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Criminal Perspectives Social Trait Classical
Words: 1310 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 11929443
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Criminological Perspectives
Criminological perspectives explain why people commit crime and why some people are more predisposed to engage in criminal activity than others. The trait, social, and classical/choice perspectives are among the most common criminological perspectives. This text describes the core arguments of these three perspectives and how they dictate the sentencing model used at trial.
The Trait Perspective
The trait perspective argues that an individual’s predisposition to commit crime is influenced by their biological or genetic makeup (Siegel, 2015). According to the trait perspective, humans are born-criminals. However, individuals have certain traits such as blood chemistry disorders, neurological problems, defective intelligence or psychological disorders that determine whether or not they engage in crime when under duress or pushed in a certain direction. Traditional trait theorists believe that these biological and psychological attributes explain all criminality (Siegel, 2015). Contemporary theorists, however, believe that environmental factors such as disorganized neighborhoods, socioeconomic…

Reforming the Criminal System
Words: 1110 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99288671
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The Need for Criminal Justice Reform and Bail Reform
When it comes to incarceration, the U.S. has the worst record in the world: the U.S. is only 4.4% of the world’s population, but it makes up 22% of the entire planet’s prison population. 716 people for every 100,000 in the U.S. will be incarcerated; moreover, 70% of those in prison will be there simply because they cannot afford to pay for bail (ACLU, 2019). Since most people live paycheck to paycheck in the U.S. it is not surprising to find that anyone accused of a crime is unlikely to be able to post the average cost of bail, which in the U.S. is $11,000 (ACLU, 2019). For these reasons, there is a need to establish both criminal justice reform and bail reform in the U.S. The American Gulag is like that of the Soviet Gulag: people lose their entire lives…

Restorative Justice Responding to Shoplifting
Words: 1605 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57123175
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Restorative justice asks fundamentally different questions, and is based on a different set of assumptions, than the current criminal justice paradigm (Restorative Justice for Oakland Youth, n.d.). The most notable and important difference between the current criminal justice paradigm and the restorative justice paradigm is that restorative justice does not focus on the punishment and does not advocate a punitive criminal justice system. Instead, the restorative justice model is based on several different points of views including how to repair harm. Restorative justice is solution-focused and also victim-centric in its approach to criminal justice. The National Institute of Justice (2007) describes restorative justice as being “grounded in community involvement,” which places a considerable degree of responsibility upon the members of the community in addition to the victims. As the Insight Prison Project (2017) puts it, restorative justice is “a philosophy and a social movement which provides an entirely different way…


Crawford, A. & Newburn, T. (2011). Youth Offending and Restorative Justice. New York: Routledge.
Davis, M. (2013). Restorative justice: resources for schools. Retrieved online: 
Insight Prison Project (2017). What is restorative justice? Retrieved online: 
Mahoney, S. (2011). Teen shoplifting. Family Circle. Retrieved online: 
National Institute of Justice (2007). How to build community support for restorative justice. Retrieved online: 
Restorative Justice for Oakland Youth (n.d.). Restorative justice. Retrieved online: 

theories of criminal behavior
Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73331296
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Understanding why individuals or groups engage in deviant or criminal behavior helps better inform therapeutic interventions and public policy. No one theory of crime can explain all criminal behavior. However, each theory does offer the potential for better understanding individual criminal acts or patterns of criminal behavior that take place within specific cultural or historical contexts. Integrating multiple theories can be helpful, too, showing how biology, psychology, politics, culture, and sociology intersect.
Biological Theories of Criminal Behavior
Some of the earliest theories of criminal behavior evolved out of biological determinism and evolutionary theory, which suggested that some people have a genetic predisposition towards criminality. Biological theories of criminal behavior can be based on different perspectives, including those that focus on neurochemistry, genetic conditions, developmental disorders, and even nutritional deficiencies (The Scottish Centre for Crime & Justice Research, 2016). Although the original biological theories of crime like those of Lombroso have…

