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Contingency Theory and Global Leadership
JUST HOW APT
Contingency Theory Emphasizes
Problems and Issues in Global Situations
The contingency theory of leadership fits the leader to the situation (Northouse, 2012). It tests his effectiveness on the basis of his style, hence, the term "contingency." Three factors characterize the theory, namely leader-member relations, task structure, and position power (Northouse). This current environment of globalization endows leaders with a host of benefits (Cantoria, 2012). Among these are the means for empowerment, implementing peace-keeping activities, humanitarian missions, socio-economic initiatives and expanded foreign trade. These are enhanced and supported by advances in communication technology and easy accessibility to information, which are advantageous to the world markets. The introduction of global virtual teams is another boon in reducing costs of travel and relocation. In addition, such teams enable an exchange of insights into responses and behaviors in cross-cultures. Observing the laws of other countries also…
Cantoria, C.S. (2012). Becomig a more global leader: common problems and issues.
Bright Hub PM: Bright Hub, Inc. Retrieved on December 10, 2014 from http://www.brighthubpm.com/resource-management/118511-becoming-a-more-global-leader-common-problems-and-issues
Nayab, N. (2011). Five real-=world examples of successful leadership. Bright Hub PM:
Bright Hub, Inc. Retrieved on December 10, 2014 from http://www.brighthubpm.com/resource-management/120498-five-real-world-examples-of-successful-leadership
Contingency Theory of Leadership
Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Applied in the Non-Profit Organizational Context
In evaluating leader-member relations and leadership styles implemented in a non-profit organization, Fred Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership is useful for this specific purpose. Fiedler's theory posits that "the style of the leader and the leader's acceptance by subordinates had a strong effect on the performance of the group." Further, Fiedler categorizes leadership into three (3) "styles," dependent on the leader's "emotional reaction to a person who obstructs goal attainment": (i) task oriented, (ii) relationship oriented, and (iii) socioindependent. These styles are determined through the Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) Scale, which objectively and quantitatively assesses the individual's leadership style and orientation based on specific traits and attributes related to leader-member relations. The "situational favorableness" of an organizational dynamic to the leader would depend, according to Fiedler, on three (3) components: (i) quality of leader-member relations,…
Fiedler's Contingency Theory
The overarching claim of Fiedler's contingency theory is that leadership is defined more directly by the situation or context into which a leader is thrust than by the nature of the leader himself. The basic premise is that leaders will define themselves in low-stress and high-stress situations. Ideally, according to Fiedler, a leader will be selected whose traits are compatible with the organization and its personnel or failing that, conditions within the organization may be altered in order to accommodate strengths evidenced by the leader in question.
This is a decidedly provocative model because it represents a departure from leadership theories that stake leadership quality on the individual. Before the contingency theory, leadership has generally been thought of as a personality trait. With Fiedler, this idea is rejected in favor of the notion that any individual can function as an effective leader when placed in a the…
Path-Goal Contingency Theory organization. Explain theory works include examples. 2. Explain effect power influence leaders followers organization.
Leadership is one of the key concepts in the military, as leaders need to command their subordinates by taking on attitudes that provide purpose, guidance, and incentive. A military leader has to concentrate on completing missions and on guaranteeing the welfare of his or her subordinates in the process. hen considering leadership strategies, the military is typically most supportive with regard to the idea of chain of command. In contrast to other types of leaders, a military leader needs to focus on performing selfless services by putting the interests of a series of other bodies before his or her personal needs.
Army leaders need to have a complex understanding of the duties coming along with being a leader in addition to being familiar with the values and attributes that they need to take…
Earnhardt, M.P. "Practical Application of Five Leadership Theories on a U.S. Naval Vessel," retrieved December 23, 2013, from http://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/lao/issue_11/earnhardt.htm
Klann, G. (2003). Crisis Leadership: Using Military Lessons, Organizational Experiences, and the Power of Influence to Lessen the Impact of Chaos on the People You Lead. Center for Creative Leadership.
Stewart, B. (2009). Leadership Under Pressure: Tactics from the Front Line. Kogan Page Publishers.
Walker, R.W. & Horn, B. (2008). The Military Leadership Handbook. Dundurn Winkler, D.S.
Contingency management might in fact afford managers more flexibility in the short-term.
Perhaps the best approach to management in the electronics industry or any industry is one that is combined, that allows certain elements of various theories to be incorporated into practice (Selden & Sowa, 2004). Any theory can be measured by whether or not it achieves its ultimate goals, which include the overall success and profitability of an organization (Miner, 2003).
Contingency theory allows an organization to adopt a management theory practices that fits situation factors, and this is often touted as an effective method for improving organizational performance (Donaldson, 2001).
Effective management within the field of electronics requires that managers adopt an open minded and universal approach to management. Many different theories might be applied to this type of organization, however the most effective are a systems or contingency approach. Though at first glance systems theory and…
Bacharach, SB. (1989). Organizational theories: Some criteria for evaluation. Academy of Management Review, 14(4): 496-515
Callaway, R.L. (1999). The realities of management: A view from the trenches. Westport,
Connecticut: Quorum Books.
Currie, W & Galliers, B. (1999). Rethinking management information systems: An interdisciplinary perspective. London: Oxford University Press.
Contingency Theories Leadership • Situational Approach (chapter 5) • Contingency Theory (chapter 6) • Path-Goal Theory (chapter 7) Behavioral Learning Objectives: Students explore contingency theories leadership identify theory employ .
Contingency Theories of Leadership
Leadership is the process in which a person influences others towards achievement of a common goal. It is a social influence process and can only exist where there is a leader and some followers Waldman et al. 823
( ADDIN EN.CITE )
Leadership theories have been developed to explain some of the concepts and practice of leadership. Some of the early theories focused on behaviors and characteristics of successful leaders while the later theories consider the role of the followers and the nature of leadership.
Situational Leadership approach
Situational approach sees leadership as being specific to the situation at hand. Some situations may lead to an autocratic leadership style while others require a participative approach. Situational…
Elenkov, Detelin S., William Judge, and Peter Wright. "Strategic Leadership and Executive Innovation Influence: An International Multi-Cluster Comparative Study." Strategic Management Journal 26.7 (2005): 665-82. Print.
Herold, D.M., et al. "The Effects of Transformational and Change Leadership on Employees' Commitment to a Change: A Multilevel Study." Journal of Applied Psychology 93.1 (2008): 346-57. Print.
Hill, Linda. Becoming a Manager: How New Managers Master the Challenges of Leadership. New York: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, 2003. Print.
Northouse, P.G. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 2009. Print.
This may be true at large as well as small enterprises, even though the composition and power of the different actors may vary and in theory create different contingent circumstances.
Q2. SMEs that buy off-the-shelf accounting software...To what extent does contingency theory apply and can we really say that 'it all depends'?
