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Partnership is not an option since there is only one principle. A corporation is too complicated a structure, since it necessitates directors, agents and shareholders. The company is essentially just one person.
Sole proprietorship has some advantages. It is the cheapest and easiest type of company to set up. There are many disadvantages, however. These include the fact that the owner's personal assets are on the table if the business incurs losses. The owner is also personally liable for legal matters, even if conducted strictly on company business. In that sense, there is little separation between the company and the individual.
That is not worth the ease of setting up that business. The limited liability company, however, provides the opportunity to capture the benefits of both partnerships and corporations. The LLC provides that the owner's personal assets are protected from use to pay company bills. This provides me with insulation…
Federal riters' Project 92)
Engineering concerns finally won the day and even today there are still structural concerns about the location of the monument so close to sea level only 40 feet up from banks of the Potomac River. There are still times when portions of the park are under water and occasionally the monument area itself is inundated with flooding. The footing was difficult to locate, for a building project of its weight and size.
Federal riters' Project 18) There were times in the interim of the twenty years it took to complete where many believed it was a dead project.
Federal riters' Project 53) Though cornerstone for the monument had been laid many years before (1884) and the structure was begun as a shaft the new designer engineer created an Egyptian style obelisk that lacked any external ornamentation,
Federal riters' Project 322) at his desire and the…
Federal Writers' Project. Washington, City and Capital: Federal Writers' Project, Works Progress Administration. Washington, 1937. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1937.
Reiter, Bill. "Monumental Restoration." Insight on the News 17 Aug. 1998: 41.
Senie, Harriet F., and Sally Webster, eds. Critical Issues in Public Art: Content, Context, and Controversy. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992.
History African Diaspora (Subject)- Fredrick Douglass Ambassor Hatti. (Objectives )-Two primary sources Two secondary sources, Outline, Structure, Thesis, Arugument, Motives, Primaries a Tittle.
Frederick Douglass and the African Diaspora
Africa is presently perceived as a land of origin by millions of people from around the world, as numerous Africans have either willingly or unwillingly left their homes throughout time. Although the term African Diaspora generally refers to a series of Africans who left their home continent from antiquity and until the present day, it is widely used to relate to Africans who descend from individuals who were forcefully brought to the American continent during the Atlantic slave trade. In spite of the fact that they were persecuted and forced to work as slaves in the Americas, some Africans actually rose against their oppressors and are presently remembered as some of the most reputable individuals in all of history.
Gomez, William Angelo, Reversing Sail: A History Of The African Diaspora, (Cambridge University Press, 2005)
McFeely, William S. Frederick Douglass (New York W.W. Norton, 1991)
"Lecture on Haiti," Retrieved March 3, 2012, from the Webster University Website: http://www.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti/history/1844-1915/douglass.htm
The Liberator, 27 March 1846; Reprinted in Philip Foner, ed., Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass, vol. 1 (New York: International Publishers, 1950), p. 138.
History Of Corrections
Humankind, all through recorded history, has actually created innovative methods to "punish" their own kind for legitimate and even apparent transgressions. Amongst tribal communities as well as in much more developed cultures, this kind of punishment may include, amongst various other tortures, lashes, branding, drowning, suffocation, executions, mutilation, as well as banishment (which within faraway areas had been equivalent to the dying sentence). The degree related to the punishment frequently relied on the actual wealth and standing of the offended individual and also the culprit. Individuals charged or determined guilty and those who had been more potent had been frequently permitted to make amends simply by recompensing the sufferer or their family members, whilst people who had been less well off as well as lower status had been prone to endure some kind of physical penalties. However regardless of the strategy, and also for no matter what…
Johnson, R. 2002. Hard Time: Understanding and Reforming the Prison. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
King, R., and M. Mauer. 2002. State Sentencing and Corrections Policy in an Era of Fiscal Restraint. Washington, DC: Sentencing Project.
King, D., 2011. Changes In Community Corrections: Implications For Staff And Programs. Available at: http://aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/proceedings/11/king.pdf
Lin, A.C. 2000. Reform in the Making: The Implementation of Social Policy in Prison. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
The History of Resurrection Tradition
According to Merriam-ebster dictionary, the word 'resurrection' stands for "the state of one risen from the dead." Generally, resurrection refers to restoration to life of the person who is clinically dead.
Concept of resurrection has been in existence in one form or the other since the very birth of the first human being in this planet. Over the centuries, different religions and mythological schools of thought have defined and taken the tradition of resurrection in different ways; therefore, it is always hard to find any commonly agreed fact about it.
For further clarification, it will be necessary to point out that resurrection stands apart from the concepts of 'immortality of soul' and 'resuscitation' as it involves the rebirth of both body and soul (Harrington).
It will not be wrong to say that the tradition of resurrection is closely associated with the philosophy of…
Harrington, D., J. Jesus: A Historical Portrait. Cincinnati, OH: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2007.
Inplainsite.org. 9 October 2011
Keathley, J.H."The Resurrection of Jesus Christ."09 October 2011 <
These Gods subjugated humans in a way that never happened in other primitive river-valley cultures yet seemed to follow a political will as the concept evolved. This finally culminates in the marriage between the God of Above, Nergal, lord of Summer, Growth and Heat; and the Goodness of the Below, Ereshkigal, queen of the underworld, inter, the Cold, and of Death. e now have opposites, attracted, and yet polarized in deed, action, and even interpretation (Messadie, 1996, 90-7).
This conception then seems to flow mythologically out of the Middle East into other cultures; we have the trickster, the shadow, the evil one, and even the unknown. However, considering the geographical location of the Abrahamic religions, it is logical that there would be a cross-over from the archetype that would manifest itself within these religious traditions.
Satan in Judaism -- in traditional Judaic thought, there is no conception of the Devil…
Jews Believe in the Satan, and Not in the Devil. (2003, March). Retrieved November 2010, from What Jews Believe: http://whatjewsbelieve.org/explanation7.html
Anderson, W. (2010). Dante the Maker. Brooklyn, NY: S4N Books.
Bowker, J. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Catchpool, D. (2002). The Koran vs. Genesis. Creation, 24(2), 46-51.
It consists a series of successively smaller platforms which lifted to a height of about 64 feet, and was constructed with a solid core of mud-brick covered by a thick skin of burnt-brick to guard it from the forces of nature (Burney). The Ziggurat's corners are oriented to the compass points, with walls sloping slightly inwards (Molleson and Hodgson) .
The Ziggurat of Ur was a component of a temple building complex that serviced the urban center as an administrative hub. Additionally, in terms of spirituality, it was believed to be the site on earth that the moon god Nanna (the patron deity of Ur) had selected to inhabit. Nanna was shown as a wise and unfathomable old man, complete with a flowing beard and four horns in number. A single shrine crowned the summit of the ziggurat (Faiella). This was purportedly the bedchamber of the god, and was occupied…
It offers a good theory as it emphasizes on the production and export of those items for which a country possesses a comparative advantage. Furthermore, through its focus on the reduction of taxes and tariffs in international trade and the adherent practices, the theory of comparative costs has set the basis for the contemporaneous processes of market liberalization and globalization.
