Criminal Justice Essays (Examples)

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Criminal justice and criminology developed from two major fields of study: the law and sociology. While related, the two terms are distinct. Criminology is the study of crime, including its costs, causes, and consequences. In contrast, criminal justice is the study of system in which behavior is designated as criminal and then those crimes are detected, tried, and punished. While criminology focuses primarily on the social aspects of crime, criminal justice focuses primarily on the legal aspects of crime. However, the relationship between law and society is well-established. Not only do social norms and values help dictate what behaviors are considered criminal, but also the designation of behaviors as illegal or legal helps dictate what a society views as moral and ethical. Therefore, criminal justice and criminology majors need to have a thorough understanding of both fields.

Criminology is a branch of sociology. There are three sociological approaches to crime: the Classical School, the Positivist School, and the Chicago School. While only formally studied in recent times, social theories about criminology have been circulating since the development of legal systems and laws. Criminologists look at how society impacts criminality, but also how criminality impacts society. More specifically, criminologists look at the broader details of crimes to draw cultural conclusions about criminal behaviors, values, and norms. They specifically look at: where crimes occur, what types of crimes occur, why those crimes happen, how frequently those crimes happen, the consequences of crime for offenders, the consequences of crime for victims, the consequences of crime for society as whole, and how the government responds to criminal behavior. For example, the American criminal justice system was established to ensure that criminal defendants had certain constitutional protections, but victim advocacy groups have lobbied to ensure that victims also have some rights in the criminal prosecution process. Victim impact statements are one way that victims are able to have an influence in the criminal justice process.

In contrast, criminal justice looks at the various systems in place that define, detect, and punish criminal behavior. Criminal justice is considered by many to be synonymous with law enforcement, but the criminal justice system actually encompasses more than just law enforcement. There are three major components in the criminal justice system: law enforcement, courts, and corrections. Each component plays a role in preventing and punishing behavior that is deemed illegal. A non-specified component of the criminal justice system is the legislature, which not only determines which behaviors are considered illegal, but also the consequences for those illegal behaviors, including the range of potential punishments for those who engage in those behaviors. Law enforcement officers, also known as police officers, serve three roles in the criminal justice system: crime prevention, crime detection, and identification and apprehension of criminals. The court systems, which consists of the courts themselves, as well as the prosecuting and defense attorneys, judges, and juries, determine whether the suspect is guilty, and sentence them to their punishments. The corrections system refers to any part of the post-sentencing process that is responsible for carrying out sentencing. Prisons, jails, halfway houses, prison guards, corrections officers, probation officers, and parole officers are all part of the corrections system. 

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Restorative Justice Responding to Shoplifting

Words: 1605 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57123175

Restorative justice asks fundamentally different questions, and is based on a different set of assumptions, than the current criminal justice paradigm (Restorative Justice for Oakland Youth, n.d.). The most notable and important difference between the current criminal justice paradigm and the restorative justice paradigm is that restorative justice does not focus on the punishment and does not advocate a punitive criminal justice system. Instead, the restorative justice model is based on several different points of views including how to repair harm. Restorative justice is solution-focused and also victim-centric in its approach to criminal justice. The National Institute of Justice (2007) describes restorative justice as being “grounded in community involvement,” which places a considerable degree of responsibility upon the members of the community in addition to the victims. As the Insight Prison Project (2017) puts it, restorative justice is “a philosophy and a social movement which provides an entirely different way…… [Read More]

References

Crawford, A. & Newburn, T. (2011). Youth Offending and Restorative Justice. New York: Routledge.
Davis, M. (2013). Restorative justice: resources for schools. Retrieved online:  https://www.edutopia.org/blog/restorative-justice-resources-matt-davis 
Insight Prison Project (2017). What is restorative justice? Retrieved online:  http://www.insightprisonproject.org/a-restorative-justice-agency.html 
Mahoney, S. (2011). Teen shoplifting. Family Circle. Retrieved online: http://www.familycircle.com/teen/parenting/discipline/teen-shoplifting/?page=2
National Institute of Justice (2007). How to build community support for restorative justice. Retrieved online: https://www.nij.gov/topics/courts/restorative-justice/perspectives/pages/how-to-build.aspx
Restorative Justice for Oakland Youth (n.d.). Restorative justice. Retrieved online:  http://rjoyoakland.org/restorative-justice/ 
 
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theories of criminal behavior

Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73331296

Understanding why individuals or groups engage in deviant or criminal behavior helps better inform therapeutic interventions and public policy. No one theory of crime can explain all criminal behavior. However, each theory does offer the potential for better understanding individual criminal acts or patterns of criminal behavior that take place within specific cultural or historical contexts. Integrating multiple theories can be helpful, too, showing how biology, psychology, politics, culture, and sociology intersect.
Biological Theories of Criminal Behavior
Some of the earliest theories of criminal behavior evolved out of biological determinism and evolutionary theory, which suggested that some people have a genetic predisposition towards criminality. Biological theories of criminal behavior can be based on different perspectives, including those that focus on neurochemistry, genetic conditions, developmental disorders, and even nutritional deficiencies (The Scottish Centre for Crime & Justice Research, 2016). Although the original biological theories of crime like those of Lombroso have…… [Read More]

References

Engelen, P., Lander, M.W. & van Essen, M. (2016). What determines crime rates? The Social Science Journal 53(2): 247-262.

