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Conflict, Decision Making
Conflicts happen in all places, and workplace is no exemption. A workplace has a diverse workforce with different backgrounds. Their ambitions and goals differ and easily results in conflicts. Nonetheless, workplace conflict does not necessarily result in negative impact, when well resolved it could indeed result in positive outcomes. As noted by Hellriegel, et al. (2001) by resolving conflict effectively, an organization can solve numerous issues that surfaces, and get to know other issues it was unaware of. One of the best ways of resolving workplace conflict is through negotiation. This short paper examines workplace conflict at Tesco plc, a leading general merchandising and international grocery retail chain based in the United Kingdom.
Appling negotiation strategies to address potential conflicts in the workplace
There are five main negotiation strategies that can be used to resolve workplace conflicts (Savage, et al. 1989). The approach applied will depend with…
Hellriegel, D., Slocum, J.W., & Woodman, R.W. (2001). Organizational behavior, (9th ed.). Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Thomson Learning.
Pawson, R (2006). Evidence-based policy: a realist perspective. London: Sage.
Savage, G.T., Blair, J and R.L. Sorenson, R (1989). Consider both the relationships and substance when negotiating strategically," Academy of Management Executive 3(1) 40.
Conflict, Decision-Making, Organizational Design
Conflict, Decision Making, Organizational Design
How to apply negotiation strategies to address potential conflicts in workplace
Conflicts in the workplace are a common experience that many mangers encounter. Conflicts are categorical of the nature where organizations are able to relate with each other together with personnel interaction. Within an organization or company as Publix Company, conflict resolution measures should be undertaken as part of the restructuring, growth and development procedures. As a result, it is imperative to have negotiation strategies, which are supposed to counter conflicts within an organization. Negotiation strategies can be applied in various ways when it comes to negotiating through finding measures and methods of stopping or reducing conflicts within an organization (Daft, 2010).
Understanding is a unanimous activity, which is part of the negotiation strategies while resolving conflicts in an organization. Understanding involve integration of the various reasons which have…
Cowan, D. (2003). Taking charge of organizational conflict: A guide to managing anger and confrontation. Fawnskin, CA: Personhood Press.
Daft, R.L. (2010). Organization theory and design. Mason, OH: Southwestern Cengage
Dagenais, S., & Haldeman, S. (2012). Evidenced-based management of low back pain. St. Louis,
Firstly, fact-based decision-making can be challenging. This is mainly evident when it comes to choosing the facts to be followed and the ones to be dismissed. Note that, data to be used in decision-making should be relevant and logical, and determination of this is quite difficult. Secondly, evidence-based management does not adequately address the value of judgement and intuition. This is mainly in situations of high uncertainty and risk which is a common phenomenon facing the management team while making strategic decisions. However, for the management to avoid these limitations, it should foster a culture of observation, experimentation and inquiry while coming up with ideas (Daft, 2010). Also, the organization should encourage diversity in terms of age, gender, expertise and experience to facilitate diverse ideas and opinions during the decision-making process.
Decision-making is a crucial part of managing an organization. There are various methods of decision-making that an organization…
Daft, R.L. (2010). Organization theory and design. Mason, Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Hodgkinson, G.P., & Starbuck, W.H. (2007). The Oxford handbook of organizational decision making. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schulte-Mecklenbeck, M., Kuhberger, A., & Ranyard, R. (2011). The role of process data in the development and testing of process models of judgment and decision making. Judgment & Decision Making, 6(8), 733-739.
Taylor & Francis. (Eds.). 2011. Organizational behavior: Intergrating Individuals, Groups and Organizations. 270 Madison Avenue, New York: Routledge.
In the case of Kava island issue, we shall reach the decision in the following manner.
White Hat / Hat #1:
This is where a person needs to consider all the available data on the issue at hand. For example we know that Kava is a land of richness. It is a place with multiple possibilities because it has a sizeable young population, is rich in petroleum, coffee, sugar and other such important items. It has people from diverse backgrounds who add to the richness of its culture and almost 15 languages are spoken in this area. But at the same time, the country is plagued with numerous problems including ever-increasing cases of HIV.
Red Hat / Hat #2:
This is where a person needs to focus on intuition. Intuitively for example we can say that Kava can be seen as a great tourist destination if developed properly. Nik's firm…
For each cell, decide which of the two options is more important. Write down the letter of the more important option in the cell, and score the difference in importance from 0 (no difference) to 3 (major difference).
5. Finally, consolidate and sum the results by adding up the total of all the values for each of the options; and then convert these values into a percentage of the total score.
As a simple example, a business is looking at several ways to expand its market share. In doing so, it comes with the following options as shown below:
1. Use electronic commerce for serving customers
Expand business in home markets
3. Improve customer satisfaction
4. Improve the quality of service
Firstly the manager draws up the Paired Comparison Analysis table in Figure 1:
Figure 1: Example Paired Comparison Analysis Table (not filled in):
Use electronic commerce (a)
Carlsson, C. And Walden. P. (1995). AHP in political group decisions: A study in the art of possibilities. Interfaces 25:14-29.
Saaty, T.L. (1990). Multicriteria decision making: The analytic hierarchy process. RWS Publications, Pittsburgh.
Decision making is a term that can be described as the process of choosing between alternatives and entails identification, development, and selection. Based on academic literature decision making and analysis can be widely divided into two schools of thoughts i.e. analytic and experiential or incremental decision making processes (Sipp & Carayannis, 2013, p.18). The analytic school of thought on decision making and analysis primarily focuses on problem definition and identification, assessment and selection of alternatives. In this school of thought, implementation in the decision making process basically entails simple execution of the cautiously selected alternative. On the contrary, even though experiential or incremental school of thought incorporates the two major steps in decision making just like the other school of thought, it focuses more on the execution of the alternative. This school of thought on decision making also utilize feedback to make necessary adjustments to the selected alternative in order…
Barnard, M. & Stoll, N. (2010, October). Organizational Change Management: A Rapid Literature Review. Retrieved from Bristol Institute of Public Affairs website: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/media-library/sites/cubec/migrated/documents/pr1.pdf
Choi, M. & Ruona, W.E.A. (2011, March). Individual Readiness for Organizational Change and Its Implications for Human Resource and Organization Development. Human Resource Development Review, 10(1), 46-73.
Manuela, P.V. & Clara, M.F. (n.d.). Resistance to Change: A Literature Review and Empirical Study. Retrieved from University of Valencia website: http://www.uv.es/~pardoman/resistencias.PDF
Mykkanen, M. & Vos, M. (2015). The Contribution of Public Relations to Organizational Decision Making: Insights from the Literature. Public Relations Journal, 9(2), 1-17.
" To that end, the Treasury Department would limit executive compensation for institutions receiving "exceptional assistance" (Geithner and Summers, 2009).
Troubles continued in the financial sector -- both Citigroup and the Bank of America needed second rounds of capital infusions, and federal guarantees against losses totaling tens of billions more -- while Ben S. Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, warned that more capital injections might be needed to further stabilize the financial system. On Jan. 16, the Senate voted 52-42 to release the second round of funds (Gerth, 2009).
THE GEITHNER PLANS -on Feb. 10, Mr. Geither presented the rough outlines of the Obama administration's plan. A central piece of the proposal would create one or more so-called bad banks that would rely on taxpayer and private money to purchase and hold banks' bad assets. Another centerpiece of the plan would stretch the last $350 billion that the Treasury has…
decision making tools and techniques whereby 6 Thinking Hats has been chosen as one of its tools. This decision making tool is widely used in the business world of today.