But the theory has not been spared from criticism. Oumar Bouare states that "the market price of a commodity does not converge toward its natural price. (Then) the outcome of complete specialization in icardo's framework locks third world and developing countries out of industrialization; and free trade could destroy the industrial base of a country, which in the long run could generate more wealth for the country than an imported product. This might also lock the country out of industrialization." b) in 1848, utilitarian economist John Stuart Mill wrote the…
Bancroft, S., Clough, C.W., Economic History of Europe, Heath, 1952
Berdell, J.F., Adam Smith and the ambiguity of nations, Review of Social Economy, Volume 56, 1998
Bouare, O., an Evaluation of David Ricardo's Theory of Comparative Costs: Direct and Indirect Critiques, Retrieved from Policy Innovations
http://www.policyinnovations.org/ideas/policy_library/data/01445on March 6, 2008
ather than continue the process that began in the first two books, in which the osicrucian Order first announced themselves, gave their history, and then responded to certain criticisms while making their position within Christian theology clearer, the Chymical Wedding can almost be seen as the first instance of literature written within the osicrucian tradition, rather than as part of its manifesto-like founding documents, because it does not seek to explain the history of osicrucianism, but rather explicate how the teachings and underlying beliefs of osicrucianism contribute to and alter one's interpretation of Christian scripture (Williamson 17; Dickson 760). Specifically, one can see a distinct connection between the Chymical Wedding and seventeenth-century attempts to expand Protestantism throughout Europe. The Chymical Wedding can be seen as a the most explicit attempt on the part of osicrucians and osicrucian supporters to wed the new (or newly revealed) society to the larger religious…
Andreae, Johann. The Chymical Wedding of Christian Rosenkreutz. N/a: Benjamin Rowe, 2000.
Case, Paul F. The True and Invisible Rosicrucian Order: An Interpretation of the Rosicrucian
Allegory and an Explanation of the Ten Rosicrucian Grades. York Beach, Me: S. Weiser,
Too little, for what matters is that he knows he is being watched and too much, because he has no need in fact of being so (Alford, 2000).
Bentham laid down the principle that power should be visible and unverifiable. Visible in that the inmate would constantly have before him the tall outline of the central tower from which he was watched. Unverifiable in that the inmate must never know whether he is being looked at or not, but he must be sure that there is always the possibility. In order to make the attendance or nonattendance of the guard unverifiable, so that the prisoners, in their cells, cannot even see a shadow, Bentham visualized not only venetian blinds on the windows of the central observation hall, but, on the inside, partitions that intersected the hall at right angles and, zigzag opening instead of doors. For even the slightest noise,…
Alford, C.F. 2000, "What would it matter if everything Foucault said about prison were wrong? Discipline and Punish after twenty years," Theory and Society, vol. 29, no. 1,
Barratt, E. 2002, "Foucault, foucauldianism and human resource management," Personnel
Review, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 189-204.
This was racism at its worst. The enslaved Africans and the native Indians began to get closer to each other, and started to share certain ethic traditions between themselves, and soon, they started to marry each other, especially because of the disproportionate number of African males to females. A number of red-black people began to emerge from these unions, and these people formed traditions of their own. However, slavery continued to flourish and all these people were technically termed slaves. Having decided to take maters into their own hands to protest against the indignities being perpetrated against them in the name of slavery, Africans, Cherokees or Native Americans, and also Irish workers put up small acts of resistance and revolutions. (Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789)
In the year 1790, in the United States of America, a census revealed that about 19% of the entire population of…
Ainslie, Ricardo; Brabeck, Kalina. Race Murder and Community Trauma: Psychoanalysis and Ethnography in Exploring the Impact of the Killing of James Byrd in Jasper, Texas. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture and Society. Vol. 8; No: 1; 2003; pp: 114-116
Allen, Annette M; Brackett, Kimberly P; Marcus, Ann; Mullins, Larry C; Pruett, Daniel W; Tang, Zongli. Perceptions of Racism on Campus. College Student Journal. Vol. 37; No: 1; 2003; pp: 20-24
Bynon, Gai; Cleary, Felicity; Hamilton, Alex; Maller, Jerome; Melior, David; Watson, Lara. The Perception of Racism in ambiguous scenarios. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. Vol. 27; No: 2; 2001; pp: 46-52
Chronology on the History of Slavery 1619 to 1789. Retrieved at http://www.innercity.org/holt/chron_1790_1829.html . Accessed on 28 June, 2005
History Of Communication Timeline
TIMELINE: HITORY OF COMMUNICATION
(with special reference to the development of the motorcycle)
First paleolithing "petroglyphs" and written symbols. This is important in the history of communication because it marks the first time humans left a recorded form of communication. Also, these written symbols became the ultimate source of later alphabets.
Cave paintings at Lascaux show early representational art. This is important in the history of communication because the caves depict over 2000 figures, including abstract symbols. More recent research suggests these may record astronomical information.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Lascaux."
First surviving umerian pictograms demonstrate a primitive form of record keeping. This is important in the history of communication because pictograms, together with ideograms, represent a primitive form of writing, in which a symbol either means what it looks like, or represents a single idea.
OURCE: Wikipedia, "Pictogram."
St. Hubbins, David and Tufnel, Nigel. "Stonehenge." London: Polymer, 1984.
Thompson, Hunter S. Hell's Angels. New York: Modern Library,1966.
These principles were those of reciprocity, reallocation and house holding, and they were embedded in the way the civil and politic societies interacted. The end of the century however brought by the first signs of disembeddment and they revolved around the transformation of land and labor force into commodities. For the European countries for instance, a disembedded economy referred also to the territorial expansion of the companies. In this understanding then, the developed European countries had expanded their operations and moved to wider markets, where they increased their access to customers and also their revenues. And not only that they began to sell their products to larger audiences, but they also began to acquire cheaper commodities from the foreign regions; they employed cheaper workforce in the region; and operations of international transfer of capital begun to emerge.
Ultimately then, an embedded economy is generally an enclosed and protectionist one, and…
Cumberpatch, C.G., Some Observations on the Concept of 'Embedded' and 'Disembedded' Economies in Archaeological Discourse, Assemblage Journal of Archeology, 2001
Halperin, S., War and Social Change in Modern Europe: The Great Transformation Revised, Cambridge University Press, 2004
Aristotle's View on Wealth Acquisition, Philosophy 101, http://www.philosophy-101.com/2007/06/29/aristotles-view-on-wealth-acquisition/last accessed on February 4, 2009
Basic Characteristics of Capitalism, Business Book Mall, http://www.businessbookmall.com/Economics_3_Basic_Characteristics_of_Capitalism.html. Ast accessed on February 4, 2009
They displayed great knowledge of architecture, and their building style had been noteworthy.
As the Roman Empire began to take shape, Romans built several wonderful architectural structures for their time. They built city walls, fortifications, temples, bridges, and pavements. Most of the structures were built using large stones which were gently cut. Romans are also among the first nations in the world to have built a functional sewer system. Their remaining of their architectural structures withstood the passing of millennia and survived till today. Christian churches and even apartments buildings were built over Roman temples and other public buildings with some of them, like the Theater of Marcellus being functional even today.
1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "orld Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.
2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,…
1 H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus 1963. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill.
2. Hamlin, Talbot 1940 "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons,
H.R. Hitchcock, Seton Lloyd, David Talbot Rice, Norbert Lynton, Andrew Boyd, Andrew Carden, Philip Rawson, John Jacobus. "World Architecture: An Illustrated History." McGraw-Hill, 1963.
Talbot Hamlin. "Architecture through the Ages." G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1940.
Michael Cooley (1972) has suggested that the drawing office has been downgraded in importance as a result of the finer division of labor in engineering that began in the 1930s. He described how the creative design element had become increasingly separated from the work of executing drawings. The fragmentation of shop floor jobs was, according to Cooley, paralleled by fragmentation of the job of the designer/drafter. Until the 1930s, drafters in ritain were responsible for designing a component, stress testing it, selecting materials for it, writing the specifications, and liaising with the shop floor and customers. ut starting in the 1930s, these functions were progressively broken down into separate jobs and taken over by various specialists, such as stress testers, metallurgists, tribologists, methods and planning engineers, and customer liaison engineers, leaving drafters with only the job of drawing (3D Systems Corporation, 2001).