Hirschi, T. (2014). On the compatibility of rational choice and social control theories of crime. In Scott, M. (Ed.) The Reasoning Criminal. New York: Routledge.

Miller L. (2017) Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior. In: Van Hasselt V., Bourke M. (eds) Handbook of Behavioral Criminology. Springer, Cham

Newsome, J. (2014). Biological theories of crime. The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Blackwell: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118517383.wbeccj225

The Scottish Centre for Crime & Justice Research (2016). Theories and causes of crime. University of Glasgow: http://www.sccjr.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/SCCJR-Causes-of-Crime.pdf


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Restorative Justice and the Contingent Exclusionary Rule

Words: 1186 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99731069

From my knowledge in taking this course thus far as well as with my knowledge of being certified as a police officer, my position for how Dripps model would work is that it would not work. From reviewing and researching his model, I believe his model is very anti-police and seems to take the stance that all police departments and judicial systems have some type of buddy system that embraces corruption in criminal justice. That is something that I completely disagree with. In his article it states that, “The judge is not offering to cancel the suppression order if the police department mows the judge's lawn or provides free security at rock concerts. The judge is offering to rescind one, purely deterrent, remedy if and only if the government submits to another remedy that deters equally and compensates better” (Dripps, 2001). This to me is incredibly offensive that one would…… [Read More]

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How Just is the Philosophy Restorative Justice

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19526504

Restorative Justice: How Just is the Philosophy?

The principle of restorative justice was first created as an alternative to the two dominant philosophies of corrections: retribution and rehabilitation. The retributive view of corrections suggests that the purpose of corrections is to punish the offender. The rehabilitative view suggests that the purpose of corrections is to change the character of the offender for the better and prevent future crimes from taking place. Both neglect the needs of the victim, however, which is how the principle of restorative justice arose. According to the Centre for Justice and Reconciliation’s definition of “What is Restorative Justice” (2018), the philosophy: “emphasizes accountability, making amends, and — if they are interested — facilitated meetings between victims, offenders, and other persons.”
For some crimes, the principles of restorative justice would seem to be highly appropriate. A good example of this is vandalism, in which perpetrators are required…… [Read More]

References

Nusrat, N. (2013). What is—and is not—restorative justice? National Centre for Crime and Delinquency. Retrieved form: https://www.nccdglobal.org/newsroom/nccd-blog/what- and-not-restorative-justice

What is restorative justice? (2018). Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Retrieved from: http://restorativejustice.org/#sthash.Zpiqhc3d.fnSlqRx5.dpbs


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How to Solve the Drug Problem in the US

Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95098583

Drugs: A Big Problem in Criminal Justice
The problem of drug use in America is one that has been around for many years. However, with the recent passage of marijuana laws in states like Colorado, Oregon and California (to name just a few), the way the nation views drug use has shifted. Recreational marijuana use has become accepted in Colorado, where it is legal to buy and sell a substance that is still considered a schedule 1 narcotic by the federal government. In fact, in states like Colorado, there is a clear conflict between the state laws and the federal laws: the states says cannabis is legal, while the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) says it is still prohibited. Researchers would like to research the drug to better understand its medicinal qualities, but they are afraid of violating federal law, so do not. Thus, the problem of drugs and how to…… [Read More]

References
James, T. (2016). The failed promise of legal pot. Retrieved from
 https://www.theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/05/legal-pot-and-the-black-market/481506/ 
Miroff, N. (2015). Losing marijuana business, Mexican cartels push heroin and meth.
Retrieved from  https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/the_americas/losing-marijuana-business-mexican-cartels-push-heroin-and-meth/2015/01/11/91fe44ce-8532-11e4-abcf-5a3d7b3b20b8_story.html?utm_term=.ba83c8a0f036 
Roeder, O. (2015). Releasing drug offenders won’t end mass incarceration. Retrieved
from  https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/releasing-drug-offenders-wont-end-mass-incarceration/ 

 
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Organizational Behavior

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26535132

Behavioral Influences
There are many behaviors that can influence change in criminal justice organizations. Social behavior influences change because the social systems that exist within an organization can help to disseminate change, or build resistance to it (Qian, 2007). Organizational change requires buy-in from the people that comprise the organization, so social behaviors such as the formation of social groups, gossip and other social communication and behavioral norms will all play a role in how quickly buy-in to the change occurs.
Political behaviors also matter, not just in terms of how the leaders leverage the formal political systems within the organization, but how informal systems are leveraged as well. Within any organization, there are key influencers, and they are not always in positions of formal power. The ability of management to leverage both these influencers and the formal political systems to disseminate a change program will have an influence on…… [Read More]

References

Duan, L., Sheeren, E. & Weiss, L. (2014) Tapping the power of hidden influencers. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved May 8, 2018 from https://www.mckinsey.com/business-functions/organization/our-insights/tapping-the-power-of-hidden-influencers

Gupton-Krumweide, R. (2018) Observable aspects of organizational culture. Brainmass. Retrieved May 8, 2018 from https://brainmass.com/business/organizational-culture-and-structure/workplace-observation-organizational-culture-conflict-resolution-126085

Qian, Y. (2007). A communication model of employee cynicism toward organizational change. Scripps College of Communication. Retrieved May 8, 2018 from https://etd.ohiolink.edu/!etd.send_file?accession=ohiou1195512463&disposition=inline


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Central Park Five Documentary Analysis

Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85516329

The 2012 Ken Burns documentary entitled The Central Park Five offers disturbing insight into institutionalized racism and the criminal justice system. Co-produced by Sarah Burns and David McMahon, The Central Park Five is about five children of color—teenagers—who were wrongfully convicted of multiple charges including sexual assault. In addition to illuminating the way the media can feed into racial stereotypes about criminality, the documentary also shows how law enforcement uses unethical tactics of interrogation to secure a conviction at all costs. Pressures to arrest and convict are shared among all members of the law enforcement team, even though individual officers will claim that they were following orders. Therefore, The Central Park Five is also instructive for the way it shows how police organizational culture needs to change. The practices and tactics used by New York police undermine the constitutional rights of citizens to due process.
Essentially, the five teenagers referred…… [Read More]

References

Drake, K.E., Gonzalez, R.A., Sigurdsson, J.F., et al. (2017). A national study into temperament as a critical susceptibility factor for reported false confessions amongst adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences 111(2017): 220-226.

Drizin, S.A. & Leo, R.A. (2004). The problem of false confessions in the post-DNA world. 82 N.C. L. Rev. 891 (2003-2004).

Duru, N.J. (2004). The Central Park Five, the Scottsboro Boys, and the myth of the bestial black man. 25 Cardozo L. Rev. 1315 (2003-2004).

Kassin, S.M. & Kiechel, K.L. (1996). The social psychology of false confessions. Psychological Science 7(3): 125-128.


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Diversionary Programs for Juvenile Offenders

Words: 1926 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55247692

Pros and Cons: Juvenile Justice
Introduction
There are pros and cons to indeterminate sentencing. As Portman (2018) points out, prison officials like the idea of indeterminate sentencing because they feel it provides prisoners with an incentive to behave, show progress towards reform, and serve time quietly with the hope of getting an early release from the parole board. While this may be true, it also places a great deal of power into the hands of the parole board, the members of which essentially determine the fate of the incarcerated every time the individual is up for review. If the board holds any sort of prejudice or if the individual has few supporters on the outside to intervene on his behalf before the board, it could mean that there is less chance of early parole. For these reasons, it is important to weigh the pros and cons of indeterminate sentencing, especially…… [Read More]

References

ACLU. (2018). End juvenile life without parole. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/end-juvenile-life-without-parole

Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C. (2015). Restorative Justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.

McCarthy, P., Schiraldi, V., & Shark, M. (2016). The future of youth justice: A community-based alternative to the youth prison model. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.

Mears, D. P., Kuch, J. J., Lindsey, A. M., Siennick, S. E., Pesta, G. B., Greenwald, M. A., & Blomberg, T. G. (2016). Juvenile court and contemporary diversion: Helpful, harmful, or both?. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(3), 953-981.

Portman, J. (2018). Indeterminate vs. determinate prison sentences explained. Retrieved from https://www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/determinate-sentences.cfm

Roach, M., & Schanzenbach, M. (2015). The Effect of Prison Sentence Length on Recidivism: Evidence from Random Judicial Assignment. Retrieved from http://www.americanbarfoundation.org/uploads/cms/documents/specific_deterrence_abf_presentation.pdf

Sentencing Guidelines Commission. (2005). Recidivism of Juvenile Offenders Fiscal Year 2005. Sentencing Guidelines Commission.

Walsh, N., & Weber, J. (2014). Measuring and using juvenile recidivism data to inform policy, practice, and resource allocation. The National Reentry Resource Center.

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The History of Forensic Pathology

Words: 2269 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94998218

Forensic Pathology
Introduction
Forensic pathology is a field in criminology and medical jurisprudence that focuses on the study of a corpse to determine evidence that can be used in criminal justice or to determine the cause of death. The post mortem conducted by a forensic pathologist serves as the source of information for the autopsy report that is generated at the conclusion of the investigation. Having trained previously in anatomical pathology, the forensic pathologist will be able to determine the cause of death by examining the body and determining the process by which the person died. This paper will discuss forensic pathology in detail and show how it is of use in criminal justice.
Meaning of the Terms
The history of forensic pathology is rooted in the terminology: as Choo and Choi (2012) point out, “forensic” comes from the Latin term “forum,” which means “public.” Pathology is Greek in its…… [Read More]

References

Catts, E. P., & Goff, M. L. (1992). Forensic entomology in criminal investigations. Annual Review of Entomology, 37(1), 253-272.

Choo, T. M., & Choi, Y. S. (2012). Historical development of forensic pathology in the United States. Korean Journal of Legal Medicine, 36(1), 15-21.

Finkbeiner, W. E., Ursell, P. C. & Davis, R. S. (2009). Autopsy pathology: a manual and atlas. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Houck, M. & Siegel, J. (2010). Fundamentals of forensic Science. Burlington:Academic Press.

Joseph, I., Mathew, D. G., Sathyan, P., & Vargheese, G. (2011). The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, 3(2), 89.

Maio, V. D. & Maio, D. D. (2001). Forensic pathology. Florida: CRC Press.

Newell, R. (1995). Follow the royal road: The case for dissection. Clinical Anatomy: The Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists and the British Association of Clinical Anatomists, 8(2), 124-127.

Prayson, R. (2007). Autopsy: Learning from the dead. Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Clinic Press.

