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Community Development Is a Journey Not a Destination
Community development is a course of action, where people not only work to increase their income or to produce more jobs but also helps in managing changes "in their community," and that is a process which is performed by the members of the local community. There is a strong interaction between the two words "community" and "development," which depends on the interaction between people and actions shared by different members of the community to which can only happen by bring changes in the way of communication. Therefore, community development is a journey, which can never end (Flora & Flora, 1993).
Community development is a journey not a destination means this is a continuing process to make innovative changes in the development of community, and resolve community issues by local community members. The basic goal of the community members is to…
Community Development Foundation (2013) Five reasons why community development is a great way to tackle crime. Retrieved from: http://www.cdf.org.uk/5-reasons-why-community-development-is-a-great-way-to-tackle-crime on 2nd May, 2013.
Flora, C.B. & Flora, J.L. (1993) Entrepreneurial Social Infrastructure: A Necessary Ingredient. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Sciences vol.539 p.48-58.
Holton, M. (2007) 10 reasons rural community development is hard to do. Penton Media, Inc.
Okiy, R.B. (2003) Information for rural development: Challenge for Nigerian rural public libraries. Library Review vol.52 no. (3) p.126-131.
The significant natural deposits in rural areas are water, wildlife, woodlands and the environment as a whole. ural areas like Bulilima-mangwe in Matabeleland, Mutoko and Kariba have actually had effective ecological plans that have actually brought to life the Communal Areas Management Program for Indigenous esources (CAMPFIE) which has concentrated on the development of neighborhood organizations particularly in rural areas for the management and sustainable usage of communal wildlife resources, allowing areas and households to benefit financially from wildlife in their locations (UNCSD; 1998). Various other planning measures consist of water planning which enables equal chance to all to gain access to water which promotes social development, accomplish integration in between different sectors such as farming, mining, domestic use and ecological requirements in addition to accomplish sustainability such that future generations can enjoy the resource along with save water for effective use. From the previously mentioned, one can keep in…
Booth, D. (2005) 'Missing Links in the Politics of Development: Learning from the PRSP Experiment'. Working Paper 256. London: Overseas Development Institute.
Chambers R, (2005), Participatory Rural Appraisal, (PRA): Analysis of Experience, World Development.
Cornwall, a. (2004) 'Spaces for transformation? Reflections on issues of power and difference in participation in development'. Chapter 5 in Hickey and Mohan, 2004, pp. 75-91.
Dzinavatonga, N (2008) Community Participation and Project Sustainability in Rural Zimbabwe: the Case of Sangwe Communal Lands, University of Fort Hare, South Africa
Community Organizing Principles
Aboriginal vs. Feminist Principles:
Examining Similarities and Differences
Community development is vital for all humans. No matter what the term utilized, this action has been undertaken in all societies, for it binds us together and keeps us safe from the outside world. Furthermore, community development brings trust and resources that cannot be furthered but a single individual. For this reason, a social contract is necessary and it is for this reason as well that communities has formed and have existed for so long, in a wide variety, and so successfully. The paragraphs below will examine two communities, namely the aboriginal community at-large and the feminist community, and will compare and contrast principles of community development.
Achieving a successful community development practice in today's aboriginal communities, all over the world, has been quite a challenge. n Australia, for example, the trauma inflicted by the…
In order to examine more differences, however, it is first important to look at feminist organizing (FO). FO, according to one author is a "process designed to legitimize the lived experience of marginalized women, include diverse partners, equitably distribute power and responsibility, and foster respectful social connections."[footnoteRef:3] Though this many seem familiar with the poverty and community related issues described in aboriginal communities above, feminist principles and organizing focus on issues in a different way. For instance, another important facet of FO is power sharing, which is not found as clearly in the paragraphs above. This is defined as being "committed to creating balanced power relationships through democratic practices of shared leadership, decision-making, authority, and responsibility."[footnoteRef:4] This is a vital principle that can ensure success in this community. [3: Ponic, P and Frisby, W. (2005). Feminist Organizing as Community Development. Canadian Society for Leisure Studies. Retrieved October 23, from < http://lin.ca/Uploads/cclr11/CCLR11-112.pdf >. ] [4: Feminist Principles (n.a.). (2003). DAWN Ontario. Retrieved October 23, from < http://dawn.thot.net/feminism12.html>.]
It is important to organize as a community, especially if one is marginalized, discriminated against, or if one's community does not achieve full potential. The examples given above, from the aboriginal and feminist communities around the world are very good places to start looking. Though different in many ways, these two communities have one thing in common: striving constantly for success, which is an admirable quality and which should be encouraged by all countries and all governments.
As our business operates in many remote, poor areas, which is ironically where gold is found the majority of the time, our community development and CSR managers travel extensively to these locations and complete planning and implementation programs to define how best the local economic can be improved through infrastructure development. A series of these trips showed that by providing Internet access throughout the local libraries, high school graduate rates increased by over 60%.
The compound effects of this initial investment in infrastructure also led to greater job creation and a more eclectic mix of professions. With greater knowledge flowing throughout the communities, many who had given up on education and jobs were re-invigorated. Gold mining communities tend to attract contract workers and their families that live from boom to bust, and almost become nomadic over time. By investing in the infrastructure of the community to accentuate learning, our company…
Also, when one leading agency will take control of representing the partnership to the international organizations and make the contractual agreements and take control of the incentives to increase the members, that is when the structural functionality will be done along more aware and knowledgeable lines (Dotterweich, 2006).
5. Timeframe (in relationship)
The final elements that is assessed in the 5 lenses analysis is the timeframe between the associations or partnerships. It is no hidden fact that most organizations will be built on a self-perpetuating basis and the members' and partners;' livelihoods will be invested in its success. Also, the members and constituents will be most likely to get impatient as the sustained change will perhaps take up more time than will often be expected - or allotted.
Something like the reformation of a structure within a community is bound to be a long-term contract with time-consuming ventures. One way…
Blank, M.J and Langford, B.H. Strengthening Partnerships: Community School Assessment CheckList, 2000. Taken at http://www.communityschools.org/assessmentnew.pdf
Bruner C. Thinking Collaboratively: Ten Questions and Answers to Help Policy Makers Improve Children's Services.Washington, DC: Education and Human Services Consortium; 1991.
Dotterweich, J.A. (). Building Effective Community Partnerships for Youth Development: Lessons Learned From ACT for Youth. Public Health Management Practice, 2006, November (Suppl), S51-S59
Himmelman, at. On the Theory and Practice of Transformational Collaboration: Collaboration as a Bridge From Social Service to Social Justice. Minneapolis, Minn: The Himmelman Consultation Group; 1995.
The fourth step will be to have each member will then split up and accomplish the tasks assigned to them. Tasks may include items such as placing an ad in a newspaper, putting up posters, talking to twenty people, or making an announcement on the radio.
Once the second round of recruiting is completed then the next step would be to actually hold the first official meeting. The meeting organizer should introduce the group and explain what the group is all about, talk about the history of the group and all of the science it is based on.
The fifth step in the first meeting would to be to announce elections for the official positions. The next step would be to vote on all the official positions, count the ballets, and declare the winners. Also, the person who was elected note taker should begin taking notes.
The sixth step once…
Future of Community Development
Historically, early civilization and communities desired to increase the welfare of its people through collective efforts. More recently, community development trends seek to capitalize on integrative intentional factors to enrich the lives of its residents. Communities are dynamic and challenging social systems that oftentimes require diverse approaches to achieve community goals. Several schools of thought, such as Postmodernism, Aboriginal, and Feminism, have spawned a more integrative approach that accurately represents the community systems as a whole. As a result, the future of community development is evolving into three intentional approaches for effectiveness.
Linkages exist between community infrastructure components: economic base, physical, support, human, and leadership (CDI, 2006). For example, the economic infrastructure necessitates the economy to provide work opportunities and development for residents. Similarly, economic disparity may adversely affect the development of a community. Physical infrastructure entails communities' access to basic resources, such as…
Zautra, A., Hall, J., & Murray, K. (2009). Community Development and Community Resilience: An Integrative Approach. Community Development, 39(3), 130-147.