The "disutility for effort" principle can be seen in the selection of many SMEs of off-the-shelf accounting software: the ubiquity of these programs and the lack of effort required in selecting the software results in their use as a default option (Tiessen & aterhouse 1983). Their commonality is not the result of careful consideration of a variety of external factors, as contingency theory in the abstract might suggest. Most of these programs are advertised for their ease of use and convenience, and are widely promoted in the business press. Although it is unlikely that there is 'one best…
Tiessen, P. And J.H. Waterhouse. (1983). Towards a descriptive theory of management accounting. Accounting, Organizations and Society 8(2-3): 251-267. Summary
by James T. Martin. Retrieved July 19, 2009 at http://www.maaw.info/ArticleSummaries/ArtSumTiessenWaterhouse83.htm
Contingency Approach to Change Contingency Approach
Developmental transitions, task-focused transitions, charismatic transformations, turnarounds and Taylorist methods
Contingency theory suggests that there is no singular, prescriptive way of enacting change. ather, the specific circumstances must be taken into consideration. In general, contingency theory proposes that change is dependent upon the relationship between the leaders and followers, the structure of the task, and the position of the leader (Doyle & Smith 2001). For example, in a developmental or gradual transition, the leader is more likely to be in a weaker position of power and need additional 'buy-in' from employees. A major departmental overhaul may be more appropriately rendered in such a fashion, given the shock of a sudden transition along with the close-knit nature of the community. Another good example of when a developmental approach might be used is when the needed changes the organization might embark upon are uncertain. Through collaboration,…
Doyle, M.E. And Smith, M.K. (2001). Classical leadership. The Encyclopedia of Informal
Education. Retrieved November 27, 2011 at http://www.infed.org/leadership/traditional_leadership.htm
Smashing the clock. (2006). Business Week. Retrieved November 27, 2011 at http://www.businessweek.com /magazine/content/06_50/b4013001.htm
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There are many organizations that use strategic planning to implement change in their services so that the facility runs in a more effective manner. Thus, the overall responsibility of healthcare providers is to offer the best level of care to their patients. For those organizations that follow the plan process, they have had solid outcomes with staff and patient feedback. During my period of research, I generally noticed that many healthcare providers shared the same mission, which was to serve patients with the highest quality care through performance measurements and improvement processes. The ways in which the effectiveness of organizational change will be determined once implemented is through a strong and thorough understanding of roles and positions. This can be achieved through deadlines and guidelines being set so that the protocol is followed in all aspects through measurement. Measurement offer the ability to gather quantitative values to subjective…
Battilana, J., & Casciaro, T. (2014). Change Agents, Networks, and Institutions: A Contingency Theory. Academy of Management Journal , 1-21.
Buchanon, D. (2013). Illusions and Delusions in the Organizational Change Process. Journal of Critical Postmodern Organizational Science, 7-15.
Oreg, S. (2011). Change Recipients' Reactions to Organizational Change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 461-524.
Thomas, R., & Hardy, C. (2011). Reframing resistance to organizational change. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 322-331.
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…
Budney, Alan J. et al. (2006) Clinical Trial of Abstinence-Based Vouchers and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Cannabis Dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 2006. Vol.. 74 No. 2. 2006 American Psychological Association.
McRae, a.; Budney, a.; & Brady, K. (2002) Treatment of Marijuana Dependence: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 24 (2003)
Pathways of Addiction: Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research (1996) Institute of Medicine (IOM)
Kamon, J; Budney, a. & Stanger, C. (2005)a Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 44(6):513-521, June 2005.
leadership theories and how they are influencing an organization. As, we carefully examine the different ones and discuss how this will impact the long-term sustainability of the firm. This is the point that we can determine how and when these different ideas should be used to motivate subordinates.
When most people hear the word leadership they will often think of a person that is sure of themselves. As they are using: their experiences and courage to help inspire everyone around them during the most challenging of times. Yet, when you look a little further, it is clear that genuine leadership is more than just an image or an ideal. Instead, it is common form of thinking and a way of life that can help to transform the world as we know it. To fully understand how this is taking place requires: providing a basic definition of this concept and examining…
Alasdair MacIntyre, 2011, Wikipedia. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011].
Concepts of Leadership, 2010, NW Link. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
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Military-Led econstruction and Fiedler's Contingency Theory
In light of the unfolding instability, violence and difficulty that characterized the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the United States military must reexamine its approach to the strategic invasion, occupation, reconstruction and power-handover that have evolved into a war-making template for the nation. Accordingly, the research conducted hereafter considers the need for a change in leadership orientation, using Fiedler's Contingency Theory as the lens for the literature review thereafter. The Findings drawn from the review of literature are presented in this account and, generally, provided confirmation of the pertinence of Fiedler's contingency theory to modern military strategy as well as the pertinence of Fiedler's Least-Preferred Coworker checklist to defining ideal military leadership. The reported findings connecting Fiedler's ideas with strategic and empirical documentation on applied military policy contribute to a number of policy recommendations. In particular, these policy recommendations revolve around two…
Conner, Maj. W.D. (2005). Understanding First in the Contemporary Operational
Environment. School of Advanced Military Studies; For Leavenworth Kansas.
Ellyson, L.M.; Gibson, J.H.; Nichols, M. & Doerr, A. (2012). A Study of Fiedler's
Contingency Theory Among Military Leaders. Allied Academies International
Since, this one lacks structure means that many employees can become confused about their responsibilities. Once this occurs, it can often lead to employee issues, where this confusion can become an issue of contention between the staff and management. As management is telling them to engage in particular activity, yet they don't understand why they are doing such tasks. Over time, this can cause moral to drop as those employees who do not thrive under such a system, begin to lower the overall positive attitude in the work environment. ("Contingency Theory," 2010)
Despite some of the obvious weaknesses, the contingency theory is effective for those organizations that are small. This is because the in formalized structure allows managers / owners the opportunity to adapt to changes that are occurring in real time. Where, they can use their experience and common sense to adjust to various business conditions. As a result,…
Building Emotional Capital. (2004, June 24). Retrieved April 10, 2010, from Executive Education website: http://executive.education.insead.edu/programme/documents/Nissan_004.pdf
Contingency Theory. (2010). Retrieved April 9, 2010, from Values-Based Management website: http://www.valuebasedmanagement.net/methods_contingency_theory.html
Babineck, M. (2006, March 13). The Enron Trial. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from Chron website: http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/special/enron/3718892.html
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Organizations Environment Each perspective examines organizations perceived relationships environment differently. Describe differences. What enacted features organization's (U.S. Postal Service) environment ways features displayed perceived consistent perspectives? Text: Organization Theory by Mary Jo Hatch.
Each perspective examines organizations and their perceived relationships to the environment differently. For this discussion, describe these differences.
Contingency theory stresses the fact that an organization's decision-making processes are in constant dialogue with the environment. An organization's policies are always contingent upon its particular market situation. This theory of organizational behavior stresses the situational nature of decision-making on the part of organizations. An organization in a 'mature' or perfectly competitive market environment with an established demand for its product will need to make different decisions regarding pricing and marketing than an organization with clear market dominance and a near monopoly. Complexity of the individual organization and rate of change of the external environment will determine…
Hatch, Mary Jo. (2006). Organization theory. New York: Oxford University Press.
US Postal Service: Vision 2013. (2008). Five-year strategic plan. U.S. Postal Service.