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How to Use DNA Analysis in Court

Words: 2199 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96368215

DNA Analysis
Abstract
This paper discusses the history of DNA analysis, how it came about, how it was first used in a criminal case, and some of the limitations of DNA analysis as shown by later criminal cases. It looks at how DNA analysis is currently used today, including a recent criminal investigation in Europe in which DNA analysis played a crucial role, and provides a description of the various directions that DNA analysis could be taken in the future in the field of forensics. The paper concludes with a summation of the main points of the paper.
Keywords: dna analysis, dna profiling, dna forensics, dna criminal justice history
Introduction
DNA analysis, also known as DNA fingerprinting in the beginning, came about in the latter half of the 20th century through breakthroughs in scientific investigation. It has been used in forensics ever since and is defined as “comparison of the…… [Read More]

References

Austin, E. (2015). DNA evidence can be faked. Retrieved from https://www.forensicmag.com/news/2015/02/dna-evidence-can-be-faked

Jeffreys, A. J., Wilson, V., & Thein, S. L. (1985). Individual-specific ‘fingerprints’ of human DNA. Nature, 316(6023), 76-79.

Roewer, L. (2013). DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future. Investigative Genetics, 4(1), 22.

Worth, K. (2018). Framed for murder by his own DNA. Retrieved from https://www.themarshallproject.org/2018/04/19/framed-for-murder-by-his-own-dna


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The Need to End Solitary Confinement

Words: 1927 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61219429

Solitary Confinement
Introduction
As Clark (2017) points out, solitary confinement is typically a disciplinary, administrative or personal measure employed to punish, control or protect the individual who is isolated from others. However, the practice can have lasting and devastating effects on the psychology and health of individuals who thus confined—especially for juveniles. The reason for this damaging effect is that human beings are essentially social creatures and need sociality in order to feel whole. Exceptions to this rule have existed through history by primarily because one individual or another chose to live in solitude and was not confined against his will. Confinement against one’s will can be damaging and debilitating and numerous examples of this exist, especially in cases where the individual is left in confinement for a long period of time: the case of Stephen Slevin, who was arrested for drunk driving and possession of a stolen vehicle—but never…… [Read More]

References

Allen, N. (2013). \\'Forgotten\\' solitary confinement prisoner wins $15.5m. Retrieved from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/9917429/Forgotten-solitary-confinement-prisoner-wins-15.5m.html

Clark, A. B. (2017). Juvenile Solitary Confinement as a Form of Child Abuse. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 45(3), 350-357.

Dimon, L. (2014). How Solitary Confinement Hurts the Teenage Brain. Retrieved from https://www.theatlantic.com/health/archive/2014/06/how-solitary-confinement-hurts-the-teenage-brain/373002/

Gonnerman, J. (2015). Kalief Browder, 1993-2015. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/kalief-browder-1993-2015

Gordon, S. E. (2014). Solitary confinement, public safety, and recidivism. U. Mich. JL Reform, 47, 495.

Grassian, S. (2006). Psychiatric effects of solitary confinement. Wash. UJL & Pol\\'y, 22, 325.

Hayes, L. M. (2009). Juvenile suicide in confinement: A national survey. Diane Publishing.

Moore, M. (2011). Michael Moore goes to Norway and visits a prison of the future. YouTube. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=01mTKDaKa6Q

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Ethics and the Art of Profiling

Words: 1539 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29672941

Debating the Value and Ethical Concerns of Psychological Profiling
Introduction
A psychological profile is created by combining individual profiles, such as a victim profile with an offender profile or a geographical profile and even a DNA profile. Through the combination of individual profiles, the psychological profile emerges with a comprehensive view of the type of person most likely to be found at a particular place at a particular time with such and such type of victim or such and such type of crime/offense being committed. Psychological profiling is both an “investigative aid” and a “conceptual tool” that is used by police to understand cases and create leads (Wilson, Lincoln & Kocsis, 1997, p. 1). Vorpagel (1982) described psychological profiling as the exercise of identifying “behavioral patterns, trends, and tendencies” used to develop a complete picture—not just of the individuals involved in a crime—but of the type of individuals who would…… [Read More]

References

Egger, S. A. (1999). Psychological profiling: Past, present, and future. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(3), 242-261.

Kocsis, R. N. (2003). Criminal psychological profiling: validities and abilities.  International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 47(2), 126-144.

Snook, B., Cullen, R. M., Bennell, C., Taylor, P. J., & Gendreau, P. (2008). The criminal profiling illusion: What\\\\'s behind the smoke and mirrors?. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(10), 1257-1276.

Vorpagel, R.E. (1982). Painting psychological profiles: charlatanism, coincidence, charisma or new science. Police Chief, 3(8), 156-59

Wilson, P., Lincoln, R., & Kocsis, R. (1997). Validity, utility and ethics of profiling for serial violent and sexual offenders. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 4(1), 1-11.


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The Evolution in the Rights of the Accused

Words: 805 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86816616

Evolution over the Years
To a majority of individuals, arrest and detention within a law enforcement facility may be counted among the worst of life’s experiences; being coerced into confessing, at times under torture, is much more terrifying. However, citizens’ rights in the US ensure sound constitutional rules limit criminal law enforcement. Amazingly, a large number of these safeguards provided to citizens have only been put in place during the last few decades. The rest are entrenched in the nation’s colonial history.
From the start of the 60’s era, the US Supreme Court commenced efforts in the area of extensive expansion of defendant rights, way beyond the Constitutional Bill of Rights (BOR) developers’ grasp. For instance, though several portions of the BOR deal with law enforcement behavior, regulations pertaining to improper detention, warrants and searches (that English common law was unfamiliar with) were implemented during this period. The protection against…… [Read More]

References

Amar, A. R. (1995). Sixth Amendment First Principles. Geo. LJ, 84, 641.

