the Spanish version of Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disability: A structured psychiatric interview for intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 21(6), 111-120.

Maeda, S., Kita, F., Miyawaki, T., & Takeuchi. (2012). Assessment of patients with intellectual disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to evaluate dental treatment tolerability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 24(9), 253-259.

Emotional Intelligence Ei Beginning With
Words: 2647 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86147398
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These studies show that while EI is being integrated into the British educational policy, many concrete steps still have to be taken to make full use of EI skills.

Evidence in favor of Emotional Literacy

There is growing scholarly evidence that shows definitive links between higher emotional intelligence (EI) and overall success in life. For instance, ubin (1999) in his study found that students with high EI skills are less likely to indulge in violent and aggressive acts and more likely to be social. Similarly, Ciarrochi, Chan and Chaputi (2000) in their study found that adolescents with high EI skills show empathy and understanding. In the same way, other scholars too have found positive relationships between high EI and disengagement with use of alcohol and tobacco (Trinidad and Johnson, 2002; Trinidad, Unger, Chou and Anderson Johnson, 2004). Furnham and Petrides (2003) found that students with high EI are generally happy…


Antidote. 2008. Campaign for Emotional Literacy. Available at 

Bastian, V.A., Burns, N.R. And Nettelbeck, T. 2005. Emotional Intelligence Predicts Life Skills, but not as well as Personality and Cognitive Abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, pp. 1135-45.

Ciarrochi, J.V., Chan, a.Y.C. And Caputi, P. 2000. A Critical Evaluation of the Emotional Intelligence Construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, pp. 1101-13.

Ciarrochi, J.V., Deane, F.P. And Anderson, S. 2002. Emotional Intelligence Moderates the Relationship Between Stress and Mental Health. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, pp. 197-209.

Kinesthetic Intelligence -- and Kinesthetic
Words: 8911 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 31580267
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Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job."

Kinesthetic learners also tend to absorb information when given a great deal of tactile stimulation. I will explore this in greater detail below.

Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways. This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he (a visual learner) might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her.

It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…

Sternberg, R.J. (1996). Successful intelligence. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Trudeau, F. & Shephard, R. (2008) Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 5: 10.

Vyse, Stuart (2005). Where do fads come from? In Jacobson, Foxx & Mulick. Controversial therapies for developmental disabilities. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.

Evolution of the Concept of Intelligence the
Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18855436
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Evolution of the Concept of Intelligence

The concept of IQ is relatively recent, despite the widespread cultural tendency to regard intelligence as a discrete and measurable category that has existed since time began. Intelligence tests were initially constructed with a relatively straightforward purpose -- to discern which children could flourish in the rigid French school system. After the French government passed a law requiring all French children attend school, it commissioned Alfred Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon to identify which children exhibited cognitive deficits. Binet focused upon skills that were not necessarily 'taught' to children, such as "attention, memory and problem-solving skills," to ensure that children from more privileged backgrounds did not have an advantage on the test (Cherry 2010). Binet also created a distinction between children able to answer more advanced questions only older children were capable of solving and average children. "Based on this observation, Binet suggested…


Bensen, Etienne. (2003). Intelligent intelligence testing. APA Monitor, 34(2): 48.

Retrieved July 9, 2011 at

Cherry, Kendra. (2011). History of intelligence testing. Retrieved July 9, 2011 at 

Gardner's multiple intelligences. (2006). Personality and Individual Differences.

Working With Emotional Intelligence Author
Words: 1490 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 15287307
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2 million more in profit annually. Further, high EQ partners consistently showed a 139% gain in profit. (Kreitner: 2005).

Goleman also bases his argument on the study of an international soft-drink corporation. In this study it was found that division leaders with developed EQ competencies regularly outperform their goals by more than 15%. On the other hand, division leaders who did not develop their EQ regularly missed their targets by 15%. (Goleman: 2000).