This article provides the findings of a study that sought to examine how leadership and follower characteristics influence self leadership behaviour in followers. Two hypotheses were formulated: H1) empowering leadership positively influences self leadership behaviour in followers with a high need for autonomy; and H2) directive leadership negatively influences self leadership behaviour in followers with a high need for autonomy. Longitudinal data was collected from a large defence company with operations in the U.S. The data was collected at two points in time with an interval of 10 weeks. At Time 1, the sample comprised 404 followers in 75 groups, while Time 2 involved 313 followers in 72 groups.
Employing hierarchical linear modelling, the study found that follower self leadership behaviour was substantially influenced by both empowering and directive leadership styles as well as follower’s desire for independence. More specifically, a leadership style in which the leader empowered followers was…
Different Ways of Organizing in Supervision and Management
Organizing constitutes a crucial management function. It is essentially concerned with task allocation, division of labor, chain of command, lines of authority and communication, delegation, span of control, as well as supervision and coordination (Shafiee, Razminia & Zeymaran, 2016). The manner in which these processes are organized significantly influences organizational effectiveness and efficiency. It determines how quick or slow decisions are made and implemented. This is particularly important in a constantly evolving environment, in which agility is a crucial parameter of competitive advantage (Felin & Powell, 2016). Organizational structure also shapes relationships between superiors and subordinates (Shafiee, Razminia & Zeymaran, 2016).
There are different ways through which the organizing function may be executed. For instance, organizational structure may adopt either the centralized or decentralized form. The former entails concentrating decision-making authority in top organizational positions, while that latter involves distributing…
One must "initiate corrective actions when deviations exceed some preset level" (Kurtyka 2005). Process improvement is essential. It is not enough to meet benchmarks; a leader must enable the entire organization to improve in a synergistic fashion. It is also not enough to 'strike it big' with one large project success: an organization must ensure that its 'system' is functional and that a single incident of success is not a fluke. This is one reason for the success of Toyota, an industry leader that has pushed itself to eliminate defects and engage in continual improvement of processes and products, even when things are going well.
Systems theory also enables a leader to locate his or her organization within the system of a larger social environment. Porter's Five Forces analysis underlies systems theory. Porter analyzes supplier power, buyer power, competitive rivalries, threat of substitutions for a product, and threats of new…
Continuous improvement. (2006). Process Quality Associates (PQA).
Retrieved November 7, 2009 at http://www.pqa.net/ProdServices/sixsigma/W06002004.html
Kurtyka, J. (2005, December). A systems theory of business intelligence. Information Management Magazine. Retrieved November 7, 2009 at http://www.information-management.com/issues/20051201/1042317-1.html
McNamara, Carter. (1997). A brief overview of systems theory. Management Help.
Leadership Path Goal Theory
The Boy Scouts" using the "path- goal theory
Path Goal Theory
Explain how the theory works and include an example
Explain the effect of power and influence that leaders have on followers in the organization
Are the followers receptive?
Would you recommend another strategy?
Evaluate the role of transformational and transformational leadership in the organization
Effectiveness of transformational and transactional leadership in the organization
Assess the traits and characteristics of an effective team leader within the organization
Explain how the leadership supports vision, mission, and strategy in the organization
If you were the leader in the organization, what would you change and why?
The leadership theories are different in their relevance and approach, however, the importance of effective leadership cannot be undermined in operations of a successful organization. The boy scouts and other military organizations also…
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (2011). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership. USA: Jossey-Bass.
Samson, D., & Daft, R.L. (2009). Fundamentals of management. Australia: Cengage Learning.
Winkler, I. (2010). Contemporary leadership theories. USA: Springer.
Smith School of Business (at the University of Maryland), where she was granted an MBA (Master of Business Administration) and also the courses of the MIT Sloan School of Management, where she received a Master of Science in management.
Professionally speaking, Fiorina occupied various secretarial positions; she was also a teacher of English in Italy and a receptionist. Her fruitful career began in 1980 when she joined at&T, where after various positions, came to be the company's Senior Vice President. In 1999 she joined Hewlett-Packard as Chief Executive Officer, but was forced to leave in 2005. After her departure from HP, Fiorina engaged in personal and political actions, such as the edition of her book Tough Choices: A Memoir, or campaigning with presidential candidate John McCain (Jacoby, 2008).
Carly Fiorina possesses numerous skills which qualify her for the leader's position. First of all, she has extensive knowledge and expertise, backed…
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Williams, R., December 22, 2007, Why Mosley is Happy with the Season that Had Everything, the Guardian
Wolff, a., June 12, 2007, 'Better than Sex' That's how Formula One Phenomenon Lewis Hamilton Described Winning His First Pole, Sports Illustrated
2007, the FIA's McLaren-Monaco Statement in Full, Formula 1 Website, http://www.formula1.com/news/headlines/2007/5/6178.htmllast accessed on January 21, 2009
Business Psychology/consulting/Industrial Psychology
Business Psychology/consulting/industrial Psycholog
Transformational leadership plan is a process moving leadership positions from one person to another or from one generation to another. Two major theories in relation to leadership transition plan are contingency theory and behavioral theory. Contingency theory emphasizes that there is no leadership style, which can stand alone as a proper leadership style. From the internal and external environmental factors, a leader should adapt to any given situation because leading has no redefined path. Behavioral theory emphasizes that great leaders are not born but made. The theory states that any leader can be more effective through teaching, experience, and observation. The theories can be applied in case of a sudden departure, for strategic leadership succession, and a possible planned departure (Ismail & Yusuf, 2011).
Merger transition plan is a process where two or more companies joined such that they can benefit on large capitals,…
Bass, M.B. (1990). From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Leaning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics. Volume 18, Issue 3: 19 -- 31
Cohen, A. & Golan R. (2007). Predicting absenteeism and turnover intentions by past absenteeism and work attitudes: An empirical examination of female employees in long-term nursing care facilities. Career Development International, Vol. 12 Iss: 5, pp.416 -- 432
De Dreu, C.K. W & Weingart, L.R. (2003). Task vs. relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 88(4), Aug 2003, 741-749. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.741
Emery, M. (2010). When the Cure is the Cause: the Turnover and Absenteeism Problems. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, Volume 15(1), Article 6: 1-17
"Our leadership development and training programs push each and every delegate to gain a rigorous personal insight into what makes them tick and then, with that understanding of themselves, to stretch the boundaries of what's comfortable for them" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory). Leadership training through the organization stresses emotional rather than technical skills, unlike GE. Human perception, creativity and out-of the box thinking is what is defined as leadership skills by Impact Factory and by the companies that use its services to train new and older employees alike, employees defined as leaders, and lower level employees as well. Key to success for individuals and the organization as a whole include: "Determining how well you perceive what's going on around you...polishing interpersonal skills and communication skills" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory).
