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Budgeting and Cost Control Health Care
Budgeting and Cost Control in Health Care:
hat is Present Value Analysis and how is it useful in determining the most cost effective choice among purchase-lease alternatives?
Strictly from the point-of-view of a businessperson, the net present value method, or NPV, of evaluating a potentially major project allows the businessman or woman to consider the time value of money. The time value of money is the value of money of a particular endeavor, in today's dollars. Thus, the calculation of NPV or net present value, gives the present value of the future cash flow, allowing a comparison of the amount of a project's yield or profit, with the amount of money needed to implement the potential project. "If the NPV is greater than the cost, the project will be profitable...NPV analysis is generally used to evaluate the project's cash flows, rather than the income…
Net Present Value Analysis." (2004). Business Owner's Toolkit. Retrieved on February 27, 2004 at http://www.toolkit.cch.com/text/P06_6530.asp
udgeting and Cost Control in Healthcare
One of the most critical issues facing healthcare facilities and organizations is the rapidly increasing cost of providing services. Cost control and budgetary issues are the first consideration for many healthcare facilities. According to statistics, the "single most important thing on the minds of healthcare decision makers is cost management and containment." (Lawson, 2004). In fact, more than 95% of respondents to a survey concluded that cost containment and budgetary issues were among the most pressing issues in the healthcare industry. Yet budgetary issues within the world of healthcare are among the most difficult to address, as most healthcare facilities vary greatly in the level of services they provide to consumers, and the amount of resources readily available to serve those consumers.
Healthcare facilities face increasingly and rapidly rising costs in the face of a poor economy and rising costs associated with providing healthcare…
Berger, Steven. (1999). "The fundamentals of healthcare financial management" Boston: McGraw Hill.
Lawson. (2003). "Taking Action to Control Costs: Healthcare Financial Management." Retrieved February 20, 2004:
Medlink. (2004). "Cost Analysis and Control for Healthcare Facilities."
Budgeting and Cost Control Health Care
Budgeting and Cost Control in Health Care: Significance of Diagnosis-Related Groups and Defenders and Critics of the Current DRG system
Diagnosis-related groups, otherwise known as DRGs, are considered to be one of the building blocks of the modern healthcare and hospital system, for better or, some would say, for worse. DRGs are present in America as well as Australia, and the United Kingdom and are thus compatible with various systems of public and private funding of hospital services. Such hospitals provide individual healthcare consumers with the ability to receive hospital reimbursement under the Medicare Prospective Payment System (PPS), so long as their treatment is commensurate with the reimbursement guidelines outlined by that system.
Currently, DRGs are seen as a potential but problematic solution to rising health care costs. They offer the ability to combine quality and specific diagnostic services that target individual suffers with…
History of DRG." From the nursing home page of Pittsburgh State University. Retrieved on February 27, 2004 at http://www.pittstate.edu/artsc/diagnosproced.htm
The cost driver for Underwriting costs are "review hours' in the form of labor costs and the cost driver for Technology cost is 'IT hours'" (Kren 2008). In the scenario, some costs involve committed resources that cannot be easily adjusted while others do not. ABM provides guidance as to how to adjust the flexible aspects of the enterprise. For example, the average cost per hour for the Underwriting input at the plan level of activity is $44.13 but when the organization is operating at full capacity, the average cost per hour falls to $38.00, "because the cost of resource that is not needed is being spread over the service that is needed. Thus, one could argue that $38.00 per hour represents the 'true' cost because there is no excess capacity cost to burden the resource that is needed" (Kren 2008). Reducing non-full capacity operations is deemed critical to reducing costs.…
Kren, L. (2008). Using activity-based management for cost control. Journal of Performance
Management, 21(2), 18-28. 2008. July 16, 2009. ABI/INFORM Global. (Document
Controlling Construction Cost:
It is seldom that the initial bid estimate to carry out a specific construction activity is the same as the actual cost of doing the work. Generally, the estimate cost tends to be higher or lower due to the various unforeseeable factors that contribute to the differences. Therefore, it is increasingly essential for the project manager and contractor to keep current on the costs of a project through maintaining an accurate and reliable cost control system, especially if a contractor is to make a profit. However, the project manager has an overriding role of providing the project management team with necessary strong and proactive leadership during the construction period. This overriding role and task includes ensuring that the most effective approach to control construction has been adopted and tracking construction activities and costs.
Since the construction phase of a project is usually affected by various external factors…
Chartered Institute of Building 2010, Code of practice for project management for construction and development, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford.
Olawale, Y.A & Sun, M 2010, 'Cost and time control of construction projects: inhibiting factors and mitigating measures in practice,' Construction Management and Economics, vol. 28, no. 5, pp.509-26.
The question does offer some good ideas and thoughts to keep in mind when it comes to controlling costs. Indeed, having internal employees as opposed to external employees like contractors and the like that cannot be directly controlled in all aspects by the project management team is usually advantageous. However, these exterior employees and their associated costs can be controlled via an agreed price in advance that will not vary based on the acumen (or lack thereof) of the people working on the project unless something unforeseeable changes or is revealed. In that case, the costs are going to go up regardless of whether the costs are internal or external.
As it relates to electricity being a "hidden cost," it has to be expected that a construction project that uses any electricity from the site/client itself is going to cost money. As such, there should be an expected…
PMI. (2013). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge: PMBOK (R) Guide (5th
ed., pp. 1-589). New York: Project Management Institute.
Rodriguez, F. (2010). Impact of revenue recognition methods in project cost control through earned value. PMI Virtual Library. Retrieved from http://pmqlinkedin.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/impact-of-revenue-recognition-methods -
Healthcare Quality and Cost
Despite the fact that there is a comprehensive policy agreement that both cost control and quality enhancement are vital, the relationship between health care costs and quality is one of contention in debates in health care policy. One conceivable aspect is that enhancement in quality necessitates infusion of investments or on the contrary, reductions on cost could diminish quality. On the other hand, improvements in quality could decrease costs by diminishing intricacies or healthcare facility readmissions. As a matter of fact, the relationship between cost and quality possibly lies between these two ends, so that some kinds on health care costs are linked with high quality and others with poor quality. The impact is reliant on the areas the funds are expensed (Hussey et al., 2013).
Select one public agency and one private agency and differentiate their roles and major activities in addressing cost…
Centers for Health Care Strategies. (2016). About Us: What We Do. Retrieved from: http://www.chcs.org/about-us/what-we-do/
CMS. (2013). CMS Strategy: The Road Forward 2013 -- 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.cms.gov/About-CMS/Agency-Information/CMS-Strategy/Downloads/CMS-Strategy.pdf
Hussey, P. S., Wertheimer, S., & Mehrotra, A. (2013). The association between health care quality and cost: a systematic review. Annals of internal medicine, 158(1), 27-34.
Malnyk, M. (2016). Improving healthcare quality, patient outcomes, and costs with evidence-based practice. Reflections on Nursing Practice.
Controlling Benefit Costs
One of the most serious dilemmas facing organizations today is how to maximize profits in an extremely competitive global environment. Of course, organizations need employees, and there is a cycle that has been growing over the past three decades or so in which employees and other stakeholders are expecting greater benefit packages in order to stay with their employer. The reality of 21st century organizational environments is so competitive for some positions that employers are faced with the issue of having to increase benefits or lose top employees. Governmental regulations are now encroaching into this paradigm as well, and employee costs are now almost always one of the top two expenses for the organization. For most employers, managing these costs has a direct relationship to profitability, the ability to remain competitive in the marketplace and even new business development. However, over the last few years these benefit…
Effron, M., & Goldsmith, M. (2008). Human Resources in the 21st Century. New York: Wiley.
Harrison, J.D. (2013). Health care law's aggregation rules pose a compliance nightmare. The Washington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/on-small-business/health-care-laws-aggregation-rules-pose-a-compliance-nightmare-for-small-businesses/2013/12/09/87b2dcc6-611d-11e3-bf45-61f69f54fc5f_story.html
Nather, D. (2013). How Obamacare affects businesses -- large and small. Politico. Retrieved from: http://www.politico.com/story/2013/09/how-obamacare-affects-businesses-large-and-small-97460.html
Walker, J. (2004). What's a Strategic HR Leader to Do? Human Resource Planning. 27(4): 61-9.