Decision making in science and indeed any other field of study is a difficult thing and for this, one needs to understand what are the basic ways in which a decision can be arrived at, without wasting much time and using the best tools and techniques in order to achieve the same. These decisions are very crucial to the outcome of a project but certain things should be kept in mind that information is the single most significant thing in this whole process. Decision-making is indeed a very complex and well-developed area, one that has to be looked at by the researchers and lecturers with particular care. This paper is about the decision-making tools and techniques…
URL: http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_07.htm . Author Unknown
Approaches in decision making
Decision-making forms a very significant component of success at work, at the same time it can be the cause of failure if the conditions are wrong and if those involved are not on the same page. Confusion with regard to decision-making can cause conflict to teams, supervisors, managers, and team leaders. There are various decision-making approaches that can be adopted depending on the situations, these include: consensus, majority vote, minority (subcommittee), expert, authority with discussion, and authority without discussion (Eisenfuhr, 2011). This will describe the 'consensus' and 'expert' approaches of decision-making with respect to the scenario selected.
In the consensus or group decision-making approach, the manager becomes part of the team and involves everyone who is willing and ready to contribute in the decision-making process. The fact that the word consensus is used does not signify that all those involved fully agree with whatever decision…
Bubnicki, Z. (2003). Analysis and decision making in uncertain systems. New York, NY:
Eisenfuhr, F. (2011). Decision making. New York, NY: Springer.
The activities I will engage in will support the full scope of situational awareness and lead to decisions about what information is available, what information is needed, what resources are available, which resources are already engaged, and which resources are likely to be needed.
As deployment commences, attention will immediately be focused on situational awareness. Continuous monitoring is an essential attribute of situational awareness as incidents are dynamic, and require efficacious information gathering for the actual presenting incident and any developing incidents ("IS 800.b," 2011). The monitoring profile must be responsive to the type of incident and the attendant reporting thresholds ("IS 800.b," 2011). It is essential for both incident monitoring and coordination of effort that critical information pass through established reporting channels as stipulated by the established security protocols ("IS 800.b," 2011).
I will apply an activation and deployment framework early in this situation that will enable…
IS-800.b National Response Framework, An Introduction. (2011, April 27). FEMA Independent Study Program. Retreived from http://www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/is800blst.asp
National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Interim planning guidance for preparedness and response to a mass casualty event resulting from terrorist use of explosives. (2010). Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved from http://emergency.cdc.gov/masscasualties/pdf/cdc_guidance-508.pdf
Yechiam, E., Barron, G., & Erev, I. (2005, June). The role of personal experience in contributing to different patterns of response to rare terrorist attacks.
Journal of Conflict Resolution, 49(3), 430-439. doi: 10.1177/0022002704270847.
Memo on a Ethical Analysis
____ (due date)
Decision making by a Healthcare Leader in case of an Ethical Dilemma
in an interview of my health care administrator of the long care health facility where I work, I asked, "How do you make a wise decision in a situation relating to an ethical dilemma?"
Description of the Answer
It seemed like my question took the administrator by surprise perhaps he did not expect such a question when I requested for an interview. However, he looked composed and amused by my question. Confidently and leaning a little bit forward and supporting his hands on his desk, he responded. He first pointed out the numerous occasions when ethical dilemmas were evident in his health care administration career at the health facility. He said that he learnt over time through many experiences and a little consultation and…
Forester-Miller, H., & Davis, T. (1996). A Practitioner's Guide to Ethical Decision Making. American Counseling Association, 1-5.
Pope, K.S., & Vasquez, M.J. (2010). Ethics in Psychotherapy and Counseling: A Practical Guide. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Assessing a Decision Based on Edward de Bono's Six Thinking Hats Technique
In the book Six Thinking Hats Edward de Bono describes the process of parallel thinking. This process means looking at problems from all angles at once. Edward de Bono uses the example of four people all looking at the same house. One person is looking at the front. Another is looking at the back. The other is looking at the left side. The final person is looking at the right side. These people are all arguing about what the house looks like, while each has a different view of the house. The fact is that what everyone is seeing is part of what the house looks like. But as long as they are all only seeing one side, they will never agree. They will also never really understand what the entire house looks like. The four people…
Daft, R.L. (1997). Management. Fort Worth, TX: Dryden Press.
de Bono, E. (1999). Six Thinking Hats. New York: Back Bay Books.
Furnham, A. (1993). "Reaping the Benefits of Teamwork." Financial Times 19 May 1993: 12-14.
Herriot, P., & Pemberton, C. (1995). Competitive Advantage through Diversity. London: Sage.
Ethics, Values and Decision-Making in Nursing Practice
RIGHT FROM WRONG
A nurse's primary tasks are monitoring the patient's vital signs, administering medications, and helping doctors treat and perform procedures (Williams, 2012). Oftentimes and in many cases, these technical skills must be guided by certain and pertinent moral and ethical principles. This ethical and moral component of her overall responsibility is so important and critical that a code of ethics was created by the American Nurses Association to guide her in inevitable ethical dilemmas (Williams). These ethical dilemmas can include the clash between the principle of confidentiality and the concept of reasonable limits, between two or more ethical principles involving confidentiality, and the influence of culture on values.
. Importance of Ethical Theory to Nursing
In 1991, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations or JCAHO expressed the mandate that institutions shall address ethical issues in patient care and requires…
Badzek, L.A. et al. (1998). Administrative ethics and confidentiality/privacy issues. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing: American Nurses Association. Retrieved on June 14, 2012 from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/tableofContents/Vol131998/NO3Dec1998/PrivacyIssues.aspx
Kotak, D and Lawson, a. (2008). Patient confidentiality and the intensivist. Vol 9 # 2
Journal of the Intensive Care Society: the Intensive Case Society. Retrieved on June
15, 2012 from http://www.journal.ICS.ac.uk/pdf/0902178.pdf
Accounting Information for Decision Making
Corporate Confirming on Water isk (Feb 2010) indicates that the Global Confirming Initiative (GI) G3 Guidelines' five water-related indications (total withdrawal volume by source, ponds considerably impacted by distributions, percentage and total amount of water recycled and used again, total water discharge by quality and destination, and identification water physiques and related habitats impacted by discharges) make the perfect beginning point for assessing and confirming water risks. Within this section, we'll briefly discuss the relevance of all these standards (Power, 2010).
Total water withdrawal by source
Confirming the entire amount of water withdrawn by source adds for knowledge of the general scale of possible influences and threats connected using the company's water use. The entire volume withdrawn offers an indication from the organization's proper size and significance as a user of water and offers to set up a baseline figure for other information relevant to…
GRI, (Global Reporting Initiative). (2006) Sustainability Reporting Guidelines. Version 3.0, Accessed on September 27, 2012 from: www.globalreporting.org/NR/rdonlyres/ED9E9B36-AB54-4DE1-BFF2-5F735235CA44/0/G3_GuidelinesENU.pdf
Power, G. Paddling Upstream - Approaches to Corporate Water Reporting. Business and the Environment, 21. 6 (Jun 2010): 1-3.
Joe has made considerable progress towards contract renewal between UWEAR and Peninsula Hotel chain and has planned a meeting with his management team to discuss the contract renewal. In light of the challenges relating to decline sales and profitability of UWEAR as well as the increased pressures to perform, Joe is optimistic that the contract renewal between these two firms will help in promoting continued success and employment with UWEAR. However, the contract negotiations have created a strained relationship between Joe and Bill lately because of the complexities involved in the negotiation process. Actually, the good relationship between Joe and Bill played an influential role in securing the contract renewal between the two companies despite the significantly cheaper offer from Threads4U. Bill has invited Joe and his wife for a short trip on the yacht, which will provide a good opportunity for both couples to catch up since…
"Have you seen the problem in the accounting documents that Employee B. posted?" Employee A asks Manager C. Manager C. then has the power in the form of decision-making. Either that manager will accept responsibility for Employee A's conflict and make the decision to look further into the issue, or that manager will place the responsibility back upon Employee A in a manner that makes he or she handle the issue themselves. esearchers have long noted that triangulation doesn't resolve an issue, but rather it often prolongs and amplifies disagreements and misunderstandings which leave managers and administrators who find themselves engaged in such tactics looking for constructive alternatives (Hiebert and Klatt, 2001, p. 370).