The influence of leadership theory of a 'great man'…
General Electric: Imagination at work. (2008). GE. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008. http://www.gepower.com/commitment/en/integrity.htm
Ethos. (2008). The Impact Factory. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at http://www.impactfactory.com/ factory.shtml
Impact Factory. (2008). Impact Factory Homepage. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at
The concept of leadership is one that has for along time dominated the discussion and literature in the fields of organizational science and management .In the last couples of decades however, leadership as a concept has found its way into educational and school improvement literature and discussions (Bennett et al., 2003; Coleman and Earley, 2005). More specifically, there is an interest in the role that strategic leadership plays in the running of oerganizations. The main focus however is the role of teachers and managers in the communication of organization vision to the stakeholders as well as the alignment of organizational vision with strategy (Davies & Ellison,2003). In this paper, I present a reflective account of my experience and views when it comes to the development of an effective leadership system within the transformational leadership framework.
The definition of leadership
The concept of leadership has no exact or definite definition.…
Theory vs. Practice
When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within…
Managing the Supply Chain
Research an extended enterprise supply chain and identify key issues
Value driven supply chains are based on a variety of practices and assumptions. They tend to use the supply chain management to create a competitive advantage to improve a company's performance. The benefit of strategic supply chain management is seen in how an enterprise like Wal-Mart has used its supply chain to obtain an advantage over rivals. For instance, Wal-Mart excels in terms of cost and speed by erecting all domestic outlets within a day's drive of a warehouse and operating a trucking fleet. It has created economies of scale and distribution speed that peers cannot match. When K-Mart decided to compete against Wal-Mart head to head in terms of price, the sophisticated logistic system of Wal-Mart enabled it to withstand the price battle. Unfit to beat its competitor's costs and speed, K-Mart plunged into bankruptcy.…
Nursing: Theory and Nursing Practice Issues
Theory and Nursing Practice Issues: Nursing
The modern-day staff nurse faces a variety of challenges in the work environment. These include inadequate staffing, the authority gradient, and issues related to changing models of care. The nurse leader has a duty to aid staff nurses working under him in addressing the challenges posed by these, and other issues facing the nursing profession. Leadership theories provide effective guidelines by which nurse leaders can address issues inherent in the nursing profession. In so doing, they accord staff nurses adequate opportunities to make meaning out of their lives. Leadership theories such as the situational leadership theory, the transformational leadership theory, role theory, and path-goal theory provides crucial insights from which nurse leaders could draw reference when seeking solutions for problems facing subordinate staff nurses. This text explores how leadership theory can be applied to nursing practice issues, and…
Barker, A. (1992). Transformational Nursing Leadership: A Vision for the Future. New York NY: Jones & Bartlett Company.
Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Addressing New Challenges Facing Nursing Education. The Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.hrsa.gov/advisorycommittees/bhpradvisory/nacnep/reports/eighthreport.pdf
Early, G. (2005). Leadership Expectations: How Executive Expectations are Created and Used in a Non-Profit Setting. London, UK: OCMS Publishers.
Edmonson, C. (2010). Moral Courage and the Nurse Leader. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 15(3), Manuscript 5.
When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within the so-called ivory…
Theory on Juvenile Delinquency
Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offending in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social cronies. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Hence, lack of self-restraint and the resultant deviant behavior result from…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory.
Burfeind, J. W., & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, Stephen and Susan L. Brown. 2004. "Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
S., experts estimate the genuine number of incidents of abuse and neglect ranges three times higher than reported. (National Child Abuse Statistics, 2006) in light of these critical contemporary concerns for youth, this researcher chose to document the application of Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology to clinical practice, specifically focusing on a patient who experienced abuse when a child. Consequently, this researcher contends this clinical case study dissertation proves to be vital venture, which will contribute to enhancing research in the field of psychology.
For this clinical case study dissertation exploring Object elation, Attachment Theories, and Self-Psychology, along with researching information for the application of these theories to clinical practice, this researcher answered the following research questions.
What is Winnicott's elational Model Theory?
What is Bowlby's Attachment Theory?
What is Kohut's Self-Psychology?
How may components of these three theories be applied to the clinical case chosen for…
American Psychiatric Association, (2004). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Test Revised. Washington DC.
Blatt, S. (1974). Levels of object representation in anaclytic and introjective depression. New York: International University Press.
Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment. Volume One of Attachment and Loss, New York: Basic
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, Open Systems Theory, and in general a recognition of the complexities of what fosters and supports greater productivity on the part of people.
At this point the evolution of organizational theories begins looking at how the factors of the distribution of knowledge, the integration of process for knowledge management, and in general the recognition of personal productivity as the basis of competitive advantage. This specific phase in the evolution of organizational theories is so fundamentally disruptive to previous theories that the effects are found in global economic theories, including the theory of comparative advantage. One of the thought leaders in the area, Dr. Michael Porter (1990, pp. 32-78) whose groundbreaking analysis of productivity pointed to individual's ability to fundamentally re-order processes would eventually surface in the 21st century as a Business process Management (BPM) revolution. When one considers the evolutionary shift from seeing assets…
Christian Cordes. "The Role of "Instincts" in the Development of Corporate Cultures." Journal of Economic Issues 41.3 (2007): 747-764. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest.13 Jan. 2008
Gerald F. Davis. "Mechanisms and the Theory of Organizations. " Journal of Management Inquiry 15.2 (2006): 114-118. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 15 Jan. 2008
Anil K. Gupta, Paul E. Tesluk, M Susan Taylor. "Innovation at and Across Multiple Levels of Analysis. " Organization Science 18.6 (2007): 885-897,1022-1023. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest;14 Jan. 2008 www.proquest.com
Michael G. Jacobides. "The architecture and design of organizational capabilities. " Industrial and Corporate Change 15.1 (2006): 151. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 13 Jan. 2008
Management, Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage with Organizational Competitive Advantage from the esource-Based View
Accurate comprehension of the article = blue
Critical analysis of the strengths and weakness of the ideas, concepts or theories = yellow
* Provision of specific comments in the form of criticism, disagreement, synthesis, paradox, curiosity or genuine confusion= green
Management, Strategic Management Theories and the Linkage with Organizational Competitive Advantage from the esource-Based View
Using a thorough analysis of management theories and approaches to illustrate how the esource-Based View (BV) of management can deliver greater competitive advantage and more optimized use of internal resources, the authors seek to support this assertion with a comprehensive literature review. The synthesis of the Classical Approach, Human esource Approach, Quantitative Approach, Systems Perspective, Contingency Approach and Information Technology Approach is used as the foundation for showing how the BV approach to management can deliver exceptional results (aduan, Jegak,…
Raduan, C.R., Jegak, U., Haslinda, A., & Alimin, I. (2009). Management, strategic management theories and the linkage with organizational competitive advantage from the resource-based view. European Journal of Social Sciences, 11(3), 402-418.