Vidal, A.C., & Keating, W. (2004). Community Development: Current Issues and Emerging Challenges. Journal of Urban Affairs, 26(2), 125-137. doi:10.1111/j.0735-2166.2004.00191.x
Community Development Institute (CDI). (2006). Trends and issues in community development: Building sustainable communities. Retrieved from http://sustainabledevelopment.osu.edu/educational-resources/cdi-east-2006-trends
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Helping the community is always vital, as is finding out what one's role has been within it to better improve it for later people and instances.
In the study referenced, one can clearly see the cooperation and collaboration between various officials in many instances, for example, there is a clear collaboration between the principal of the local secondary school and the nurses. Also, it is noted that,
"Consideration of the new nursing role scope involved discussing clinical case management with an advanced rural nurse colleague […] and attending a pharmacology workshop to update skills […] activities [which] affirmed an adequate existing knowledge and skill base for safe practice."
uch considerations and courses to update oneself and necessary, and every nurse ought to do this in addition to the steps. It is, of course, very hard sometimes, as workload pressures add up, but it is necessary as well.
Sources Utilized/Referenced in the Text: PLEASE NOTE THAT THESE CITATIONS WERE NOT UTILIZED IN THE TEXT BUT WERE RATHER UTILIZED AS RESEARCH TO FAMILIZARIZE MYSELF WITH THE TOPIC. I HAVE NOT QUOTED DIRECTLY FROM ANY OF THEM AND THUS HAVE NOT PLACED THEM IN THE TEXT. PLEASE FURTHER NOTE THEY ARE ALL IN APA STYLE AS PROVIDED BY THE APA MANUAL OF STYLE.
1. Case study provided.
2. Minto, R. (2006). "The future of practice nursing." Primary Care Nursing. Retrieved June 14, .
3. "Evolving Models of Primary Health Care Nursing Practice." (2005). New Zealand Ministry of Health. Retrieved June 14,
4. "Models of primary health care nursing." (2006). University of Auckland. Retrieved June 14, .
Myrtle Beach, South Carolina faces the economic challenge of attracting high impact investment. Currently, the community is experiencing a critical shortage of developers needed to stimulate economic activity. The developers seem to lack confidence in the community’s ability to re-energize the long-stagnant markets thereby discouraging investments. This essay recommends potential interventions that could usher a new regime of investment at Myrtle Beach.
Two Community Economic Development Interventions Explored
In module Five, we discussed some of the key economic development interventions, which could help address the problems facing Myrtle Beach community. The two most important interventions include export promotion and import substitution. Export promotion means that the community must start creating industries which serve external consumers or which bring in external money (Muro et al. 2007). Attracting external dollars will grow the economy of the community. Some of these industries or companies include mining, manufacturing, agriculture, and services like…
American Planning Association (2003). APA Policy Guide on Public Redevelopment, adopted April 15, 2003.
Community Development Partnership’ Network (CDPN). Shared prosperity, stronger regions: An agenda for rebuilding America’s older core cities. Community Development Partnership’ Network
Community Revitalization Desktop Guide. Pennsylvania Department of Community and Economic Development
Fox, R. & Treuhaft, S. (2005). Before it’s too late! Community control and benefits in land use. Springfield, MA: Institute for Community Economics.
Muro, M., Schneider, J., Warren, D., McLean-Shinaman, E., Sohmer, R. and Forman, B. (2007). Reconnecting Massachusetts gateway cities: Lessons learned and an agenda for renewal. MassINC
The, W. H., & Beverly, A. (September 19, 2016). Building neighborhoods of opportunity. Office of Urban Affairs Blog, 2016-9.
Biodiversity Conservation and Tourism
Tourism Can Help Alleviate Poverty and Conserve Biodiversity
Despite there being a negative outcome from current biodiversity conservation efforts, it is possible for tourism to alleviate poverty. To reduce poverty through tourism, models such transfer of tourism benefits through the donation of part income earned from tourism for development purposes (Nyaupane & Poudel, 2011). The marginalized community can be afforded meaningful and sustainable employment in the biodiversity conservations. To support the economic way of life of the poverty stricken population, it also ideal to provide an avenue for the locals to sell some of their good and services to the tourists. edistribution of the tax revenues from the tourism activities to development of infrastructures surrounding area of the conservation will also serve to reduce poverty
Area That Exhibits the Highest Level of Linkages
Community empowerment comes out as the one with the highest level of linkages…
Nyaupane, G.P., & Poudel, S. (2011). Linkages among biodiversity, livelihood, and tourism. Annals of Tourism Research (2011), doi:10.1016/j.annals.2011.03.006.
Teresa M., Sara D., & Friedrich L. (2010). The sustainability profitability trade-off in tourism. Can it be overcome? . Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 19(2), 155-169.
Community participation is a key ingredient of any powerful community. The life blood (citizens) of the community is pumped by the heart, called as participation. Community participation is a requirement as well as a condition. It is a condition for raising resources and achieving more results. It engages the citizens deeply in work of the development of community. Community participation is about performing activities for the benefits of any community. The partners of the community follow certain rules and posses unique elements. They have a goal to achieve. This topic has various aspects; the purpose of writing this case study is to explore the minor and major aspects of community participation among kids and adults, both. This case study begins with the background of use of community participation as a tool, its strengths and weaknesses, the role of government in expanding this tool and the ways of communication used for…
10. Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, "The Wellbeing of Young Australians: Technical Report," Journal of Australian Research Alliance for Children and Youth, no.7 (2008):117.
11. Chen, S, "The transition from juvenile to adult criminal careers," Crime and Justice Bulletin, New South Wales Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, no. 86 (2005): 9-11.
12. Arnstein, S. "A ladder of citizen participation," Journal of the American Institute of Planners, no. 4 (1969): 216 -- 24.
The "Sport for All" program was initiated by the reformist Labour Government during the 1970s. Its aims and objectives included the increased community involvement of underrepresented groups (such as the unemployed) and the breaking down some of the exiting barriers to participation in sports. To a large extent, those initiatives consisted of financial and other resource investment in large-scale sports facilities. Unfortunately, the comparative absence of sports development structures within those facilities has greatly reduced their ability to provide the benefits envisioned for their communities, notwithstanding the dedication and professional experience of facility managers.
Explain difference in the roles of the Community Sports Development Officer and the traditional Sports Development Officer.
In keeping with the fundamental purpose of community sports development in general, the role of the community sports development officer relates substantially to the use of sport as a means to achieve other (i.e. non-sport-related) objectives. Conversely, the role…
To train those college students who aim to join the teaching profession;
To provide the teachers with a wide spectrum and grounds for exploration so that they can apply their knowledge and ability in a way that boosts the overall educational standards of the institution and the students;
To design a schedule and academic profile that aims to purely heighten the academic and social growth of the students; and to support and carry out studies that will in eventuality help escalate and improve the educational standards at not only the school level but also the college and university levels.
Harkavy (1998) believes that the partnership between the school, community and the university is far more complex and inter-dependent that believed by the masses. In his study he brings forth new theories and explanation of his statement with the help of annals and current studies and examples. He feels…
Anderson, B.D., & Stetler, E.G., & Midle, T. (2006). A case for expanded school-community partnerships in support of positive youth development. National Association of Social Workers, 28(3), 155-163.
Beaumont, J.J. & Hallmark, D.L. (1998). Introduction: School-university partnerships in urban settings. Urban Education, 32(5), 557-560.
Beaumont, J.J. (1998). Administrator and researcher: Conflicting dual roles in directing a school-university partnership. Urban Education, 32(5), 645-660.
Becker, J. (1999). Partnerships with families promote TRIO student achievement. (ERIC Document 432197)
Community esearch and Action
Organizations for Participatory esearch: Society for Community esearch and Action (SCA) and WK Kellogg Foundation (WKKF)
In this comparative analysis of two organizations that are involved in participatory research, a field I am particularly interested in, the Society for Community esearch and Action (SCA) and W.K. Kellogg Foundation (WKKF) can be considered at the forefront in promoting this kind of research in the academic and social communities they work with, respectively. The question-and-answer type of discussion below discusses the organizations' respective Code of Conduct or documents available in their websites that discusses how their members are expected to behave within the organization:
How extensive are the codes from the two organizations/associations?