Then, in the case of just cause, these mechanisms are employed only when necessary, such as the identification of unethical of illegal behavior on the part of an employee. When severe disciplinary action has to be taken, such as the dismissal of an employee, this would have to be supported by due process and just cause (Sison, 2010).
2) Free speech and individual's rights
Employers might strive to limit the free speech of their staff members in order to prevent the spreading of any fact of perception that might damage the reputation of the entity. While this attitude might have some benefits at the business level, it would also raise some concerns at the level of individuals' rights.
In this order of ideas, the business gains would materialize in the control of the information which impacts employee motivation as well as the image of the firm (Daft, 2009). Still, it…
Daft, R.L., Lane, P., 2009, Management, 9th edition, Cengage Learning
Daft, R.L., 2009, Organiztaion theory and design, 10th edition, Cengage Learning
Hosier, F., 2010, Top 10 dos and don'ts for OSHA inspections from 2 OSHA inspectors, Safety News Alert, http://www.safetynewsalert.com/top-10-dos-and-donts-for-osha-inspections-from-2-osha-inspectors / last accessed on May 2, 2012
Manzoor, M.M., 2011, Relating emotional intelligence, compensation and motivation with employee's performance, LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Operations Management for Managers
Control charts: Wal-Mart
How control charts might be used to monitor a process
"The control chart is a graph used to study how a process changes over time. Data are plotted in time order. A control chart always has a central line for the average, an upper line for the upper control limit and a lower line for the lower control limit" (Tauge 2004). Wal-Mart can use control charts, for example, to monitor the quality of a particular product produced by supplier, the efficiency of a supplier, the costs of procuring the same type of good from different suppliers, or even to engage in quality control of employees and managers by measuring the number of customer complaints at a particular facility.
Q2. How to possibly improve quality at specific levels from doing research on your organization?
Wal-Mart has been known to try to tightly…
Clark, Andrew. (2010). Wal-Mart, the U.S. retailer taking over the world by stealth.
The Guardian. Retrieved July 27, 2011 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/jan/12/walmart-companies-to-shape-the-decade
Gregory, Sean. (2009, September 14). Wal-Mart vs. Target in recession: No contest.
Time Magazine. Retrieved July 27, 2011 at http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1885133,00.html
Control Mechanism: Advance Financial Management
Real corporate governance and financial control comprise of the utilization of monitoring and inducement mechanisms to bring into line different interests that are between managers and shareholders and urge the creation of shareholder value. Monitoring is not just a simple mistake, nor a conventional control, but founded on the control monitor. The United States, orld, Com Enron, Lam Tin, China's Guangxia, came from magnificence into ashes, weak in-house financial control is one vital reason. ' Theoretically, China's accounting auditing and profession it seems that there is management and disrepairs the worth controlled by, or would like to state control of mistake to evade such a propensity of thinking' (CAI Chun 2001). It is this propensity exists, that makes surveillance and controls the activities that are within the company fundamentally stop at the levels of supervision, fail to have control of the height.
Company's in-house financial…
Anon., 2004. Chinese commentator calls for mechanism to prevent, control AIDS.. BBC Monitoring Asia Pacific, 32(4), pp. 1-1.
Anon., 2004. internal control mechanism and in-house management were both improved. Almanac of Chinas Finance and Banking, 7(9), p. 24.
Anon., 2011. FM for strict budget control mechanism.. Kashmir Times, 7(6), p. 34.
Campbell, K. & . M.-v. A., 2008. Gender diversity in the boardroom and firm financial performance.. Journal of Business Ethics, 83(2), pp. 435-451.
In terms of human relations skills, some examples in this sense include the ability to understand human behavior or the abilities to communicate and motivate.
Similar to control, the organizing function is addressed through the gradual completion of four distinct processes: identification of activities, departmentally organizing the activities, classifying the authority and coordinating authority and responsibility. In the case of organizing the resources for instance, it would be necessary to identify the overall and departmental requirements. Then, the responsible people would be assigned and their tasks would be outlined.
Each of these actions requires several special skills. For instance, at the level of activities identification, the manager has to possess the ability to identify necessary activities and prioritize them. At the level of departmental organization of activities, there is the need for the ability to combine similar activities and form groups with them, but also the ability to…
Colenso, M., 1998, Strategic skills for line managers, Butterworth-Heinemann
Erven, B.L., Planning, Ohio State University, 1999, http://www.ag.ohio-state.edu/~mgtexcel/Planning.html last accessed on November 16, 2010
Gitman, L.J., McDaniel, C., 2008, the future of business: the essentials, 4th edition, Cengage Learning
McShane, S.L., Travaglione, T., 2005, Organizational behavior on the Pacific rim, McGraw-Hill
Control and the AIS
Control and the Accounting Information System
This paper discusses the process of integrating controls into the accounting information system (AIS) using enterprise risk management (EM) components. EM is defined as "a process, effected by an entity's board of directors, management and other personnel, applied in strategy setting and across the enterprise, designed to identify potential events that may affect the entity, and manage risk to be within its risk appetite, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the achievement of entity objectives." (Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission, COSO, 2004, p.2).
According to COSO, EM encompasses:
Aligning risk appetite and strategy
Enhancing risk response decisions
educing operational surprises and losses
Identifying and managing multiple and cross-enterprise risks
Improving deployment of capital (COSO, 2004, p. 7).
EM integrates concepts of internal control and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Internal controls of accounting systems are intended to protect…
Enterprise Risk Management Framework. (2010). Retrieved on April 6, 2011 from http://www.emrisk.com/2010/12/20/enterprise-risk-management-erm-framework/
Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission. (2010). Enterprise Risk Management -- Integrated Framework Executive Summary . Retrieved on April 6, 2011 from http://www.coso.org/Publications/ERM/COSO_ERM_ExecutiveSummary.pdf
Karimi, Sabah. (2011). About Internal Controls of Accounting. http://www.ehow.com/about_4571081_internal-controls-accounting.html
Sarbanes-Oxley Essential Information. (2006). SOX-Online. http://www.sox-online.com/basics.html
Control Function of the Management
The management of any organization has critical roles that they need to play in the smooth running of the organization. The daily function could be held as a function of the management or devolved to the junior levels of the organizational structure. One of the central roles that often remain in the hands of the top management is the function of control. There are various reasons for this function of control remaining in the hands of the top management, some being that it is very vital in shaping the operational and strategic future of the organization, it also needs total neutrality and fairness to implement. It also anchors of the source of authority to ensure given control aspects as will be discussed herein are correctly implemented.
Control in management of organizations can be said to be the systematic effort by the leadership of any organization…
Rather, he believes that sometimes human beings have to go against nature to survive and to preserve their culture. However, some of the attempts he chronicles seem so quixotic, like an attempt in Iceland to cool the magma of an erupting volcano, the hubris of humankind borders on the ridiculous.
Many of McPhee's examples, like the potential for natural disasters in California, specifically the attempts of the Los Angeles County Flood Control District against avalanches in the San Andreas, seem prophetic. But ideologically, one substantial lacking is the book's refusal to reflect more seriously on how nature sustains human life, as well as threatens it. The threat of greenhouse gases show how, even in an era where technology seems to allow us to circumvent the pressure of nature -- from the need to be in darkness, to remain in one place, or to eat limited foodstuffs -- nature's demands will…
In this regard, Neely advises that a "Menu has to deliver the desired target food margin percentage whilst offering a variety of tastes across a range of price points, and conform to the expectations of the brand concept" (252).
Storeroom Control. Clearly, without adequate security procedures in place, a hotel's storeroom can turn into a major center for pilferage and other shrinkage. Key control is essential to this security if electronic locks are not in place (Sunstrom 59). If physical keys are used, or a combination of approaches is elected, Sunstrom recommends that the key numbering system follow that recommended by the American Hardware Association (AHA). Under the AHAs system, the grand master key is designated with a single upper-case letter; the next level of master keys would be the previous letter designation and another letter. Change keys (these are single keys that operate a single door) are designated with…
Atkinson, Sally and David Butcher. (2003). "Trust in the Context of Management Relationships: An Empirical Study." SAM Advanced Management Journal 68(4):24.
Baird, Douglas G. And Robert K. Rasmussen. (2003). "Chapter 11 at Twilight." Stanford Law Review 56(3):673.