Historical records show that people always organized themselves in order to work together towards a common objective and they coordinated their efforts to achieve this objective (Accel-Team 2004). It was not until the latter part of the 19th century that the concept of scientific management entered history during the Industrial evolution, but management skills existed long before the 19th century. Ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, ancient Chinese erected the Great Wall of China, the Mesopotamians irrigated their lands and walled their cities and the omans of old put up their roads, aqueducts and notably Hadrian's Wall not without established and superb management standards of their leaders (Accel-Team) and massive obedience and coordination among the followers. The pyramids of Egypt, wonders of the world, each measure 75,600 square feet at the base, 480 feet high and consists of more than two million blocks of stone, each weighing 2.5 tons.…
1. Accel-Team. (2004). Developments from Ancient History. Accel-Team.com. http://www.accel-team/scientific
2. Allen, G. (1998). Management History. Supervision. http://allie.dcccd.edu.mgnmt1374
3. Geocities. (2004). Human Behavior. http://www.geocities.com/the sydication/hr.html
4. McNamara, C. (1999). Very Brief History of Management Theories. http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/history.htm
An article in the Journal of Sex Research brings attention to operant conditioning by juxtaposing - comparing and contrasting - it with the social learning theory that Julian P. Rotter developed. Social learning in fact embraces aspects of operant conditioning (which is also known as "radical behaviorism"), and Rotter assumed that "behavior is goal directed and emphasized expectations of reward and perceived values of rewards." Those rewards are the basis for a person to model his or her behavior after the behavior of others. "Rewards for desired behavior are presumed to reinforce that behavior," (Hogben, et al., 1998) Rotter asserted, and that part of his model matches up pretty closely with operant conditioning.
OPERANT THEORY IS the MOST PRACTICAL, APPLICABLE in EXPLAINING DEVIANT BEHAVIOR: In this scholarly article, the authors are alluding to behaviors related to sexual dynamics, in this case spousal abuse. For example, the reward that a deviant…
Hogben, Matthew; & Dyme, Donn. (1998). Using Social Learning Theory to Explain
Individual Differences in Human Sexuality. The Journal of Sex Research 35(1), 58-72.
Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne; & Hayes, Linda J. (1998). The Operant-Respondent Distinction
Revisited: Toward an Understanding of Stimulus Equivalence. Psychological Record, 48(2),
For any company or organization to function smoothly, there must be some elaborate management system in place. This is crucial as proper leadership would focus on guiding the company or organization through teamwork projects and is needed to keep everyone in the team motivated and willing to keep working no matter what. Understanding the leadership concepts and the different leadership theories makes those in charge better leaders. Some of these notable theories include:
The Leadership Exchange (LMX) theory
This theory focuses on the building of individual one on one relationship between the leader and every employee in the team rather than leading the team as a whole (Lunenburg, 2010). Since each relationship is bound to vary in quality, the leader will always have a good relationship with majority of the team regardless of the few bad relationships. These relationships (commonly referred to as dyads) give the leader a better…
Komives, S., & Dugan, J. (2010). Contemporary Leadership Theories (pp. 111-119). Sage Publications.
Lunenburg, F. (2010).Leader-Member Exchange Theory: Another Perspective on the Leadership Process. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 13(1), 2-4.
Malloch, K. (2014). Beyond Transformational Leadership to Greater Engagement. Inspiring Innovation in Complex Organizations, 60-62.
Russell, E. (2011). Leadership Theories and Style: A Transitional Approach. Military Leadership Writing Competition.
Low Self -Control Theory
This theory deviates from the emphasis on informal relational controls and concentrates instead on individual controls. Through effective parenting practices of discipline and monitoring, some kids develop the ability to appropriately react to situations requiring deferred gratification planning. Delinquency is observed more frequently among males than females. One explanation for this is the divergent etiologies of delinquency for females and males. Males might be relatively more susceptible to inadequate parenting and other such factors that place them at risk of developing delinquency. An alternate hypothesis is: delinquency risk factors are identical for females and males, but the latter have relatively greater exposure to these. People with high self-restraint levels are more sensitive to others, have better verbal and cognitive skills, have lesser independence, and are more willing to accept any restrictions on their actions. On the other hand, those with poor self-restraint are characterized by insensitivity,…
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Burfeind, J. W. & Bartusch, D. J. (2006). Juvenile delinquency: An integrated approach. Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Demuth, S. & Brown, S.L. (2004). Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence vs. Parental Gender. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41(1):58-81.
Farrington, D. P. (2010). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile justice and delinquency, 203-222.
Moral realism and the sceptical arguments from Disagreement and Queerness." The discussion which rink starts regards moral realism. He argues that J.L. Mackie who suggested that there are arguments which demonstrate that the concept of moral objectivism is intrinsically flawed. The arguments through which Mackie attempts to demonstrate this derive from disagreement and queerness. The present paper shows how rink demonstrates that the categories which Mackie uses in order to support his thesis fail to achieve this goal.
rink starts by explaining what moral realism is. He states that it represents a particular case of global realism. ut what are we dealing with when dealing with the latter one? We are dealing with a belief according to which there are some facts the moral dimension of which does not depend in any way of our beliefs regarding them. In other words there are things which are moral, regardless of our…
Brink, D. 1994. "Moral realism and the sceptical arguments from Disagreement and Queerness." Australasian Journal of philosophy, Vol. 62, no. 2, pp.11.125
Devitt, Micharel. 1993," Dummett's anti-realism" Journal of philosophy, vol. 80, pp. 75/76
Structural contingency theory depends on the development and implementation of creativity and innovation. Based on systems design, structural contingency theory takes into account the nature of the organizational environment and other external issues that impinge upon organizational development. "Contingency theory is guided by the general orienting hypothesis that organizations whose internal features best match the demands of their environments will achieve the best adaptation," ("Contingency Theory," n.d.). The more complex and differentiated the institution, the more external demand issues become salient.
Organizational creativity remains "a relatively unexplored area in organizational change and innovation," Woodman, Sawyer & Griffin, 1993, p. 293). However, creativity and innovation are both important aspects of the structural contingency approach to organizational development. Organizational creativity refers to "the creation of a valuable, useful new product, service, idea, procedure, or process by individuals working together in a complex social system," (Woodman, Sawyer & Griffin, 1993, p. 293).…
"Contingency Theory," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://faculty.babson.edu /krollag/org_site/encyclop/contingency.html
Woodman, R.W., Sawyer, J.E. & Griffin, R.W. (1993). Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Academy of Management Review 18(2): 293-321.
leadership has been in existence since ancient times with various contributions on this phenomena having been cumulative. egardless of these cumulative contributions, there are still more significant concerns and deficiencies in the existing knowledge on leadership. Examples of these deficiencies is that many studies have ignored the type of organization and culture with which leaders function, services provided by the leader's organization, and the relationships between leaders and their superiors. On the contrary, these studies on leadership mainly focus on the relationship between leaders and their direct followers.
Leadership and Management:
Leadership is described as the creation of a vision or direction for a group of people to follow making a leader to be the head of new direction or vision. Leadership and management are terms that have continued to be used interchangeably though they are very different. These two concepts are necessarily connected and complementary with attempts to separate…
Carless, S.A., Wearing, A.J. & Mann, L. (2000). A Short Measure of Transformational
Leadership. Journal of Business and Psychology, 14(3), 389-405.
House, R.J. & Aditya, R.N. (1997). The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?
Journal of Management, 23(3), 409-473.
It is quite apparent that if the subordinates are not happy with the leader or the decisions that he makes, they will not work to the best of their ability.