SCA has published in its website a page dedicated to its Vision-Mission, Goals, and Guiding Concepts, while WKKF has a Code of Ethics that briefly states specific codes of conduct for its members and partners.…
Society for Community Research and Action Official Website: http://www.scra27.org/about
WK Kellogg Foundation Official Website: http://www.wkkf.org/who-we-are/code-of-ethics.aspx
Kellogg Company Official Website: http://www.kelloggs.com/en_US/home.html
Community Space and Youth
There are many benefits for young people when public space is made available, or when citizens work together to both pressure government and work with government and business to establish quality space. Public access should not be denied to young people and as a youth says on page 7 of Another inter, Another Spring (Social Planning Toronto -- SPT), "Schools shouldn't be charging for the use of space." In hitehorse, volunteers proved that with a firm goal in mind, change can be accomplished and young people can be afforded quality space for their activities. The volunteers have worked within the system -- embracing members of the business community and others from government to establish a space for the visual and performing arts (Canadian Case Studies).
Today there is a well-functioning Yukon Arts Centre, open year-round, hosting theatre presentations, music events, and even training for young would-be…
Canadian Case Studies.
Raphael, Dennis, Renwick, Rebecca, Brown, Ivan, Phillips, Sherry, Sehdev, Hersh, and Steinmetz, Brenda. (2001). Community Quality of Life in Low-Income Neighborhoods:
Findings From Two Contrasting Communities in Toronto, Canada. Journal of the Community Development Society, 32(2), 310-333.
Social Planning Toronto. Another Winter, Another Spring: Toronto Youth Speak Out about
community" is "under attack from both political and ideological processes," including postmodernism and globalization (Burkett, 2001, p. 233). At the same time, Burkett continues, there is in the literature / scholarship a new interest in how the idea of "community" fits into the changing world dynamics, including the possibility of placing of "community" in a more wholistic framework, which could open the door to new approaches to community development (233).
hat is impressive about Burkett's research is the idea that in the future community should be thought of as a "verb" and not always looked at as a "noun." As a verb, community implies "action, process and change" and hence community is "not an object which can be 'lost' or 'found'" (237). The concept of "community development also needs to be reexamined and "reinvented," Burkett insists (243). That is because in the past, community development meant a orld Bank investment…
Baines, Donna. (2007). Building Relationships with the Community. In Bridging the Practice-
Activism Divide in Mainstream Social Work. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 50-66.
Baines, Donna. Perspectives on Community Development. In Bridging the Practice-Activism
Divide in Mainstream Social Work. Halifax: Fernwood Publishing, 31-43/
Community Analysis: Columbus, Ohio - Hilltop Area/Franklinton
Identification and History
The Franklinton/Hilltop area of Columbus, Ohio is located on the west side of the greater metropolitan area. Franklinton is in a river valley next to the Scioto iver and the Hilltop area is just west of that on a rise. The Hilltop area is defined as the area between I-70 on the north, the B & O. railway to the east and south, and the I-270 outerbelt to the south and west (Greater Hilltop Area Commission, 2011). Its main street is West Broadstreet, otherwise known as U.S. route 40. There are welcome signs to the area near Mound Street and Hague Avenue. Franklinton is bordered by the Scioto iver on the north and east, Hague Avenue on the east, Stimmel oad and Greenlawn Avenue on the South, and I-70 on the West. The main street in this area is also…
Bush, Bill (2011). Census shows Columbus' growth was uneven. February 11, 2011. The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved from http://www.dispatch.com/content/stories/local/2011/03/11/census-shows-columbus-growth-was-uneven.html
City-data.com (2011a). Franklinton neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Franklinton-Columbus-OH.html
City-data.com (2011b). Greater Hilltop neighborhood in Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from http://www.city-data.com/neighborhood/Greater-Hilltop-Columbus-OH.html
City of Columbus (2003, July). The Franklinton Plan. Department of Development, Planning Division. Retrieved from http://development.columbus.gov/UploadedFiles/Development/Planning_Division/Document_Library/Plans_and_Overlays_Imported_Content/franklinton.pdf
hat makes a community, and how are individuals positioned within a community? hat challenges are part of belonging to a community and what are the challenges associated with membership in a community? Answers to these and other questions will be presented in this paper.
The Literature on Community
Among the key questions addressed in social work is this one: how is your role as a social worker influenced by the community you participate with and live within? Moreover, how does the social worker establish his or her identity within the framework of community and social work?
Lori Thomas and colleagues write in the Journal of Social ork Education that because of the attention paid to the concept and position of a "community organizer" during the last presidential election, it provided social work educators with an opportunity to "revisit and enhance community practice" (Thomas, 2011, p. 337). After all, Thomas…
[Chapter 1] "Importance of Community"
[Chapter 2] "Introduction to Community Development"
Thomas, Lori M., Netting, Ellen F., and O'Connor, Mary Katherine. (2011). A Framework for Teaching Community Practice. Journal of Social Work Education, 47(2), 337-354.
Transcript: Miawpulek First Nation.
The term community is used for the settlements like town, villages and farms. The concept of community is considered as an inclusive one because it promotes collectivism rather than individualism. The term community can be understood in two broad categories. One category deals with its sociological perspective while other deals with its biological perspective. Its sociological perspective will be considered as a domain of the discussion. Community depicts the real picture of the society (Hampton, 2011). Those communities which have the capability of converting the raw information into some particular knowledge are considered as those which can create competitive advantage and contribute towards the development of the nation (Bartle, 2010). The talent of the people also comes forward when they live in community because there are many people who can identify the talent and promote it accordingly. The concept of community has become very much a colonial one. This…
Bartle, P. (2010, September 22). Elements of Community Strength. Retrieved September 13, 2011, from http://cec.vcn.bc.ca/cmp/modules/mea-ele.htm
Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata. "Theorizing Community Development." Journal of the Community Development Society 34.2 (2004): 5+. Questia. Web. 11 Sept. 2011.
Gallant, K., Smale, B., & Arai, S. (2010). Civic Engagement through Mandatory Community Service: Implications of Serious Leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(2), 181+. Retrieved September 11, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5043554643
Hampton, J. (2011, January 31). Principles of Community . In http://www.community4me.com/ . Retrieved September 13, 2011
This discussion will cover community-based business, overview of sustained community- based business, social enterprise, weaknesses of community-based business and success and failures of social enterprises.
A sustainable business can be referred to as a business that is operating within a friendly environment or take part in green activities in ensuring that every products, processes as well as manufacturing activities address the current environmental concerns adequately in as much as the profit margin is maintained. The description can be narrowed to; business that meets the needs of the current world while having no compromise on the future generation's ability so that they meet their own needs; or a process of assessing ways of designing products that are going to take advantage of the recent situations of the environment as well as the degree at which products of the company perform with renewable resources.
Some reports emphasize sustainability to be…
Berkes, F., and I.J. Davidson-Hunt, (2007). Communities and social enterprises in the age of globalization. Journal of Enterprising Communities 1:209-221. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://www.thecommonsjournal.org/index.php/ijc/article/view/206/107
David Kam 2008"Threadless - Community-Based Business" Ezine article. Retrieved April 6, 2012 from http://EzineArticles.com/1340820
Lionais, D. (2002). Mondragon: Experiment in Cooperatives or Community business? Canadian Association of Studies in Cooperatives Annual Conference 2002, Congress of the Social Sciences and Humanities, Toronto, Ontario.
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (1984). Obstacles and aids to the development of community business ventures. Community business ventures and job creation: Local initiatives for employment creation. Paris: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.
Money can help bring about the truly necessary elements, however, and without proper funding the ability to give a good public education to eth hundreds or thousands of students most serve becomes a true practical impossibility. There are numerous elements of providing an education that require an investment of financial resources, and like most things in this world you get what you pay for when it comes to education. A higher price tag doesn't guarantee a successful and high-quality education, but a low price tag all but guarantees a poor one.