Finally, Goleman also points to the results produced by an independently conducted study by L'Oreal. According to this study, L'Oreal realized a $91,370 increase per person for salespeople hired based on EQ skills. The company also experienced a 63% decrease in turnover in their EQ hired sales staff. (Goleman: 2000).

On the other hand, as is clearly argued by the Kreitner text and only briefly touched upon by Goleman, critics point out that business can misuse EI…


Goleman, Daniel, Dalai Lama. (2000): Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

Mayer, J. (1993): "The Intelligence of Emotional Intelligence" Intelligence. V. 17.

Kreitner, Robert, and Angelo Kinicki. (2005): Organizational Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill Companies.

Stein, S. And Book H. (1999): The EQ Edge. Toronto: Jossey-Bass.

Emotional Intelligence Humans Are Living
Words: 1728 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Hypothesis Paper #: 97628165
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Being dismissed coldly by a partner can be a bit like having a partner die, haram writes on page 62. And when you go through the grief of losing a sweetheart who has been with you for years, "being present in the emotion is the best way forward" even though it "just doesn't feel" right at the time.


Emotional intelligence can be implemented into any situation, especially a situation where death is involved. and, as this paper pointed out through the literature, emotional intelligence helps the sufferer understand why it is necessary to "cry…scream or get angry" when the shock of sudden loss hits. In the end, the emotionally intelligent person will be thankful that he or she did not ignore the emotions. hether or not omens appear in dreams, when the loved one is near death, the steps that are taken to deal effectively with the situation…

Works Cited

Berta, Peter. (2007). Omens. Encyclopedia of Death and Dying. Retrieved March 1, 2011, from

Goleman, Daniel. (1998). Working with Emotional Intelligence. New York: Random House

Digital, Inc.

McBride, Patricia, and Maitland, Susan. (2001). The EI Advantage: Putting Emotional

Developing Intelligence
Words: 675 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61739408
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Nurturing and Intelligence

Intelligence has traditionally been regarded as a standardized cognitive ability that people are born with and can be easily measured through the use of various tests including short-answer exams or tests. However, recent research has challenged the conventional belief that intelligence is a static structure by stating that it is a dynamic system that can constantly development throughout various stages in life. Therefore, intelligence is not a static structure that is fixed at birth but different combinations that are utilized in different settings such as creating products or dealing with problems. In essence, intelligence is a term used to refer to capability to create or find solutions to problems or establish skills that help in problem solving in real life.

Based on the findings of recent studies, intelligence is not a static structure fixed at birth implying that there are multiple intelligences that can be developed throughout…


Coon, D. & Mitterer, J.O. (2013). Psychology: a journey (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage


Artificial Intelligence and the Human Brain
Words: 1278 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86399326
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Artificial intelligence has been at the center of many science fiction stories in the last fifty years. Some have become obsessed with proving or disproving the idea that computers can possess real minds, real consciousness. The latest take on this has been HBO's Westworld, a show about androids achieving consciousness. However, realistically many say this is an impossibility. While true artificial intelligence seems, unrealistic many have tried to actualize such a dream through AI projects and development of new, robotic technologies. However, will the goal of real consciousness derived from artificial intelligence be achieved in the future? Will humanity ever possess the technology and understanding to cultivate life from machine?

In "The Library of Toshiba" the chapter opens up with a quote from John Maynard Smith. He shares the notion that humans are just programmed robots designed to keep their genes going through copulation and breeding. Humans are after all,…

Memory and Intelligence Theory
Words: 1203 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 68917984
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In the spaces provided beneath the flowchart, list the term that corresponds with the definition in each box.

ABC/123 Version X

Copyright © XXXX by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.

Sensory memory

Meaningful organization

Short-term memory






Hopper, C. How memory works. PowerPoint. etrieved from:

Computing IQ Essay

Consider the following scenario:

Kara is 10 years old. She has been given an intelligence test. Her mental age is 13.

According to Sternberg, what is Kara's IQ? Conduct research and interpret her score.