A practical example of this sort of leadership is of Sir Richard Branson who is the owner of the Virgin Company. It should be noted that till this day, the company has a total of 50,000 employees. Despite having so many employees and such busy schedule, Sir Branson always looks after his employees and makes sure that none of their queries go un answered. He personally checks their emails or letters and replies to them. All his employees know that he goes thorough the email therefore they provide their input regarding company decisions as well. This sort of leadership exemplifies the notion that importance should be given to the subordinates as well. It is true that leaders may face tough…
Fiedler, Fred Edward. "A contingency model of leadership effectiveness.." Advances in experimental social psychology. By Berkowtiz, Leonard. 1st ed. New York: Academic press, 2013. Print.
Kipnis, David. The powerholders. Chicago: The Univ. Of Chicago Press, 1976. Print.
Pruitt, Dean G. And Jeffrey Z. Rubin. Social conflict. New York: Random House, 1986. Print.
Van Der Vliert, Evert . Complex Interpersonal Conflict Behavior. London: Psychology Press, 1997. Print.
Organizational eframing Program
Four Frames of Organizational eframing
Human esource: -
Structural Contingency Theory
Structural Contingency Theory in Human esource Management:-
Social Network Analysis
Impact of reframing plan and ethical issue's
Impact on the department being reframed:-
Impact of reframing on other departments:-
The study shows an organizational plan of a department. The aim of the study is to emphasize on how the theory of organizational life is applicable with the help of utilization of the action research process.
eframing means to redirect or change the way of thinking and look at things with a complete different mindset. In simple terms reframing is change of plans or basic details of an idea. Looking at events from a complete different mindset helps you to avoid individual biases. It also emphasizes the importance of adjustments and flexibility in the organization. The process of reframing suggests finding out…
Hatch, M.J. (2006), "Organization Theory: Modern, symbolic, and postmodern perspectives." 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press
Kanigel, R. (1997). The One Best Way, Frederick Winslow Taylor and the Enigma of Efficiency. London: Brown and Co
Robbins, Stephen P. (2004) Organizational Behavior - Concepts, Controversies, Applications. 4th Ed. Prentice Hall
Fredric M. Jablin, Linda Putnam (2000). The new handbook of organizational communication: advances in theory. p.146
Foundations of Leadership
The Fielder Contingency Model of Leadership is one of the most popular leadership models in the literature and it emerged in the 1960s. The model is flexible and able to accommodate many different scenarios which are one of the primary factors responsible for its popularity. The model makes the claim that the group's performance is contingent on the interaction of the leader and the group. The models major contribution to the field of research is that it allows for a leader orientation as well as ways to measure it as well as situational factors that will influence the leaders as well as the group's performance. The two most fundamental leadership orientations are either relationship oriented or task oriented; with a range of possible combinations in-between. The primary measurement for a leader's evaluation on this scale is known as the LPC score. A high LPC score represents…
Cruz, M., Nunes, A., & Pinheiro, P. (2011). Fiedler's Contingency Theory:. IUP Journal of Organizational Behavior, 7-26.
Hanisch, B., & Wald, A. (2012). A Bibliometric View on the Use of Contingency Theory in Project Management Research. Project Management Journal, 4-23.
Rice, R., & Chemers, M. (2013). Predicting the Emergence of Leaders Using Fiedler's Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 281-287.
Leadership is defined as the ability to influence others enough to gain loyalty or confidence of others who follow their direction. A leader therefore has followers. Leaders are able to step up to resolve crisis situations. They are very intelligent and can see a problem as an opportunity to apply new ideas in finding a solution. Leaders also have the ability to share a vision that will benefit others or the organization. They can gain the support and cooperation of others in following their instructions or objectives. The ability to influence others by changing taping into their emotional response, personal attitudes or beliefs or even actions.
Leadership style is transformational and it appears to be some traits that leaders have in common according to Aditya and House in "The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis" (1997). Certain traits inherent in leaders are boundless energy, high intelligence (1997,…
Aditya, R.N. And House, R.J. (1997). The social scientific study of leadership: quo vadis? Journal of Management. May-June 1997 v23 n3 p409(65).
Fiedler, F.E. (1967). A theory of leadership effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Lord, R.G., Foti, R. & DeVader, C.L. (1984). A test of leadership categorization theory: Internal structure, information processing, and leadership perceptions.
Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34: 343-378.
Still, they also have to be aware of the fact that they have to change and grow in tune with the other organizations in their area (Boyd, 1990). If they fail to do this, they will generally find themselves struggling because they no longer fit in with the other organizations in their surrounding area. That could cause them to lose the power they had over those organizations, and could also become an issue for them when it comes to getting what they need from the organizations with which they surround themselves. For sustaining ability, Structural Contingency Theory would work best. How an organization acts and reacts internally can have much to do with how that organization is then able to act externally (Morgan, 2007). When people in the organization are working at maximum efficiency and are "in sync" with one another, it is easy to see that the organization will…
Boyd, B. (1990). Corporate linkages and organizational environment: A test of the resource dependence model. Strategic Management Journal 11(6): 419-430.
Morgan, G. (2007) Images of organization. Thousand Oaks: Sage
leader admire. Your selected leader a real-Life individual a fictional character television,
The style of leadership that best describes me is known as the dominance style. I focus really intently on goals that I seek to accomplish, and I largely work at them until they are accomplished in as little time as possible. As such, I actually prefer to be the one who is in charge of making decisions and actuating others to accomplish objectives. Once I have an objective, my principle concern is the proverbial bottom-line or achieving that objective with efficiency. I have realized that power is one of the ways in which dominance leaders are able to assert themselves over others to help fulfill the needs of an organization.
Much of my style of leadership involves the assertion of such power over subordinates to get them to best perform tasks that can help me and overarching organizations…
Antoine, P. (no date). Fielder's contingency theory of leadership. www.stfrancis.edu. Retrieved from http://www.stfrancis.edu/content/ba/ghkickul/stuwebs/btopics/works/fied.htm
Ivey, G.W., & Kline, T.B. (2010). "Transformational and active transactional leadership in the Canadian military." Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 31 (3): 246-262. Retrieved from ProQuest.
Northouse, P. (2010). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Management and Leadership
Strategic Management and Leadership
Strategic management and leadership theories supporting organizational direction
This document focuses on the leadership theories based on transformational and contingency approaches as well as the management theories based on supporting the accomplishment of organizational objectives. It attempts to review the different approaches and deliver a subjective leadership style that will guide the organization to achieving its goals.
Application of leadership and management theories to support organizational direction
Organizations exist to make profit. That is the sole purpose of corporation and combined companies. Effective organizations are those that are able to adapt to ever changing forces in the general and task environment. Therefore strategic management plays a vital role in helping organizations achieve the means necessary to gain profits and build customer loyalty.
Strategic management is the set of decisions and succeeding actions taken by management that will provide a competitively superior fit…
Balakrishnan, M.R., 2007, Transformational Leadership -- A Case Study, Life Insurance Corporation of India, India, viewed 27th September 2011,
Covey, S. 2007, The Transformational Leadership Report, www.transformationalleadership.net, viewed 27th September 2011,
Daft, R.L. 2008, Management, Daft, Nashville, Tennessee.