In effect, in the ritain of the 1930s,…
3D Systems Corporation. 2001, 3D Systems. Retrieved Nov 3, 2011. from the World Wide Web: www.3dsystems.com/
Brown, Richard D. 2009, Knowledge Is Power: The Diffusion of Information in Early America, 1700 -- 1865. New York: Oxford University Press.
Chandler, Alfred D. Jr., 1977, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Cooley M. 1972, Computer-Aided Design-Its Nature and Implications. Richmond, Surrey: AUEW/TASS.
It's oeing. Starting from their first aircraft models oeing &W and Douglas DT/C-1 and up to the modern airfreight oeing 747-400, company oeing and oeing-related enterprises had been always on the frontier of air cargo industry, and nowadays oeing airfreights stand for 90% of commercial air cargo companies.
Everything started with mail delivery. Today lots of us associate aircrafts with people transportation, but primary oeing was responsible only for cargo.
The company was started in 1916, when ill oeing and his partner George Westervelt made a first model of future civil aviation's world leader- jet &W. &W had later become the first plane that was delivering cargo and mail to New Zealand. Three years later ill oeing and Eddie Hubbard delivered 60 letters from Vancouver, Canada to Seattle, which became the first event in the history of international air shipping.
Nearly at the same time, company Douglas Aircraft had signed…
Allaz, Camille The history of Air cargo and airmail Christopher Foyle Publishing, 2002
IATA International Traffic Statistics: December 2004 and Year-end 2004 available on web: http://www.iata.org/pressroom/industry_stats/2005-01-31-01.htm
Boeing History articles from www.boeing.com
The mistake occurred when enthusiasts tried to use those data for other purposes such as 'strategic product decisions.' The average cost of production never could, and never will, be relevant for those classes of decisions where only the change in total costs and revenues are relevant. That is, the rough, average post calculations provided a guide for pricing unique one-off products or services, but were of no use for the other purposes (emphasis added) (Garner & Tsuji, 1995, p. 52).
The strategic product decision function of management accounting described above is based on the strategic management accounting method; this approach serves to cause change in the management framework through various accounting devices designed to adapt effectively to the constantly changing external business environment (Garner & Tsuji, 1995). Strategic management accounting, though, should be managed by production people (including sales and engineering), rather than by accounting staff (Garner & Tsuji, 1995).…
Anthony, R.N. (2003, January 1). Management accounting: a personal history. Journal of Management Accounting Research, 15, 249.
Black, T., & Gallagher, L. (1999). Are physical capacity constraints relevant?: Applying finance-economics theory to a management accounting misconception. Australian Journal of Management, 24(2), 143.
Cooper R., & Kaplan, R.S. (1990, February). Measure costs right: Make the right decision. CPA Journal, 25.
Cortada, J.W. (2004). The digital hand: How computers changed the work of American manufacturing, transportation, and retail industries. New York: Oxford University Press.
History Of Nursing Science
Nursing has existed in some for as long as humans have roamed the earth. The modern era of nursing began with the emergence of Florence Nightingale during the Crimean War in the 1850's. The daughter of affluent parents, Nightingale greatly accelerated the development of nursing and is widely acknowledged as the most important person in the history of nursing. Nursing science translates to the profession itself in the form of best practices that have been formulated, debated, reviewed and analyzed so as to verify the validity of nursing theories before they are put into practice.
As is the case with many nurses and others who dedicate their lives to the care of others, Nightingale was driven largely by her spirituality and religious convictions. Many people perceive there to be an inherent conflict between religion and science but Nightingale did not believe this to be…
George, J.B. (2011). Nursing theories, the base for professional nursing practice. (6 ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
McKenna, H. (1998). Nursing theories and models. Taylor & Francis.
Parker, M.E., & Smith, M.C. (2010). Nursing theories and nursing practice. (3 ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Co.
Walker, L.O., & Avant, K.C. (2011). Strategies for theory construction in nursing. (5 ed.). New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
In addition, he argued that human behavior is mainly based on the pursuit of material profits.
According to Smith the society could develop only in case of existence of freedom and equality. These rational principles according to Smith could stimulate objective development of society and development of economical relations. His philosophical and moral ideas of course influenced his political economy. Smith's political economy based on freedom of competition and Smith principles of political economy based on the natural needs of developing capitalist society of Great Britain in many respects defined the economical policies of the major 19th century capitalist states.
3. Provide a sense of the historical context and the nature of the main debates in political economy during the first quarter of the 19th Century in Britain and how these debates shaped the complexation of early classical economic thought.
At the beginning of the nineteenth century there still existed…
History Of Modern American Nursing
When the Crimean War ended in 1856, patient mortality at British hospitals was forty-two percent. Despite the fact that Joseph Lister introduced the concept of antisepsis as early as 1867, the germ theory of disease would not be adopted for another several decades. Nevertheless, already by the end of the American Civil War in 1865, Union hospitals had treated over one million battlefield casualties, with only eight percent mortality. Mainly, historians credit Florence Nightengale, whose campaign for cleanliness and hygiene in hospitals fortuitously predated the crucial implementation of medical antisepsis in modern medicine (Starr, 1984).
Women in Early American Medicine:
Throughout the first half of the nineteenth century, admission to formal medical education was largely restricted to males until Quakers in Philadelphia founded the Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania in 1850. While more than a dozen women's medical schools were subsequently founded by the turn…
Caplan, A.L., Engelhardt, H.T., McCartney, J.J. Eds. (1981) Concepts of Health and Disease: Interdisciplinary Perspectives.
Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley
Starr, P. (1984) The Social Transformation of American Medicine.
New York: Basic Books
History Of the Media in America
Media America, a History
Media incorporates mediums such as advertisements, magazines, newspapers, radio, television, and now -- the Internet. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, it was only in the 1920s that people began to actually talk about 'the media,' and a generation later, in the 1950s, of a 'communication revolution,' however, the art of oral and written communication was actually quite important in ancient Greece and ome. It was studied in the Middle Ages, and with greater enthusiasm in the enaissance.
Until Johannes Gutenberg invention of the moveable type in 1450, information was spread primarily orally. That is, it was town criers, ministers from the pulpit, and bartenders who disseminated information or news. "Town criers, for example, broadcast royal edicts, police regulations, and important community events, such as births, marriages of princes, war news, and treaties of peace or alliance."
Less than a…
Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American
Independence. Oxford University Press, 2005.
Briggs, Asa. Social History of the Media: From Gutenberg to the Internet. Polity; 3rd
It was founded on the knowledge that spurred during the Renaissance and has placed significance on rational thought and cultural emphasis, which was not present before.
Furthermore, with regards to the popularity of Baroque during this period, it is important to note that this style was able to combine the principles of science and the philosophies and doctrines of early Christianity, which has been very prominent in architectures built on such style. During the earlier period, the Renaissance, art was simpler and characterized by simple rhythms. With Baroque, however, a dynamic change has occurred, as art and architecture became more ostentatious and it has shown how art can move from the previous period (Saisselin).
The Scientific Revolution has presented a new perspective and shows a shift from the orthodox. It has also allowed the use of the past in order to create the future. In the field of arts, the…
The history from the Renaissance to the Machine Age was defined by major technical and stylistic advances that allowed for much larger, taller, more elegant buildings, and higher degrees of functionality and architectural expression.