Triangulation is a tactic that is often utilized by individuals in the workplace, and I have found myself party to the exchange of questioning and communication on more than one occasion. In certain circumstances, office conversation…
Hiebert, M. And Klatt, B. (2001). The encyclopedia of leadership: a practical guide to popular leadership theories and techniques. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Publications. Print.
Lyons, C. (2011 January 24). Managers, beware dangers of triangulation in the workplace. Portsmouth Herald. Evening Ed. Web. Retrieved from: http://www.seacoastonline.com/articles/20110124-BIZ-101240319 on 1 November 2011.
Whether in business or other settings, Chinese people will often demonstrate a notable lack of contentiousness, preferring to say indirectly what an American would not hesitate to say frankly.
If one's professional or social senior in China errs in some way, the junior will seldom correct or criticize him. This is in part because doing so would cause the senior to lose face, which is undesirable. One does not want to be the reason another loses face. Others take a dim view of someone who caused another to lose face in this way.
When constructive criticism is invoked by a senior, or even by an equal, the response from a Chinese person will probably not be very candid. An articulate Chinese person will attempt to use polite conversation to lead the person requesting the criticism to arrive at the same opinion as is felt by the person of whom the…
Barker, Thomas S., Cobb, Steven L. (2000). Survey of Ethics and Cultural Dimensions of MNCs. Competitiveness Review, 10(2), 123-129.
Chen, Charles P. (2004). Transforming Career in Cross-Cultural Transition: The Experience of Non-Western Culture. Counsellor Trainees. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 17(2), 137-144.
Gries, Peter Hays. (1999). A 'China Threat'? World Affairs. 162(2), 63-75.
Hall, Edward, T., Hall, Mildren Reed. (1987). Nonverbal Communication for Educators. Theory Into Practice. 26(1), 364-367.
Uustal (1993) proposed a decision-making model concrete steps arrive a morally acceptable solution faced ethical dilemma. What type ethical dilemma encountered clinical setting? How decision-making model identified Uustal applied situation? Be specific describing steps.
Much of what constitutes nursing is being able to make decisions and carry out tasks according to those decisions. What nursing is often confronted with and feels unable to respond to in an effective manner at times is addressing and resolving specific ethical issues. One such issue we are concerned with here is caregiving for elderly individuals, specifically those at the end of life. Moreover, end-of-life decision making that affects physicians is of concerns to nurses as well since they are directly involved with caring for the individual. We believe quality of care is most imperious in such challenging moments because nurses have to confront a decisive and frail moment in a patient's life and must…
Black, B.P. (2011). Proffesional nursing: Concepts & Challenges (6th edition). Elsevier.
Lundy, K.C., & Janes, S. (2001). Community health nursing: Caring for the public's health. London: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc.
Schumann, J.H., & Alfandre, D. (2008). "Clinical ethical decision making: The four topics approach." Seminars in Medical Practice, 11, 36-42.
White, S.V. (2001). Diann B. Uustal on excellence in ethics and quality in care. Journal for Healthcare Quality, 23(5), 25-29.doi: 10.1111/j.1945-1474.2001.tb00371.x
Moreover, the simulation also made available several branching and interdependent decision pathways. The simulations presented in the beginning pertinent background information and then subsequent screens presented at least three decision choices. Based on the selection, a new screen presented the client's response. The process ended when the students reached the end of a decision pathway. The simulation also took into account that many counseling situations do not have right or correct answers, and may be ambiguous. The realistic choices offered, were meant to encourage students to engage in critical thinking. Moreover, situations were also designed so that more than one ethical code would apply to each situation. But when students chose a decision pathway, the responses were true to life. After making the decision, the students had to confront with the typical consequences of their decisions. Ethical decisions required that students determined the relevant sections of the various ethical codes…
Frame, M.W., Flanagan, C.D, Frederick, J., Gold, R., Harris, S.(1997). You're in the hot seat; an ethical decision-making simulation for counseling students. Simulation and Gaming, March Vol. 28, No. No. 1, 107-115
hile allowing an authoritarian voice to hold final sway over what is done may be least desirable, it may be necessary in a very spread-out group with many areas of expertise, or if the leader bears the brunt of the responsibility for the project and has greater knowledge of the different organizational factors involved.
There is no single perfect formula for forming a cohesive group, making decisions, and arguing in a constructive manner. The only rule that does hold fast and firm, regardless of the composition and authority structure of the group, good listening skills are necessary, as well balanced consideration of all sides of a debate. A healthy group, even a group dominated by a single leader, must not fall into groupthink, or create an environment where only a single opinion is considered valid, and dissent is not permitted.
Engleberg and ynn. orking in groups: Communication principles…
Engleberg and Wynn. Working in groups: Communication principles and strategies. 3rd ed. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.
Decision-making is a key part of what pilots have to do on a regular basis. It is paramount not only that pilots have the ability to make sound decisions, it is also important that they have the skills available to determine which choices are the most sound for any given situation. This essay is an attempt at explaining the process of decision making in pilots, as well as what can be done to make the process more fluid. In a hope to give clarity to the decision making process, how these skills are acquired as well as what can possibly improve one's ability to make better more sound decision making, was researched through the compilation of various writings of research concerning pilot's and the decision making process. It is important to be able to understand what facts play a key role in a pilot's ability to make sound decisions;…
Consumer Behavior Models:
Decision making model, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Freudian Theory, Non- Freudian theory, trait theory, learning process models
Do consumers mainly use logical or emotional thinking when making decisions? This is the essential problem with which all marketers must grapple. Some models of consumer behavior, such as the seven-step decision model, suggest that consumers make decisions very logically, carefully weighing the pros and cons. Others suggest that when consumers make decisions about purchases, they do so in an instinctual fashion, based upon emotions.
The seven-step decision model suggests that people make decisions by first identifying the exact nature of the decision (like buying a new pair of sneakers); assessing personal priorities (such as fashion vs. functionality); identifying their options (Nike vs. New Balance); gathering information and data (talking to someone at a running store or simply talking to their friends); evaluating their options; selecting the best option; and…
How to use the 7 step decision-making model. (2011). Decision making confidence. Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://www.decision-making-confidence.com/7-step-decision-making-model.html
Jean, E. (1999). Cognitive dissonance theory. Meta-Discourses. Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://www.colorado.edu/communication/meta-discourses/Papers/App_Papers/Jean.htm
Maslow's hierarchy of needs. (2010). Honolulu College. Teacher's Guidebook.
Retrieved March 26, 2011 at http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/maslow.htm
Distinctly from John Updike's teenage character Sammy in his short story "A&P," who realizes he has just become an adult; Connie as suddenly realizes she feels like a kid again. Now she wishes the family she usually hates having around could protect her. The actions of the fearsome Arnold, are foreshadowed early on, when he warns Connie, the night before, after first noticing her outside a drive-in restaurant: "Gonna get you, baby" (paragraph 7). From then on, Arnold's quest to "get" Connie feels, to Connie and the reader, in its dangerous intensity, much like the predatory evilness of malevolent fairy tale characters, e.g., the Big Bad olf, or the evil stepmothers (and/or stepsisters) that fix on Snow hite, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, and other innocent young female characters as prey. And Connie at the end of "here Are You Going, here Have You Been" wishes, like Little Red Riding Hood, Snow…
Kafka, Franz. "The Metamorphosis." E-text. 28 May 2007 http://www.mala.bc.ca/Johnstoi/stories/kafka-E.htm
Oates, Joyce Carol. "Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been?" Celestial Time
Piece: A Joyce Carol Oates Home Page. 28 May 2007 http://jco.usfca.edu / works / wgoing/text.html>
Updike, John. "A&P." Tigertown.com. 28 May 2007 http://www.tigertown.com/whatnot/updike/html
Groups Make Decisions?