Cummings L. (2018). Pros & Cons of the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from https://legalbeagle.com/6587752-pros-cons-criminal-justice-system.html

Mott J. (2018). Rights of the Accused. Retrieved from http://www.thisnation.com/textbook/billofrights-accused.html

Rights of the Accused. (1999). In American Journey. Civil Rights in America. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media. Retrieved from http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/EJ2163000455/UHIC?u=oldt1017&xid=f297f5e2

ushistory.org (2018). Crime and Due Process. American Government Online Textbook. Retrieved from http://www.ushistory.org/gov/10c.asp


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Racial and Ethnic Profiling Gang Violence

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26611722

According to the National Gang Center’s (2011) National Youth Gang Survey, the majority of gangs are comprised of non-white minorities, especially Hispanic/Latino (46 percent of all gang members) and African American (35 percent of all gang members). Because of these statistics, law enforcement has been tempted to rely on racial profiling to fight gang formation, reduce gang membership, and control gang-related crimes. As tempting as it may be to rely on ethnic or racial strategies in law enforcement, these shortcuts undermine the fundamental principles of the criminal justice system.
The use of racial and ethnic profiling and related techniques is illegal as well as unethical, presenting clear procedural justice problems for law enforcement departments that use these tactics (American Bar Association, n.d.). Using racial and ethnic strategies threatens to undermine public trust in, and the credibility of, law enforcement. Racial and ethnic strategies also defeat the purpose of more effective…… [Read More]

References

American Bar Association (n.d.). Report to House of Delegates Commission on Immigration, Center for Racial and Ethnic Diversity. https://www.americanbar.org/content/dam/aba/publishing/criminal_justice_section_newsletter/crimjust_policy_am08104c.authcheckdam.pdf

National Gang Center (2011). National youth gang survey analysis. https://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/Survey-Analysis/Demographics

White, R. (2008). Disputed definitions and fluid identities. Youth Justice 8(2): 149-161.


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Forensic Entomology

Words: 2552 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36729585

Introduction
In so far as academic studies are concerned, the field of forensic entomology is relatively new in the West—but so, too, for that matter is the field of criminology. Forensic entomology is a subset of criminology in that it focuses on the study of insects and anthropods and what they reveal about the death of a victim. This highly specialized science takes the field of entomology and combines it with the field of forensics, bringing together two very different but very useful bodies of knowledge that, when they intersect, provide valuable insights that can help investigators solve murders. This paper will define and discuss forensic entomology, examine its history and how it has developed over the years, and describe how entomology has affected the field of forensics with a few examples to illustrate this point.
History
The history of forensic entomology begins, as far as historical records show, in…… [Read More]

References

Amendt, J., Krettek, R., & Zehner, R. (2004). Forensic entomology.  Naturwissenschaften, 91(2), 51-65.

Benecke, M. (1998). Six forensic entomology cases: description and commentary. Journal of Forensic Science, 43(4), 797-805.

Benecke, M., Josephi, E., & Zweihoff, R. (2004). Neglect of the elderly: forensic entomology cases and considerations. Forensic Science International, 146, S195-S199.

Byrd, J. H., & Castner, J. (2001). Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Catts, E. P., & Goff, M. L. (1992). Forensic entomology in criminal investigations. Annual Review of Entomology, 37(1), 253-272.

Goff, M. L., & Odom, C. B. (1987). Forensic entomology in the Hawaiian Islands. Three case studies. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 8(1), 45-50.

Greenberg, B. (1985). Forensic entomology: case studies. American Entomologist, 31(4), 25-28.

Greenberg, B., & Kunich, J. (2002). Entomology and the Law. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

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Wrongful Convictions and Eyewitness Testimony

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49820070

Law enforcement has a direct ethical responsibility to preventing wrongful convictions, no matter how heavy the pressure for a conviction may be from a political standpoint. Wrongful convictions represent a miscarriage of justice and draw attention to procedural problems in law enforcement. One of the problems that has been shown to lead to wrongful convictions is the method by which eyewitness testimony is secured. Recent criminal justice policy and procedure have changed somewhat to prevent problems with false eyewitness testimony, but these changes have been irregularly implemented (Norris, Bonventre, Redlich, et al, 2017). Therefore, the onus remains upon individual departments to develop an ethical culture that prevents wrongful convictions.
As helpful as eyewitness accounts have been in securing rightful convictions, “eyewitnesses make mistakes and that their memories can be affected by various factors including the very law enforcement procedures designed to test their memories,” (Committee on Scientific Approaches to Understanding…… [Read More]

References

Committee on Scientific Approaches to Understanding and Maximizing the Validity and Reliability of Eyewitness Identification in Law Enforcement and the Courts (2014). Identifying the culprit. National Research Council. https://www.innocenceproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/NAS-Report-ID.pdf

Desai, A. (2017). Actual innocence and wrongful convictions. Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2017-20. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2959570

“Eyewitness Identification,” (n.d.). Innocence Project. https://www.innocenceproject.org/causes/eyewitness-misidentification/