Kirk Jr., T.G. 2004, 'The role of management theory in day-to-day Management practices of a College Director', library management and leadership special section, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 35 -- 38, viewed 27th September 2011,
Company Expanding and estructuring
Many organizations nowadays are undergoing revolutionary and unprecedented change (obbins & Judge, 2007). With this in mind, it is always advisable for the leaders in the company to change their leadership style (Mintzberg, Lampel, Quinn, & Ghoshal, 2003). This is because the old style may not be flexible with the current form of the company.
According to Yuki (2006), leadership refers to the process of influencing other peoples in order to understand and agree about what the requirement to be done as well as how to do it. In addition, it involves the process of facilitating individual and collective efforts for the purpose of accomplishing shared objectives. Leadership as a process influences the followers either positively or negatively depending on the leader (Yuki, 2006). Leadership involves influencing others (obbins & Judge, 2007). A leader must have the ability to influence his or her subordinates, peers or…
Mintzberg, H, Lampel J, Quinn, J, Ghoshal (2003). The Strategy Process: Concepts, contexts, cases. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
Robbins, S.P., & Judge, T. (2007). Organzational behavior, (14th ed). Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
Yuki, G (2006), Leadership in Organizations (7th ed) Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall
Expansion & estructuring within a Company
Describes your leadership style model
In this company, I serve as the Managing Director. The main objective of the organization is to expand and restructure its structures, communication, concepts, and culture with the aim of increasing the level of revenues and profits at the end of the financial year. In order to achieve this objective, it is appropriate to adopt and implement my leadership style (Democratic/Participative Leadership). Democratic leadership/participative refers to the leadership style that enables members of the group to take part in the decision-making process. This indicates that the team members will take participative role in the achievement of the objectives and goals in relation to expansion and restructuring of the company (Judge & obbins, 2007).
This leadership proves to be effective and efficient through depiction of higher productivity, quality contributions, and enhancement of morale of the employees. Democratic leadership increases…
Judge, T.A., & Robbins, S.P. (2007). Organizational Behavior (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Yuki, G. (2006). Leadership in Organizations (6th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ:
leadership style is one of the most important factors that determine cross functional teams' success. Research and practice in the field have revealed several types of leadership theories, such as trait, behavioral, situational contingency, participative, transactional, and transformational theories. Each of these leadership theories introduces several types of leadership styles, amongst which the most frequently met in private and public organizations are autocratic or authoritative leadership, democratic or participative styles, transformational leadership, and others (Ricketts, 20). It is difficult to determine which of these leadership styles is the most efficient, as the need for a certain style depends on each situation. The table below compares and contrasts three key variables found in these theories.
Table . Leadership Theories Analysis
Key variable / theory
Situational contingency theories
Characteristics of leader
Cognitive abilities, social intelligence
Informing, clarifying, monitoring
. Derue, S.et al. (2011). Trait and Behavioral Leadership Theories. Personnel Psychology. Retrieved January 19, 2014 from http://php.scripts.psu.edu/faculty/s/e/seh25/DeRueNahrgangWellmanHumphrey2011.pdf .
12. Seyranian, V. (2009). Contingency Theories of Leadership. Encyclopedia of Group Processes and Intergroup Relations. Retrieved January 19, 2014 from http://www.sagepub.com/northouse6e/study/materials/reference/reference6.1.pdf .
2. The benefits of open systems management, in which greater communication occurs between the various parts of an organization and its customers and suppliers, is described in this article. Problem solving, leadership, planning, and many other areas of organizational operations are cited as becoming far more effective with open systems.
3. The website is operated as a non-profit by a consulting firm.
4. There is no notable bias in this article, though it is strongly in favor of open systems.
5. Detailed analysis of benefits and explanations of these benefits.
2. This site describes a matrix organizational structure as a combination of the pure functional structure and the product organizational structure. It essentially creates a leadership/management hierarchy that has both vertical and horizontal power relationships and supervisory connections. Interdepartmental sharing of human resources is easily accomplished through this organizational model, reducing conflicts and creating a greater balance…
There is no acknowledgement that leaders may indeed be flexible according to the situation and followers that they are dealing with. Even though women, for example, may favor a more laissez-faire type of leadership style than men (Eagly, Johannesen-chmidt & Van Engen), this does not mean that they will do so in all circumstances, or indeed that all female leaders will have this tendency.
The Path-Goal Theory
The path-goal theory is one of the most flexible and popular models used in the changing business world today. It allows for an integration of various styles, personalities and situations. The components inherent in this theory is the particular path that employees are expected to follow in order to reach a certain desired goal. The position of the leader in this model is to provide followers with desirability in terms of goals and the removal of obstacles along the way towards obtaining the…
Eagly, A.H., Johannesen-Schmidt, M.C., & van Engen, M.L. (2003, July). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles: A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129(4), 569-591.
Hughes, Richard L., Ginnett, Robert C. & Curphy, Gordon J. (2002). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience (4th ed). New York: McGraw Hill.
Kuriger, Craig C. (2006, July/August) Workplace change and worker fears: when new technology enters the workplace. Army Logistician
Parker, Dennis R. (2002, January/February). Create opportunities, not fear, through change. Leadership.
For example, I am very self-motivated, and hate to see a job poorly done. But I have realized that some employees are more motivated by external rather than internal rewards, and thrive on a sense of competition with others, otherwise they will slacken in their duties. These external rewards must also be varied as employees bring different experiences and needs to their work. Showing sensitivity to an individuals' desire to balance career and family by offering flexible work hours vs. A promotion might be better suited to that employee. Using the prospect of promotion might be more motivational for a younger and more driven employee. Some employees work for a paycheck while some are easily bored and seek challenges and the ability to create. Others are cynical and try to cheat the system, while the more idealistic employees at a company might be offended by close oversight and feel as…
lessons Senge provides that relates to personal mastery is that the manager needs an understanding of the gap between vision and current reality as a tool for creative energy. What is important about this is that the vision needs to be clear, along with the recognition of reality as a current situation that can and must change. The tension between these two is then what causes the individual to use his or her creativity to make changes towards the vision. In terms of personal mastery, this means that a leader needs to recognize that no reality is static. Hence, such a leader, by mastering this understanding in his or her personal life, will also apply this to business.
As for mental models, Senge's main lesson suggests that learning skills are essential, particularly in terms of two broad classes: Skills of reflection and skills of inquiry. Both of these relate directly…
The life and success of any organization is hinged on the leadership of that organization. An effective can transform the potential an organization has with regard to human capital and the available resources into a reality. An effective leader has the ability to propose new paradigms when old ones have become ineffective (IAAP, 2009). Effective leaders can change the minds of their followers and in the process make an organization achieve its identified goals. This paper seeks to illuminate whether the leadership at our procurement department is effective from the perspectives of the situational leadership and contingency theory approaches. The paper establishes whether the leadership and the procurement department were directive or supportive. The paper finally captures the insights that have been gained from analyzing the leadership at the procurement department.
The leader I worked with at the procurement department knew his goals and had the power to…
Burns, T., Stalker, G.M., (1961). The Management of Innovation. London: Tavistock.
Graeff, C.L. (1983). The Situational Leadership Theory: A Critical View. Academy of Management Review, 8(2), 285-291.