Engelen, P., Lander, M.W. & van Essen, M. (2016). What determines crime rates? The Social Science Journal 53(2): 247-262.
Hirschi, T. (2014). On the compatibility of rational choice and social control theories of crime. In Scott, M. (Ed.) The Reasoning Criminal. New York: Routledge.
Miller L. (2017) Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior. In: Van Hasselt V., Bourke M. (eds) Handbook of Behavioral Criminology. Springer, Cham
Newsome, J. (2014). Biological theories of crime. The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Blackwell:
The Scottish Centre for Crime & Justice Research (2016). Theories and causes of crime. University of Glasgow:

Restorative Justice and the Contingent Exclusionary Rule
Words: 1186 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99731069
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From my knowledge in taking this course thus far as well as with my knowledge of being certified as a police officer, my position for how Dripps model would work is that it would not work. From reviewing and researching his model, I believe his model is very anti-police and seems to take the stance that all police departments and judicial systems have some type of buddy system that embraces corruption in criminal justice. That is something that I completely disagree with. In his article it states that, “The judge is not offering to cancel the suppression order if the police department mows the judge's lawn or provides free security at rock concerts. The judge is offering to rescind one, purely deterrent, remedy if and only if the government submits to another remedy that deters equally and compensates better” (Dripps, 2001). This to me is incredibly offensive that one would…

How Just is the Philosophy Restorative Justice
Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19526504
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Restorative Justice: How Just is the Philosophy?

The principle of restorative justice was first created as an alternative to the two dominant philosophies of corrections: retribution and rehabilitation. The retributive view of corrections suggests that the purpose of corrections is to punish the offender. The rehabilitative view suggests that the purpose of corrections is to change the character of the offender for the better and prevent future crimes from taking place. Both neglect the needs of the victim, however, which is how the principle of restorative justice arose. According to the Centre for Justice and Reconciliation’s definition of “What is Restorative Justice” (2018), the philosophy: “emphasizes accountability, making amends, and — if they are interested — facilitated meetings between victims, offenders, and other persons.”
For some crimes, the principles of restorative justice would seem to be highly appropriate. A good example of this is vandalism, in which perpetrators are required…

Nusrat, N. (2013). What is—and is not—restorative justice? National Centre for Crime and Delinquency. Retrieved form: and-not-restorative-justice
What is restorative justice? (2018). Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Retrieved from:

How to Solve the Drug Problem in the US
Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95098583
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Drugs: A Big Problem in Criminal Justice
The problem of drug use in America is one that has been around for many years. However, with the recent passage of marijuana laws in states like Colorado, Oregon and California (to name just a few), the way the nation views drug use has shifted. Recreational marijuana use has become accepted in Colorado, where it is legal to buy and sell a substance that is still considered a schedule 1 narcotic by the federal government. In fact, in states like Colorado, there is a clear conflict between the state laws and the federal laws: the states says cannabis is legal, while the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) says it is still prohibited. Researchers would like to research the drug to better understand its medicinal qualities, but they are afraid of violating federal law, so do not. Thus, the problem of drugs and how to…

James, T. (2016). The failed promise of legal pot. Retrieved from 
Miroff, N. (2015). Losing marijuana business, Mexican cartels push heroin and meth.
Retrieved from 
Roeder, O. (2015). Releasing drug offenders won’t end mass incarceration. Retrieved


Organizational Behavior
Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26535132
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Behavioral Influences
There are many behaviors that can influence change in criminal justice organizations. Social behavior influences change because the social systems that exist within an organization can help to disseminate change, or build resistance to it (Qian, 2007). Organizational change requires buy-in from the people that comprise the organization, so social behaviors such as the formation of social groups, gossip and other social communication and behavioral norms will all play a role in how quickly buy-in to the change occurs.
Political behaviors also matter, not just in terms of how the leaders leverage the formal political systems within the organization, but how informal systems are leveraged as well. Within any organization, there are key influencers, and they are not always in positions of formal power. The ability of management to leverage both these influencers and the formal political systems to disseminate a change program will have an influence on…