Decision making by an individual is a straightforward process due to the unilateral source thereof. ut when it comes to group decision making, the matter has several complications particular when there are disparate opinions and several issues that needed addressed. Group decision making even becomes more challenging when there is a minority that is forming dissenting opinions. The paper by De Dreu and West is focused on this especially in determining if minority dissent and individual creativity hinders or contributes to group decision making. To prove or disprove this hypothesis, two studies were made where the first "involved self-managed postal service teams responsible for the distribution of parcels in a particular geographic region while the second involved semiautonomous product and management teams in a variety of organizations (De Dreu & West, 2001, p. 1193)." The results of the two studies proved that minority dissent is a positive…
De Dreu, C.K.W. & West, M.A. (2001). "Minority dissent and team innovation: The importance of participation in decision making." Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(6): 1191-1201. doi 10.1037//0021-9010.86.6.1191
decision making points a nonprofit organization. Study Boys & Girls Club New ochelle (http://www.bgcnr.org/-great.aspx) info find. Create a case study utilizing information learned Managerial Decision Making.
Boys & Girls Club of New ochelle
What is the history of the organization? What is the mission of the organization?
The Boys and Girls of New ochelle was initiated in 1929 aiming at safeguarding the interests of youth as the big sufferers during harsh economic times. Through the efforts of well-wishers, the Club has continually made efforts to meet the needs of the youth and the surrounding community (Bazerman, 1997).
The Club continues to attract grants and donations from individuals and organizations with the appreciation that youth empowerment is of great value to the community. To date Boys & Girls Club of New ochelle has boosted the potential of the youth by helping in the upbringing of successful adults and persons who are…
Bazerman, M.H.M.D.A. 1997. Judgment In Managerial Decision Making 7th Edition, London, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Chugh, D. (2004). Societal and managerial implications of implicit social cognition: Why milliseconds matter. Social Justice Research, 17(2) 155-175.
Managerial Social Responsibility - Volkswagen Diesel Scandal
In 2015, Volkswagen was accused of installing secret software in its engine management computers to cheat strict fuel economy and emissions tests. In order to determine the ethical decision Volkswagen should have made, one can use ethical decision-making models, such as: Utilitarianism; Kantian Ethics; Ethical Rights; and Distributive Justice. Though these four models use different approaches, one or more of them can result in a justified recommendation for the correct ethical decision that Volkswagen should have made.
Facts Underpinning the Ethical Dilemma
In 2015, Volkswagen was accused of installing secret software in its engine management computers to cheat strict fuel economy and emissions tests. In 2014-2015, U.S. emissions experts tested some Volkswagen vehicles and found deliberate fraud through the use of "defeat device" software that turns emissions equipment on for emissions tests and off for actual driving (Plungis & Hull, 2015). The deception…
Ewing, J., 2016. VW presentation in '06 showed how to foil emissions tests. [Online]
Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/27/business/international/vw-presentation-in-06-showed-how-to-foil-emissions-tests.html?smid=tw-share&_r=1
[Accessed 27 April 2016].
Plungis, J. & Hull, D., 2015. VW's emissions cheating found by curious clearn-air group. [Online]
quantum and incremental technological change? Why are these types of change important to organizations?
Quantum and incremental technological changes are distinguished as two separate forces in terms of their impact upon organizations. Quantum changes are conceptualized as technological changes that result "in the innovation of new kinds of goods and services, such as development of the Internet and the development of genetic engineering" (Promoting innovation, 2014,-Page Out). Quantum changes thus generate the necessity for new business models. A good example of this is the creation of Netflix as a way of disseminating movies and television shows vs. The old model of Blockbuster which sold items via brick-and-mortar stores. Blockbuster's model quickly became defunct because of quantum changes in technology. In contrast, "incremental technological change is change that refines existing technology and leads to gradual improvements or refinements in products over time, such as Intel's incremental improvements to its original microprocessor"…
Promoting innovation, product development, and entrepreneurship. (2014). Page Out. Retrieved:
Organizational decision-making. (2014). Management 481. Retrieved from:
Components contributing to the library's decision making process include the library per se; its purposes' its structure and organization' its functions and forms/kinds of data; its resources in/for staff/volunteers; its facilities; its equipment.
Management teams and other groups play a key role in strategic decision making," Nancy H. Leonard, Laura Beauvais, and Richard Scholl (2005) relate the importance of involving groups in strategic decision making. "These groups include top management teams (Hambrick and Mason, 1984), boards of directors (Forbes, 1999; Pettigrew, 1992), and planning task forces (Van de Ven, 1980)" (Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl ¶ 2). To effectively manage work groups and decision-making teams, Leonard, Beauvais, and Scholl stress, managers must understand that underlying psychological cognitive styles and social interaction of an individual impact them and their decision making. hen mangers better understand the concept of group cognitive style, they may be able to create groups with various strengths based…
Burrows, Toby. "The 'digital library hammer'?" The Australian Library Journal. Australian Library and Information Association. 2004. HighBeam Research. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.highbeam.com .
Carpenter, Kenneth E. "A Library Historian Looks at Librarianship." Daedalus 125.4 (1996): 77+. Questia. 1 Mar. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000447498 .
The Columbia World of Quotations. Columbia University Press. New York. 1996, 2 Jan. 2009. www.bartleby.com/66/.
Dunham, J.. Developing Effective School Management. Routledge. New York.. Questia. 1995. 1 Mar. 2009. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=108823897 .
We humans make a whole lot of important decisions daily. While some are very unconscious biological decisions, most are decisions arising from conscious efforts. All human activities center on decision-making. This makes all of us decision-makers. As a matter of fact, every sound decision choice begins with a successive, focused, strategic-thinking process. Self-incurred tutelage still holds a whole lot of people bound. Tutelage simply implies that the person involved is unable to make his or her own decisions. In this tutelage, self-incurred is not based on the inability to reason, but may be due to lack on courage and resolution to make use of it without anything or anyone telling that individual what to do (Arsham, 2015).
How Human Beings Make both isky and Logical Decisions
People are inundated with both big and small decisions daily. One area of cognitive psychology that has received lots of attention is, understanding…
Acevedo, M., & Krueger, J. (2004). Two egocentric sources of the decision to vote: The voter's illusion and belief in personal relevance. Political Psychology, 115-134.
Arsham, H. (2015, September 8). Applied Management Science: Making Good Strategic Decisions. Retrieved from http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/opre640.htm
deBruin, W., Parker, A., & Fischoff, B. (2007). Individual differences in adult decision- making competence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology., 938-956.
Dietrich, C. (2010). Decision Making: Factors that Influence Decision Making, Heuristics Used, and Decision Outcomes. Retrieved from Student Pulse: http://www.studentspulse.com/articles/180/decision-making-factors-that - influence-decision-making-heuristics-used-and-decision-outcomes
Marketing Canon: Approaches Based on Principles for Influencing Decision Making in Firms
Operating in several geographical locations, quite a number of firms have many product lines, which many marketing scholars believe are ever confronted by myriad dilemmas. o facilitate consistent decision-making processes, it is vital for the firms to come up with overall but common marketing strategies while at the same time, it is very essential for firms to permit their employees the ease to make their specific circumstances suit marketing decisions. However, allowing such flexible measures always leads to challenges in making marketing decisions because everyone, including managers often project dissimilar mental pictures and models of marketing.
Existing literature suggest two approaches for formulating a common means to making decisions that provides different levels of flexibility. he first approach is that firms could depend on mechanical approaches that influence decisions made by stipulating standard modes of operations (Homburg and…
The bias as referred to by Saunders et al. (2012)make an impact on reliability by: the general disposition and behavioral attributes of the researcher while in the fieldwork may cause different reactions; care has been taken to assimilate questions in way so as to not be suggestive in its approach. The utmost integrity can only be achieved by means of faith of the interviewee in the researcher that has been followed in this work religiously.