Baum, Joel A.C. And Paul Ingram. (1997). "Chain Affiliation and the Failure of Manhattan Hotels, 1898-1980." Administrative Science Quarterly 42(1):68.
Beaudry, Mark H. (1997, March). "One for the Road." Security Management 41(3):79.
Keeping track of the costs is a crucial part of running a business. Cost allocation is assigning common costs to several cost objects. Cost allocation methods are used as a management accounting tool that helps in getting an accurate idea of costs that are associated with various departments in an organization. Proper cost allocation is an important element in making sure that any organization is run efficiently and cost effectively. There are different cost allocation methods that can be used in an organization. The common cost allocation methods are direct allocation method and the step-down method (Monico, & Fiertz, 2002).
Direct allocation method
This is the most popular method that is used for cost allocation. It involves the allocation of all service departments cost to the production department and does not factor in the fact that the service department offers services to other departments. The costs of manufacturing service…
Audit IT. (2014). Direct Allocation Method. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.readyratios.com/reference/accounting/direct_allocation_method.html
Monico, C. & Fiertz, R. (2002). Cost Allocation. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://ntl.bts.gov/lib/000/400/481/costallo
restaurants and bars fail is that owners and operators fail to implement a food and beverage control system. Without one, they have no way of knowing if anything is missing or if costs do not measure up to standard. A control system is a necessary and beneficial tool in maximizing profit and keeping waste and pilferage to a minimum.
One of the most critical aspects of food and beverage control is profit planning. In the final analysis, the profit generated must be sufficient to keep the business running and the owner pleased with the investment.
Three ratios are extremely important in profit planning:
Operating Ratio = Net Income efore Taxes / Net Sales: This ratio is commonly known as net profit to net sales. The higher this ratio is, the better. For example, in full service operations with an average check of less than ten dollars, the median…
Profit By Inch." Nation's Restaurant News. 1999.
Gordon, Robert. Brezinski, Mark. The Complete Restaurant Management Guide. 1998.
Miller, Jack. Hayes, David. Food and Beverage Cost Control, 2001.
Dittmer, Paul. Principles of Food, Beverage, and Labor Cost Controls. 2002
Managerial accounting, there are different types of costing that can be used. Each method of costing has its advantages and disadvantages in different situations. It must be remembered, when determining what the best type of costing method is, that the objective of managerial accounting is to deliver useful information that can assist in managerial decision-making. Thus, managerial accounting matters to the extent that it can help to deliver on overall organizational objectives by providing strategic or tactical insights (Investopedia, 2016).
There are two major costing methods -- absorption costing and marginal costing. Absorption costing is a system of cost accounting that seeks to accumulate the different costs associated with the production process, and portion these out to different products. So the costs would be broken out into direct materials, direct labor, variable overhead and fixed overhead, rather than the convention categories in financial accounting. Using absorption costing has a few…
Since this control stems from the highest chain of command, a company's policies and procedures are usually directed by this authority (Droege, n.d.). Eisner took various actions in efforts to revive the company such as changing the organizational structure, hiring new management, controlling movie budgets and adopting a new company name.
This control mechanism not only depicts the extent of the suitable product but also influences the final product provided to customers. In Walt Disney Company, this control mechanism is evident in the company's decision to enter into film production after the failure of its initial cartoon business. The focus of the film production business is to maintain wholesome entertainment for the family.
Functions of these Control Mechanisms:
The major similarity between these four types of control mechanisms is that they have a significant effect on planning and organization of the company. These four control mechanisms are also…
Droege, S.B. (n.d.). Management Control. Retrieved October 19, 2010, from http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Log-Mar/Management-Control.html
Housley, S. (2003). Case Analysis of the Walt Disney Company: The Magic of Disney. Retrieved from Haas School of Business -- University of California website: http://faculty.haas.berkeley.edu/meghan/299/Case_analysis_Disney4.pdf
K-Swiss Inc. Allocated Costs
K-Swiss has operations on numerous continents with multi-level departmental responsibilities for product and brand management. K-Swiss (2010) divisions create and manage product and thus acquire allocated costs associated with the manufacture and sale. "Adidas and eebok -- and to a lesser extent New Balance and K-Swiss saw big increases in orders from Foot Locker, Adidas, eebok and K-Swiss all report robust sales and big increases in their Foot Locker business..." (etail Top 100, 2003)
As such, these divisions facilitate orders to retail outlets for sale of product. The K-Swiss sneaker division, for example, has an allocated cost for materials, machinery, technology, and labor necessary to manufacture a set number of sneakers. Under many circumstances, these variables are simply called capital and labor. However, for the purposes of cost allocation at the departmental level, the importance of describing the specifics of the cost structure is critical to…
Retail top 100: It's all in the numbers. (2003). SGB, 36(6), 29. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/223580746?accountid=13044
Massachusetts Cost Limiting Proposal
One of the major problems of the current healthcare system implemented by the State of Massachusetts is the cost of maintaining the program and providing the necessary healthcare to Massachusetts' citizens dependent on the state insurance program. Ideally, of course, the program would be paid for via the revenues generated form business contributions, premium payments into the state system, and general tax funding. Revenue can only make up half of the solution for paying for the system, however; costs must also be effectively managed and strictly limited if the program is to be successful in the long-term. One proposal for limiting these costs is switching from a reimbursement-for-services model of physician payment to the creation of performance-based salaries or regular payments.
There are several features of moving to a pay-for-performance rather than a pay-for-service model that have the potential to yield significant savings. As…
Clearly the collaboration lessons learned from employee training and development, also used to create a more cohesive financial reporting system, did not get implemented within customer service. As a result, JetBlue in 2007 had the worst financial year of performance ever and eventually replaced their CEO (Carey, 2007). The implications from the Valentine's Day 20007 fiasco for JetBlue at La Guardia Airport shows that when systems, processes and people are integrated together through collaborative processes, there also needs to be an orientation to the end customer, a painful lesson learned by JetBlue last year that the incoming CEO remarked in a recent interview with the Wall Street Journal that "hope is not a strategy."
Susan Carey (2007, June 21). Boss Talk: Changing the Course of JetBlue; New CEO Dave Barger eviews Discount Carrier's Strategy, Seeks Calmer Approach to Growth. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.1. etrieved April 10,…
Susan Carey (2007, June 21). Boss Talk: Changing the Course of JetBlue; New CEO Dave Barger Reviews Discount Carrier's Strategy, Seeks Calmer Approach to Growth. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. B.1. Retrieved April 10, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1292138691).
Thomas a. Kochan (2006). Taking the High Road. MIT Sloan Management Review, 47(4), 16-19. Retrieved April 11, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1143181061).
Federal Contracting: enefits and Drawbacks of Cost Reimbursement Contracts
The objective of this study is to examine the pros and cons of cost-reimbursement contracts from the view of the federal contractor and to discuss which elements of cost-reimbursement contracts tend to produce the biggest troubles for contractors and explain why.
Cost-Reimbursement Compared to Fixed-Price Contract
Cost-reimbursement or cost-plus is reported as a contract "where a contractor is paid for all of its allowed expenses to a set limit plus additional payment to allow for a profit." (GovWin, 2010, p.1) Cost-reimbursement contracts can be contrasted with fixed-price contracts, which are reported to be such that the contractors "are paid a negotiated amount regardless of incurred expenses." (GovWin, 2010, p.1) Fixed-price contracts make provision of payment of the allowable costs that are incurred in performance of a contract "to the extent prescribed in the contract." (GovWin, 2010, p.1)
In the fixed-price contracts,…
Cost-Reimbursement Contracts (2011) GovWin.com. 18 Oct 2010. Retrieved from: http://govwin.com/knowledge/cost-reimbursement
Philpott, D. And Cook, SP (2010) Managing Cost Reimbursable Contracts. Government Training, Inc. Retrieved from: http://governmenttraininginc.com/pdfs/Cost-Reimbursable-TOC-Excerpt.pdf
Title 48: Federal Acquisition Regulations System. Part 1516 -- Types of Contracts. Subpart 1516.3 -- Cost-Reimbursement Contracts. (2012) e-CFR Data 7 Sept 2012. Retrieved from: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&rgn=div6&view=text&node=48:126.96.36.199.13.1&idno=48
Implementing a control system that is resource-focused, then, will be most effective for the Guillermo Furniture Store's continued success. An exacting and precise account of capital and other resources and their profit-generating potential in various applications is of vital importance during the change process that this firm is facing, and in the ongoing operations of the organization if it hopes to achieve the level of success it held in previous years. Especially if the owner/manager decides to keep the company focused on production rather than distribution, the control system utilized will need to be coupled with sufficient operational adaptability in the day-to-day functioning of the organization in order to shift production to most efficiently and effectively utilize resources. As the Guillermo Furniture Store is not aiming at a unique niche in the market, its patented finishing process not being hugely in demand, price is very much at the mercy of…
The objective of the study is to carry out the analysis on chapter 8 and 9 of the book titled "Project Management, the Managerial Process." (Larson, & Gray, 2010 p.iv). The chapter 8 of the book discusses the strategy the project manager could schedule resources and costs. On the other hand, the chapter 9 carries out analysis on the strategy to reduce project duration.