Duan, L., Sheeren, E. & Weiss, L. (2014) Tapping the power of hidden influencers. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved May 8, 2018 from
Gupton-Krumweide, R. (2018) Observable aspects of organizational culture. Brainmass. Retrieved May 8, 2018 from
Qian, Y. (2007). A communication model of employee cynicism toward organizational change. Scripps College of Communication. Retrieved May 8, 2018 from!etd.send_file?accession=ohiou1195512463&disposition=inline

Evolution of Forensic Science
Words: 1241 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57032460
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Forensic science evolved as an attempt to introduce scientific methods into criminal justice. From the 18th century onward, advancements in chemistry, biology, and physics paved the way for forensic science (Gaensslen & Larsen, 2019). Likewise, the routine use of autopsy and forensic pathology helped improve the ability to understand the causes of death (Gaensslen & Larsen, 2019). Forensic science steadily evolved, in conjunctions with advancements in scientific instruments and the methods used for data collection and analysis. DNA evidence and analysis has made a huge impact on forensic science. Current concerns in forensic science include the need for increased reliability and validity of forensic science methods, as well as public perceptions of forensic science. Because perceptions of forensic science could have a direct impact on juror decisions, distinguishing real from junk science becomes one of the most important issues in criminal justice.
Scientific Methods in Forensic Science
Forensic scientific methods…

Central Park Five Documentary Analysis
Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85516329
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The 2012 Ken Burns documentary entitled The Central Park Five offers disturbing insight into institutionalized racism and the criminal justice system. Co-produced by Sarah Burns and David McMahon, The Central Park Five is about five children of color—teenagers—who were wrongfully convicted of multiple charges including sexual assault. In addition to illuminating the way the media can feed into racial stereotypes about criminality, the documentary also shows how law enforcement uses unethical tactics of interrogation to secure a conviction at all costs. Pressures to arrest and convict are shared among all members of the law enforcement team, even though individual officers will claim that they were following orders. Therefore, The Central Park Five is also instructive for the way it shows how police organizational culture needs to change. The practices and tactics used by New York police undermine the constitutional rights of citizens to due process.
Essentially, the five teenagers referred…

Drake, K.E., Gonzalez, R.A., Sigurdsson, J.F., et al. (2017). A national study into temperament as a critical susceptibility factor for reported false confessions amongst adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences 111(2017): 220-226.
Drizin, S.A. & Leo, R.A. (2004). The problem of false confessions in the post-DNA world. 82 N.C. L. Rev. 891 (2003-2004).
Duru, N.J. (2004). The Central Park Five, the Scottsboro Boys, and the myth of the bestial black man. 25 Cardozo L. Rev. 1315 (2003-2004).
Kassin, S.M. & Kiechel, K.L. (1996). The social psychology of false confessions. Psychological Science 7(3): 125-128.

Solitary Confinement and Mental Health Issues in Corrections
Words: 3163 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96033944
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Functions, Issues, and Objectives in Corrections
The functions of the historical state correctional system have changed since the founding of the nation more than 200 years ago. The Jacksonian Era, the Era of Reconstruction and the Progressive Era on up to the reform of the 1970s all effected different changes to the function—i.e., the goals and activities—of the correctional system. Pennsylvania’s state correctional system was the first to introduce solitary confinement as a way of removing the deviant element from society. This was part of William Penn’s attempt at social reform, a fundamental characteristic of his Quaker ideals (Fantel, 1974). The goal of Penn’s plan was to promote moral rehabilitation and it was believed that through the inmate’s lengthy time alone to reflect on his misdeeds he would begin to develop the moral resolve to reform himself and become a better contributing member of society. Today, solitary confinement is…

Diversionary Programs for Juvenile Offenders
Words: 1926 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55247692
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Pros and Cons: Juvenile Justice
There are pros and cons to indeterminate sentencing. As Portman (2018) points out, prison officials like the idea of indeterminate sentencing because they feel it provides prisoners with an incentive to behave, show progress towards reform, and serve time quietly with the hope of getting an early release from the parole board. While this may be true, it also places a great deal of power into the hands of the parole board, the members of which essentially determine the fate of the incarcerated every time the individual is up for review. If the board holds any sort of prejudice or if the individual has few supporters on the outside to intervene on his behalf before the board, it could mean that there is less chance of early parole. For these reasons, it is important to weigh the pros and cons of indeterminate sentencing, especially…