One of the ways in which underfunding makes it almost impossible for a good education to be delivered is in the selection of educators. If the overall employment arena can be viewed as a market system, and it is very common and very reasonable to view it in just this manner, then job seekers will tend to seek out…
Denney, John. Colorado Education Underfunded by 'Unconscionable' Billions, Judge Rules. Huffington Post. (2011). Accessed 4 May 2012. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/12/12/colorado-education-underf_n_1143753.html
DiCarlo, Matthew; Johnson, Nate, and Cochran, Pat. Survey and Analysis of Teacher Salary Trends 2007. Washington, DC: American Federation of Teachers, 2007.
Community Safety and Crime eduction: An Evaluation of the ole of New Technology
ecent technological advances have effectively changed the way we conduct business, secure our borders, fight our wars, diagnose diseases, etc. Indeed, thanks to advances in technology, the world as we know it today looks very different from the world of yesteryears. The fact that technology continues to have a significant impact on almost every facet of our lives is undeniable. One of the areas in which recent advances in technology remains most visible is security. Today, unlike two or three decades ago, there are a wide range of hi-tech security devices that have been specifically developed to help in fighting crime. From CCTV cameras to alarm systems to GPS tracking and even software designed to examine online chat records, the fight against crime has surely gone high-tech. It is however important to note that the utilization of…
Alarid, L.F. And Carmen, R.V.D., 2010. Community-Based Corrections. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Barak, G., 2007. Battleground: Criminal Justice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 2012. Latest Crime Stats: Annual Crime in the U.S. Report Released. [online] Available at: < http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2012/october/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released > [Accessed 8 January 2013].
Grolle, S., 2009. CCTV to Prevent Crime? To What Extent Does CCTV Prevent Crime and How Does it Effect the Life in Our Cities. Munich: GRIN Verlag.
It is important, therefore to understand the different frameworks by which the ethics of an act can be evaluated.
The art of citizenship, as identified by Barber (no date), must taught as part of one's education. It also holds that practical experience is the best way to teach the art of citizenship. People learn about the consequences of their actions by attaching themselves to those consequences physically. In my case, the sheer volume of shoes that I had to sort made the point clear -- I was helping people clothe themselves. Every box of children's shoes I sent was a child that I helped to live a better life. e have a responsibility, Barber argues, to understand the implications of our actions on our communities.
The different approaches to ethics can also be studied through practical experience. It is social interaction that illustrates for us the outcomes of our actions,…
Barber, B. (no date). A model program: Education-based community service at Rutgers University. In possession of the author.
CharityNavigator.org (2011). World Vision. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.charitynavigator.org/index.cfm?bay=search.summary&orgid=4768
Daniels College of Business. (2011). Daniels today and tomorrow. University of Denver. Retrieved March 11, 2011 from http://www.daniels.du.edu/aboutus/missionvisionvalues.html
Fukuyama, F. (1999). Social capital and civil society. International Monetary Fund. In possession of the author.
The selective type would enable me to make optimal use of the specific factors that are relevant to my target group. This IOM type would also enable me to identify cases of prior and current drug use, and to refer these to specialized groups and programs for help. The selective type is therefore optimal for the specific sector of society that I want to target.
Best Practice Program
From the "Best Practice Programs," I chose "Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid teroids: The ATLA Program," because it specifically focuses on high school athletes as a target group. While it focuses mostly on one particular kind of drug, I would perhaps modify it to address the specific problems, risks and protective factors of my target group.
The ATLA program focuses on male high school athletes and aims at reducing the risk factors involved in the use of anabolic steroids and other…
CASAT. Best Practice: Athletes Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids: The ATLAS Program
Institute of Medicine. Projects: Adolescent Health Care Services and Models of Care for Treatment, Prevention, and Healthy Development http://www.iom.edu/CMS/12552/35625.aspx
Type I diabetes is usually diagnosed in children and young adults and results from the body's failure to produce insulin. Type 1 account for 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf). The most common form of diabetes is Type II, which accounts for about 90 to 95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes (Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet, www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf). Pre- diabetes is a condition often present prior to the development of Type II diabetes. In pre-diabetes, blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be considered diabetic.
Pre-diabetes does not have to lead to the development of diabetes if a person diagnosed with this condition: Patients who work to control their weight and increase their physical activity can often prevent or delay the onset of diabetes. There are 41 million Americans…
American Diabetics Association. Retrieved 22 March 2010 from http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/diabetes-statistics/
Centers for Disease Control, National Diabetes Fact Sheet.Retrieved 18 March 2010 from www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2003.pdf
Community Oriented Policing
new and comprehensive strategy against crime: Community Policing:
For the purpose of reducing neighborhood crimes, creating a sense of security and reduce fear of crimes among the citizens and improving the quality of life in the community, the community policing strategy will be proved to be the most effective one. The accomplishment of all these objectives to develop a healthy and clean society can be done by combining the efforts of the police department, the members of the community and the local government. "The concept of community policing is not very new however it has gained attention in last few years. It is an approach to make a collaborative effort between the police and the community in order to identify and solve the problems of crime, societal disorder and disturbances. It combines all the element of the community to find out the solutions to the social problems.…
Gordon: Community Policing: Towards the Local Police State?: Law, Order and the Authoritarian State, Open University Press, Milton Keynes, 1987, p. 141.
O'Malley and D. Palmer: Post-Keynesian Policing, Economy and Society: 1996, p 115.
Bright: Crime Prevention: The British Experience: The Politics of Crime Control: Sage, London, 1991. p. 24-63.
MacDonald: Skills and Qualities of Police Leaders Required of Police Leaders Now and in the Future: Federation Press, Sydney, 1995. p. 72
IV. A Multidisciplinary Approach
The work entitled: "Campus Threat Assessment Training: A Multidisciplinary Approach" states that it t has been recommended by the Florida Gubernatorial Task Force for University Campus Safety as follows: "That each college and university develop a multidisciplinary crisis management team, integrating and ensuring communication between the university law enforcement or campus security agency, student affairs, residential housing, counseling center, health center, legal counsel, and any other appropriate campus entities to review individuals and incidents which indicate "at-risk" behavior. The team should facilitate the sharing of information, timely and effective intervention, and a coordinated response when required." (Community Policing Dispatch, 2009) Colleges and universities in the United States are "recognizing the particular applicability of community policing in the campus environment. The community policing model helps to create the framework for a productive relationship between the officers and those whom they serve." (Wilson and Grammich, 2009)…
Campus Threat Assessment Training: A Multidisciplinary Approach (2009) Community Policing Dispatch. Vol. 2 Issue 4 April 2009. Online available at: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/April_2009/campus_threat.htm
Campus Watch Program (nd) College of Lake County, Illinois. Online available at: http://www.clcillinois.edu/depts/sec/CampusWatchBrochure.pdf
Godfrey, Steven (nd) Assessing the Success of Community-Policing (Neighborhood Watch Program) Online available at: http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&q=cache%3AUvBqWMSAHI0J%3Awww.emich.edu%2Fcerns%2Fdownloads%2Fpapers%2FPoliceStaff%2FCommunity%2520Policing%2FAssessing%2520the%2520Success%2520of%2520Community%2520Policing.pdf+colleges+and+universities%3A+community+watch+volunteers&hl=en&gl=us&pli=1
Gummere, Sara Lippincott (2003) Making a Better Place: Planning, Implementing & Managing a Student Volunteer Program. University of Oregon June 2003. Online available at: http://aad.uoregon.edu/icas/project_thesis_pdf/gummere_s.pdf
Community and Social Justice
Since the establishment of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), it has continued to be engaged with human rights as proven by the struggle for decolonization, self-determination, and independence of the African continent. Embodied with this, obviously, is the fact that those fighting and agitating for independence sought human right principles to justify their struggle because colonialism disregarded human rights of the colonized persons. In contrast to the OAU, the African Union (AU) made human rights an explicit component of its obligation as encoded in its Act and human rights in its mainstream programs and activities. However, with no doubt, the current approaches require strengthening with a perspective of creating a holistic, integrated and comprehensive methodology to ensure respect for all human rights.