Larson, & Gray, (2010) discusses in their book that the project manager often faces challenges in developing an appropriate project scheduling and the chapter discusses the strategy that the project manager could employ to develop a project's resource schedule. Within an organization, there are often more projects than available resources, thus, the priority is to select projects that could contribute to organizational efficiencies. Faced with the project's constraints, it is critical to schedule resources to make a realistic judgment from the available resources and…
Larson, E.W. & Gray, C.F. (2011). Project Management - The managerial process (5th Edition), New York, The McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
Sloninsky, J. (2011). Innovations in Project Controls: Integrating Cost and Schedule. University of Texas. Dallas.
accounting important success firm? What methods cost accounting ? The paper (a) identify main issues chosen area, (b) reference learning occurred, (c) build class activities incidents facilitated learning understanding, (d) present specific current / future applications relevance typical workplace.
Cost accounting -- definition, importance, methods
The modern day society is constantly presenting the economic agent with more numerous and more pressing challenges. In order to face them and emerge as a competitive institution, firms develop and implement a wide array of strategies, such as creating customer value, developing the skills of the staff members, establishing strategic partnerships or creating financial stability and accountability. One specific means in this endeavor is represented by cost accounting, which represents a key to organizational success. The current project focuses on the identification of the reasons as to why cost accounting is important to organizational success. A secondary research objective is that of pin pointing…
Pizzey, A., 1989, Cost and management accounting: an introduction for students, 3rd Edition, SAGE
2009, Cost accounting definition, Accounting for Management, http://www.accountingformanagement.com/cost_accounting_definition.htm last accessed on January 26, 2011
2010, Activity based accounting, Accounting Coach, http://www.accountingcoach.com/online-accounting-course/35Xpg01.html last accessed on January 26, 2011
2010, Cost accounting, Investopedia, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/cost-accounting.asp last accessed on January 26, 2011
STANDARD-ASED COSTING AND PERFORMANCE MEASURES FOR TODAY'S MANUFACTURING ENVIRONMENT
This paper outlines the various defect of the standard-based costing method and how they do not effectively measure manufacturing environment of today. It has 8 sources in Turabian style.
Cost control is needed by businesses to plan the actual cost it might incur on the production of certain commodities. The budget is an overall costing system but sub-division is needed if and when the company requires detailed cost structure of the department. This is necessary for achieving the overall goals of the organization.
In production organizations, such as manufacturing companies, the basic concern of the management is to have smooth operations with the least cost possible. There the existence of cost is measured by the tangible output each component of the department produces. Income is compared to the cost incurred. A system that is set for measuring the performance level of…
Davies, Ieuan, 03-01-1997. Are we going in the right direction? (production management techniques). Vol. 75, Management Accounting (British), pp 52(1). Lucas, Mike, Standard costing and its role in today's manufacturing environment.. Vol. 75, Management Accounting (British), 04-01-1997, pp 32(3).
Bear, Robert; Mills, Roger; Schmid, Felix, 12-01-1994. Product costing in advanced technology environments. (cost accounting in manufacturing environments). Vol. 72, Management Accounting (British), pp 20(3).
Lucas, Mike, 04-01-1997. Standard costing and its role in today's manufacturing environment.. Vol. 75, Management Accounting (British), pp 32(3).
Dugdale, David; Jones, Colwyn, 05-01-1996. Accounting for throughput.(part 2, practice). Vol. 74, Management Accounting (British), pp 38(5).
Budgeting and Cost Estimation
The top-down budgeting approach is the preferable approach. Through the strategy, there are better cost control and management. It employs the experience of top management for better and realistic project approximations. However, various costs accompany such benefits. First, it should be identified that the procedure can cause friction between the top, middle, and lower level managers. The major reason to this is the presence of a zero-sum game where a particular manager acquires what another losses. However, it is pertinent to identify that there are delays in the return on investment. Additionally, the strategy has a lower impact on the overall organization. In this case, the management has to be patient in order to enjoy the benefits that accompany the approach. The approach involves very high deployment coverage during the early stages.
In contrast, the bottom-up budgeting has an advantage of being detailed from the start.…
These four dimensions are the tools for developing the company's marketing strategy and deciding which product line to cultivate, preserve, yield, or get rid of. Strong products should be grown or maintained. eak or unprofitable lines should be sold or discontinued as soon as possible. "Four basic factors are critical in the decision to manage individual product lines.
Cost to produce
Total sales volume" (Berry, 2012).
Going through the process of developing a marketing plan will help CVS to figure out how they are going to draw people into their stores and sell them things beyond discounted generic drugs. A provides the market with a source of discounted drugs among other products. This market need is important today as many Americans are faced with the dilemma of using their limited income on food or meds. A pharmacy should seek to fulfill the following benefits that are…
Berry, T. 2012. "Add competitive analysis to your marketing plan." Web. 2 April 2012.
Available from: http://articles.mplans.com/include-competitive-analysis-in-your-plan/
Berry, T. 2012. "Product marketing." Web. 2 April 2012. Available at:
Managerial Accounting for Sleepease Ltd.
"Identify, discuss and critically evaluate the advantages and problems of using the following costing methods for internal reporting purposes":
absorption costing; marginal costing.
"Refer to the Sleepease case as and when necessary"
The absorption costing is the type of managerial costing where both the variable and fixed costs are charged to process or product. Thus, "absorption costing is a method for appraising or valuing a firm's total inventory by including all manufacturing costs as product costs, regardless of whether they are variable or fixed and therefore it is frequently referred as the full cost method." (Nawaz, 2013 p 50).
Accordingly, the company will be able to determine costs of a product after determining both the variable costs and fixed costs. Sleepease will derive several benefits from using the absorption costing for the production of their product.
First, the absorption costing will assist the…
control mechanism Wal-Mart: Price
Pricing controls -- Wal-Mart
Wal-Mart advertises itself as a company that provides the lowest prices, all of the time, in comparison to its generic and specialty-store competitors. It is able to deploy this low price model in a successful manner by selling at a high volume. It is also dependent upon cheaper and exploited labor in foreign nations, where many of its products are manufactured. For example, employees in China not only receive low wages but are "housed in dismal dormitories; they may choose to live elsewhere, but still have to pay the dorm rent. In Bangladesh…working hours are 8 a.m. To 10 p.m., seven days a week, for 13 to 17 cents an hour" (Gates 2011). By limiting the benefits of all of its employees, in the United States as well as abroad, and depending upon a relatively low-wage, part-time workforce, it is also able…
Gates, Anita. (2005, November 24). Review of Wal-Mart: The high cost of low price The New
York Times. Retrieved April 25, 2011 at http://www.walmartmovie.com/reviews_nytimes.php
Manners, Tim. (2005). Wal-Mart vs. Costco. Fast Company.