The role played by the respondent is as crucial as that of the interviewer. He must not be, in any way be prejudiced, about the researcher or the work (Saunders et al., 2012). The possibility of respondents not giving unbiased view and opinion to questions and queries cannot be ruled out even if the researcher takes all the measures to win wholehearted support. That is specially so because of the fact that the questionnaire may contain sensitive and personal questions to which one may refrain from giving honest answers, despite the fact that the researcher will make efforts to build trust prior to giving questionnaire, and it is but natural that the subjects will be aware about the delicate nature of certain questions and may decide not to reveal and answer certain questions.
On the other hand validity can be classified as the precision and accuracy of a variable's fits in a concept. Issues related to validity are generally heightened in survey designs as they assess subject's values and beliefs (Bouma, 2010). Considering, the aims and results of this research study, Yin (2013) offers that it is practicable to simplify case studies to hypothetical propositions. However, this should not extend to include populations and the aims of any study ought to be to relate and
The cost of debt is 13%. The cost of common stock, using CAPM, is as follows:
The cost of preferred stock is (10/90)(1-(2/90) = (.11111) / (.9778) = 11.3%
The company's WACC is (.3)(13)+(.16)(11.3)+(.54)(14.15) = 13.349%
The expected cash flow from the investments is the weighted average:
The standard deviation for the smelting is 2133, while the standard deviation of paving is 10,234.
The coefficient of variation for the smelting is 0.1315 for the smelting and .6478 for the paving.
The paving option has the higher risk. The standard deviation is a good measure of risk and the paving option has a much higher standard deviation. Further, it has a higher coefficient of variation as well. On both measures, the paving option has the higher risk.
7/8. The net present values and IRRs for these two are as follows. First, the smelting:
ehavioral Finance and Human Interaction a Study of the Decision-Making
Processes Impacting Financial Markets
Understanding the Stock Market
Contrasting Financial Theories
Flaws of the Efficient Market Hypothesis
Financial ubbles and Chaos
The stock market's dominant theory, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) has been greatly criticized recently for its failure to account for human errors, heuristic bias, use of misinformation, psychological tendencies, in determining future expected performance and obtainable profits.
Existing evidence indicates that past confidence in the EMH may have been misdirected, as the theory's models do not show a thorough understanding of trading operations in a realistic light.
Researchers have suggested that a variety of anomalies and inconsistent historical results demand that traditional financial theories, namely the EMH, be reconstructed to include human interaction as a key decision-making process that directly affects the performance of financial markets.
This research paper aims to determine whether or not there is a…
Barrett, Larry. (January, 2001). Emotional investing a recipe for disaster. CNET News.com.
Bernstein, Peter. (1998). Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Brennan, Phil. (March 12, 2002) The Great Stock Market Scam. NewsMax.com.
Business Week. (September 29, 1997) The Perils of Investing Too Close to Home.
Conflicts and Communication at the Work Place
a) The conflict scenario as narrated in Case 10-2 has the following key elements that were important to analyze before an actual model for conflict resolution was taken:
The cause of the conflict provided in the scenario would have been the first element to be considered before any conclusions were jumped at by the conflict resolver. The paramount mode this could have been done was through giving an ear to each of the parties involved in the conflict, in this case, eese and Patel. This element would have ensured that the conflict was entirely solved other than the temporal act just to fulfill the company's and boss' objective (Borisoff, 1997).
The extent of conflict was supposed to be analyzed to help the resolver know the intensity of conflict resolution to be applied.
Time pressure for the defined job was an influence…
Boin, F. (2009, April 2). The Power of Technology in Marketing. Retrieved from http://home.snu.com/~hculbert/comintboin.htm
Terrence, H. (2010, August 21). The Essence of Mobile Technology. Retrieved from http://.mobcommnu.edu/~hculbert/comint.htm
Budjac, C. (2006). Conflict Management: A Practical Guide to Developing Negotiation
Strategies. New York: Prentice Hall.
Decisions by School Superintendents
Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct of Teachers
To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society - President Theodore oosevelt.
That teaching is at one and the same time an intellectual as well as a moral endeavor, is an idea that is well entrenched in the minds of men since centuries past. The sayings of great teachers of ancient times bear ample testimony to this premise, which continues to hold sway across nations and vastly differing civilizations over the years.
In the sense that it takes care of the general well being of young students entrusted to the care of an educational institution and ensures that they are treated fairly and accorded the respect they are due as persons, teaching is most certainly a moral activity. It is concerned with building and maintaining relationships of trust with pupils…
Anderson, D.S., & Biddle, B.J. (Eds.) (1991). Knowledge for Policy: Improving Education through Research. New York: The Falmer Press.
Ave, M. (2002, April 24). Jesuit High teacher fired amid misconduct claim. Retrieved December 19, 2002 at http://www.sptimes.com/2002/04/24/TampaBay/Jesuit_High_teacher_f.shtml .
Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Benson, P. (1997). All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
"I am always concerned about corruption" Kelly said. "For me, myself, personally, it is absolutely critical to the good order, to the function of this department, that we have a well-staffed, a well-trained, a proactive Internal Affairs Bureau, and that's what we have" (Baker & McGinty 2010, p.2).
This policy has not always proved to be popular, and many officers are still resistant to the idea of heavily policing the department internally, stating that it makes officers overly cautious on patrol that the NYPD will not 'back them up' in their decision-making. However, Kelly and others state that it was vital to give Internal Affairs "equal footing with the detective, patrol and personnel bureaus" to ensure that the police department upheld its ideals " (Baker & McGinty 2010, p.2). The relationship between Internal Affairs and other departments has often been fraught. There has been resistance to the notion of 'ratting…
Baker, Al & Jo Craven McGinty. (2010, March 28). NYPD confidential. The New York Times.
Retrieved October 7, 2010 at http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/28/nyregion/28iab.html?pagewanted=all
Becker, Andrew. (2010, March 30). Homeland Security IG in conflict with agencies on corruption probe. The Washington Post. Retrieved October 7, 2010 at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/03/29/AR2010032903207.html
Conflict resolution. (2003) M&A Capital Solutions. Retrieved October 7, 2010 at http://www.macapitalsolutions.com/information/conflict.asp
Building Trust and espect through Constructive Conflict esolution
One of the most significant advantages of genuine conflict resolution (i.e. through effective communication, validation, and specific methodologies that address underlying causes of conflict) in the workplace is that it typically generates increased mutual respect and trust among coworkers (Blair, 2003; Kinicki & Williams, 2005; Wisinski, 1993). Whereas superficial (i.e. supervisor-imposed) solutions to isolated conflicts tends only to resolve those specific conflicts in the short-term, more in-depth resolutions can eliminate conflicts at a more fundamental level by addressing and actually resolving the underlying sources of those conflicts in principle (Blair, 2003; Kinicki & Williams, 2005; Wisinski, 1993).
The problem is that isolated, superficial, and primarily operational solutions that focus only on the outcome of the negotiation do not address the respective sentiments of the individuals involved (Kinicki & Williams, 2005). Conversely, when more thorough solutions address the underlying issues at the root…
Blair, G. (2003). Groups that Work. Washington, DC: IEEE Press.
Daft, R. (2005) Management. 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western.
Kinicki, a. And Williams, B. (2005). Management: A Practical Approach. New York:
Our interpretations, Mediation Strategies and Communication Types
The Nature of Conflict -- an introduction
hat is Conflict?
Conflict as Perception
Conflict as Feeling
Conflict as Actions
hat causes conflict?
Link between Interpersonal Conflicts and Effective Communication
Mediation and Dispute Resolution
The Nature of Conflict -- An introduction:
Conflict is a naturally existing problem in our society and the world as a whole. Conflict exists at all levels and it is so a certain extent quite natural and inevitable. ith a functionalist approach, it can be said that the existence of conflict is somewhat important for the society. It is however an understatement to say that we live amidst conflict. Conflict is present at every level in society and people at every second are reassuring each other as to how they are having a "discussion" instead of a conflict when…
Bellafiore, Donna. 2010. Interpersonal Conflict and effective communication. Journal.