Kara's IQ is 130. One formulation of an intelligence quotient is that of mental age and a child with a superior mental age to her actual years thus has a higher IQ. "Sternberg's discussions on intelligence are very different from a lot of others because he appears to think that other than a static score, intelligence is somewhat malleable and should…


Lane, C. (20008). Gardner's multiple intelligences. The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide. Retrieved from: 

McLeod, S. A. (2010). Long-term memory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from McLeod, S. A. (2014). Classical Conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from

McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner - operant conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from

Paik, H. (2001). One intelligence or many? Alternative approaches to cognitive abilities. Personality Research.

Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: A-Level Coursework Paper #: 9414347
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e. between 85 and 115) on a normal bell-shaped distribution.

An abbreviated four-subtest version of the WAIS-III (called the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)) has been released enabling clinicians to perform a validated verbal, performance and full-scale IQ in approximately 30 minutes.

Some clinicians use the WAIS with psychiatric illness or brain injury in order to assess impediments in cognitive reasoning, but use of the WAIS in this connection is controversial. The WAIS is also used as an instrument on a neurologically impaired population in order to link regions of the brain to specific variables of reasoning, as well as to gauge regions and extent of affected neural matter (the digit span, for instance, may be used to test attention and/or memory). Oftentimes, however, the WAIS- NI (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-evised) is a preferred neuropsychological instrument. The WAIS was developed for average, brain-healthy individuals, and separate norms, patterned on…


AERA, APA, & NCME. (2004). Standards for educational and psychological testing (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: AERA.

Axelrod, B.N. & Ryan, J.J. (2000). Prorating Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III summary scores. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56, 807 -- 11.

Hess, Allen K., (2001). [Review of the test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.)]. Mental Measurements Yearbook (15th ed.). Retrieved April 12, 2005, from Mental Measurements Yearbook database.

Rogers, Bruce G., (2001). [Review of the test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.)]. Mental Measurements Yearbook (15th ed.). Retrieved April 12, 2005, from Mental Measurements Yearbook database.

acial Socialization Practices on the Cognitive and Behavioral Competence of African-American Preschoolers: Article eview

In the September issue of Child Development, the article The Influence of acial Socialization Practices on the Cognitive and Behavioral Competence of African-American Preschoolers discusses how African-American children are affected by their parent's acclimation to the African-American culture. In other words, how do young children react to being black in a predominantly white society. According to the authors of this study "African-American children and the parents raising them face many challenges, both unique to them as a specific ethnic group and shared across all racial or cultural groups." (O-Brien-Caughy et al., 2002)

African-Americans have a unique dilemma in raising their young children. They must deal with three realms of experience: mainstream society, being a minority in mainstream society, and maintaining their own African culture in mainstream society. Based on these three realms, the authors presented a…


Amatruda, Catherine S., et al. (1940). The First Five Years of Life: A Guide to the Study of the Preschool Child, from the Yale Clinic of Child Development. New York, NY: Harper & Brothers Publishers.

Consortium for Longitudinal Studies (1983). As the Twig Is Bent: Lasting Effects of Preschool Programs. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Daniel-Tatum, Beverly (1999). Why Are All the Black Kids Sitting Together in the Cafeteria? And Other Conversations about Race.: Basic Books.

Kearse-Brookins, Geraldine (1985). Beginnings: The Social and Affective Development of Black Children. Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Education - NCLB Problems Reconsidering
Words: 3693 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 51968001
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Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.

Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…


Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at 

Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at

Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.

Individual Development Plan
Words: 2277 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95925020
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Individual Development Plan

The origin of the term emotional intelligence is from a book by Daniel Goleman in 1995 and this book has made it one of the hottest subjects to be discussed in corporate America. This led to an article in the Harvard Business eview two years ago, and that attracted more readers than all articles published in the magazine during the last 40 years. This had such an effect on the CEO of Johnson & Johnson that he sent out the article to all 400 executives in the company. (Emotional Intelligence: What it is and why it Matters)

In the book, Goleman had divided the subject as consisting of five emotional competencies and these were to identify and name the emotional states of the person and to understand its link to emotions thought and action; to manage one's emotional states and thus to control emotions or to change…