Retrieved April 25, 2011 at http://www.fastcompany.com/blog/tim-manners/shop-talk/wal-mart-vs.-costco
Control of Borrowed Military Equipment
The military equipments that may be technical like guns, warships radar and so on need to be maintained in a different process than civil equipment. The military equipment can be defined as material issued by the army or belonging to the army, be it a pencil or a battle tank. The accounting is must because of the allotment factor of resources and also because of the necessity of finding the appropriate tools at the appropriate time. Since no person can predict when a solider or a division will be called upon to act immediately it is necessary to maintain all equipments in perfect working order and be able to source all materials and locate them as and when needed. Therefore all personnel must know that it is necessary to be aware of U.S. military property in their possession and to maintain and guard it because…
APD. (2007) "Army Materiel Maintenance Policy" Army Regulation 750 -- 1 Maintenance of Supplies and Equipment. Headquarters, Department of the Army Washington, DC 20. Retrieved 22 September, 2012 from http://www.apd.army.mil/pdffiles/r750_1.pdf
APD. (2005) "Property Accountability: Policies and Procedures for Property
Accountability" Army Regulation 735-5. Retrieved 22 September, 2012 from http://www.apd.army.mil/jw2/xmldemo/r735_5/main.asp
Coll, Blanche D; Keith, Jean E; Rosenthal, Herbert H. (1958) "The Corps of Engineers:
Human Resources -- Controlling Benefits Costs: Employing Contingent orkers, HRM Outsourcing
Employers have found that health insurance benefit costs are best controlled while making them attractive to current and prospective employees by offering multiple options and by encouraging/implementing the use of generic drugs. This is wise, as compensation plans directly impact strategic goal setting and achievement. The Human Resources Department spends considerable resources aiding in this process, as it directly affects talent acquisition, employee retention, job satisfaction, employee productivity and strong employer-employee relations.
Discuss How A Business Can Better Control Its Health Insurance Benefit Costs hile Still Being Able To Use The Benefit Package As A Recruitment And Retention Tool. Give Practical Examples And Bring In Real-Life Business Examples (Including Employer Names).
A business can better control health insurance benefit costs while still being able to use the benefit package as a recruitment and retention tool by implementing a voluntary…
Aluminum Company of America. (2014). Alcoa benefits: Prescription Drug: Overview. Retrieved February 2, 2014 from www.myalcoabenefits.com Web site: http://www.myalcoabenefits.com/benefits/en/info_page/prescription_overview.asp
Aluminum Company of America. (2014). Alcoa: Benefits: Medical: Overview. Retrieved February 2, 2014 from www.myalcoabenefits.com Web site: http://www.myalcoabenefits.com/benefits/en/info_page/medical_overview.asp
Anonymous. (2010, August). Controlling benefits costs, increasing productivity key employer concerns. Retrieved February 2, 2014 from search.proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/docview/744089057
Anonymous. (2011, June). Controlling benefits costs. Retrieved February 2, 2014 from search.proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/docview/881277451
Financing Health Care in the 21st Century
Cost Containment: the United States government
Unlike virtually every other industrialized country in the world, the United States provides medical care to its citizens through the private workplace, primarily financed through private insurance. Expenditures on such public programs as Medicare and Medicaid have increased the government's portion of the nation's healthcare burden since orld ar II. Still, the majority of health care funding still comes from the private sector. This has left millions uninsured whom are too 'wealthy' or young to qualify for public assistance, but do not work at places of employment where they receive benefits. It has also left many Americans underinsured for their healthcare needs. (News batch, 2003)
Although the United States spends far more on health care in actual dollars and as a percentage of the GDP than any other country of the world, the U.S. ranks low among…
News batch. (2003). "Health Care."
Retrieved on July 24, 2003 at http://www.newsbatch.com/healthcare.htm
Open Secrets. (2003). "Managed Care."
Retrieved on July 24, 2003 http://www.opensecrets.org/news/mcare/index.htm
Health Care Cost and Quality
The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between health care cost and quality. This study will select one public agency and one private agency and differentiate their roles and major activities in addressing cost and quality in health care and analyze current and projected initiatives to improve quality while simultaneously controlling costs. This study will additionally conduct a synthesis of indications for staff nurses and advanced practice nurses, including evidence-based practice, relative to cost and quality.
There are many initiatives presently underway to meet the growing need of health care for a population that is greatly under-insured and many that are uninsured.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services eport
According to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2014) "Medicare is improving the way it pays for physician services. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation (Innovation Center) is exploring…
Advanced Practice Nursing: A New Age in Health Care (nd) American Nurses Association. Retrieved from: http://www.nursingworld.org/functionalmenucategories/mediaresources/mediabackgrounders/aprn-a-new-age-in-health-care.pdf
Health Care Costs (2014) Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved from: http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/factsheets/costs/health-care/index.html
A 21st Century Health Care Workforce for the Nation (2014) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from: http://aspe.hhs.gov/health/reports/2014/HealthCare_Workforce/rpt_healthcareworkforce.pdf
(Steamboats, incidentally, did even better.)
Due to the heavy emphasis on steam transportation, especially by rail the government was better equipped to man and supply vast areas of the nation in combat. The train also traveled at a far greater speed than other more traditional forms of transport, as much as 5 times faster than the mule-drawn wagons of the day. Therefore fewer vehicles were needed and supplies and people arrived in far better condition than they had in the past.
Troops traveling by train rather than on foot experienced less fatigue and fewer instances of straggling and desertion, even though the freight cars used for most troop movements were anything but comfortable. Supplies hauled by rail were more likely to reach the troops in useable condition, owing both to the speed of delivery and to the shelter afforded by enclosed railroad cars.
There are countless examples of the alterations…
Basler, Roy P., ed. Abraham Lincoln: His Speeches and Writings. Cleveland, OH: World Publishing, 1946.
Black, Robert C. The Railroads of the Confederacy. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
Fite, Emerson David. Social and Industrial Conditions in the North during the Civil War. Williamstown, MA: Corner House, 1976.
Gable, Dr. Christopher R. "Railroad Generalship: Foundations of Civil War Strategy " at http://cgsc.leavenworth.army.mil/carl/resources/csi/gabel4/gabel4.asp
Organized Crime Control
Controlling Organized Crime
The purpose of this paper is to research "Organized Crime" historically and what effects it has on society in the present time as well as implications for the future and then to examine what suggestions have been offered for asserting effective control over that which is termed "organized crime."
Organized crime can be defined as structured business framework that with no regard to moral, ethic or societal concerns or standards prospers from that which promises to prosper the individual and group within that network the most. Some examples of organized crime are the drug trafficking trade, illegal weapons and nuclear arms trade, slave trade, gambling rings, pornography rings among many other variations of the major crime categories.
Many of the Organized Crime networks are based on familial relations although there are networks defined by religion, government, country, political persuasion among other groups which characteristic…
DeYoung, Karen (2001) "Alarm on Spreading Ecstasy; Illegal Pills Fly in from Europe, Eluding Standard Remedies for Smuggling: Washington Times Aug 2001 [Online] available at: http://wwwlhighbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCIS=IPI:32174317 & num=1& ctrlInfo=R
International Organized Crime and Global Terrorism: "Testimony of Louise Shelley" American University Prof. & Dir. Transnational Organized Crime and Corruption [Online] available at; http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.a p-ct rlInfo=Round9a %3AProd%3ADOC%3APrint& DOCID=1P1:28418991& print=yes
Kaufman (1990) U.S. History 1990: Americas' Habit: "Drug Abuse, Drug Trafficking, & Organized Crime": Chapter VI Part 2: Interdiction U.S. History 1990: 9/1/1990;
costing system for use within the Company.
Costing systems serve a valuable role in monitoring the health of a company. They are designed to keep a focused eye on expenditures. When the data that is collected and generated by the costing system is integrated into the broader accounting system, the costing approach allows for easy extraction of the data for reports to management. The information that is gathered by a costing system allows owners and managers to quickly identify the current status of two key factors that are relevant to the success of the company: operational costs and performance costs. Operational costs are often the foundation of the data collected by a costing system. This information allows management to get an image of all expenditures that are directly connected with the operation of the organization, especially in terms of outlays such as production costs. Performance cost is the second important…
Sources Used: Orloff, A. & Mullis, D. 1998, The Accounting Game: Basic Accounting Fresh from the Lemonade Stand, Sourcebooks, Inc., Naperville, IL, USA.