Hersey, P. & Blanchard, K.H. (1988). Management and Organizational Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
IAAP. (2009). Leadership Theories and Styles. Retrieved from http://www.etsu.edu/ahsc/documents/Leadership_Theories.pdf
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
He also held weekly cookouts and he stood in line with all the crew to show he was on equal footing for that day.
One of Abrashoff's heroes was Peter Drucker, often referred to as the "father" of the modern management theory. Drucker predicted the emergence of the innovative knowledge worker -- the kind of talented employee that electronics firms hire as often as they can -- and he developed a management style that sought to "…embrace team members' creativity and intellectual contributions," according to M.E. Oss, writing in Behavioral Healthcare. Drucker developed the idea of decentralizing the workplace, and viewing the workplace as a "human community" that should be built on full trust and deep respect for the worker, not just a place where profit is the sole motive (Byrne, et al., 2005). Drucker treated the workers as "assets" rather than "liabilities" and long before other management…
Abrashoff, Michael D. (2002). it's Your Ship: Management Techniques from the Best Damn
Ship in the Navy. New York: Warner Books.
Alic, John a., and Harris, Martha Caldwell. (1986). Employment lessons from the electronics
Industry. Monthly Labor Review, 27-31.
This theory holds weight because it is impossible to assume that one strategy is perfect fit for all possible situations but the weakness of complexity theory lies in its inability to offer a more clearly defined alternative. To say that a company should focus on creativity is not enough because not every person in the organization is a quick thinker and not everyone is creative enough to develop a plan as the situation arises. Hence it is critical for a firm to have a solid written plan that would address the issue of management and economic emergencies. This would cover a wide range of possible situations that can hit a healthcare organization in changing times and when that happens, a firm would be in a far better place than it would have been without such a plan. Depending on creativity for solutions may actually be great for one leader and…
Pennings, JM. (1975) the Relevance of the Structural-Contingency Model for Organizational Effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 20, No. 3, (Sep., 1975), pp. 393-410
Pennings JM 1987 Structural contingency theory: a multivariate test. Organization Studies 8: 223 -- 40.
Begun, JW. Kaissi, a. 2005 an exploratory study of healthcare strategic planning in two metropolitan areas. Journal of Healthcare Management - July-August
I see that in my own leadership style I am oriented towards a transactional style, but that in order to improve my leadership I need to weave the daily leadership actions together better with an eye to creating long-term organizational excellence. I feel that I have developed strong communications skills and healthy leadership traits in terms of being rational but also being able to deal with the emotional elements of the job. I perhaps struggle a little at listening, but I also can be short-sighted with my decision-making, such that months or years later I find my decisions have set an undesirable tone that must be corrected. These are the most significant deficiencies between the leader I am and the leader I wish to become.
Long-term strategy can also be considered somewhat of a weakness. There is certainly a gap between the specificity of long-term strategies that the organization has…
Schermerhorn, John. (2001). Situational Leadership: Conversations with Paul Hersey. Ohio University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.situational.com/PdfViewer.aspx?pdfPath=~/Pdf/Conversations_With_Paul_Hersey.pdf
Fielder, Fred. (1964). A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness. Academic Press, Burlington, MA.
Vroom, VH & Yetton, PW. (1973). Leadership and Decision-Making. Yale University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.lederne.dk/NR/rdonlyres/E8715858-DCEE-4355-88BB-B3E82FE7DA9B/0/18VictorVroom2.pdf
Enos, Darryl D. (2007). Performance Improvement. CRC Press, p. 153
Transactional leaders use the extrinsic motivators, to get goals met within an organization, as stated by Suliman (2009). This type of leadership used internal reward or punishment mechanisms to get employees to follow their directive. Transactional leaders usually leave the current organizational structure and goals intact, since the characteristic of these leaders is not effective in situations that require change. Suliman, (2009) also argue that some leaders are very passive and only get involved if the necessary actions are contrary to the overall goal or achievement of the organization.
Visionary leaders are usually characterized as individuals who do not compromise their personal integrity for the overall goal of any organization or process. These leaders do not portray ordinary character traits, since they are usually concerned with direction or organizing action based on new possibilities or a progressive agenda as argued by McIntosh and Tolson (2009). These are usually interested…
Leadership ehavior for Effective Decision Making
Effective decision making in the competitive business environment is closely linked with leadership skills. Managing change in existing organizations can often be extremely difficult, as it requires changing the organizational culture, the very roots that bind its members. This paper analyses the characteristics of a successful leader, illustrated with a practical example. Contrary to popular understanding, there is no unique style of leadership for all situations and the leader needs to be flexible and change his approach depending on case to case basis. The analysis takes into account the various theories on leadership - behavioral, contingency and transformational and evaluates the response of the leader to various situations in a typical organization operating in a fiercely competitive environment.
From the analysis, it is observed that the leader exhibited varying leadership styles and behavior to address and resolve various issues. The leader is found to…
Bennis, W. (1994) 'Visionary Leadership', in W.Bennis, J.Parikh and R.Lessem (eds) - 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology', Blackwell: Oxford, pp.32-34
Gardner, H. (2001) 'Leading Minds' (ed) Manrik, J - 'Writers on Leadership', London: Penguin, pp. 73-76
Hampden-Turner, C. (1994) 'Charting the Corporate Mind' in W.Bennis, J.Parikh and R.Lessem (eds) 'Beyond Leadership: Balancing Economics, Ethics and Ecology', Blackwell: Oxford, pp.110-114
Jacobson, R. (2000) 'Leading for a Change: How to master the Five Challenges faced by every leader', MA: Butterwoth-Heinmann, pp.135-138
Organization Decision Making
Within an organization, there have to be many changes taking place at all times, without which the organization may stagnate and start to decline. These changes would have to be organization-wide, rather than small changes like changing the program, adding a new person, and so on. Some examples of organization-wide change are a change in the mission of the company, or a restructuring of operations, or maybe an addition of a new technology, or a merger, etc. In general organizational change is provoked by a need for accomplishing some preconceived goal, or it is caused by some outside force like for example, a need for cutting costs within the organization, or a need to increase declining productivity. Although it is a fact that organization wide change is difficult to accomplish, primarily for the reason that many people are afraid of change of any kind, even though it…
Are You a Good Decision Maker? Retrieved From
http://www.onlinewbc.gov/Docs/manage/decisions.html Accessed on 14 July, 2005
Best Corporate Change Resources. Retrieved From
There are many theories of leadership which can help make a transition smoother. Contingency theory and situational theory are two such theories which states that no one leadership style can suit all situations but there is some difference between these two theories. Leaders need to understand that they will not be facing the same kind of situations each day and hence they must be willing to adopt a flexible style that can be altered according to the situation at hand. This is quite similar to situational theory of leadership with one major difference. Contingency theory maintains that some times a leader who appears very effective and successful in one situation may not find himself all that effective in a different situation simply because leadership is contingent upon some factors. Situational leadership on the other hand states that leaders can adopt certain behavior and traits for variety of situations and alter…
Ken Blanchard, Patricia Zigarmi, and Drea Zigarmi Leadership and the One Minute Manager: Increasing Effectiveness Through Situational Leadership (1999)