ACLU. (2018). End juvenile life without parole. Retrieved from
Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C. (2015). Restorative Justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.
McCarthy, P., Schiraldi, V., & Shark, M. (2016). The future of youth justice: A community-based alternative to the youth prison model. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
Mears, D. P., Kuch, J. J., Lindsey, A. M., Siennick, S. E., Pesta, G. B., Greenwald, M. A., & Blomberg, T. G. (2016). Juvenile court and contemporary diversion: Helpful, harmful, or both?. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(3), 953-981.
Portman, J. (2018). Indeterminate vs. determinate prison sentences explained. Retrieved from
Roach, M., & Schanzenbach, M. (2015). The Effect of Prison Sentence Length on Recidivism: Evidence from Random Judicial Assignment. Retrieved from
Sentencing Guidelines Commission. (2005). Recidivism of Juvenile Offenders Fiscal Year 2005. Sentencing Guidelines Commission.
Walsh, N., & Weber, J. (2014). Measuring and using juvenile recidivism data to inform policy, practice, and resource allocation. The National Reentry Resource Center.

Why Prison Incarceration Rates are High
Words: 2612 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23024222
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The High Incarceration Rate: A Significant Issue Faced by the Criminal Justice System
This paper examines the problem of the high rate of incarceration in America. This is a major challenge for the criminal justice system, as many people, families and communities suffer as a result of this high rate. It prevents individuals from improving their lives and can lead to the deterioration of families and neighborhoods. The paper discusses some of the policies that have been put in place in recent years to address this issue. It also discusses alternative solutions and how the rate could be brought down by way of decriminalization of drug use and the implementation of diversion programs or restorative justice programs.
The problem of the high incarceration rate is one that affects more than prisoners and the prison population. It affects communities as well as the economics and politics of the nation.…

Brewer, R. M., & Heitzeg, N. A. (2008). The racialization of crime and punishment: Criminal justice, color-blind racism, and the political economy of the prison industrial complex. American Behavioral Scientist, 51(5), 625-644.
Davis, A. (2012). The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco, CA: City Light Books.
Gramlich, J. (2018). America’s incarceration rate is at a two-decade low. Retrieved from
Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C. (2015). Restorative Justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.
Mears, D. P., Kuch, J. J., Lindsey, A. M., Siennick, S. E., Pesta, G. B., Greenwald, M. A., & Blomberg, T. G. (2016). Juvenile court and contemporary diversion: Helpful, harmful, or both?. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(3), 953-981.
Peters, R. H., Wexler, H. K., & Lurigio, A. J. (2015). Co-occurring substance use and mental disorders in the criminal justice system: A new frontier of clinical practice and research. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 38(1), 1-6.
Smith, E., & Hattery, A. (2006). The prison industrial complex. Sociation Today, 4(2), 1-28.
Soyer, M. (2016). A dream denied: Incarceration, recidivism, and young minority men in America. Univ of California Press.

The History of Forensic Pathology
Words: 2269 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94998218
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Forensic Pathology
Forensic pathology is a field in criminology and medical jurisprudence that focuses on the study of a corpse to determine evidence that can be used in criminal justice or to determine the cause of death. The post mortem conducted by a forensic pathologist serves as the source of information for the autopsy report that is generated at the conclusion of the investigation. Having trained previously in anatomical pathology, the forensic pathologist will be able to determine the cause of death by examining the body and determining the process by which the person died. This paper will discuss forensic pathology in detail and show how it is of use in criminal justice.
Meaning of the Terms
The history of forensic pathology is rooted in the terminology: as Choo and Choi (2012) point out, “forensic” comes from the Latin term “forum,” which means “public.” Pathology is Greek in its…