Norris, R.J., Bonventre, C.L., Redlich, A.D., et al (2017). Preventing wrongful convictions. Criminal Justice Policy Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/0887403416687359


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fingerprint analysis

Words: 2317 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41481398

Abstract
This paper discusses the origins of fingerprinting and the usage of fingerprint analysis in the field of forensics. It traces the history of the practice from the 19th century on into the 20th and discusses the methods used to obtain fingerprints from a crime scene. It also examines some of the problems of fingerprint analysis and how it is not a foolproof manner of identification and never has been. It shows why fingerprint analysis should be used as a tool and not as an end-all-be-all means of identification for investigators conducting a criminal investigation. The numerous cases of mistaken identity based upon faulty forensics applied in the case of fingerprint analysis are sufficient to indicate the merit of this claim.
Keywords: fingerprint analysis, forensics fingerprinting, crime scene investigation
Introduction
The unique characteristics and contours of the fingerprint were first noted by 17th century anatomist Marcello Malpighi, who highlighted the…… [Read More]

References

Hawthorne, M. (2008). Fingerprints: Analysis and understanding. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Henry, Edward R., Sir (1900). Classification and Uses of Finger Prints. London: George Rutledge & Sons, Ltd.

Herschel, W. J. (1916). The Origin of Finger-Printing. Oxford University Press.

Innocence Project. (2018). Fingerprint analysis. Retrieved from https://californiainnocenceproject.org/issues-we-face/fingerprint-analysis/

National Academy of Sciences. (2009). Badly fragmented\\' forensic science system needs overhaul; evidence to support reliability of many techniques is lacking. Retrieved from http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?RecordID=12589

NFSTC. (2013). Fingerprint analysis. Retrieved from http://www.forensicsciencesimplified.org/prints/how.html

Reid, D. L. (2003). Dr. Henry Faulds – Beith Commemorative Society. Journal of Forensic Identification, 53 (2).

Zabell, S. L. (2005). Fingerprint evidence. Journal of Law and Policy (Brooklyn College Law School), 143–77.

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Gender Specific Programs for Incarcerated Adults

Words: 294 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67552868

Gender-specific programming for offenders can help address the differential needs of men and women, while also offering opportunities for transforming successful programs into gender-neutral, global options. One such opportunity is the Extended Visiting program offered by many states. Extended visiting or enhanced visiting offers incarcerated mothers the opportunity to “enjoy longer visits that are more structured and child-oriented” than the typical visitation options (Schubert, Duininck & Shlafer, 2016, p. 213). Because of initial successes at implementing extended visiting programs, criminal justice policy analysts may consider methods of introducing similar programs for fathers. When the goals of criminal justice become more oriented towards rehabilitation, extended visiting programs are crucial for facilitating reentry.
The Extended Visiting program specifically described by Schubert, Duininck & Shlafer (2016) was designed for low-risk offenders, specifically those living in a “privileged living unit,” (p. 219). As such, it may not be suitable for all prison populations regardless…… [Read More]

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Identifying Best Practices in Offender Rehabilitation

Words: 2856 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98361858

Although penologists disagree about how best to achieve the outcome, there is a general consensus that identifying optimal strategies that facilitate offender rehabilitation represents a valuable and timely enterprise at all levels of the criminal justice system. Various models for this purpose have emerged in recent years, including most especially the good lives model and the risk/need/responsivity model. This paper provides a critical analysis of three primary journal research papers about a offender rehabilitation from the perspective of these two key models, followed by a discussion concerning their relevance in light of the good lives model and the risk/need/responsivity model. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these two key models and offender rehabilitation learned from this exercise are presented in the conclusion.
Summary of Relevant Articles
Summary #1: Looman, J. & Abracen, J. (2013, Fall-Winter). The risk need responsivity model of offender rehabilitation: Is there really…… [Read More]

References

Hillman, W. (2015, July-August). Transforming corrections: Humanistic approaches to corrections and offender treatment. Corrections Today, 77(4), 68.

Looman, J. & Abracen, J. (2013, Fall-Winter). The risk need responsivity model of offender rehabilitation: Is there really a need for a paradigm shift? The International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 8(3-4), 30-35.

. Schaffer, M. & Jefilc, E. L. (2010, July 1). Cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment and management of sex offenders. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 24(2), 92-96.

 


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Identifying Optimal Offender Rehabilitation Strategies

Words: 2413 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75821127

Two prevailing models that influence corrections today are the risk/need/responsivity model and the good lives model. The risk/need/responsivity model is comprised of three basic principles: (1) the “risk” principle asserts that criminal behavior can be reliably predicted and that treatment should focus on the higher risk offenders; (2) the “need” principle underscores the importance of criminogenic needs in the design and delivery of treatment; and (3) the “responsivity” principle describes how the treatment should be provided (Bonta & Andrews, 2007). By contrast, the good lives model is based on the belief that everyone has certain primary needs including autonomy, happiness, health, relatedness and competence that they continually attempt to satisfy. From a good lives model perspective, criminal behaviors are effective but maladaptive strategies for satisfying these needs (Schaffer & Jeglic, 2010). Therefore, interventions should be designed to identify these unique needs and assist offenders learn honest and legitimate ways to…… [Read More]

References
Benbouriche, M. (2014, November 10). How virtual reality can help treat sex offenders. The Conversation. Retrieved from  https://theconversation.com/how-virtual-reality-can-help-treat-sex-offenders-33955 .
Bonta, J. & Andrews, D. A. (2007). Risk-need-responsivity model for offender assessment and rehabilitation. Ottawa: Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.
Nassen, N. & Olucha, G. (2017, July-August). How do we change course? Navigating obstacles to develop and implement a risk-need-responsivity model in a correctional setting. Corrections Today, 79(4), 20-24.
Spencer, L. S. (2013, September-October). Evidence-based practices work. Corrections Today, 74(4), 8-11.
Ticknor, B. (2017, May-June). Pilot 1.0: Creating a virtual environment for the treatment of offenders. Corrections Today, 79(3), 46-50.
 