In cultural and scientific matters, the Modern Era was characterized by an increasingly rationalistic trajectory of thought which was based on an ethos of the humanistic exploration of reality and truth. While in a cultural sense religion still played a significant role, the Industrial Revolution as well as the advent of the Machine Age and the predominance of empirical science and the scientific method, had overtaken the norms and values of the rural and agrarian worldview. There were many other factors that played an important role in the scientific culture of this era, including the rise of Capitalism and international trade. This in turn is linked to other concomitant factors such as the use of steam…
History Of Egyptian and Mayan Writing
The Egyptian language is one of the first languages to be put into written form. Some scholars have claimed that the earliest form of writing is the Sumerian language, but this contention has been put into doubt by more recent findings. Egyptian writing first appears on stone and pottery and dates back to 3,000 .C. (Mysteries of Egypt) The earliest alphabetical writing was found in the Abydos-Luxor -Thebes region of Egypt dating to 1800 .C.
Egyptologists have found limestone inscriptions that they say are the earliest known examples of alphabetic writing... carved in the cliffs of soft stone, the writing - in a Semitic script with Egyptian influences - has been dated to somewhere between 1900 and 1800 .C., two or three centuries earlier than previously recognized uses of a nascent alphabet.
Recently, Egyptian writing dating to 3,300 .C. has…
Ancient Egyptian Writing. May 18, 2004. http://www.dragonstrike.com/egypt/write.htm
The Ancient Maya.
Digital Meesh. May 18, 2004. http://www.digitalmeesh.com/maya/history.htm
Egyptian writing dating to 3300 B.C. discovered. The Japan Times, December 17, 1998. Accessed: May 20, 2004. http://www.trussel.com/prehist/news95.htm
The concepts of short- and long-term memory, as well as input and output all fit well within the language of computer science and psychologists quickly determined that they could use computers to study human thought and behavior (Wallace et al., 2007). Not only did the computer provide a way of looking at human thought, the use of the computer within the science of psychology also helped to add legitimacy to psychology as a scientific field of inquiry (Neisser, 2009).
But why do the roots of cognitive psychology represent one of the most influential periods in the whole history of psychology with respect to modern day psychology? Today, nearly all areas of psychology include some understanding and investigation of cognition. Some of the biggest developments in psychology have included studies in the field of neuropsychology and we now know more about the inner functioning of the human brain than ever before…
Goodwin, C.J. (1999). A History of Modern Psychology. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Macleod, C.M. (1992). The Stroop task: The "gold standard" of attention measures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 121, 12-14.
Neisser, U. (2009). cognitive psychology. Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia. Retrieved July 17, 2009, from Grolier Online http://gme.grolier.com.ccny- proxy1.libr.ccny.cuny.edu/cgi-bin/article?assetid=0066790-0
Wallace, B ., Ross, a., Davies, J.B., and Anderson T., (eds) (2007) the Mind, the Body and the World: Psychology after Cognitivism. London: Imprint Academic.
and, that do to so would contradict Judeo-Christian values of morality (Wilson, 2009). Additionally, opponents of the death penalty note that there is no evidence that lethal punishment has any effect whatsoever on whether or not criminals will commit a murder; and, that retribution here does not help to bring about closure. ather, it perpetuates the underlying violence and had a tendency to bring about more anger as opposed to peace. In the words of Jesuit Priest and Community Professor, aymond a. Schroth, S.J., "It [capital punishment] contaminates the otherwise good will which any human being needs to progress in love and understanding" (Schroth, 2008). Thus, capital punishment as a means to provide retribution for families fails to take into consideration the immense toll that the process of putting another human being puts another under.
In addition to the foregoing reasons against capital punishment, a review of the implementation of…
America's Tug of War over Sanctioned Death. (2009, September 9). Retrieved from Random House.
Banks, Cyndi. 2005. Punishment in America. Contemporary World Issues. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.
Banner, Stuart. 2002. The Death Penalty: An American History. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.
Budziszewski, J. (2004). Capital punishment: The case for justice. Journal of Government and Philosophy. Retrieved from University of Texas at Austin.
History Of Landscape Patterns
Although historical ecology remains a relatively recent conceptualization, it provides a useful framework in which to understand the relationship between the historic uses to which terrain has been placed and its modern applications (Balee, 1999). The research to date in this area has focused in part on the history of landscape patterns. For instance, Balee reports that, "The concept of landscape, above all, seems paramount in historical ecology. These usages, when comprehended technically, facilitate a more holistic (and therefore more accurate and empirically sound) analysis of human ecology" (1999, p. 1). This point is also made by Swetnam, Allen, and Betancourt (1999) who discuss historical ecology and the importance of knowing the history of a landscape when making contemporary management decisions concerning new applications. In this regard, Swetnam and his associates note that, "Applied historical ecology is the use of historical knowledge in the management of…
Balee, W. (1999). Advances in historical ecology. New York: Columbia University Press.
Rebertus, A.J., Kitzberger, T., Veglen, T.T. & Roovers, L.M. (1997). Blowdown history and landscape patterns in the Andes of Tierra Del Fuego, Argentina. Ecology, 78(3), 678-692.
In Mendeley. Retrieved from http://www.mendeley.com/research/blowdown-history-and-landscape-patterns-in-the-andes-of-tierra-del-fuego-argentina-1/ .
Swetnam, T.W., Allen, C.D. & Betancourt, J.L. (1999). Applied historical ecology: Using the past to manage the future. Ecological Applications, 9(4), 1189 -- 1206.
History Of Science
Islam has made enormous contributions to modern science. However, in the article "Science and Civilization in Islam," Seyyed Hossein Nasr discusses not necessarily how Islam impacted modern science, but rather, shows how science was viewed in the ancient Islamic world. The author talks about both religion and science in context and illustrates how spiritual beliefs affect the worldview of a culture. Because of Islam's rich tradition of scientific investigation, the article is important in understanding the entire history of science.
The history of science must include cultural and religious references like those presented in Nasr's article. Until fairly recently in human history, religion guided scientific thought. Politics have also played a major role in determining the role of science in a society. Even today, science is not exempt from religious and political influences. Therefore, Nasr's article and its main points offer valuable insight into the ways modern…
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. "Science and Civilization in Islam." Online at .
The asylum automatically granted under the Swiss constitution was denied for those seeking it for religious reasons. y 1942, only 9,150 foreign Jews were legally resident in Switzerland, an increase of just 980 since 1931. It was the Swiss government that requested the German government to help it identify Jews by stamping all Jewish passports with a prominent letter "J," following the Nuremberg acts in 1935. "y 1942, acting at the behest of Switzerland's establishment and the majority of its people, its authoritarian police apparatus was dedicated to keeping the country 'pure' and to saving it from being 'overrun with Jews'." Until 1942, the working Jewish community in Switzerland was forced by the government to support Jewish refugees.
The other side of the German interest in Switzerland's banks was related to the business of Germany and the looting of conquered countries. y 1941, Germany had exhausted all of its foreign…
Bazyler, Michael J. Holocaust Justice: The Battle for Restitution in America's Courts. New York: New York University Press, 2003.
Borowiec, Andrew. "World's leaders gather in Geneva." The Washington Times. http://washingtontimes.com/world/20-5793r.htm .
Bower, Tom. Nazi Gold. New York: Harper Collins, 1997.
Clarke, William. "Nazi Gold: The Role of the Central Banks - Where Does the Blame Lie?" Central Banking, Volume VIII Number 1. Summer 1997. April 22, 2005. http://www.bigeye.com/nazigold.htm .