Bolton, R. (1986). People skills: How to assert yourself, listen to others, and resolve conflicts
(2nd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN: 067162248X
Cesaratto, T., (2006). The Good Will Hunting technique. Communication and Critical/Cultural Studies, 3, 307.328.
Decisions in Paradise III With Paretto Analysis
Decisions in Paradise II
Cesar a ivera
Decisions in Paradise II
This is Nik's problem
Nik has landed on Kava an island that is faced with numerous challenges including tidal waves/tsunami; typhoons/hurricanes; tornadoes; floods; fires; volcanic eruptions; earthquakes; HIV / AIDS; petroleum spill; high risk for avian flu; and terrorism, and has been asked to helped establish a business there. Aside from the above problems that impact the potential business, other challenges include the location and site being a mess; H procedures being chaotic, disrupted and confused organizational structure; and conflicting and conflicted workforce due to diverse composition, beliefs, attitudes, and ideologies. Employees in the past, the wrong mix and too many, barely stayed and so business management and environment became increasingly chaotic.
Nik's tasks, according to Alex, consist of establishing a greater presence in Kava. Ways of establishing that presence…
Decision Making Styles." Leadership Management. Leadership Management
Development Center, Inc., 1997. Web. 6 Jun 2011.
"Introduction Human Resources Applies to Any Size of Organization." Library's Human
Resources Blog. Free Management Library, 2010. Web. 6 Jun 2011.
Ethically, this may not be quite as questionable, but when matters of public health are concerned, and whenever the stakes of the decision-making are great, it is wise both to avoid apparent as well as actual conflicts of interests.
Should NIH scientists (compared to scientists in the private sector) be held to a higher degree of regulation of conflict of interest?
The NIH is a body of the federal government. The public must trust the government that the scientists have their own interests at heart, first and foremost. An individual who watches a drug commercial for Celebrex knows that it is being advertised by a self-interested commercial entity, but when the public hears a report provided by his or her government, composed by a supposedly disinterested body of scientists, he or she is more inclined to trust the evidence. Thus the NIH should be held to a higher standard.
On the organizational side, consensus decision making that involves everyone working together to develop an agreement that all of the people can accept is preferred to totalitarian rule. Unfortunately, the later may be a reality that employees must cope with. In this instance, tolerance will probably be necessary to accept the orders of another even though they are contrary to what one actually believes. The use of persuasion may be useful to convince an authoritative figure to change his/her mind. Knowledge and mutual respect are two of the most valuable factors in persuading a leader. Playing office politics is the most dangerous form of persuasion because managers who ignore the views of others are typically insecure and lack self-confidence. Therefore, they will be threatened by an employee who they feel is going behind their backs or are trying to undermine their authority. Diplomacy, acting in a way that does not…
Considering first the importance of understanding conflict in the organization, it seems reasonable to argue that Jameson's observations about the humanness of the organization and the implications of humanness for the development of conflict are indeed quite apt. As reported by Jameson, conflict is an inevitable part of a system in which human beings are required to cooperate in order to achieve goals. Further, Jameson's analysis of conflict as having different typologies also appears to be relevant. Analysis of one's personal life provides indications that there are different types of conflicts and that there are different types of resolutions that must be employed in order to resolve conflict. Given that conflict can have such a negative impact on the organization, its operations, employee morale and productivity, organizations need to have some understanding of conflict and the specific steps that can be taken to resolve conflict.
While there appears to be…
Jameson, J.K. (1999). Toward a comprehensive model for the assessment and management of intraorganizational conflict: Developing the framework. International Journal of Conflict Management, 10(3), 268-295.
Mittler, J.E. (2007). Know your management rights. Industrial Management, 49(3), 26-30.
This, according to the author, is precisely the reason for the accident.
When the controller noticed the two aircraft in the same altitude range, he was distracted by the malfunctioning phone system, while the other controller was having a break. Nobody was there to help with the extra workload, causing the fatal delay. Human factors relating to the air traffic control crew therefore include the need to take breaks, the tendency to be distracted and the tendency to make incorrect decisions.
It is also interesting to note that the on-board conflict alert systems were functioning properly, but the pilots were waiting for confirmation from traffic control to take action. Had a more distributive paradigm been implemented, the pilots may have been able to share some of the burden of traffic control and avoided collision.
Another interesting aspect of human error is the management of air traffic control. In addition to…
Air Safety Week (2004, May 31). Human Failings Underscored in Report of 2002 Mid-Air Collision Over Germany. Online database: FindArticles.com
Brown, Don. (2005, Dec. 7). Say Again? #57: uberlingen. AVweb.
Kelly, Wallace E. (1999, Oct. 24-29). Conflict Detection and Alerting for Separation Assurance Systems. Draft for 18th Digital Avionics Systems Conference. St. Louis, Missouri. http://www.bluerockresearch.com/papers/dasc_kelly.pdf
However, such strategy has the outcome in compliance in absence of commitment and feelings of frustration and resentment.
The fourth strategy is I lose a little, you win a little. The placate yield style represents a concern for the effects of conflict on the welfare and durability of all relationships that is entered. The hypothesis is that human relationships are so flexible that they cannot endure the trauma of working through normal differences. Therefore, the inclination is towards withdrawing from the conflict and pleases others by ignoring, denying and avoiding conflict. When the differences continue it is found worthwhile in placating and submitting oneself to ones objectives being seen as effective modes of self-protection and safeguarding our relationships with others. One-sided domination in ones relationship is evident in such type of strategies.
Finally, the strategy is 'I win, you win'. This approach to conflict resolution is regarded as the dominant…
Conflict Management Styles" (2002) Retrieved at http://www.njit.edu/activities/conflict.pdf . Accessed 14 September, 2005
Hartwick, Jon; Barki, Henri. "Conflict Management Styles of Users and Analysts, and Their
Impact on Conflict Resolution" (1999) Retrieved at http://csdl2.computer.org/comp/proceedings/hicss/1999/0001/07/00017036.PDFAccessed 12 September, 2005
Lingren, Herbert G. "Managing Conflict Successfully" Retrieved at http://ianrpubs.unl.edu/family/heg181.htm . Accessed 12 September, 2005
The organization is Fort Belvoir Community Hospital, which is a new hospital. FBCH is a joint military hospital replacing the old Dewitt Hospital in the same location. The hospital is part of the military health system in Washington, DC, an area also served by a wealth of civilian hospitals and complementary medical services. With a focus on innovation and the military market, FBCH plays an important role for the military community in the region, as a provider of health care.
The Hospital is relatively new, and one of the challenges that it faces is to build the organization from the ground up. This means setting out policies for just about everything, building new systems from scratch, and also it means building a new organizational culture. Many staff members have prior experience either at Dewitt or at other military hospital facilities, though some are new staff members or have…
Amason, A., Thompson, K., Hochwarter, W. & Harrison, A. (1995) Conflict: An important dimension in successful management teams. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved February 28, 2015 from https://sites.fas.harvard.edu/~soc186/AssignedReadings/Amason-Conflict.pdf
George, G., Miroga, J. & Omweri, A. (2013). Organizational conflict management strategies on employee job satisfaction: A case study of Nzoia Sugar Company. European Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 5 (3) 177-186
Lyons, S. & Kuron, L. (2014). Generational differences in the workplace: A review of the evidence and directions for future research. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Vol. 35 (S1) S139-S157.
Culturally, the Bush administration failed miserably at understanding what needed to be done within the Iraqi cultures. For example, Diamond notes that the U.S. tried to build security through an Iraqi police for4ce but that effort "withered from haste, inefficiency, poor planning, and sheer incompetence." Cops were rushed on the job with "too little training, insufficient vetting, and shamefully inadequate equipment" (Diamond, 2004). The U.S. lacked "an effective political strategy for postwar Iraq"; the U.S. never grasped the fact (based on Iraqi culture) that while "most Iraqis were grateful for having been liberated" from Saddam, that gratitude was mixed with "deep suspicion" of the real motives of the Americans. In reality, the Iraqis saw a "estern, Christian, essentially Anglo-American" power occupying their country.