The delivery health care system takes into account the assimilation of physicians, healthcare facilities, together with other medical services with plan to facilitate the provision of the total continuum of medical care for its consumers. In a whole incorporated system, the three fundamental components including physicians, medical facilities and the membership to health plans are counterpoised in terms of equating medical resources with the necessities of patients and purchasers (Coddington, Moore, and Fischer., 1994). One of the key concerns in the present delivery of healthcare is cost. Increasing costs of healthcare has been a major worry in the past number of years, making the United States to have one of the most expensive systems of healthcare. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the different costs linked to healthcare delivery system, and delineate the manner in which these costs impact different populations and how it also affects…
Globalization has brought tremendous benefits to human society, in terms of quality of life, but as with anything, it comes with costs. Many authors have argued that there are both positive and negative effects of globalization, and to evaluate the merits of globalization is simply to balance these effects. Do the benefits outweigh the costs? This ends up being a matter of perspective, and it also often compels one to analyze the existing state of the world vs. An imaginary non-globalized state. Globalization is cited for increasing the wealth of many -- living standards have increased for billions. It is also criticized for increased wealth inequality. This paper will demonstrate that the costs of globalization do indeed outweigh the benefits. The costs are not trivial, but they are also overstated in a few key respects. A lot of these costs reflect flaws in the system design of globalization, but since…
Calvo, G. & Mendoza, E. (1999). Rational contagion and the globalization of securities markets. NBER. Retrieved April 22, 2014 from http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/4291/1/ciecrp6.pdf
Cook, P. & Kirkpatrick, C. (1997). Globalization, regionalization and third world development. Regional Studies. Vol. 31 (1) 55-66
D'Odorico, P., Laio, F. & Ridolfi, L. (2010). Does globalization of water reduce societal resilience to drought? Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 37 (2010) 1-5.
Epstein, P. (2005). Climate change and human health. New England Journal of Medicine. Vol. 353 (14) 1433-1436.
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is far and away the most prolific and omni-present agency that exists in the United States, at least at the federal level, that regulates employers and protects employees from discrimination and other unlawful and/or unethical employment practices including inequity in who is hired, who is fired, who is promoted and why, who is given raises and why and so forth. While budgetary constraints and some of the EEOC's recent decisions certainly deserve attention and scrutiny, the EEOC's status as the ultimate arbiter of employee rights in the United States is not going to change anytime soon.
The mission statement of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is to "stop and remedy unlawful employment discrimination" (EEOC, 2014). The vision statement of the EEOC is "justice and equality in the workplace." The EEOC states quite clearly on their website that they know full well,…
DrugFree.org. (2014, May 18). Discrimination Against People in Recovery Rampant, Advocates Say |. Partnership for DrugFree Kids. Retrieved May 18, 2014, from http://www.drugfree.org/join-together/discrimination-against-people-in-recovery-rampant-advocates-say/
EEOC. (2014, May 17). EEOC Home Page. EEOC Home Page. Retrieved May 17, 2014, from http://www.eeoc.gov
EEOC. (2014, May 18). Fiscal Year 2014 Congressional Budget Justification. Fiscal Year 2014 Congressional Budget Justification. Retrieved May 18, 2014, from
Specifically identify three or more of the potential costs of customer dissatisfaction by type of cost. 2-Describe or explain each of these costs.
There are four types of costs of customer dissatisfaction:
Drop in satisfaction level causes even greater drop in loyalty level:
Many organizations confound the descriptives of "very satisfied" and "somewhat satisfied" clients, but the difference in loyalty is exponential. Very satisfied consumers are apt to return to the company and refer to others, whilst only somewhat satisfied consumers are often unlikely to return or, if they do return, to infrequently employ the service. Sometimes, the drop in loyalty between one and other classification may be as much as 50%, and whilst many organization add the 2 descriptors together in order to arrive at a "better satisfaction" score, they do not realize that the cost of customer dissatisfaction in the latter category is greater than in…
Accounting for management http://www.accountingformanagement.com/quality_costs.htm
CTMAWorld.com. Cost of poor service - the economic truths http://www.ctmaworld.com/EconomicTruths.htm
New payment system for parking near MBTA
The benefits of the new proposal for a pre-paid monthly scanned parking pass are twofold: it will make commuting to the city easier for regular commuters and also result in revenue increases for the city. Because of increased the ease of parking cars, more commuters will be willing to use public transportation, and there will be less congestion and pollution overall, indirectly improving the situation for all residents and pedestrians in the city.
Commuters will like the plan because it will better ensure them of a regular parking spot. It will save time in the morning, since presumably many people must rise early, just to ensure that they have time to pay for parking. In today's cashless society, the use of prepaid parking spots via a monthly pass ensures that commuters do not need to fumble with cash and coins to pay a…
Ethics, Product uality HighTech, Inc.
Disclosure to the CEO and other relevant aspects of upper-level management who are able to 'pull' the dangerous chip from the market until the needed alternations are made is imperative. PR and marketing must also be consulted about the best way to 'spin' this particular negative development. This must be done before actual injuries occur. A recent study found that "reactive recalls -- recalls due to an incident, injury or death -- were more likely than preventive recalls to result in exchanges, which dramatically reduced the recall time" as well as reduced injury ("What companies must do to recover from a product recall," 2014). If the company is forthcoming, effective damage control is possible, but only if the company is proactive. Relevant government safety personnel must also be consulted at the Consumer Product Safety Commission so that information about recalling the product can be issued.…
Q2. Harley-Davidson Inc.
For a company to continue to remain relevant in the 21st century, it must continue to generate new customers, given that existing customers will gradually age out of the product. For Harley-Davidson this is especially critical, since even the most dedicated riders will at some point have to 'hang up their helmets' as they age. "This isn't a coincidence. Harley-Davidson is a brand whose sales depend disproportionately -- almost exclusively, in fact -- on middle-aged Caucasian males. Riders younger than 40 generally lack the time, interest or the bankroll to buy a Harley. But by the time they get into their 60s or older, the noise and joint pain have begun to make riding lose its allure. You might still ride in your 60s, but you're doing it less frequently and you probably aren't buying a new bike" (Sizemore 2013). Its new program to create a safer and more friendly image is a way to attract new customers who might otherwise be intimidated by the motorcycle company's tough image and the unsafe reputation in general of riding a motorcycle.
On Porter's Value Chain (which includes inbound and outbound logistics; operations; marketing and sales; and services) the Rider's Edge Program would comprise both a marketing technique and services component ("Porter's Value chain," 2014). Technically, allowing anyone who can pass the Motorcycle Safety Foundation's written test and driving test to be eligible for instructions on how to ride a Harley from local dealers is a service but by promoting this service, Harley hopes to enhance its reputation for safety and generate interest amongst a younger generation of consumers.
Nu Star Energy L.P. is a limited partnership that is publicly traded and headquartered in San Antonio. It has 9,063 miles of pipeline, eighty-six terminal facilities, four storage facilities for crude oil and two refineries for asphalt. It is the second in size among independent liquid terminal operators in the United States. It operates in the U.S., Netherlands, Canada, United Kingdom, Antilles and Mexico. The entire system of the partnership can hold up to 86 million barrels in its storage infrastructure. It has refineries for asphalt, crude oil and has pipelines for refined products. Also present are terminals for refined products, a storage facility for petroleum, a terminal operation as well as storage facilities for crude oil. NuStar strives to protect the environment and continually works to improve its programs and processes so as to meet even the most stringent of environmental practices. This has resulted in better environmental performance.…
Becker, R., & Henderson, V. (2000). Effects of air quality regulations on polluting industries. Journal of Political Economy, 108(2), 379-421.
Bradbury, J. (2010). EPA, The Clean Air Act, and U.S. Manufacturing. Retrieved January 30, 2015, from http://www.wri.org/blog/2010/11/epa-clean-air-act-and-us-manufacturing
Deschenes, O., Greenstone, M., & Shapiro, J.S. (2012). Defensive investments and the demand for air quality: Evidence from the nox budget program and ozone reductions (No. w18267). National Bureau of Economic Research.
Environmental Decision Making, Science, and Technology. (n.d.). Retrieved January 30, 2015, from http://environ.andrew.cmu.edu/m3/s7/us_laws.shtml
Prevention of Back Injuries
Twenty percent of the injuries experienced in the work place in America are back injuries. In some areas, such as EMS, these injuries are responsible for the fact that at any point in time, ten percent of their workers are not working. Statistics from the Center for Disease Control actually reveal that the EMS had over 20% of all 27,000 work related sicknesses, being specifically lower back injuries (CDC, 2015). The nation pays dearly for back related injuries from the bills that are incurred as well as the income lost when workers are away from work. This amounts to about $50 billion of which $20 billion emanates from the injuries occurring in the medical field. Ironically, this surpasses the cost of similar injuries occurring in less surprising places, such as manufacturing, mining and construction industries. For a physician who is injured, the costs are estimated at…
Advice, B. L. (2015, November 17). Training in Lifting Techniques May Not Improve Prevention of Back Pain. Retrieved from Medscape: www.medscape.org/viewarticle/569657
AFSCME. (2002, March). Preventing Back Injuries in Health Care. Retrieved from American Federation of State, County & Municipal Employees: http://www.afscme.org/news/publications/workplace-health-and-safety/fact-sheets/preventing-back-injuries-in-health-care
CDC. (2015, November 17). Emergency Medical Services Workers Injury and Illness Data. Retrieved from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/ems/data2011.html.