The ideal self is the person, someone feels they should be and will model their behavior, based upon this image. The real self is the side of your personality that friends and family know well. This creates a conflict in the individual called self-actualization, as the person will attempt to live up to the image of their ideal self. Where, these perceptions will affect the self-image of the individual throughout their life. (Gentile, 2008)
Evelyn Hooker conducted the first scientific experiment on male homosexuality. Where, she would survey both heterosexuals and homosexuals, to determine if homosexuals have trouble adjusting to various social circumstances. The effects of the survey were: homosexuals have no difference in adjusting to social situations in comparison with heterosexuals. As a result, this information would help to provide a research methodology that would be used in the future, to understand homosexual behavior. (Gentile, 2008)
Gentile, B. (2008). Foundation of Psychological Thought. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
During the beginning of ancient times, Classical civilization still lived as hunters and gatherers. They used the resources available to them and learned to gather grains, berries, and other plant foods and store them for the winter. This required them to live where the geography and climate could support them, and where supplies of water were easily available. Early settlements clustered around rivers and streams for this reason. y the end of the Classical Era, The Roman Empire had fallen. European cultures had been influenced by Rome's accomplishments, however, and Europeans knew how to build aquifers to bring the water to them. They had learned to build both roads and bridges. They had tamed livestock and used them for transportation. y the Classical Era, many of geography's limitations had solutions. Thus people could live in villages, towns and cities, farm the surrounding countryside and transport it to where…
Garraty, John A., and Gay, Peter, Eds. The Columbia History of the World. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1999.
This is where the ethicacy of web crawlers comes into play and is discussed in a later section of this paper. Finally the economic aspects of how web crawlers enable more effective forms of communication in shared networks and over Wi-Fi networks is just beginning to be studied (Bidoki, Yazdani, 2008). The growing reliance on smartphones, Wi-Fi networks and contextual advertising will result in entirely new business models based on web crawler technology as well.
Environmental Considerations of Web Crawling
f the four factors analyzed, this is the most positive as web crawlers have significantly reduced emissions and lessoned the dependence on foreign oil by providing interactive, real-time search research. The ability to run servers and entire data centers far more efficiently through the use of web crawlers is contributing to less electric being used, which in turn frees up the petroleum and fuel to create energy to begin with.…
Of the four factors analyzed, this is the most positive as web crawlers have significantly reduced emissions and lessoned the dependence on foreign oil by providing interactive, real-time search research. The ability to run servers and entire data centers far more efficiently through the use of web crawlers is contributing to less electric being used, which in turn frees up the petroleum and fuel to create energy to begin with. Web crawlers' effects on a cumulative reduction of fuel and carbon are significant. Add into that the focus of web crawlers on creating platforms for specialized search applications, and the benefits of this technology from an environmental standpoint exponentially increase (Yan, Wang, Li, Guo, 2002). Web crawlers can also reduce the amount of electricity used on a given laptop or PC over time, as fewer queries are needed to get the information required. All of these factors contribute to the fact that web crawlers can drastically reduce the carbon and energy footprint of data centers, user's servers, laptops, and PCs over time.
Medical Considerations of Web Crawling
The many medical considerations of web crawlers can be seen in how effectively they are being used to manage medical records in very large databases, and how they are also used
" (Jan. 16, 1896, p. 9) oentgen won a Nobel Prize for his discovery which was very well deserved considering the fact that he was the first to notice the X-rays when similar rays had been seen before. Once the discovery became public, there was no stopping the physicists, scientists and even photographers. Everyone tried to find out how they could make use of those rays with Edison developing incandescent bulbs to produce X-rays and British scientist William Bragg worked on inner nature of X and y-rays. Many more researches and studies followed the initial discovery and they helped better understand the nature of X-rays and how they could benefit the medical community.
Alexi Assmus: Early History of X-rays. etrieved online 3rd June 2009 from http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/25/2/25-2-assmus.pdf
Alexi Assmus: Early History of X-rays. Retrieved online 3rd June 2009 from http://www.slac.stanford.edu/pubs/beamline/25/2/25-2-assmus.pdf
After some ineffective negotiating with the police both Sandro and a passenger on board of the bus get killed.
The main concept of the movie revolves around the unjust system; the blind Brazilian authorities that single-handedly create criminals by neglecting and aggressing most of the poor people instead of creating ways of improving their lives.
Favela Rising" is yet another motion picture intended to expose the truth concerning the Latin-American slums. The action again takes place in Rio de Janeiro, but the intriguing part about the film is that it is a documentary which tells the story of Anderson Sa, a former drug dealer from the Vigario Geral district.
Anderson had been living in a favela in Rio de Janeiro when he heard that his brother has been accidentally shot in the middle of a gang war. Just as the characters in the previous movies and in Carolina's book, Anderson…
De Jesus, Carolina Maria, and St. Clair David. Child of the Dark. Signet Classic, 2003.
Bus 174. Dir. Jose Padilha. 2002.
City of God. Dir. Fernando Meirelles. Miramax, Buena Vista International. 2002.
Favela Rising. Dir. Matt Mochary, Jeff Zimbalist. HBO/Cinemax. 2005.
It would be agreeable that the growth of multicultural focus is something that has remained a long journey towards our present understanding of the topic. The path towards our contemporary multiculturalism remains a distinct area of psychology that developed some years ago. The historical development shows clearly that there have been different individuals and thinkers who have focused on the ethnic associations and issues related to human interactions (Cauce, 2011).
Throughout the years in history, it would be clearly agreeable that different historical periods have constantly played a unique role in establishing different thoughts, ideas, and concepts that have defined our societies. For instance, there are stances of activism and even racism that have been playing a unique towards the development and establishment our present ideas on human psychology and multiculturalism (Franklin, 2009, p. 420). Different societal establishments and communities have over the years been critical towards establishing the best…
Adams, J.Q. & Welsch, J.R. (2009). Multiculturalism: The Manifest Destiny of the U.S.A.: An
Interview With Ronald Takaki. Multicultural Perspectives, 11(4), 227 -- 231
American Psychological Association (2012). Crossroads: The Psychology of Immigration in
The New Century. American Psychological Association: 1-18
Houses permitted the people to move from a nomadic existence to a settled and more organized way of life. The majority of the houses were square with other rooms built on. The palaces of the early Sumerian culture were the political, economic and religious focal points of the city; large-scale, lavishly decorated, and consisted of rooms used to house craftsmen and such. Archaeological finds have also revealed them to be temples and burial chambers for the elite, as well as library complexes, armories, and entertainment halls decorated with pictorial and mythological figures.
It was during the time of the Sumerian civilisation transitioning from nomadic hunting to agriculture, that many changes occurred as the population grew and more force was exerted on the local food supply. This necessitated more organization and administration that led to non-tribal leadership with its own political, economic and religious arrangement. Mesopotamia's expansion led to a wide…
These methods are then examined with respect to future events using empirical observations and statistical tools. (History of Economics Society, 25)
It has to be accepted that such a method has been used to arrive at various conclusions. A lot of dedication is required by thinkers to derive the facts out of the information available. This concept of economics is not drawn out of nothing, but it has been derived from facts, and scientists have toiled to put together the casual details into formal approaches. Formal methods reduce the details in a systematic manner and so this is preferred than the informal method. However those is favor of the scientific method were against the formal method and argued that formal methods were not reliable since it was not sure whether the important aspects of the fact would be retained while reducing the information available. (History of Economics Society, 25)
Canterbery, E. Ray. A Brief History of Economics: Artful Approaches to the Dismal
Science. World Scientific. 2001.
History of Economics Society. Complexity and the history of economic thought: Selected
Papers from the... Routledge. 2000.
On the contrary, Giotto di Bondone had been a revolutionary, as he seemed to be determined to desert long-standing concepts in favor of newer, and more evolved ones.
Byzantine paintings have a general tendency to represent scenes from a two-dimensional perspective, and, most probably, in order to compensate with the lack of spatial depth, they use a greater number of details. In Giotto's Christ Entering Jerusalem, viewers feel as if they are part of the painting, with the painter's desire to involve three-dimensionality into his painting being obvious. Also, the painter simplified the painting by abandoning complexity and focusing on the essential. Duccio, on the other hand, has involved much more details in his portrayal of Christ Entering Jerusalem. Regardless of the attention paid by Duccio to details, his painting lacks realism, viewers being able to observe that the figures in it appear to be floating.