Catts, E. P., & Goff, M. L. (1992). Forensic entomology in criminal investigations. Annual Review of Entomology, 37(1), 253-272.
Choo, T. M., & Choi, Y. S. (2012). Historical development of forensic pathology in the United States. Korean Journal of Legal Medicine, 36(1), 15-21.
Finkbeiner, W. E., Ursell, P. C. & Davis, R. S. (2009). Autopsy pathology: a manual and atlas. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Houck, M. & Siegel, J. (2010). Fundamentals of forensic Science. Burlington:Academic Press.
Joseph, I., Mathew, D. G., Sathyan, P., & Vargheese, G. (2011). The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, 3(2), 89.
Maio, V. D. & Maio, D. D. (2001). Forensic pathology. Florida: CRC Press.
Newell, R. (1995). Follow the royal road: The case for dissection. Clinical Anatomy: The Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists and the British Association of Clinical Anatomists, 8(2), 124-127.
Prayson, R. (2007). Autopsy: Learning from the dead. Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Clinic Press.

How to Use DNA Analysis in Court
Words: 2199 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96368215
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DNA Analysis
This paper discusses the history of DNA analysis, how it came about, how it was first used in a criminal case, and some of the limitations of DNA analysis as shown by later criminal cases. It looks at how DNA analysis is currently used today, including a recent criminal investigation in Europe in which DNA analysis played a crucial role, and provides a description of the various directions that DNA analysis could be taken in the future in the field of forensics. The paper concludes with a summation of the main points of the paper.
Keywords: dna analysis, dna profiling, dna forensics, dna criminal justice history
DNA analysis, also known as DNA fingerprinting in the beginning, came about in the latter half of the 20th century through breakthroughs in scientific investigation. It has been used in forensics ever since and is defined as “comparison of the…

Austin, E. (2015). DNA evidence can be faked. Retrieved from
Jeffreys, A. J., Wilson, V., & Thein, S. L. (1985). Individual-specific ‘fingerprints’ of human DNA. Nature, 316(6023), 76-79.
Roewer, L. (2013). DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future. Investigative Genetics, 4(1), 22.
Worth, K. (2018). Framed for murder by his own DNA. Retrieved from

The Need to End Solitary Confinement
Words: 1927 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61219429
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Solitary Confinement
As Clark (2017) points out, solitary confinement is typically a disciplinary, administrative or personal measure employed to punish, control or protect the individual who is isolated from others. However, the practice can have lasting and devastating effects on the psychology and health of individuals who thus confined—especially for juveniles. The reason for this damaging effect is that human beings are essentially social creatures and need sociality in order to feel whole. Exceptions to this rule have existed through history by primarily because one individual or another chose to live in solitude and was not confined against his will. Confinement against one’s will can be damaging and debilitating and numerous examples of this exist, especially in cases where the individual is left in confinement for a long period of time: the case of Stephen Slevin, who was arrested for drunk driving and possession of a stolen vehicle—but never…

Allen, N. (2013). \\'Forgotten\\' solitary confinement prisoner wins $15.5m. Retrieved from
Clark, A. B. (2017). Juvenile Solitary Confinement as a Form of Child Abuse. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 45(3), 350-357.
Dimon, L. (2014). How Solitary Confinement Hurts the Teenage Brain. Retrieved from
Gonnerman, J. (2015). Kalief Browder, 1993-2015. Retrieved from
Gordon, S. E. (2014). Solitary confinement, public safety, and recidivism. U. Mich. JL Reform, 47, 495.
Grassian, S. (2006). Psychiatric effects of solitary confinement. Wash. UJL & Pol\\'y, 22, 325.
Hayes, L. M. (2009). Juvenile suicide in confinement: A national survey. Diane Publishing.
Moore, M. (2011). Michael Moore goes to Norway and visits a prison of the future. YouTube. Retrieved from

Ethics and the Art of Profiling
Words: 1539 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29672941
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Debating the Value and Ethical Concerns of Psychological Profiling
A psychological profile is created by combining individual profiles, such as a victim profile with an offender profile or a geographical profile and even a DNA profile. Through the combination of individual profiles, the psychological profile emerges with a comprehensive view of the type of person most likely to be found at a particular place at a particular time with such and such type of victim or such and such type of crime/offense being committed. Psychological profiling is both an “investigative aid” and a “conceptual tool” that is used by police to understand cases and create leads (Wilson, Lincoln & Kocsis, 1997, p. 1). Vorpagel (1982) described psychological profiling as the exercise of identifying “behavioral patterns, trends, and tendencies” used to develop a complete picture—not just of the individuals involved in a crime—but of the type of individuals who would…