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Fighting Organized Crime

Words: 1690 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12173859

Fighting Organized Crime: Background, Issues, Tactics
Organized crime today takes a variety of forms. Some entities and collectives are domestic to the United States exclusively. Many conglomerations today of organized crime operate at the transnational level because that is the most lucrative for the criminals. Consider the following definition: “Transnational organized crime (TOC) groups are self-perpetuating associations of individuals who operate, wholly or in part, by illegal means and irrespective of geography. They constantly seek to obtain power, influence, and monetary gains” (fbi.gov). As the FBI explains, organized crime can operate within a wealth of structures, from small single cells, to inter-working cells spread out over the nation, to networks, clans and hierarchies that all might develop into other manifestations. These collectives are generally exceedingly private and work to safeguard their work through intimidation, violence, bribery, international exchanges, interrupting intricate business dynamics, and commercial structures that are able to undermine…… [Read More]

References

Brown, R. (2011, July 27). Federal agents raid massage parlor in Overleaf. Retrieved from http://articles.baltimoresun.com/2011-07-27/news/bs-md-co-overlea-brothel-20110727_1_massage-parlor-belair-road-raid/2

FBI.gov. (2016, May 3). Organized Crime. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/organized-crime

Justice.gc.ca. (n.d.). 4. Organized Crime Control Strategies and Their Effectiveness - Assessing the Effectiveness of Organized Crme Control Strategies: A Review of the Literature. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/rp-pr/csj-sjc/jsp-sjp/rr05_5/p5.html

UNODC.org. (n.d.). Let\\'s put organized crime out of business. What\\'s being done and how you can help. Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/toc/en/whatsbeingdone.html


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The Five Victim Typologies

Words: 1005 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36741921

The five victim typologies are: primary victimization, secondary victimization, tertiary victimization, mutual victimization, and no victimization. Primary victimization is defined as victimization that is personal—i.e., the individual is the victim of a crime. A common example of primary victimization would be a targeted attack (such as an assault on the individual, with a motive being hatred or revenge); the individual is physically assaulted. Secondary victimization is when an individual is indirectly victimized (Meadows, 2007). An example of this would be if a person’s loved one is murdered: the murdered person is the primary victim and the loved one is the secondary victim. Tertiary victimization would be crimes against society as a whole: crimes that are felt by the whole of the community. An example of this might be when a government unjustly spies on its citizens. Mutual victimization occurs when the criminal is retaliated against. In this case, the criminal…… [Read More]

References

Meadows, R.J. (2007) Understanding violence and victimization, 4th ed. Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Moniuszko, S. & Kelly, C. (2017). Harvey Weinstein scandal: A complete list of the 84 accusers. Retrieved from https://www.usatoday.com/story/life/people/2017/10/27/weinstein-scandal-complete-list-accusers/804663001/

Siegel, L. J. (2008). Criminology: The Core, 3rd Ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage.


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The Role of Police in Community Safety

Words: 706 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56659079

Prevention of Public Offense
In some jurisdictions refusing to assist a sheriff or a peace officer in a situation where they deem it would be practically difficult to arrest an offender is deemed as an offense. Certain jurisdictions might treat it as a misdemeanour while others would charge you with aiding in abetting of a crime. The principle originated from Norman, England but has subsequently become part of common law. All persons are under legal obligation to assist a police officer or peace officer when so requested. In the United States, states have crafted laws that compel individuals to assist law enforcement officers when requested to varying levels of criminal punishment, from violation to misdemeanour.
Arizona Codes are no exemption from other jurisdictions within the United States. In Title 13-3802 captures the right to command aid for execution of process. It also stipulates punishment meted on people who resist process.…… [Read More]

Reference

Law9.com. (2015). Arizona Codes and Statutes. Retrieved May 19, 2018 from www.laws9.com/statutes/arizona/title13/13-3802

Law9.com.(2015). Alaska Codes and Statutes. Retrieved May 19, 2018 from. www.laws9.com/alaska/title11/11-56

Law9.com. (2015). Arkansas Codes and Statutes. Retrieved May 19, 2018 from www.laws9.com/arkansas/title5/5-4109


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Police Shooting

Words: 1545 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85586557

The Problem of Bias in Policing
From 2015-2016, 1,146 victims of police violence lost their lives. More disturbingly, however, is that 38.5% of them were minorities, mainly African Americans (Bui, Coates & Matthay, 2018). This is problematic because African Americans do not even make up 25% of the population of the U.S., according to the U.S. Census Bureau (2018). All the same African Americans are over 50% more likely to be killed by police than their demographic indicates should be an equal ratio. Why are black men more likely to be shot by police than any other demographic? James (2018) notes simply that “research on police officers has found that they tend to associate African Americans with threat” (p. 30).  Yet James (2018) has also noted that implicit bias is not the only factor in determining outcomes when police run into minorities in their line of work: other variables are…… [Read More]

References

Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections.  Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.