The Army's Special Forces, referred to as the legendary Green Berets, consist of a unique, unconventional combat arms organization, that are considered the most versatile Special Operations soldiers in the world. Their lineage dates back more than two hundred years of unconventional warfare, including predecessors such as Francis Marion of the Revolutionary ar, the orld ar II OSS Jedbourg Teams and Detachment 101 in Burma, and the Alamo Scouts.
According to Robert Andrews, principal deputy assistant secretary of defense for special operations and low-intensity conflict, it takes two years to train some of the enlisted personnel, and longer for officers. In fact, Special Forces units "continually train to conduct unconventional warfare in any of its forms - guerrilla tactics, evasion and escape subversion." In order to learn to fight in cold weather and mountainous environments, special operators attend a two-week course at the Army's Mountain arfare School in Jericho,…
Dyhouse, Tim. (2004 February 01). 'Black ops' shine in Iraq War: the scope of U.S. special operations in the Iraq War was the largest in American military history. VFW Magazine. Retrieved July 02, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Kennedy, Harold. (2002 February 01). Special ops equipment: Newest -- and Oldest.
National Defense. Retrieved July 02, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Special Forces: History. Special Operations Recruiting Battalion. Retrieved July 02, 2006 at http://www.bragg.army.mil/specialforces/History.htm
However, they "were too few in number to provide adequate protection and were not always themselves fully committed to ensuring justice for freed blacks" (Cary Royce 67). The American public wanted reform to happen but few people were actually willing to risk their position in society by supporting black people. As a consequence, former slaves were provided with little support and were practically forced to maintain many of their attributes as slaves despite the fact that they were free.
Berlin, Ira, et al. "The Terrain of Freedom: The Struggle over the Meaning of Free Labor in the U.S. South." History orkshop Journal 22 (1986)
Cary Royce, Edward, the origins of southern sharecropping, (Temple University Press, 1993)
Fast, Howard, Freedom Road (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995)
An Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980 an Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980, vol. 1 (estport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982)
Lanza, Michael, L. Agrarianism and Reconstruction Politics: The…
Berlin, Ira, et al. "The Terrain of Freedom: The Struggle over the Meaning of Free Labor in the U.S. South." History Workshop Journal 22 (1986)
Cary Royce, Edward, the origins of southern sharecropping, (Temple University Press, 1993)
Fast, Howard, Freedom Road (Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1995)
An Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980 an Interdisciplinary Bibliography, 1865-1980, vol. 1 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982)
History Of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics
Modern life would not be the same without two important laws of thermodynamics. ithout these two laws we would not have the gasoline engine or electricity in our homes. These two laws made the inventions that we take for granted possible. These two laws are the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The first law of thermodynamics is that energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It forms the basis of the idea that in order to produce a prescribed amount of work, a certain amount of energy must be put into a system. The second law of thermodynamics is about the active nature of systems. It states that systems will work to achieve a state of balance and equilibrium.
The laws of thermodynamics came about through observation. Early scientists simply made observations about the natural world around them and then…
Crowe, M.J.,(1998) Heat and Thermodynamics from Newton to the Kinetic Theory. Notre Dame, Indiana: Poverty Publishing Co. Chapters 5,6,7.
Nye, Mary Jo, (1997) Before Big Science: The Pursuit of Modern Chemistry and Physics, 1800-1940. New York: Twayne Publishers.
hile these are some of the more famous elements of rhetorical theory, they do not require extensive discussion here for two reasons. Firstly, they are fairly well-known. Secondly, and more importantly, they actually do not provide much insight into the uses of rhetoric, because Aristotle implicitly inserts an ethics into his discussion of rhetoric that precludes it from having as robust an application to the real world as would be desired, due to the fact that rhetoric does not equally "target the emotional and rational attitudes and convictions" of the audience (Martina 567). In particular, Aristotle's theory suffers from assumptions regarding human beings receptivity to logic and a belief that rhetoric is ultimately "a means of attaining truth and knowledge" (Hugenberg 1). In fact, rhetoric is more often than not deployed as a means of avoiding or otherwise obscuring the truth, and but Aristotle's moralizing attitude precludes him from effectively…
Archer, Lauren Renel. "The Rightful Place of Science: Understanding the Intersection of Rhetoric, Politics, and Science in President Obama's First 100 Days." Communication,
2010. United States -- Colorado: ProQuest Dissertations & Theses (PQDT).
Aristotle. On Rhetoric: Book 1. 29-53.
Aristotle. On Rhetoric: Book 2. 118-191.
It is because of dedication, commitment and sincerity with which the Japanese practice and implement their objectives.
Boye believes that Kata factor i.e. Japanese percepts have its evolution from 'Shintoism'(Kata Factor).
Kata can be translated as model, pattern, style or a formula. In simple terms it means a fixed pattern, either solution towards handling a problem, applying any strategy. Kata has been exercised in every facet of Japanese activities, including political, social and military.
Japanese are proud of their adoption of Kata factor, however Boye revealed that Japanese were themselves strange to Kata Factor, and never realized before their adherence to Kata Factor, he wrote, '99% of the (Japanese)audience had never realized the "Kata factor" had played such a role in Japan'.
The generalized forms of Kata (related to military aspect) includes,
Kata Yaburi, It has all the elements of patience and detailed planning. It begins by developing new missions,…
Jack Scarborough. The Origins of Cultural Differences and Their Impact on Management. Quorum Books.
Yoshio Sugimoto. An Introduction to Japanese Society, Cambridge University Press.
Kenneth G. Henshall. A History of Japan: from Stone Age to Superpower, Palgrave Macmillan 2004.
Boye De Mente. The Kata Factor.
history of crime measurement as well as the major strengths and limitations of current measurement techniques. I have also included the discussion regarding the importance of crime measurement in criminology. In the end, I have put emphasis on the need of the development of more crime measurement techniques.
The measurement of crime is done with the objective of monitoring and this is mostly done in the same manner as the measurement of "consumer prices, stock market activity, traffic fatalities, population, unemployment, and HIV infection rates" (Maxfield & Babbie, 2011). However, much more is done in measuring the crime instead of just counting things. An assortment of societal, fiscal, geographic, and medical concerns is measured for keeping a record of communal and monetary conditions, population size, age distribution and hazards to physical well-being of the people. Similarly, crime measurement has the main concern of keeping track of criminal behavior so that…
Advantages of Incident-Based Reporting Over Summary Reporting. (n.d.). Justice Research and Statistics Association. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://www.jrsa.org/ibrrc/background-status/advantages.shtml
Brown, S.E., Esbensen, F., & Geis, G. (2013). Criminology: Explaining Crime and Its Context (8thth ed.). Waltham: Anderson Publishing (Elsevier Inc.). Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=brRgAYhyhsoC&pg=PA82&dq=NIBRS+limitations&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0R0MUZePBs7Y4QTogoCQAQ&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=NIBRS%20limitations&f=false
Manual on Victimization Surveys. (2010). Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from http://www.issafrica.org/crimehub/uploads/Manual_on_Victimization_surveys_2009_web.pdf
Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2011).Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=-Z_xfTn1hT8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Research+Methods+for+Criminal+Justice+and+Criminology&hl=en&sa=X&ei=McwOUfO7PLCV0QXx0oDIBg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
17th century, a book inspired by Sir Walter Raleigh and written by Richard Hakluyt, entitled "Western Planting," built up great interest in American colonization. Focus of commercial explorations was possible trade with the East India Company for the West. The King of England formed and granted a royal charter to the London Company and the Plymouth Company (Interesting.com) to found a colony. In December 1606, the London Company, led by Captain Christopher Newport, reached a town and named it Jamestown, after the King of England. It was the first permanent settlement in North America, the whole of which was then Virginia. The first settlers in this new land consisted of 12 laborers, a few carpenters, a blacksmith, a mason, a barber and a tailor and 50 other men.