Egger, S. A. (1999). Psychological profiling: Past, present, and future. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(3), 242-261.
Kocsis, R. N. (2003). Criminal psychological profiling: validities and abilities.  International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 47(2), 126-144.
Snook, B., Cullen, R. M., Bennell, C., Taylor, P. J., & Gendreau, P. (2008). The criminal profiling illusion: What\\\\'s behind the smoke and mirrors?. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(10), 1257-1276.
Vorpagel, R.E. (1982). Painting psychological profiles: charlatanism, coincidence, charisma or new science. Police Chief, 3(8), 156-59
Wilson, P., Lincoln, R., & Kocsis, R. (1997). Validity, utility and ethics of profiling for serial violent and sexual offenders. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 4(1), 1-11.

The Evolution in the Rights of the Accused
Words: 805 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86816616
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Evolution over the Years
To a majority of individuals, arrest and detention within a law enforcement facility may be counted among the worst of life’s experiences; being coerced into confessing, at times under torture, is much more terrifying. However, citizens’ rights in the US ensure sound constitutional rules limit criminal law enforcement. Amazingly, a large number of these safeguards provided to citizens have only been put in place during the last few decades. The rest are entrenched in the nation’s colonial history.
From the start of the 60’s era, the US Supreme Court commenced efforts in the area of extensive expansion of defendant rights, way beyond the Constitutional Bill of Rights (BOR) developers’ grasp. For instance, though several portions of the BOR deal with law enforcement behavior, regulations pertaining to improper detention, warrants and searches (that English common law was unfamiliar with) were implemented during this period. The protection against…

Amar, A. R. (1995). Sixth Amendment First Principles. Geo. LJ, 84, 641.
Cummings L. (2018). Pros & Cons of the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from
Mott J. (2018). Rights of the Accused. Retrieved from
Rights of the Accused. (1999). In American Journey. Civil Rights in America. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media. Retrieved from (2018). Crime and Due Process. American Government Online Textbook. Retrieved from

Racial and Ethnic Profiling Gang Violence
Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26611722
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According to the National Gang Center’s (2011) National Youth Gang Survey, the majority of gangs are comprised of non-white minorities, especially Hispanic/Latino (46 percent of all gang members) and African American (35 percent of all gang members). Because of these statistics, law enforcement has been tempted to rely on racial profiling to fight gang formation, reduce gang membership, and control gang-related crimes. As tempting as it may be to rely on ethnic or racial strategies in law enforcement, these shortcuts undermine the fundamental principles of the criminal justice system.
The use of racial and ethnic profiling and related techniques is illegal as well as unethical, presenting clear procedural justice problems for law enforcement departments that use these tactics (American Bar Association, n.d.). Using racial and ethnic strategies threatens to undermine public trust in, and the credibility of, law enforcement. Racial and ethnic strategies also defeat the purpose of more effective…

American Bar Association (n.d.). Report to House of Delegates Commission on Immigration, Center for Racial and Ethnic Diversity.
National Gang Center (2011). National youth gang survey analysis.
White, R. (2008). Disputed definitions and fluid identities. Youth Justice 8(2): 149-161.