OAU to AU: An overview
The OAU charter is grounded on the principle of non-interference and state sovereignty. It stipulates the battle for…
Bachir, S. (2009). Individual, Community, and Human Rights: a lesson from Kwasi Wiredu's philosophy of personhood. Transition, Issue 101, 2009, pp. 8-15 (Article) Published by Indiana University Press.
Diagne, S.B. (2010). Islam and open society: Fidelity and movement in the philosophy of Muhammad Iqbal. Dakar: CODESRIA.
Harris, G. (2009). Organization of African Unity. Oxford, England: Clio Press.
Nmehielle, V.O. (2011). The African human rights system: Its laws, practice, and institutions. The Hague [u.a.: Nijhoff.
Adrian Duncan, a night manager at the Y, suggests friendly competitions, such as spelling bees or basketball tournaments, pitting school teams against YMCA teams. The YMCA teams would provide an opportunity for students from different schools and different backgrounds to come together as one.
In challenging economic times, organizations that serve youth and work with volunteers can find sustainable funding difficult. LIVA in particular finds it difficult; the YMCA, with greater name recognition and presumably greater economic resources, did not express that finances are a particular concern.
The current economic climate has been challenging not only for Long Island's non-profits, like LIVA and the YMCA, but for its public school system as well. Long Island property taxes are among the highest in the nation, largely because of the costs of funding public education (umsey, 2010). The schools, under the umbrella of the Education Working Group, are collaborating with the Long…
DiCocco, P. (2011, January). [Interview with Tracy Murtagh, Youth Education Coordinator,
Long Island Volunteer Association].
DiCocco, P. (2011, January). [Interview with Adrian Duncan, Night Manager, Cross Island
As eventually established in the article, the dimensions used in each of the instruments are mutually exclusive, validating that indeed, each instrument has managed to capture at least three or more dimensions critical to the creation and development of the construct, community integration.
Take, for example, the measures used in the CIQ- questionnaire. It included different facets of community integration, as determined in an individual's psychological and social being, such as: independence in domestic activity, participation in social activity, and participation in productive activity (152-3). The CIM, meanwhile, captured in its statements/questions the following measures (dimensions): general integration, social support, occupation, and independent living. These four (4) dimensions in the CIM, in fact, captures in great detail the important elements embedded in the community integration construct. Suffice it to say that the analysis conducted and reported in the article demonstrates that the community integration construct was 'arrived at' in a…
Minnes, P., P. Carlson, M. McColls, M. Nolte, J. Johnston, and K. Buell. (2003). "Community integration: a useful construct, but what does it really mean?" Brain Injury, Vol. 17, No. 2.
Faxed material. Research in Rehabilitation Counseling.
Community Plan of Action
There are many responsibilities that have to be met to satisfy the needs for personal satisfaction, and this may need changes in work schedules and adjustments. The objective here is to judge the possibilities of obtaining satisfaction from three different types of activities that can be conducted -- helping pregnant teenagers, teaching the methods of care to individuals who have recently found out that they are diabetics, and helping the elderly get on with their daily lives. The first of these is the problem of teenage pregnancy, and the best method to help such teenage children in not getting pregnant. Once they are pregnant, then a lot of other social questions come up and the most important of that is that we should not interfere in the personal lives of people. For teenagers not to get pregnant, they require close monitoring. (Teen Pregnancy Prevention)
Lauerman, John. F. "The Prescription Paradox" Brown Alumni Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.brown.edu/Administration/Brown_Alumni_Magazine/99/3-99/features/paradox.html Accessed 10 September, 2005
"Medications and Older People" (September-October, 1997) FDA Consumer Magazine.
Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1997/697_old.html
Accessed 10 September, 2005
Community-Based Policing, Problem-Solving History and esults
The objective of this study is to examine community-based policing, problem-solving history and results. Towards this end, this work will review literature in this area of study.
The Bureau of Justice Assistance document entitled "Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action" states that community policing is, "in essence, a collaboration between the police and the community that identifies and solves community problems." Additionally stated in the Bureau of Justice Assistance work is that problem-solving "is a broad term that implies more than simply the elimination and prevention of crimes. Problem-solving is based on the assumption that 'crime and disorder can be reduced in small geographic areas by carefully studying the characteristics of problems in the area and then applying the appropriate resources…" and on the assumption that "Individuals make choices based on the opportunities presented by the immediate physical and social characteristics of an…
Understanding Community Policing: A Framework for Action. Bureau of Justice Assistance. August 1994. Retrieved from: http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
Philosophy and Principles of Community-Based Policing (2006) SEESAC 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.seesac.org/uploads/studyrep/CBP_ENG_3rd_edition_FINAL.pdf
Eck, John E., and William Spelman, et al. (1983) Problem Solving: Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News. Washington, D.C.: Police Executive Research Forum. 1987:pp.xvi -- xvii. See also Clarke, Ronald V. "Situational Crime Prevention: Its Theoretical Basis and Practical
Scope." Crime and Justice: An Annual Review of Research, eds. Michael Tonry and Norval
Middle school officials have been reporting a rash of mysterious absences recently. Upon examining information given by those officials and corellated by health department staff there appears to be a pattern to the absences. In the month of April there were only minor similarities in time and occurence of these absences in two schools. In contrast, in the month of May there were quite a few absences in two of the schools, Jackson and Truman, but not in the others.
The similarities first appear in the period of late April to early May, but those are few in number. The spike in absences occurs in May, from the 19th to 25th. There are two hypotheses for these occurences. The first hypotheses is that the absences are due to something as simple as the common cold. The second hypotheses for the spike in absenses is food poisoning or a…
Community Health dept. Intranet Kaplan.edu
Food Poisoning. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.livestrong.com/article/17793-common-causes-poisoning/#ixzz1E6UcQg57
West Nile Virus. Retrieved April 28, 2011 from: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile/index.htm
The company's board believed they could not find a replacement for Chaney by the date of his intended departure, and so the directors put the company up for sale. In March 1996, the New York-based investment banking firm Merrill Lynch was hired to generate interest in the company, and a suitable buyer was found, a New York-based private investment firm named Forstmann Little & Co. This company was headed by Theodore Forstmann, a leveraged buyout specialist. Forstmann's firm had more than $20 billion invested in 20 companies and made its living by acquiring companies and selling them for a profit. Forstmann Little acquired Community Health in 1996, and this was the firm's first purchase of a healthcare company. The firm paid $1 billion for Community Health, which at the time operated 38 hospitals in 18 states, and this change in ownership made Community Health a privately held company. In January…
Adams, D. (1996, March 20). Buy materials management systems, or pray you can swim. Health Management Technology, 63-65.
Community Health Systems Inc. scales back on risk (2004, November 23). Ioma.com, retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/BCRC?vrsn=157&locID=longbeach&ste=5&n=25&docNum=A131272544 .
Community Health may seek other deals (2001, February 2). Philadelphia Business Journal, v19 i51, 10.
Career opportunities (2007), retrieved May 29, 2007 at http://www.chs.net/career_openings/corporate.html .
Community Health Statistics for Caddo Parish, Louisiana
Description of Caddo Parish, Louisiana
With about a quarter of a million residents, Caddo Parish, Louisiana is a fairly older community with almost two-thirds of its population aged 25 years or older. Most of the residents of Caddo Parish (82.3%) are high school graduate or higher and 22.3% have a bachelor's degree or higher compared to the national averages of 84.6% and 27.5%, respectively. There are slightly more females than males in Caddo Parish, and median family incomes are slightly lower than the national average at $48,522; per capita income is also slightly less than the national average at $22,323. There are also slightly more whites than blacks (50.3% compared to 46.4%, respectively) in Caddo Parish. ecent relevant statistical data for these and other areas of interest are presented below.
Biophysical Considerations: Caddo Parish
About the Parish of Caddo. (2011). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://
Annual report. (2007, 2010). Caddo Parish Official Web Site. Retrieved from http://www.caddo.