When Captain Newport returned England for a while and left the colony to the inefficient leadership of Governor Wingfield, trouble and misery…
1. Folk, Stephney. Virginia's Founding Fathers. (accessed 28:03:03). http://www.lineone.net/~fight/Stephney/virginia.htm
2. Garman, Gene. Founding Principles Rejected: Colonial Virginia. 1998 accessed 28:03:03). http://www.sunnetworks.com/~ggarman/princip.html
3. Interesting.com. Colonial Virginia. (accessed 28:03:03). http://www.interesting.com
4. Jeff. The Founding of Jamestown. The Montague Millennium, 2002.
history medical studies have concluded that prayer helps to heal the sick. Many political meetings begin with a prayer and American currency has the words "In God We Trust" imprinted on its face. Around the world God is a powerful deity and one that has historically led entire societies to make decisions based on God's word. While God has been the single deity that leads and guides societies in their decisions both on an individual and collective basis there are many different concepts of what God is and entails. Two large worldwide faiths have many similarities and differences in God and its meaning. The faith of Christianity as well as the faith of Judaism both believe in a single God. The faiths are based in the word of that God and their followers respect and revere the God of their faith. While both faiths believe in a single God there…
J.S. Spong, "A New Christianity for a New World: Why Traditional Faith is Dying & How a New Faith is Being Born," HarperSanFrancisco, (2001), Pages 37 & 38.
THE JEWISH CONCEPT OF THE MESSIAH
Book Review: Concept of God as shepherd is Jewish paradigm
History of Judaism: From biblical origins to the modern period." It discusses Genesis 1-11 and what these texts tell us about the origins of Israelite religion? What do the major episodes in these 11 chapters of the Torah tell us about the differences between classical Mesopotamian paganism and the origins of Israelite thought and religion?
History of Judaism: From biblical origins to the modern period
Genesis is the book of beginnings. That is what the word itself means, and it takes us back into the very dawn of human history. It opens with an awareness of the greatest material fact in all human life; a fact that we are all subconsciously aware of almost every waking moment, that is, that we are living in a universe. Then this galaxy itself is moving at incredible speed through the vastness of space in conjunction with millions of other galaxies like ours. It…
Langer, Ruth, Jewish understandings of the religious other., Theological Studies, 06-01-2003, pp 255.
Clifford, Richard, A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period, vol. 1: From the Beginnings to the End of the Monarchy.(book reviews). Vol. 56, Theological Studies, 09-01-1995, pp 566(2).
Nahum Sarna, "Understanding Creation in Genesis" in Frye, Is God a Creationist?, pp 155-173.
The History and Concept of Community Policing in the U.S.
Community Policing Origins
Community Policing Philosophy
Office of Community Oriented Policing Services
Community policing is as much a philosophy as it is a practice. At the heart of the concept lies a deep level of collaboration between the community and the police. However, to form such a relationship many intermediary goals must first be achieved. Most likely, one of the primary values that must be established is a sense of trust between both the community and the police force. If the community perceives the police force as corrupt or ineffective then will generally remain apathetic to the goals of community policing. At the same time, if the police force is not fully engaged with the public then are not likely to benefit from the communities assistance. Therefore, to establish effective community policing efforts a balance between…
AA County Police. (2007, July 7). POLICE DISCRETION & ALTERNATIVES TO ARREST. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Police Rules and Regulations: http://www.aacounty.org/Police/RulesRegs/Sections01-06/0105.2DiscretionAlternArrest.pdf
Bureau of Justice Assistance. (1994, August). Understanding Community Policing. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from U.S. Department of Justice: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/commp.pdf
COPS. (2011). Community Policing Defined. Retrieved September 2, 2011, from Community Oriented Policing Services: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?item=36
Sherman, L. (1990). POLICING FOR CRIME PREVENTION. American Journal of Police, 43-74.
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…
history Mercy International Centre Dublin Catherine McAuley . ( http://www.mercyinternational. ) A history significance Jonathan Swift St. Patricks Cathedral Dublin ( http://www.stpatrickscathedral. ) A synopsis Kilmainham Jail, years functioning description peat bogs Ireland, (significance) The Famine Memorial Dublin ~ established built? Connemara marble churches Ireland? A explanation current political system Ireland .
The Mercy International Centre in Dublin is the hallmark of the mercy mission and its background is essential in providing people with a better understanding of the principles that help build this type of ideology. The building's architecture is not necessarily special, but it compensates through its history and through the intense feelings that numerous people coming here experienced. hile being acquainted with its history a person is very probable to look at it very different from how he or she would have been inclined to perceive it in the beginning.
The building came to function as a…
Cunningham, L. Reich, J. "Culture and Values, Volume II: A Survey of the Humanities with Readings," (Cengage Learning, 16 Jan 2009)
"Brief History of the Peat Industry in Ireland," Retrieved August 25, 2014, from http://www.heartland.ie/articles/brief-history-peat-industry-ireland
"Famine Memorial," Retrieved August 25, 2014, from http://www.discoverireland.ie/Arts-Culture-Heritage/famine-memorial/31500
"Galway Cathedral," Retrieved August 25, 2014, from http://www.dochara.com/places-to-visit/galway-cathedral/
The National Defense Education Act was the outcome of a bill that was present before the Sputnik scare.
While the categorical aid as described in the 1958 and 1965 legislation allowed some room for negotiations on the state-church issue, it yet faced another problem due to the opposition that did not want a federal control over their states. This dragged the implementation process of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. It was in the interest of the federal government to keep a check on how the funds that they allocated were being spent thus federal control was inevitable. The resistance however did not want any intervention and thus opposed any control and checks by the federal government.
There was a Public Law 94-142 passed in 1975 which was in favor for the education of handicapped children. The passing of this law experienced a slow but sure professional change in approach.…
The U.S. department of Education. "The Federal Role in Education" [online website] Available at http://www.ed.gov/about/overview/fed/role.html?src=ln [Accessed on 01/09/2005]
Laurence H. Tribe, American Constitutional Law (Minneola, NY: The Foundation Press, second edition, 1988)
W. Brooke Graves, American Intergovernmental Relations: Their Origins, Historical Development and Current Status (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1964)
Keith W. Olson. The GI Bill, the Veterans, and the Colleges (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1974)
history of human civilization, the Scientific evolution emerged during the 17th century, which happened right after the enaissance Period. The Scientific evolution is the period in history wherein scientific methods and results where arrived at using experimentation and the use of scientific instruments such as the telescope, microscope, and thermometer (Microsoft Encarta 2002). The Scientific evolution is attributed to Galileo Galilei, who proposed that the universe and its elements can be explained mathematically, while subsisting to the fact the Sun is the center of the solar system. During the enaissance Period, Nicolaus Copernicus had declared that the Sun is the center of the solar system, but his declaration is only descriptive, while Galileo's declaration is verified through experimentation and the scientific method. This important distinction is the main reason why Galileo's time was considered the Scientific evolution, primarily because it uses the scientific method of research and experimentation.
Baber, Z. "Canada Research Chair in Science, Technology, and Social Change." 6 February 2003. University of Saskatchewan Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.usask.ca/crc/profiles/baber.php.
History of Astronomy." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Kaiser, T. "French Revolution." Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002. Microsoft Inc. 1998.
Shaffer, B. "Chaos in Space." 7 February 2003. LewRockwell Web site. 16 April 2003 http://www.lewrockwell.com .