Collopy, K. T., Kivlehan, S. M., & Snyder, S. R. (2014, May 1). Preventing Back Injuries in EMS. Retrieved from EMS World: http://www.emsworld.com/article/11373351/back-injuries-and-protection
Laws & regulations not adequate enough:
egistration & Licensing
National ifle Association (NA):
Sandy Hook and Colorado:
No need for assault rifles:
Government and Private protection:
Political and Social pressure:
Counter Argument & ebuttal:
Public will not be able to protect itself:
Hand guns and law enforcement enough for public protection:
The possession of guns is considered as a matter of tradition and heritage of the society. However the usage of automatic guns in violent crimes has initiated a concern for society to urge government for imposition of strict gun control laws. The previous laws should be changed to restrict automatic rifles possession and sales. The high powered weapons should also avoided by the public to evade unnecessary violence. United States is country that allowed its citizen to…
Bright, J.C. (2010). Violent Felonies under the Residual Clause of the Armed Career Criminal Act: Whether Carrying a Concealed Handgun without a Permit Should is considered a Violent Felony. Duq. L. Rev., 48, 601.
Carter, G.L. (2006). Gun control in the United States: A reference handbook. USA: Abc-clio, LLC.
Cook, P.J., Ludwig, J., Venkatesh, S., & Braga, A.A. (2007). Underground Gun Markets*. The Economic Journal, 117(524), F588-F618.
Kellner, D. (2008). Guys and guns amok: Domestic terrorism and school shootings from the Oklahoma City bombing to the Virginia Tech massacre. USA: Paradigm Pub.
S. Circuit Court of Appeals to reaffirm restrictive gun laws since the Second Amendment was not infringed by a law that requires firearm owners to demonstrate proper cause (Nimmo par, 2).
The unanimous decision by the three-judge panel was regarded as a victory for the New York State law, the American constitution, and families throughout New York who are appropriately concerned regarding the plight of gun violence that is a major problem to all communities. There are various groups in the gun industry such as the Second Amendment Foundation and the National Rifle Association have been filing cases against cities and states throughout the country on the basis of the Second Amendment of the U.S. Constitution. The ruling re-affirming restrictive gun control laws has followed the significant increase in the number of the sale of guns.
Gun Control Laws in Other States:
Generally, crime rates associated with gun violence have…
"Banning Assault Weapons - a Legal Primer for State and Local Action." Legal Community Against Violence. Legal Community Against Violence, Aug. 2005. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. .
Baynes, Terry, Eddie Evans, and Todd Eastham. "Appeals Court Upholds New York Gun Licensing Law." Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 27 Nov. 2012. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. .
Garrett, Ben. "New York Gun Rights - an Overview of Gun Laws in New York." About.com - Civil Liberties. About.com., n.d. Web. 20 Dec. 2012. .
Gius, Mark. "The Effect of Gun Ownership Rates on Homicide Rates: A State-level Analysis." Applied Economics Letters 16 (2009): 1687-690. Print.
The work and materials required to make and serve regular coffee is considerably different than the work involved in making and serving a venti half-caf mocha-vanilla soy frappucino, for instance, and though some long-term regularity would be expected in the number of each drain that is ordered estimating costs based on a time scale for this area of operations would be cumbersome and inaccurate. Using the job order costing method and determining how much the materials and labor cost for each type of drink (or, in the case of coffee, the cost for making a single batch of the drink), and thus more accurate prices can be set that reflect the company's costs and allow it to continue making a profit (and frappucinos). By utilizing both costing methods as appropriate, then, Starbucks can place itself in a more advantageous position regarding cash flow in and out of the business.
Hortens, J. (n.d.). Job order vs. process costing. Accessed 14 May 2012. http://faculty.mdc.edu/jhortens/ACG%202071/transparenciesm02.pdf
Ingram, D. (2012). Advantages & Disadvantages of Job Order Costing & Process Costing. Accessed 14 May 2012. http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages-job-order-costing-process-costing-3082.html
Starbucks. (2012). Accessed 14 May 2012. http://www.starbucks.com/
JOB ORDER COSTING
Michigan Liquor control commission * Please read Attached document answer questions end.
Alternative designs for distilled liquor distribution
The manufacturer could be allowed to store the liquor and deliver directly to the retailers when they place an order. The retailers would be placing orders directly to the manufacturer when their stocks decrease. Centralizing all the inventories at the manufacturer will allow the manufacturer to keep track of stock levels Chopra & Meindl, 2012.
The manufacturer would be able to identify demand of the liquor. Using this method the manufacturer is able to determine the products that are required in the market. Another method that can be used is the distributor storing the liquor and delivering to the retailer using carriers. Having multiple distributors to store the liquor ensures that retailers have a choice of where to place an order. Providing retailers with multiple places to pick or place orders increases…
Chopra, S., & Meindl, P. (2012). Supply Chain Management: Strategy, Planning, and Operation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Limited.
Sjolander, R., & Kakela, P. (1988). Michigan's Mandatory Beverage-Container-Deposit Law: Economic Effects of a Public Policy on Industry Sales. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 7(ArticleType: research-article / Issue Title: Special Issue on the FTC / Full publication date: 1988 / Copyright © 1988 American Marketing Association), 166-184. doi: 10.2307/30000299
Budgetary Control in Unpredictable and Dynamic Environments
The Effectiveness of Budgetary Control in unpredictable and Dynamic Environments
One challenge that has affected a number of economies today is the existence of unstable and dynamic environments. The challenge has made many of the leaders and managers adopt budgetary control measures. Companies often profit from their ability to predict their future financial performance with the use of the existing and previous market conditions. However, strategic managers often encounter challenges when their predictions on a company's financial performance are improbable. The adoption of budgetary control often ensures that economies and businesses can survive in the changing and unpredictable economic times. This study will look into the issues of implementing budgetary controls when scenarios prompting such actions arise. The study will also provide some alternative solutions that can be adopted as contingency measures when planning systems fail.
Business success depends on the choices that…
Hofstede, G. (2012). The Game of Budget Control. London: Routledge, 2012, p. 45-54.
Marini, J. (2003). Budget Control. London: Taylor & Francis, 1992, p. 45-54.
McKinsey, O. (2011). Budgetary Control. New York: BiblioBazaar, 2011, p. 65-74.
Valenti, D. (2004). Training Budgets Step-by-Step. NewYork: John Wiley & Sons, 2004, p. 34-45.
Moreover, the increase in firearm-related homicide within this age group occurred among all race-sex groups (Fatal). Rates of suicide by firearm were especially high among the elderly in the United States, and increases occurred in all race-sex groups except African-American females, for whom the number of suicides were too small to produce stable rates (Fatal).
The CDC report cautions that the surveillance data in this report are intended to familiarize public health practitioners, researchers, and policymakers concerning the problem of firearm-related deaths in the United States (Fatal). And although these data help to characterize the magnitude of the problem and identify groups at risk, there are still gaps in knowledge, thus current surveillance efforts need to be expanded to include information about nonfatal injuries (Fatal). Moreover, there needs to be a greater understanding of the causes of firearm deaths to identify modifiable individual and societal risk factors, thus, further research…
Case for Gun Control. Retrieved November 06, 2005 at http://www.asahi-net.or.jp/~zj5j-gttl/guns.htm
Fatal Firearm Injuries in the United States, 1962-1994. Retrieved November 05 from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/firarmsu.htm
Firearm Injury and Death from Crime, 1993-97. Retrieved November 06, 2005 from U.S. Department of Justice Bureau of Statistics Web site. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/abstract/fidc9397.htm
Firearms and Crime Statistics. Retrieved November 06, 2005 from U.S.
overhead costs and various methods in which the overhead costs are classified.