Cherniss, Chary. (April 15, 2000) "Emotional Intelligence: What it is and why it Matters" Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, New Orleans, LA. Retrieved from Accessed on 11 May, 2005

Dattner, Ben. "Succeeding with Emotional Intelligence" Retrieved from  Accessed on 11 May, 2005

'Emotional intelligence" Retrieved from  Accessed on 11 May, 2005

'Emotional Intelligence Training" Retrieved from  Accessed on 11 May, 2005

Society and Culture -- Music
Words: 1732 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 1194585
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However, it is already clear that the music industry had been irrevocably changed as the revenue potential shifts from traditional sources to those corresponding to the way music is typically enjoyed and shared by youthful consumers today (Halbert & Ingulli, 2007).


egardless of the many ways that modern technology and societies have changed the way music is produced, in many respects, music still provides many of the same functions as it always has. Music continues to be featured prominently in cultural and religious expression and it continues to be an important part of adolescent development and self-expression. Ultimately, music will likely always continue to change in superficial ways and in the manner in which it is produced and disseminated, but in its most fundamental character, it remains unchanged in it significance to human society and culture..


Brownlee S. "Baby Talk" U.S. News & World eport; June 15, 1998:48-55.…


Brownlee S. "Baby Talk" U.S. News & World Report; June 15, 1998:48-55.

Dennet D. (1997). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Gerrig R. And Zimbardo P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ:


Roots of Violence After Reading
Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81686603
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The interesting aspect of this phenomena is that in general this usually ends in a cyclical resurgence of the dismissal of biological factors as a possible answer for delinquent behavior, when in reality the opposite is true. Cognitive therapy tends not to work, especially in the long-term for impulse disorders, not because all therapy is bogus but because it is treating the wrong area of the brain. The failing, by most standards of cognitive therapy and especially, cognitive behavioral therapy is that it tends to assume that actions are driven by thought, even when such thoughts are not really there, or at the very least are to fleeting to actually be considered cognitions but are more akin to fleeting words, rather than core beliefs. (Neenan & Dryden, 2004, p. 77)

The biology that is outlined by Karr-Morse and Wiley and the many experts they cite to demonstrate the necessity for…


Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (2004). Cognitive Therapy: 100 Key Points. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Painter, S.G., & Howell, C.C. (1999). Rage and Women's Sexuality after Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Phenomenological Study. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 35(1), 5.

Shelton, T.L., Barkley, R.A., Crosswait, C., Moorehouse, M., Fletcher, K., Barrett, S., et al. (1998). Psychiatric and Psychological Morbidity as a Function of Adaptive Disability in Preschool Children with Aggressive and Hyperactive-Impulsive Inattentive Behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26(6), 475.

Therapy on the NHS? What a Crazy Waste of [Pounds Sterling]600million! As the Government Promotes Cognitive Behavioural Therapy as the Panacea for All Mental Ills, a Psychologist Gives His Scornful Response GoodHealth. (2006, October 24). The Daily Mail (London, England), p. 57.

21st Century Skills and Competencies
Words: 4983 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99195603
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21st Century Leadership

What does leadership mean today? The 21st Century environment presents totally different challenges and needs from the previous centuries with regards to leadership. Studies have shown that emotional and social intelligence are two big areas that pertain to 21st century leadership, as they relate to how well leaders can effectively establish positive relationships with followers (Boyatzis, 2008; Den, Deanne, Belschak, 2012; Higgs, 2013; Schyns, Schilling, 2013). There are, nonetheless, many styles and theories of leadership that are discussed by both professionals and researchers today. These styles and theories range from servant leadership to authoritarian leadership. Yet as Higgs (2013) shows, in the 21st century, a "sense making" paradigm is needed in order for an appropriate model of leadership to be implemented that "is relevant to the context of complexity and change facing organizations in the early twenty-first century" (p.273). This sense making paradigm is actually a throw-back…