Also, the Americans mistakenly thought that briefcases full of cash would bring political security. American officials in 2004, eager to hold elections in Iraq, "...offered some Sunni…
Collier, Paul. "The Market for Civil War." Foreign Policy issue 136 (2003): 38-46.
Diamond, Larry. "What Went Wrong in Iraq?" Foreign Affairs 83.5 (2004): 34-56.
El-Khawas, Mohamed a. "Nation Building in a War Zone: The U.S. Record in Iraq, 2003-
2007." Mediterranean Quarterly 19.1 (2008): 42-62.
Decision or Action of Moral Gravity
There was a recent situation in which my internet service provider egregiously overstepped its boundaries and transgressed upon my service. In doing so, a specific member of this organization made a decision of moral gravity that resulted in action that is likely illegal as well as unethical. The crux of the situation is that while getting technical support for the installation of a new modem -- which was a 'forced' upgrade on the part of the service provider, which claimed that my internet outages were attributed to a modem I had that was approximately three years old -- the representative told me she was concerned that I was paying too high of a price for my service. She stated that she wanted to look into alternative plans that could potentially lower the price. I gave her permission to call me back the next day…
Gioia, D.A. (1992). Pinto fires and personal ethics: a script analysis of missed opportunities. Journal of Business Ethics. 11(5/6): 379-389.
Ludwig, C.E., Longenecker, C.O. (1993). The Bathsheba syndrome: the ethical failure of successful leaders. Journal of Business Ethics. 12(4), 265-273.
Urbany, J.E., Reynolds, T.J., Phillips, J.M. (2008). MIT Sloan Management Review. 49(4), 75-80.
The issue is that the purchasing manager is uncertain about what to do. There is an intimation that the purchasing manager should purchase from Tabitha's, regardless of whether the bid is competitive, but that has not been made clear.
There are two reasons why this is an issue. The first is that the CEO has not been 100% clear on this issue. If he is ordering the purchasing manager to do a deal with Tabitha's, then he has not stated that explicitly. As a result, there is ambiguity here. The second reason this is an issue is because there is uncertainty as to whether Tabitha's can handle the order. If that was not in doubt, then there would be little reason to worry -- the purchasing manager is free to switch suppliers for any reason at the end of a contract. Only the ambiguity with respect to the…
However, according to this model, what can be termed as the best way is defined by how the decision made marries with the content and context of the matter at hand. The contingency model establishes that a decision that is made for a particular context may not be applicable in another, even though the contexts may be similar. It also establishes that a unified role is played by the managers who have the decision making capacity. When faced with a particular issue, the managers must find the best way to deal with the situation and they have to create an effective decision process which minimizes conflict. Whatever the situation, the management has the obligation to analyze it and evaluate the assumption that need to be drawn to align the organization with the changed environment. The conclusion must be evaluated on the basis of the effectiveness, efficiency and the solution it…
Ethically, the social worker did everything in the correct manner. The NASW Code of Ethics states that "when social workers provide counseling services to families, couples or groups, social workers should seek agreement among the parties involved concerning each individual's right to confidentiality" (Code of Ethics, 2014). In this case, the social worker accomplished that by requesting confidentiality agreements before the group sessions began. Actions to be taken now include the fact that the social worker should speak with the party that leaked the information as well as the injured party. Legally speaking, the court system would not likely take kindly to a case such as this nature. Ethically speaking however, the case is a good example of just how careful the social worker has to be. Excluding the patient that leaked the information from participation in the group setting would be a good first step. The rationale for these…
KILMANN'S CONFLICT Management MODEL
assessment of conflict and style
Conflict management assessment using the Thomas Kilmann Mode
According to Kuhn and Poole (2000), conflict management style entails the consistent and general orientation towards a conflict situation or the other party. It manifests in the behaviors observable forming a pattern and sharing a characteristic that is common over time (Kuhn & Poole, 2000).
The conflict mode instrument by Kilmann assesses behavior of individual in a conflict situation. The mode instrument looks at conflict situations as those where individuals have differed incompatible concerns. In these situations, behaviors of individuals fall in two distinct dimensions. One is assertiveness where an individual seeks to satisfy strongly his or her own needs. Second is cooperativeness where the extent that an individual makes attempts to meet the other party's concerns. These two distinctions on observable behavior among individual in a conflict situation yield to the five…
Deutsch, M., Coleman, P.T., & Marcus, E.C. (2006). The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kuhn, T., & Poole, M.S. (2000). Do conflict management styles affect group decision making? Human Communication Research, 26(4), 558-590.
Thomas, K.W., & Kilmann, R.H. (1974). Thomas-Kilmann Conflict MODE Instrument. Tuxedo, NY:: Xicom.
The primary theoretical models of conflict include the cooperative model, principled negotiation, human needs model, conflict transformation, and conflict transmutation (Dixit, 2004). Theoretical bases for conflict resolution include both macro-level and micro-level frameworks that guide understanding of human behavior and decision-making (Cunningham, 1998). Many theories of conflict resolution at some point refer to human needs theory, which helps clarify sources of conflict as being traceable to unmet needs. Conflict arises when fundamental needs are not being met, and resolutions are more likely to arise when parties recognize what their needs are as well as those of their opponents. Conflict resolution theories based on needs theory focus on how multiple parties with differential needs can reach peaceable and mutually beneficial solutions (Burton, 1990). The goal of conflict resolution will be to attain win-win outcomes, which may ironically require both personal humility and the offering of concessions.
Although human needs…
e. Lindle 1996). Also, the conflict management design under the SBM structure does not work well under dictatorship; in fact when the principal becomes too domineering, the researches showed obvious instances of dissatisfaction amongst the staff and decreased incentive from the students to work and engage in the learning process. The conflict management design under the SBM structure is heavily dependent upon the contribution of the committees and cannot succeed without it. Numerous studies have shown that the most ineffective principals have been the ones who have appointed committees but haven't given them enough authority over the real executive tasks or enough room to perform and contribute to the overall managerial structure. The problem, as highlighted in numerous studies, with this approach is that there is an obvious tussle for authority between the principal, the teachers and the peripheral agencies like the investors. This tussle has a negative effect on…
Arnott, M.A. And Raab, C.D. (2000). The Governance of Schooling: Comparative Studies of Devolved Management. Routledge. London.
Bryk, A., Sebring, P., Easton, J., Luppescu, S., Thum, Y., Nagaoka, J. And Bilcer, D. (1998a). 'Chicago School Reform: Linkages Between Local Control, Organizational Change, and Student Achievement. The American Educational Research Association. San Diego.
Bryk, A., Sebring, P., Kerbow, D., Rollow, S. And Easton, J. (1998b). Charting Chicago School Reform: Democratic Localism as Lever for Change, Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
David, J. (1996). The Who, What, and Why of Site-based Management. Educational Leadership, 53-4:4-9.
Academic Skills Subscales
The Brief Battery for the WJJ-NU consists 9 tests given in the entire exam with three broad academic tests that include:
Broad Written Language, Broad Math, and Broad eading.
The Brief Battery of the tests include: Applied Problems, Letter-Word Identification, calculation, Spelling, Passage Comprehension, Writing Samples, Fluency, eading, Writing Fluency and Math Fluency.
Describe the age range: Ages 2-90+ (K to graduate school)
State the purpose of the instrument:
The instrument is designed to administer achievement measurement as well as designing the diagnostic capabilities for clinical, educational and research purposes. The Brief Battery instrument is also to assist professionals with the tool to yield information in a lesser testing time. Moreover, the testing tool is used as screen tool, instrument for monitor, tool for revaluation the progress of students, and assessing students' academic strengths and weakness. The instrument can also be used as problem solving models.
References (provide APA formatted reference based on test review found in the MMY)
Here is a sample of a correct APA reference for a pretend test review in the MMY
Yearbook and Tests in Print. Yearbook: #.