Ehrhard righam, a renowned author, states that a business cannot consider all kind of money that it earns as profits. The reason for not calling the entire amount "profit" is that the business has to pay expenses for carrying out business activities and processes. These expenses are regarded as the operating costs. (rirgham, 2008) International Accounting Standards oard states that the most common type of overhead costs includes maintenance, production expenses and salaries. It is a common practice of businesses to track their gross income and net incomes. The two figures represent different values. Gross income is usually of a larger amount and consists of all the money a particular business takes in. (International Accounting Standards oard, 2008)
The nature of business decides the type of overhead costs that a business will have to pay. Some businesses have…
1. Ball, Rawlins, "International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS): pros and cons for investors." Accounting and Business Research. (2003)
2. Benninger, Lowe (1954). "Development of Cost Accounting Concepts and Principles: Role of the Committee on Cost Accounting Concepts and Standards." The Accounting Review (American Accounting Association): 27 -- 37
3. Barry J. Epstein, Eva K. Jermakowicz. Interpretation and Application of International Financial Reporting Standards (2007)
4. Cherrington, J. Owen, et al. Cost and Managerial Accounting. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1985.
Gun Control Legislation
The Gun Control Debate & Gun Control Legislation
With reference to the U.S. Constitution, which guarantees the right to the lawful possession of firearms to private citizens as well as with reference to law & economic journals, the paper will explore the gun control debate and the network of related issues. People who are not in favor of the use of guns and favor austere gun control legislation often argue that guns do not kill people; people kill people. People who are law abiding and moral have guns because it is their right; people who are of weak character and lack ethics have guns because it is their right. Gun possession is a fact of life making gun control legislation and regulation an absolute necessity; it is not the job of the law to judge a citizen's character, but rather it is the job of the law…
Cornell, S., & DeDino, N. (2004) A Well Regulated Right: The Early American Origins of Gun Control. Fordham Law Review, 73(2), 487 -- 523.
Krouse, W.J. (2012) Gun Control Legislation. Congressional Research Service, Available from www.crs.gov. 2012 June 21.
McClurg, A.J. (1992) The Rhetoric of Gun Control. The American University Law Review, 42(53), 54 -- 116.
Parker, J.S. (2001) Guns, Crime, and Academics: Some Reflections on the Gun Control Debate. Journal of Law and Economics, 44(2), 715 -- 724.
gun control. They counter argumnents I invalidated Counter Arguments Violation Second Amendment Right Gun control laws directly violate a citizen's bear arms granted amendment constitution.
There is much controversy with regard to gun-control laws and to the effect they have on society in general. hile individuals in the U.S. In particular have been accustomed to living in a gun culture, more and more people have started to express doubt with regard to pro-gun laws and to whether or not they help the masses feel safer. The government has attempted to introduce a series of gun laws in recent years with the purpose of controlling the general public and in order to make it more difficult for potential criminals to get their hands on firearms. "The laws cumulatively provide fewer restrictions than exist in most developed countries, but they nonetheless constitute an impressive effort." (Mears 200)
Gun laws are generally designed…
Carter, Greg Lee. "Guns in American Society: An Encyclopedia of History, Politics, Culture, and the Law, Volume 1," (ABC-CLIO, 2012)
McDowell, Earl E. "America's Great Gun Game: Gun Ownership Vs. Americans' Safety: an Outline of the Need for Increased Federal Gun Legislation." (iUniverse, 2007)
Mears, Daniel P. "American Criminal Justice Policy: An Evaluation Approach to Increasing Accountability and Effectiveness," (Cambridge University Press, 12 Apr 2010)
" (Tolone, Ahn, Pai, et al. 2005 P. 37).
Table 1 provides the summary of the evaluation of various criteria mentioned in the paper. The table uses comparative terminology such as High, Medium and Low and, descriptive terminology such as Active, Passive, and Simple, and the standard Yes (Y) and No (N). The research provides the solutions based in the problems identified with the access controls evaluated.
Table I: Evaluation of Access Control
Groups of users / Collaboration Support.
Ahn, G.J. & Sandhu, R. (2000). Role-based authorization constraints speci-cation. ACM Trans.
Inf. Syst. Secur. 3(4).
Bullock, a. And Benford, S. (1999). Framework of the Access control for multi-user collaborative environments. In ACM Group. Phoenix, AZ.
Gauthier, F. & Merlo, E.(2012). Fast Detection of Access Control Vulnerabilities in PHP Applications. 2012 19th Working Conference on Reverse Engineering.
Fuzzy Logic-Based Control of Manufacturing Processes
Enormous advances in technology have made everyday life much easier. New developments within control systems have allowed for greater empowerment for individual devices, which often takes the burden off of the user. Among the many new technologies based on artificial intelligence, Fuzzy Logic Control System is the most popular and most applicable system. Almost in all domains, Fuzzy logic has a broad application area. It is safe to say that we can replace all control-based systems by Fuzzy Logic Control System. FCLS can be used in a great variety of commercial and industrial applications, showing its strength and prominence as a new technology prompt for future innovation.
Fuzzy Logic is a principle within artificial intelligence that is based primarily off the notion of logical reasoning that humans use daily in the context of the normal everyday lives. There are a number of instances where…
 Altrock, Constantin. (2012). Fuzzy Logic and NueroFuzzy Technologies in Appliances. Universidad de Antioquia. [Online] Available at http://ingenieria.udea.edu.co/investigacion/fuzzycon/FuzzyLogic/FuzzyLogicinAppliances.pdf
 Chen, Guanrong & Pham, Trung Tat. Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Control Systems. CRC Press. 2000.
 Dewy, Douglas. (2013). Fuzzy Logic. Omega Engineering. [Online]. Available at http://www.omega.com/techref/fuzzylogic.html
 Emami, Sarmasti, "Fuzzy Logic Applications in Chemical Processes," The Journal of Mathematics and Computer Sciences, 1(4), 339-348.
People can no longer decide on their selves, and there the rulers of the country must intervene. The measures proposed will have as finality the reduction in violent attacks, and more tranquil life in American cities and ghettos. The feasibility of the legislative intention is also demonstrated with logical arguments, which would deter the behavior of individuals with an aversion to violence.
The violence is a sign of weakness, both of the individual and the society on one hand and of the laws that govern the society on the other. Some individual is not capable to think things clear, or maybe he is not familiar with the legal proceedings, so his only solution is violence oriented to other citizens. The authorities are not able, up to present times, to control this violence issue through specific measures - legal, in general. The current proposals could be a viable solution for the…
1) Peter Rutten & Albert F. Bayers III and the World Rank Research Team, Where We Stand', New York: Bantam Books, 1992), pp. 297,289
2) Brian Wenn Australian Government - Violence today, no. 4: Violence in sport
ISBN 0 642 14748 5; ISSN 1032-7894
Applying Statistical Process Control Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
The use of applied statistics in studying a pharmaceutical manufacturing process is examined in the work of Tiani (2004) reports that health care quality is critically important in society and the quality of health care is important to all individuals. It is important that treatment is given in an accurate manner and this is particularly true of medications given to patients as it is expected that "the bottle of medicine has the specified number of tablets and that each tablet contains the specified quantity of the correct drug." (Tiani, 2004)
Legal and Regulatory Framework
There are legal and regulatory requirements set out in the law of the United States that the quality of medications be controlled in the pharmaceutical industry. The regulations are contained in federal statutes and outline "a quality control functions that emphasizes inspection and defect detection, and pharmaceutical quality control technology."…
Shanley, Agnes (2011) No Time for Process Control? PharmaManufacturing Magazine. Retrieved from: http://www.pharmamanufacturing.com/articles/2010/123.html?page=full
Janardhan, 2011, Pala Bashanam (2011) Pharmaceutical Manufacturing: Embracing Process Analytical Technology. Pharma Focus Asia. Retrieved from: http://www.pharmafocusasia.com/manufacturing/pharmaceutical_manufacturing_pat.htm
Moore, V (2003) Statistical Process Control. Chapter 24 9 Apr 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.uncp.edu/home/marson/360chapter24.pdf
Guidance for Industry Process Validation: General Principles and Practices (2011) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) Jan 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.pharmamanufacturing.com/wp_downloads/pdf/FDAProcessValidationJan2011.pdf