Community Outing isk eport: Touring Old Mesilla
The outing proposed needs to be a four hour tour for a group of 20 individuals with varied backgrounds, experience, and physical abilities. It needs to be an outdoor activity. The people in the group include four people in the 60-70-year range (three males and one female) two females over the age of 75, both of whom have health problems, four children between the ages of six and ten years old (one with chronic asthma and one with a severe peanut allergy), six people between the ages of 35 and 40 (three males and three females; one of the females is pregnant), and four people between the ages of 16 and 18 (2 males and 2 females). Furthermore, while everyone in the tour group is an English speaker, English is not the first language of the elderly members of the group (those age…
ABQ Webmaster, 2011, National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office: Albuquerque, NM.
Available from: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/abq/?n=prephazards
ISO, 2009, ISO 31000: 2009. Available from:
Community Needs Assessment
Recent obsevations in the ti-county aea of ual Iowa have shown a distubing tend of a constant incease in women and young childen in the emegency depatments and sheltes. These women and young childen visits emegency depatments and sheltes with diffeent healthcae concens including undetected female cances, miscaiages, pediatic pediculosis, and symptoms of malnouishment. The county's health executive, Susan, has convened a meeting on behalf of the thee counties to discuss this distubing tend. The emegency sevices diecto noted that most of the women and childen visiting the emegency depatments have no addesses, which is an indicato of them being homeless. While the healthcae executives ecognize the need to addess the healthcae concens of this population, the county's healthcae system has limited esouces and schedule to even help 5% of this population. By the end of the meeting, the attendees agee that thee is need to involve…
reference: A Descriptive Evaluation of Billings, Montana Mothers. Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 1-22.
The Community Tool Box. (2016). Section 4: Segmenting the Market to Reach the Targeted Population. Retrieved from University of Kansas website: http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-of-contents/sustain/social-marketing/reach-targeted-populations/main
Ideally, this would be on designated days in a central location, like a public park, and food stamps could also be used to buy the produce there. This would require a coordinated effort by the mayor, board of health, parks and recreation department, social services and zoning staff to achieve, to ensure that farmers and other small producers were not hampered by red tape in their access to the community. After that, a second step would be to create a public health campaign in the schools, coordinated by the city's board of education, principals, and health education teachers. Schools would work with local vendors to increase the amount of fruit and vegetable-related offerings in school lunches city-wide, vending machines would be banned that sold unhealthy and highly processed snacks, and agreements with fast food companies to sponsor school activities would also be banned. If the school desired to do so,…
This researcher rejects the existence of online communities because computer mediated group discussions cannot possibly meet this definition. Weinreich's view is that anyone with even a basic knowledge of sociology understands that information exchange in no way constitutes a community.
For a cyber-place with an associated computer mediated group to be labeled as a virtual settlement it is necessary for it to meet a minimum set of conditions. These are: (1) a minimum level of interactivity; (2) a variety of communicators; (3) a minimum level of sustained membership; and (4) a virtual common-public-space where a significant portion of interactive computer mediated groups occur (Weinreich, 1997). The notion of interactivity will be shown to be central to virtual settlements. Further, it will be shown that virtual settlements can be defined as a cyber-place that is symbolically delineated by topic of interest and within which a significant proportion of interrelated interactive computer…
Al-Saggaf, Y. & Williamson, K. Online Communities in Saudi Arabia: Evaluating the Impact on Culture Through Online Semi-Structured Interviews. Volume 5,
No. 3, Art. 24 - September 2004
AnchorDesk Staff. (2000). Sign of Trouble: The Problem with E-Signatures.
Retrieved April 9, 2005, from ZDNet AnchorDesk Web site: http://reivews- zdnet.com.com/AnchorDesk/4630-6033_4204767.html?tag=print
According to ohe and his colleagues, though, "Over time, however, there has been a tendency for departments to expand their programs to involve a larger number of officers and to cover wider geographic areas. Besides these special units, a number of police departments also expect all of their officers to embrace the principles of community policing and to undertake at least some community problem-solving activities" (ohe et al., 1996, p. 78).
Constraints to Implementation study by Sadd and Grinc in 1994 concluded that, of all the implementation problems these programs faced, "the most perplexing... was the inability of the police departments to organize and maintain active community involvement in their projects" (p. 442). Hartnett and Skogan suggest that because every community is unique, the implementation problems will likewise be local in nature but there have been some consistent problems reported with implementation across the country that can serve as a…
Bass, S. (2001). Policing space, policing race: Social control imperatives and police discretionary decisions. Social Justice, 28(1), 156.
Comey, J.T., Hartnett, S.M., Kaiser, M., Lovig, J.H., & Skogan, W.G. (1999). On the beat: Police and community problem solving. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Davis, G.J., III, & Gianakis, G.A. (1998). Reinventing or repackaging public services? The case of community-oriented policing. Public Administration Review, 58(6), 485.
Fielding, N. (1995). Community policing. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Local Economic Development Initiatives
THE IMPACT OF LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
The Concept of Sustainable ural Communities in Local Areas
The Concept of ural Development in Local Areas
The Concept of Endogenous Development Initiatives in Local areas
Transformation is key when it comes to local economic development initiatives. Ever since World War II economies in so many different rural areas have been faced with the rising harsh economic circumstances that have been threatening people's everyday existence. A lot of the situations that they are going through have a lot to do with depopulation resulting for the most part from low growth in job opportunities, out-migration, an aging population, underemployment rate, high unemployment and low family income, lack of socio-economic infrastructure ( shopping centers, health centers, schools, power and electric supply water supply,). esearch show that the rural economy in both developed and developing nations countries has also gone through a big…
Andolina, R. (2012). THE VALUES OF WATER: Development cultures and indigenous cultures in highland ecuador. Latin American Research Review, 21(12), 3-26,231,235.
Blignaut, J. & . (2011). The impact of water scarcity on economic development initiatives. Water S.A., 34(12), 123-145.
Cole, M.A. (2009). imits to growth, sustainable development and environmental kuznets curves: An examination of the environmental impact of economic development. . Sustainable Development, 12(4), 23-67.
Gordon, T.M. (2009). Bargaining in the shadow of the ballot box: Causes and consequences of local voter initiatives. Public Choice, 23(14), 45-56.
d.). Even SWOT analysis can help urban planners determine situational variables, approximate risk, and therefore maximize the efficiency of an economic development plan. Issues such as community competitiveness have a strong impact on outside investors, which is another reason why urban planners must take advantage of a wide range of techniques. Urban planners can encourage economic development via a multi-stage process: analysis of need, analysis of risk, and analysis of potential investors.
As it relates to urban planning, sustainable development combines socially and environmentally responsible initiatives. Those initiatives must also be proven to stimulate economic growth and development in the community. Some government incentives may be offered directly for the purposes of creating and implementing sustainable development programs for communities. Land-use planning is one key facet of sustainable urban development. Controlling sprawl, implementing local and regional public transportation systems, and ensuring investments in clean water are other sustainable development issues…
HUD (2009). Economic development programs. Retrieved online: http://www.hud.gov/offices/cpd/economicdevelopment/programs/
"Urban Planning and Sustainable Development," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.h-net.org/announce/show.cgi?ID=157060
World Bank Group (2007). Urban Development. Retrieved online: http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/166856/UCMP/UCMP/step_two_urban_competitiveness.html
This committee works in conjunction with Land Use and Control Committees that oversee the best us of the land within the community. These two committees work together with local special interest groups to help assure that community resources are utilized for the greatest benefit of the people. Different communities call these committees by different names, but the purpose of the committees is always the same.
Anti-discrimination laws make it a crime to discriminate against a person for reasons of their race or religion. However, just because the laws exist does not mean that the problem is nonexistent. Race can be a defining characteristic of a community. Race can be the basis for community culture and community pride. People are often proud of their race and the cultural heritage that it embodies. However, stereotypes often stand in the way of getting fair treatment as far as housing is concerned.