R. A. Spies, J. F. Carlson, & K. F. Geisinger (Eds.), The eighteenth mental measurements yearbook. 2010.
Personal Response: After reviewing this test and considering all that you have learned in this review, would you recommend that this test be used to assess the students that it is designed for? State why you believe that this test would or would not be useful in assessing this population.
Justification Report for American Beverage Corporation
"There is a growing sense of the world's interdependence and connectedness, and an understanding that progress is an illusion if it destroys the conditions for life to thrive on earth" (Buchholz, 1991). Twenty years ago, business ethicist and university professor Rogene Buccholz made the point that preserving natural resources should be a priority for the business community. Since that time, corporate social responsibility has become an even more important goal. Consequently, we prepared this report to provide the management team of American Beverage Corporation (ABC) with recommendations on launching a corporate environmental and sustainability program.
There are many reasons that ABC should commit to sustainable practices and principles, not least of which is protecting the earth's resources. But as this report discusses, there are compelling economic and business reasons to go green as well. By launching a green initiative ABC will realize the following…
Not only do green practices give ABC a competitive advantage in the market, but like many companies, we expect to be able to sell waste materials to a manufacturer that repurposes or recycles the waste for a profit. General Mills offers one such example, selling the oat hulls left over after making Cheerios cereal. General Mills is reported to have sold 86% of their solid waste in 2006, making more profit from selling it than they spent on disposal (Jenkins, 2010).
Another savings opportunity associated with going green comes in the form of lower taxes. The government is currently providing businesses with more green tax credits and deductions than ever before. By installing a Geothermal heating system, ABC can qualify for a tax credit of 30%. So in addition to sizable savings on our energy bills, we save 30% off the total cost of the system.
Trust Between Management and Physicians in Hospitals
Trust: 1 a: assured reliance on the character, ability, strength, or truth of someone or something; b: one in which confidence is placed; 2 a: dependence on something future or contingent - Merriam-Webster Online.
Do families of patients who are hospitalized for injuries or illness "trust" that their loved ones are getting the best possible care? Of course families do, in all cases, have an "assured reliance" (Merriam-Webster) on a doctor's "character, ability, strength [and] truth," when it comes to care-giving of family members. So, there can be no doubt: the element of trust has always been part of the medical community's pivotal responsibilities when it comes to care-giving to injured or ill citizens.
And meantime, if trust is indeed a "key element" in forging strong work relationships between doctors and administrators - with the good health and well-being of patients at risk,…
Jones, Bradley E. Trust, Physicians, and a CEO's Skills. Healthcare Executive, 18, 54.
Succi, Melissa J.; Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; & Alexander, Jeffrey A. Trust Between Managers
And Physicians in Community Hospitals: The Effects of Power Over Hospital
Decisions. Journal of Healthcare Management, 43, 397.
Code of Conduct Framework
The Board in charge of every firm has the responsibility to come up with, and record in writing a code stating the processes and practices that the company should follow for fair UPSI disclosure, as per the principles given in the Regulations; Schedule A. Schedule A gives specific minimum standards such as equality in accessing information, policy publication e.g. those about dividend, pursuits of inorganic growth, meetings and calls with analysts, recording the meetings and calls in writing among others. Furthermore, the Boards in charge of all listed market intermediaries and corporations are required to come up with a code that regulates, supervises and makes reports of trading activities by the staff and any other connected party (Nishith Desai Associates, 2016).
Any employee of a Company is allowed to present a complaint, which should be made with no ulterior motive or out of reasonable…
Conflicts are natural. They are expected to arise in any interaction involving two or more individuals. No two people think, act or react in a similar manner. This variability offers the opportunity for a conflict to arise in any situation. Without conflict, life in organizations would be stagnant. The future of the organization would be jeopardized. Dissonance, or a need to find a better way of doing things, is often the seed, which spurs on the team to higher levels of investigation and searches. The origin of conflict can be often traced to false perception. (urton, 1968) In an organization conflict can play an important role in offering the workers and the management direction and purpose in spite of the difference of opinions between workers.
Through this paper, I hope to gain an insight to the various conditions that can cause conflicts between individuals in organizations. My personal experience in…
Blitman, Bruce A. (2002). Conflict resolution techniques. Commercial Law Bulletin., 17, 4, 12-15
Brewer, Neil, Mitchell, Patricia, & Weber, Nathan. (2002). Gender role, organizational status, and conflict management styles. International Journal of Conflict Management., 13, 1, 78-94
Burton, J.W. (1968). System, States, Diplomacy and Rules. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Dunlop, Tara. (2003). The Impact of diversity and culture on organizational conflict. Retrieved July 12, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.unomaha.edu/~wwwpa/project/dunlop.html
Conflict and Its esolution in the eal Estate Industry
In real estate, all experienced sales people will have an unhappy customer to deal with at some point in their careers. Those who are most skilled know how to utilize specific techniques that will defuse or reduce the intensity of the situation. In every instance, conflict and resolution techniques will often work in conjunction with each other. (Tamper, 1999) (Furlong, 2010)
For real estate professionals, the key is being able to avoid one and use the other to satisfy complaints. To fully understand these variables requires focusing on relevant issues and key questions. Together, these elements will offer specific insights which are highlighting how the two work in conjunction with each other. It is at this point, when they can reduce conflicts and provide more effective resolution techniques. (Tamper, 1999) (Furlong, 2010)
In real estate, the customer relationship is…
Beirne, M. (2006). The Property Management Tool Kit. New York, NY: American Management Association.
Dent, P. (2012). Real Estate. New York, NY: Routledge.
Filho, W. (2008). Conflict Resolution. Oxford: Peter Lang.
Furlong, F. (2010). The Conflict Resolution Toolbox. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
This could mean adhering to stricter construction standards, using multiple locations around the country and having a stockpile of supplies that can be used to deal with emergencies. An emergency management strategy should be developed for each possible contingency, with an eye to protecting the company's investments in Kava.
The third recommendation is for Nik to work closely with Alex on this project. Nik's inexperience is a risk to the project, so she should not fear asking for guidance from seasoned professionals. Nik needs to work within her abilities in order to succeed, and recognizing her own limitations is part of that. Ultimately, the company does not know for certain she is capable of managing this project, but it believes that she is. She needs to believe in herself now, and understand that working closely with her mentors and with head office is essential to making this project a success.…
Conflict in the Workplace
One of the things that makes us human is our need and ability to form groups. We thrive in groups, merge into groups, and even the process of civilization and moving from hunter-gatherers to cities was part of group behavior. owever, when groups form, any number of interesting psychological issues occur: behaviors change, organizational issues occur, bonds and alliances are formed and lost, and even individual leadership behaviors change (Johnson and Johnson, 2008). Whether it be individuals, small groups, or large groups -- sometimes behavioral issues arise that cause conflict. Breaking one or more of these rules, however, or disagreeing with them to the point where it becomes unbearable or makes the group ineffective then becomes "conflictual" (Corey, 2008, pp. 149-51). This conflict happens in most cultures and some time or another. We see it in animal behavior as internal aggression. In some human cultures, while…
Let the record show that I am James X., Human Resource Manager for Zycon Corporation, a privately held corporation located in the City of Brisbane, Australia. Today is the 28th of June, 2011, and we are meeting with Mr. B., an employee of Zycon since March, 2001. Mr. B. has steadily worked his way up from a process worker to a section Forman since Spring 2008. Our meeting today is the result of a letter sent by Mr. B. demanding a review of a recent hiring decision made for Factory Manager. According to Mr. B's letter of June 10, 2011, Mr. B. feels that he did not receive the desired position promotion because of "discriminatory and unfair" labor practices, especially those from the Operations Manager. Reviewing the situation we find the following:
In April, 2011, due to corporate growth and efficiency studies, Zycon Corporation created a new position for our Brisbane Factory -- that Zycon believed it necessary to have an overall person who would be