Bui, A. L., Coates, M. M., & Matthay, E. C. (2018). Years of life lost due to encounters with law enforcement in the USA, 2015–2016. J Epidemiol Community Health, jech-2017.

Hehman, E., Flake, J. K., & Calanchini, J. (2018). Disproportionate use of lethal force in policing is associated with regional racial biases of residents. Social psychological and personality science, 9(4), 393-401.

James, L. (2018). The Stability of Implicit Racial Bias in Police Officers. Police Quarterly, 21(1), 30-52.

James, L., Fridell, L., & Straub Jr, F. (2016). Implicit bias versus the Ferguson effect. Police Chief, 83, 44-51.

Nix, J., Campbell, B. A., Byers, E. H., & Alpert, G. P. (2017). A bird\\\\'s eye view of civilians killed by police in 2015: Further evidence of implicit bias. Criminology & Public Policy, 16(1), 309-340.

Runge, E. & Hall, G. (2018). Officer shoots, kills armed security guard outside south suburban bar. Retrieved from https://wgntv.com/2018/11/11/multiple-wounded-in-robbins-bar-shooting-police-say/

U.S. Census Bureau. (2018). Population of the United States by Race and Hispanic/Latino Origin, Census 2000 and 2010. Retrieved from https://www.infoplease.com/us/race-population/population-united-states-race-and-hispaniclatino-origin-census-2000-and-2010

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Arizona Revised Statues

Words: 2137 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43329956

Summaries of Selected Arizona Revised Statues
D. Criminal Law and Recognizing Crimes (Security guards should be able to identify these crimes):
Section ARS Title 13, Chapter 11, Homicide:
1. "Premeditation" means that the defendant acts with either the intention or the knowledge that he will kill another human being, when such intention or knowledge precedes the killing by any length of time to permit reflection. Proof of actual reflection is not required, but an act is not done with premeditation if it is the instant effect of a sudden quarrel or heat of passion.
2. "Homicide" means first degree murder, second degree murder, manslaughter or negligent homicide.
3. "Person" means a human being.
4. "Adequate provocation" means conduct or circumstances sufficient to deprive a reasonable person of self-control. (Section III.A)
Summary:
In order to fully comprehend and appreciate the severity of homicidal actions, this section provides concise definitions of the…… [Read More]

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Crime Analysis and Crime Trends

Words: 839 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29131628

The crime trend for this jurisdiction is increasing in 5 of 7 areas and that the crime rate in one area is even, while the trend is down in one area, as well. Robberies are up the most with a rise of 44% year over year. The area in which crime is up the second most is in homicides, with the rate rising 40% year over year. Aggravated assaults are up 35% while burglaries are up 10% and larceny is up 9%. Motor vehicle thefts are even and forcible rape is down 17%. Overall, there is more crime in the jurisdiction this year than there was the previous year.
Missing Information
Information that is missing that might explain some of the increases include how many Part II crimes were committed in the same jurisdiction, as this would help to give a more complete picture. Other data would include external factors…… [Read More]

References

Lopez, G. (2016). Why violent crime increased. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/2015/9/8/9273139/murder-rates-rising-sharply

Wilson, J. & Kelling, G. (1982). Broken windows: The police and neighborhood safety. Retrieved from http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1982/03/broken-windows/304465/


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The Prisoner Abuse Case of Abu Ghraib

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31218851

Exhibiting Moral Disengagement Theory
Moral disengagement refers to the process of an individual convincing themselves that ethical standards do not apply to them in certain situations. This is better exemplified by the case of Lynndie England where she believed that her participating in the torturing and humiliating of the suspects in the Abu Ghraib prison was right and necessary. Lynndie did not see any reason as to why what was being done to the prisoners could be wrong. In fact, in an interview, she clearly states that she feels no remorse for her victims. She justifies her actions and believes that she was doing what was right and necessary. Based on her testimony, Lynndie said that there were worse things that were taking place at the prison and her posing with the prisoners as seen in the photos was part of the process of breaking the prisoners. Lynndie still feels…… [Read More]

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Eye in the Sky Film

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94967857

The 2015 feature film Eye in the Sky addresses the ethics of modern warfare and specifically the use of unmanned devices like drones. In Eye in the Sky, the title refers to advanced surveillance drones that are used to monitor the actions of key terrorist targets. Using facial recognition, the drones help senior military officers from both Britain and the United States identify and track their suspects and plan targeted attacks. Moreover, the film shows how senior military officers perform quantitative risk assessments to minimize civilian casualties while pursuing overarching military objectives. One of the key ethical and legal issues Eye in the Sky covers relates to Constitutional rights and in particular, Fourth Amendment rights against unlawful surveillance. The film shows that Fourth Amendment rights may not apply to American citizens abroad. Eye in the Sky also shows that the war on terrorism and the USA PATRIOT Act have altered…… [Read More]

References

ACLU (2018). https://www.aclu.org/other/surveillance-under-usapatriot-act

Hood, G., Director, (2015). Eye in the Sky. Feature Film. Entertainment One.

Salamsky, G. & Yoo, J. (2008). Katz and the war on terrorism. UC Davis Law Review 2008(41): https://lawreview.law.ucdavis.edu/issues/41/3/intl-crime-terrorism/41-3_Sulmasy-Yoo.pdf