Eisenberg, P. Time to Remove the Rose-Colored Glasses. March/April 2000. ShelterForce Issue
110. http://www.nhi.org/online/issues/110/eisenberg.html . Accessed March 23, 2007.
Hon. Senator Murray. Supporting the Latino Community. 2006. http://murray.senate.gov/latino/index.cfm Accessed March 23, 2007.
Lockyer, B. SHA Battles to Save County Affordable Housing Program. April/May 2005. SAC
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
Social Policies in Community Agencies
Hall (2013) opines that social workers practicing from a community organizing or development perspective try to tackle systemic problems that lead to negative social issues. Social policy attempts to study how society promotes individual and family welfare. Also, the policies tend to be consistent with what the government of the day views to be the most optimal way to help those who are disadvantaged and can't help themselves. A number of these social policies are incorporated in the works of community agencies. They include availing supportive services to the vulnerable members of society and coming up with long-term policies handling care services so as to help this disadvantaged demographic.
Serving Seniors Agency
Social Problems, Social Policies, Target Population and Services Provided
From 1970, Serving Seniors, a program based in San Diego County, has been one of the leading service providers to seniors with…
Herdt, G. (2004). Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture. Sexuality esearch
& Social Policy, 1(1), 39-62. doi:10.1525/srsp.2004.1.1.39
One of the most contentious debates in the field of psychology today is the question of nature vs. nurture, or the extent to which biology influences personal psychology vs. cultural constructs. Although it has fallen out of favor somewhat, there is also the Freudian 'essentialist' argument, which suggests that certain mental models span across cultures. According to the article, "Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture," traditional theories of adolescent development have emphasized the importance of the individual, and focused upon the creation of an adult self as if it existed outside of culture in both the Freudian and biological discourses of psychology. Herdt (2004) conducts a review of Freudian and developmental psychology, to argue for a more culturally-informed understanding of the progression of adolescent development.
In the field, a philosophy of…
Herdt, G. (2004). Sexual development, social oppression, and local culture. Sexuality Research
& Social Policy, 1(1), 39-62. doi:10.1525/srsp.2004.1.1.39
Religions and Development
It is popularly believed that countries, where religion has major influence in governance, tend to develop slower than those where religious beliefs are not a main influence or consideration. This statement uses the cases of poor and traditionally colonized Christian countries in Southeast Asia, like the Philippines; Russia; and the African countries to support the claim.
The four major monotheistic religions in the world all tend to bar changes in one's life. Their faith or lifestyle does not involve material acquisition and is even hostile to it. They are bound to the wiles and stated will and preferences of an unseen Deity. Their happiness consists precisely in denying their own progress and contentment, the furthering of their blessings and potential. India is a supreme example of this. ut this blind adherence to brutal fate and faith is also taken advantage by some opportunists, such as in the…
Baha'i International. 1999. Values, Norms and Poverty: A Consultation on the World Development Report 2000. South Africa
Bohlin, Sue. 2000. A Short Look at Six World Religions. Texas, USA:
Probe Ministries International
Hilton, Ronald. 2001. Religion and Poverty. (accessed 16:03:03). http://www.standford.edu/group/wais/religion_relandpoverty42501.html
Financing for Development in El Salvador
Confronting Debt Challenges
El Salvador is the smallest country in Central America. It has a limited natural resource base. About 60% of the population live in rural areas and over 80% of agricultural producers work farms of less than 3 ha. With social indicators among the worst in Latin America and a per capita income of U.S.$1,580 in 1995, it also ranks as one of the poorer countries in the region.
Since 1992, the World ank has supported the government of El Salvador's strategic effort to consolidate peace and place the country on a path towards sustainable development. Currently, eight loans are under implementation worth a total of U.S.$298 million.
In December 2001, the World ank announced the new assistance strategy up to $270 million to El Salvador over the next three years. This includes a $142.6 million Earthquake Emergency Reconstruction and…
Jonathan Heller and Sarah McFarlane, Self-Development:Creating Hope in El Salvador, El Platenar, El Salvador & Seattle, Washington
Gasper F. Lo Biondo, S.J. And Rafael A. Pleitez, Woodstock Theological Center, 1997
Karen Hansen-Kuhn, The Development GAP in Tom Barry and Martha Honey (ed.) Free Trade Area of the Americas Volume 6, Number 12, April 2001
Development Cooperation and Conflict, http://wbln0018.worldbank.org/external/lac/lac.
graduate Sociology ( Communauty development ) University Lome, Togo West Africa, french speeking country Now serving a class Aviation Boxwain Equipment Navy My plan crossrate (change rate- change job) corpsman I gain experience school Physician assistant I 38 years .
I am currently serving in the United States Navy. However, my ultimate career goal is to become a physician or a physician's assistant when I leave the service. A desire to help others has been the driving force in my life path and education. My passion for service is one of the reasons I joined the military in the first place, combined with the experiences in leadership it offered me. I will continue to serve the public even after I retire through my professional work in healthcare. My long-term goal is to become a health care Foreign Service specialist, merging my knowledge of foreign cultures and healthcare delivery…
Poverty-eduction Programs in Urban Communities
In September, 2001, 149 heads of state and high-ranking officials attending the Millennium Summit in New York unanimously adopted the Millennium Declaration which contained a statement of eight millennium development goals, one of which was to halve global poverty rates by FY 2015. This declaration made poverty-reduction a global agenda and mandated administrators and policymakers at all levels of government to come up with innovative ways of integrating the objectives of poverty-reduction into their respective growth agendas. In its 2001 annual meeting, the IMF challenged policymakers to ensure that their poverty-reduction policies are nationally-owned and that they take input from all the relevant stakeholders. In line with this, the U.S. Census Bureau launched the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) Program to enable it to analyze income and poverty trends in individual counties with the aim of determining the effectiveness of statewide poverty-reduction policy.…
Obadire, O.S., Mudau, M.J., Sarfo-Mensah, P. & Zuwarimwe, J. (2013). Active Role of Stakeholders in the Implementation of Comprehensive Rural Development Programs in South Africa. International Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(13), 273-28
Shah, M. & Naqvi, I.H. (2014). Impact of Internal Stakeholders' Engagement on Project Portfolio Management Success: IT Industry in Lahore, Pakistan. Science International, 26(4), 1777-1782
Silverman, R.M. & Paterson, K.L. (2014). Qualitative Research Methods for Community Development. New York, NY: Routledge
Tersoo, K.S. (2013). An Assessment of National Poverty-Eradication Program on Wealth-Creation in Benue State. The European Journal of Business and Management, 5(19), 28-35
Canadian economic system is a free market system. Most economic development in Canada follows the free market module.
The required paper is to find two articles about two different developments that are alternative to the status quo of the free market. Co-op would be an example of such development. Involving workers in decision making would be another example.
Kennedy, E (2012) Will the Government Co-operate With Canada's Co-ops? Huff Post
Kennedy (2012) explains what a co-op is and describes its benefit to the Canadian government whilst concluding that co-ops are currently undergoing economic difficulties. The article is topical in that the week marked a convention of Co-op leaders from across Canada who was marking the United Nations International Year of Co-operatives, under the theme of "Co-operative Enterprises Build a Better World."
Recent months also saw the Canadian government trying to promote the concept of co-ops by appointing MP Mauril…
Importance of Infrastructure
Infrastructure projects have direct impact on the economic growth of society. esearch shows that most societies have become better stewards of the environment as a result of sustainable infrastructure within the society. For security, the societies can no longer afford to ignore the aging dams, broken water mains, congested roads as well as, deficient bridges. Infrastructure projects developments have enabled the societies to remain a strong and a prosperous (Badre, 2012). This has happened as a result of the society involvement in moving forward with vision, community development, leadership and support. It is therefore, recommended for a community to work together in order to develop a path forward as they start the first crucial steps.
Importance of infrastructure projects to the development of society.