History of Modern Design: Examples of the Arts and Crafts Movement
Two exemplars of the arts and crafts movement, the iener erkstatte and the Deutscher erkbund, are noted as important stylistic and artistic precursors to Bauhaus. Josef Hoffman and Kolo Moser founded the "iener erkstatte Produktiv-Gemeinschaft von Kunsthandwerken, ien" (the Viennese orkshop and Production Cooperative of Art orks in Vienna) in 1903. The Vienna orkshop was a direct offshoot from the fin de-siecle Vienna Secession. The Vienna Secession consisted of a group of artists that organized themselves as an alternative to the conservatism of the art establishment in late 19th century Vienna. The Vienna Secession placed a strong emphasis on metalwork, leatherwork, bookbinding, woodworking and a paint shop that carried over into the einer erkstatte and eventually created its exclusive emphasis on reproductive-style crafts-based work, rather than on unique painting and drawing.
Together, Hoffman and Moser modeled their concept as…
"Introduction to Wiener Werkstatte." Artsmia.org. 2004. http://www.artsmia.org/modernism/rtxt.html
Razerman, David. History of Modern Design. Chapter 5. p.93-96, Chapter 7 p.129-133.
Schwartz, Frederic J. The Werkbund: Design Theory and Mass Culture Before the First World War. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1996.
history political philosophy sources political stability instability Machiavelli? Source: The Prince (Machiavelli), cited work the Prince My thesis Statement:The Prince, written 1513, intended a guide gave advice effective ruler stay power.
Niccolo Machiavelli's 1513 political treatise "The Prince" deals with a series of matters concerning political stability and the means available to make it possible. Considering that the writer lived in a period dominated by political instability, it is not surprising that some of the methods he proposed in order to restore order were somewhat unorthodox. From his perspective, moral acts were in certain situations pointless, as people actually needed to be controlled with the help of manipulating techniques. Machiavelli was basically interested in promoting the concept of evil, even with the fact that he attempted to mask this by posing in a person deeply concerned about his nation. He considered that in order to be able to control a…
Machiavelli, Niccolo. "The Prince," Plain Label Books, 1952.
Nederman, Cary, "Niccolo Machiavelli," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2009 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
Concept of human rights
The concept of human rights: Defining human rights
Human rights are rights that no government can deny, by virtue of a citizen being 'human.' Yet what constitutes a human right has varied greatly, depending upon the sentiments of the international community. There have always been basic, general rules of etiquette in terms of how to treat enemy soldiers during wartime and the actions of certain governments have been deemed outside of community norms throughout history, but standards of 'universal' human rights shift and change with history. The first formal declaration of human rights was made in 1948 by the UN. The definition of human rights today places limits on what governments can do to citizens -- examples of commonly-accepted human rights include the right to be free of the threat of genocide, slavery, and have the right to due process.
Although the words 'human…
Nickel, James. (2010). Human rights. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved:
Framing is a fundamental of construction. Therefore, it can be helpful to understand the history of framing and how it has evolved in terms of materials, uses, and techniques. The frame can be considered the skeleton of a building. Its "rough carpentry" concept is "the basic building skill of new construction and almost every remodeling addition project," ("Framing"). The history of framing in construction does not extend far into the ancient world, and most framing techniques are relatively modern. Ancient methods of construction often included bricks, stones, and concrete assembled in a frame-free manner. Framing from the perspective of construction almost always refers to the use of timber.
Although not used in most monumental architecture, framing in timber was not uncommon in oman and Greek building. eserved mainly for roof elements, timber framing came to relatively common use in beam and post roofing somewhere between 500 BCE and 100 BCE…
Blue Ridge Timberwrights. A history of timber framing. Retrieved online: http://brtw.com/historyoftimberframing.php
Chapter 3: Framing and Closing In. Retrieved online: http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/dmerrick/164/framing/ah73chapter3.pdf
"Framing." Hometime. Retrieved online: http://www.hometime.com/Howto/projects/framing/frame_1.htm
Original Barn Company. "History of Timber Frame and Oak Construction." Retrieved online: http://www.originalbarnco.co.uk/history.php
Internet and K-12 Schools
The history and effects of internet
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
History of the Internet in K-12 Schools
Interactive Websites and Games as Computer-Aided Instruction
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
Creating and sustaining a literate nation capable of democracy, self-government and continuous improvement of quality of life has been a dominant and critical aspect of public education throughout America's history (Ferguson & Huebner, 1996). The amount of information available to students has grown exponentially in recent years. The Internet is a broad and vast territory of information that many children are not equipped to navigate. Now more than ever students need the skills to wade through the waters of information. The current essay is aimed at exploring the history and…
Chapman, C. (2009). The history of the Internet in a nutshell. Retrieved from http://sixrevisions.com/resources/the-history-of-the-internet-in-a-nutshell/
Chapman, G. (2000). Federal support for technology in K -- 12 education. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, pp. 307 -- 343. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/brookings_papers_on_education_policy/v2000/2000.1chapman.html
Koster, R. (2005). A theory of fun for game design. Scottsdale, AZ: Paraglyph Press.
Moore, R. (2006). Cybercrime: Investigation high-technology computer crime. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
The session erupted in brawl, and in the end, the vote favored impeachment
. This became known as "loody Monday." This time, Long's bullying tactics did not work.
Long took his case to the people, claiming that his impeachment was a raucous attempt by Standard Oil to deprive the people of what they deserved. As the trial began, Long passed around "Round Robin" document that was signed by more than one -- third of the Senate members. The round robin document stated that they did not believe his offenses warranted removal from office
. As it takes an over two-thirds vote to remove him from office, the impeachment attempt failed. Long rewarded his faithful with state jobs, favors and some say cash as well
. Long became more harsh with his enemies, founding a newspaper to promote his ideas. Long began to receive death threats and was forced to surround…
Andrews, James and Zarefsky, David. American Voices: Significant Speeches in American history 1640-1945. (White Plains, NY: Longman, 1989.)
Authier, Philip. Duplessis, warts and all. 22 May 1999. Wednesday-Night. Available from http://www.wednesday-night.com/Duplessis.asp . Internet: accessed 29 September 2008.
Botting, Gary. Fundamental Freedoms and Jehovah's Witnesses. (Calgary, Alta: University of Calgary Press. 1993).
Corner, Richard. The Kingfish and the Constitution: Huey Long, the First Amendment, and the Emergence of Modern Press Freedom in America. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996).
A more definitive explanation is; "... A proposed explanation for a phenomenon." (Scientific Reference) a hypothesis should be able to be tested and functions as a directive for further research.
In my research study for example, the hypothesis that was explored was that certain circumstances in different historical periods affect the development of the areas of expertise and their application to project activities. These circumstances include social and cultural movements; the development of scientific and technical knowledge, among others. This hypothesis provides the incentive for further research and determines to a large extent the direction or trajectory of the research outcomes.
5. Explain briefly why applied research instead of basic research will typically be done in industry and commerce, and describe two examples of applied research
The answer to this question becomes clear when the looks the difference between basic and applied research. Basic research is theoretical and is aimed…
What Is Scientific Knowledge? Web.
What is the difference between observation and measurements?
Tao de Ching is one of the most influential and important philosophical texts in human history. Attributed to Chinese philosopher Lao Tzu between 500 and 400 BCE, the teachings contained within the Tao de Ching have become collectively known as Taoism. The term "tao" or "dao" is usually translated straightforwardly as "the way," but the entire title of the text Tao de Ching may refer to a cluster of concepts including "the way of integrity" (Walter 1) or the "way and its power," ("Lao Tzu: The Father of Taoism," 1). Knierim points out that the term "ching" means scripture, and the term "te" means both strength and virtue. Thus, Tao de Ching does refer to a scriptural text about the way or path of strength and virtue. The Tao de Ching is not a narrative text, but a prescriptive one written as short verses containing wisdom quips and advice for…