Communication And Perception Processes Communication Models Simplify Essay

Communication and Perception Processes Communication models simplify the descriptions of complex communication interactions

Three models:

Transmission- a linear one-way process in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver

Participants- senders and receivers of messages

Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared

Encoding- turning thoughts into communication

Decoding- turning communication into thoughts

Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel

Barriers / Noise

Environmental noise- physical noise

Semantic noise- noise in encoding process

Interaction- participants alternate positions as senders and receivers of messages

Participants- senders and receivers of messages

Messages- the verbal and non-verbal content being shared

Encoding- turning thoughts into communication

Decoding- turning communication into thoughts

Channels- sensory routes through which messages travel

Feedback- messages sent in response to other messages

Physical context- environmental factors

Psychological context- mental and emotional factors

Transaction- a process in which communicators generate social realities within social, relational, and cultural contexts.


Simultaneous sending and receiving of messages

Social context -- the norms that guide communication

Relational context- the personal history between the communicators

Cultural context- race, gender, nationality, ethnicity, sexual orientation, class, ability and other cultural factors

Summary: Communication as Culture

James Carey discusses John Dewey's work on communication and looks at its complexity

Communication has two contrasting definitions in Western thought:

Transmission- communication is a process whereby messages are transmitted and distributed in space for the control of distance and people

Dominant since the 1920s

Ritual- directed not toward the extension of messages in space but toward the maintenance of society in time; not the act of imparting information but the representation of shared beliefs

Transmission forms of communication can be linked to religious teachings and conversion

Transportation- a form of communication with religious implications

The ritual view of communication is dependent upon culture

Not well established in American scholarship

News is a historic reality, which makes it a form of culture

People both produce their reality and live within the reality that they produce

To study communication is to examine the actual social process wherein significant symbolic forms are created, apprehended, and used

Models of communication are both representations of and representations for communication

Recasting the study of communication in terms of a ritual model will allow for a restorative model that can shape the common culture

Summary: Metatheoretical Perspectives

The different...


t assumptions of positivist (objectivist) and interpretivist paradigms are rooted in controversies that go back to at least the beginning of the 18th century
The scientific outlook underlying the positivist approach is a product of the modern world view

Shift in authority from religion to science

Heaven is no longer humanity ultimate goal

Giambattista Vico.maintained that human nature was not static and unalterable; it had no core or essence that remained the same despite the flow of history.; brought up the notion of cultural relevancy

Romanticism saw the rise of self-expression in communication

Socialists created a critical intellectual culture in opposition to both the liberal perspective of positivism and the conservative perspective of interpretivism

Science and technology, alone, could not provide the foundation for the achievement of Utopian aims

By the 1960s, positivism had faded in popularity

The postpositivist paradigm is characterized by two important continuities with positivism: realism and objectivism.

Realists believe that a world exists outside the individual mind that is independent of perception.

The real world cannot be completely mapped out and fully understood.

As social constructionists (interpretivists) maintain, there are various ways of perceiving the world and social groups do have different ways of establishing their worldviews.

Objectivity remains an ideal

Social psychological theories in communication include: attribution; social judgment; elboration likelihood; action assembly theory; constructivism; planning theory; uncertainty reduction; accommodation; expectancy violation; social penetration; interaction process analysis; and media effects

Interpretive theorists view reality as a social construction; that is, we create reality through communication

Three essentials of critical social science:

Understand taken-for granted systems

Uncover oppressive social conditions

Unity of theory and practice

Positivism and postpositivism

There is one truth


Objectivity is the goal

Seek universal laws



Truth is subjective

Free will

Acknowledge bias and subjectivity

Understand behavior in context


Critical approach

Class, race, and gender have a role in the quest for knowledge

Circumstances greatly impact free will

Theory and research are value driven


Qualitative but can use quantitative measurements

Summary: Big Data

Internet surveillance mines big data

Governmental and private surveillance

Retailers use it to make suggestions and follow buying habits

Government uses it to find terrorists

Use of relational maps to pinpoint suspicious people, using multiple degrees of separation

Big data has created new forms of analysis

Big data has led to the creation of new…

Sources Used in Documents:


Carey, J. (Unk). "A cultural approach to communication." Communication as culture.

Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Northern Illinois University website:

"Communication and Perception Processes." (Unk.) In, A primer on communication studies, pp.

1-21. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from Lardbucket website:
Crawford, K. (2013, April 1). The hidden biases in big data. Retrieved April 11, 2014 from HBR website:
2014 from New York Times website:
Republic website:
22, 2014 from Forbes website:

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