Forensic Entomology
Words: 2552 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36729585
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In so far as academic studies are concerned, the field of forensic entomology is relatively new in the West—but so, too, for that matter is the field of criminology. Forensic entomology is a subset of criminology in that it focuses on the study of insects and anthropods and what they reveal about the death of a victim. This highly specialized science takes the field of entomology and combines it with the field of forensics, bringing together two very different but very useful bodies of knowledge that, when they intersect, provide valuable insights that can help investigators solve murders. This paper will define and discuss forensic entomology, examine its history and how it has developed over the years, and describe how entomology has affected the field of forensics with a few examples to illustrate this point.
The history of forensic entomology begins, as far as historical records show, in…

Amendt, J., Krettek, R., & Zehner, R. (2004). Forensic entomology.  Naturwissenschaften, 91(2), 51-65.
Benecke, M. (1998). Six forensic entomology cases: description and commentary. Journal of Forensic Science, 43(4), 797-805.
Benecke, M., Josephi, E., & Zweihoff, R. (2004). Neglect of the elderly: forensic entomology cases and considerations. Forensic Science International, 146, S195-S199.
Byrd, J. H., & Castner, J. (2001). Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Catts, E. P., & Goff, M. L. (1992). Forensic entomology in criminal investigations. Annual Review of Entomology, 37(1), 253-272.
Goff, M. L., & Odom, C. B. (1987). Forensic entomology in the Hawaiian Islands. Three case studies. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 8(1), 45-50.
Greenberg, B. (1985). Forensic entomology: case studies. American Entomologist, 31(4), 25-28.
Greenberg, B., & Kunich, J. (2002). Entomology and the Law. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Wrongful Convictions and Eyewitness Testimony
Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49820070
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Law enforcement has a direct ethical responsibility to preventing wrongful convictions, no matter how heavy the pressure for a conviction may be from a political standpoint. Wrongful convictions represent a miscarriage of justice and draw attention to procedural problems in law enforcement. One of the problems that has been shown to lead to wrongful convictions is the method by which eyewitness testimony is secured. Recent criminal justice policy and procedure have changed somewhat to prevent problems with false eyewitness testimony, but these changes have been irregularly implemented (Norris, Bonventre, Redlich, et al, 2017). Therefore, the onus remains upon individual departments to develop an ethical culture that prevents wrongful convictions.
As helpful as eyewitness accounts have been in securing rightful convictions, “eyewitnesses make mistakes and that their memories can be affected by various factors including the very law enforcement procedures designed to test their memories,” (Committee on Scientific Approaches to Understanding…

Committee on Scientific Approaches to Understanding and Maximizing the Validity and Reliability of Eyewitness Identification in Law Enforcement and the Courts (2014). Identifying the culprit. National Research Council.
Desai, A. (2017). Actual innocence and wrongful convictions. Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2017-20.
“Eyewitness Identification,” (n.d.). Innocence Project.
Norris, R.J., Bonventre, C.L., Redlich, A.D., et al (2017). Preventing wrongful convictions. Criminal Justice Policy Review.

Arguments for and against Parole for Juvenile Offenders Sentenced to Life
Words: 1643 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: response paper Paper #: 86756982
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Second Chance Kids Documentary Response
The major issue addressed by the documentary Second Chance Kids is whether kids who commit violent crimes like murder should get a second chance at life. The documentary shows that teens who are convicted of murder and basically given life sentences with no chance of parole. Thus, before they are even really adults their lives have been forfeited to the state. The question this documentary asks is whether this is a fair approach to criminal justice. The documentary looks at both sides of the issue, showing that from one perspective it does not seem fair that a mistake—even one as bad as murder—should be something that a kid has to spend the rest of his life paying for behind bars; on the other hand, what if society is really dealing with an evil human being? Should it risk the safety of the rest of…

fingerprint analysis
Words: 2317 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41481398
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This paper discusses the origins of fingerprinting and the usage of fingerprint analysis in the field of forensics. It traces the history of the practice from the 19th century on into the 20th and discusses the methods used to obtain fingerprints from a crime scene. It also examines some of the problems of fingerprint analysis and how it is not a foolproof manner of identification and never has been. It shows why fingerprint analysis should be used as a tool and not as an end-all-be-all means of identification for investigators conducting a criminal investigation. The numerous cases of mistaken identity based upon faulty forensics applied in the case of fingerprint analysis are sufficient to indicate the merit of this claim.
Keywords: fingerprint analysis, forensics fingerprinting, crime scene investigation
The unique characteristics and contours of the fingerprint were first noted by 17th century anatomist Marcello Malpighi, who highlighted the…

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