The objective of infrastructure projects is to ensure sustainable development of society. Globally, many states tend to consider roads and dams…
Badre, B. (2012). The Importance of Infrastructure for Economic Growth, Jobs, and Access to Markets and Services in Solomon Islands. The Importance of Infrastructure for Economic Growth, Jobs, and Access to Markets and Services in Solomon Islands. Retrieved May 17, 2014, from http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/opinion/2014/02/28/the-importance-of-infrastructure-for-economic-growth-jobs-and-access-to-markets-and-services-in-solomon-islands
Spencer, N. (2011). Financing Road Infrastructure in Jamaica. Financing Road Infrastructure in Jamaica. Retrieved May 17, 2014, from http://ccmfuwi.org/files/publications/conference/956.pdf
The visits would also include the distribution of basic food items to help alleviate the food shortages and associated hunger in the area. The country is one that has a high reliance on agriculture and subsistence farming, but with the recent civil war the poverty is exacerbated with a need to recover. Recovery is needed for both production and the access to funds that may be realized from the sale of agricultural goods. This is an ongoing issue which one is constantly aware of when handing out food, knowing it is a short-term solution to a long-term problem. However other projects do exist which are seeking to address this issues.
The visits also involve medical checks, with doctors and healthcare workers visiting people in their homes to help with medical issues to carry out checks and to give advice. This was also a learning experience, seeing the range of medical…
My visit to this location was extremely educational as I had a chance to witness firsthand how mental illness can be treated in this type of environment. I spoke to many people while there, including doctors, nurses, counselors and patients. The experience was informational but I am not convinced that this place is operating at its fullest potential.
My experience sitting in on a group therapy session was very enlightening. I heard many troubled stories and immediately became grateful for my personal upbringing and development. Hearing stories of abuse and reckless behavior had a profound impact on the way I see mental illness and can now appreciate the many complexities that accompany treating these wayward youths. The lead counselor for these sessions, was a bit overwhelmed and often lost control of the session while some of the boys demonstrated rude and unstable behavior. Perhaps this is normal for this type…
Its main goals are to examine and evaluate the main areas requiring improvements. The technology transfer programs are the key information sources, which enables the veteran access the latest technologies that can lead to improvement of their livelihood standards. The veteran association other goal is to ensure automated and web-enabled activities. This will enable the association allow online submission of ids rather than uploads from emails hence reducing the usage of papers.
According to 2000 census, 12% of the U.S. population is African-American. This figure may be even less because there are some homeless and incarcerated who are not inclusive in the census report. The Africa American veterans mostly affected by depression though most of them believe is a personal weakness. They represent among the veterans who served in the homeless programs making about 11.4%of the veteran population. These veterans make up 35.1%of the homeless veteran population and 18.9%of the…
USDVA, (2013). U.S. Department of Veteran affairs.
Retrieved from http://www.northflorida.va.gov/services/homeless/
Department of Veterans Affairs Office of Research and Development of Office Technology
Transfer Retrieved from http://www.nist.gov/tpo/publications/upload/VA-Tech-Transfer-Plan.pdf
Community Contributes to Your Identified Problem and Resolving the Issue
Childhood obesity is a common problem. It has a relationship with short and long-term adverse outcomes. It affects ethnic/racial minority and children who are deprived economically and disproportionately. There is no doubt that it is a great threat to public health. Multi-sector and multilevel prevention and management strategies are the best touted for resolving the problem (Taveras, et al., 2015).
Obesity and overweight rates among black and Latino girls in high school and women in Boston are alarmingly high. Black men have been reported to indicate the highest rates of obesity. Although there is no data on the number of children affected in Boston, the national statistics show that Latino and black children show significantly high rates at a relatively early age. It is expected that the trend is the same in Boston city. The populations highlighted not only demonstrate…
The children's information was controlled for Medicaid, ethnicity, and other factors. Once those things were adjusted for, children in the Right Start program were fifty-three percent more likely to have been immunized on time and thoroughly than the control children who were not part of the Right Start initiative. The main conclusion reached was that children have a much better chance of being immunized if their parents are educated regarding their options and the importance of the vaccinations that their children will be receiving.
5. What were the limitations of this study in regards to its applicability to the general population?
Even though this study had a lot of great information regarding immunizations and how programs to educate parents can improve the number of children who are properly immunized and therefore reduce disease, this was targeted to a very specific group of people in specific zip codes in one community.…
6. Examine the details of this research study and propose an alternative research study design that would address the same research goals of this study and explain how the alternative study design would answer the research questions.
While this study worked well, there are other ways to address the issue. If a large sample population or a more generalized one was needed, the study could have looked at past literature. The rationale for the study at that point would be to look at a very large sample to see whether the people who live in this country in all kinds of age, ethnic, and income groups are having their children immunized, or whether there are specific factors that keep people from having their children cared for in this way. The downside to doing this is that the methodology would have been a bit more subjective because there might not have been statistics that could have been collected so easily. There would have been a certain amount of guesswork when it came to why certain people did or did not immunize their children, which could have skewed the study.
Findley et. al. (2008). Effectiveness of a community coalition for improving child vaccination rates in New York city. American Journal of Public Health, 98(11), 1959.
Neighborhood as Community: Scarsdale, New York
With a per capita income of $113,000, a median household income of $230,750, a median sales price of a single-family home of $1.34 million and one of the leading school districts in the state, the Village of Scarsdale is a relatively exclusive suburb of New York City that has a poverty level that even other affluent communities envy. Using an ecosystems perspective, this paper provides a review of the literature as well as online government resources to describe the demographics, available social networks, income and wealth distribution, an assessment of the educational resources, housing, health and welfare issues, as well as formal and informal control systems. An ecosystems perspective merges general systems theory and ecology to provide insights concerning the interactions between individuals and various aspects of their social environment (Tangenberg, 2009) to determine adaptations of the neighborhood over time, the interface of the…
Brenner, E. (2008, May 18). Houses even bigger, scores way above average. The New York
Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/18/realestate/18livi.html ?
History of Scarsdale. (2013). Village of Scarsdale. Retrieved from http://www.scarsdale.com/
(Managing Results: Initiatives in Select American Cities, 1995, p.1) When asked as to what types of performance measures actually exist, Mr. Waldrop summarized the performance measures according to the type of measure, a description of the measures and an example for each. These have been arranged into a chart and are listed in the following labeled Figure 1.
Types of Measure/Description/Examples
Type of Measure
Resources used to carry out a program over a given period of time
Number of full-time employees
Amount of materials used
Amount of work accomplished or service provided over a given period of time
Number of applicants processed
Number of claims paid
Cost per unit of output
Cost per client served
Cost per square mile of grass cut
Impact or quality or work accomplished or services provided
Percent reduction in teen
Customer satisfaction with…
4 City Priorities (2009) The City of Atlanta's Vision. City of Atlanta. 2009. Online available at: http://apps.atlantaga.gov/citydir/dpcd/cdp/chapter_4.html
Financials & Measurement (2009) Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) Online available at: http://www.mep.org/financials.html
Johnson-Sirleaf, Ellen (2008) Principles of Total Quality Management. 10 June 2008. Online available at: http://ivythesis.typepad.com/term_paper_topics/2008/06/principles-of-t.html
Managing Results: Initiatives in Select American Cities (1995) Government Information Library. 1995 August, Online available at: http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/library/fedstat/24e6.html
community (Times Square NY) and how it was addressed with community policing. How did police respond? Was it successful? Why?
Times Square has notoriety for serious crimes, shady and sleazy business establishments and hookers and many illegal activities, not only at present but from the time the Square came to be. In fact recently the former President Bill Clinton while remarking on the changes to a positive side in the area for the last twenty years did remark that in his teens somewhere in 1964 -- there were violent crimes and the President remarked -- "I saw a hooker approach a man in a gray flannel suit, pretty heavy stuff for a guy from Arkansas." (CNN, 2011)
Times Square was the centre point of crime and nefarious activities until recently. In 1990s the steps taken by the then City Mayor udy Giuliani was instrumental in bringing about the modernity by…
CNN. (2011) "Clinton remembers old Times Square: crime, hookers"
CNN Political Unit.
Center For Court Innovation. (2012) "Midtown Community Court Overview" Retrieved 12
August, 2012 from http://www.courtinnovation.org/project/midtown-community-court