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Criminal justice and criminology developed from two major fields of study: the law and sociology. While related, the two terms are distinct. Criminology is the study of crime, including its costs, causes, and consequences. In contrast, criminal justice is the study of system in which behavior is designated as criminal and then those crimes are detected, tried, and punished. While criminology focuses primarily on the social aspects of crime, criminal justice focuses primarily on the legal aspects of crime. However, the relationship between law and society is well-established. Not only do social norms and values help dictate what behaviors are considered criminal, but also the designation of behaviors as illegal or legal helps dictate what a society views as moral and ethical. Therefore, criminal justice and criminology majors need to have a thorough understanding of both fields.

Criminology is a branch of sociology. There are three sociological approaches to crime: the Classical School, the Positivist School, and the Chicago School. While only formally studied in recent times, social theories about criminology have been circulating since the development of legal systems and laws. Criminologists look at how society impacts criminality, but also how criminality impacts society. More specifically, criminologists look at the broader details of crimes to draw cultural conclusions about criminal behaviors, values, and norms. They specifically look at: where crimes occur, what types of crimes occur, why those crimes happen, how frequently those crimes happen, the consequences of crime for offenders, the consequences of crime for victims, the consequences of crime for society as whole, and how the government responds to criminal behavior. For example, the American criminal justice system was established to ensure that criminal defendants had certain constitutional protections, but victim advocacy groups have lobbied to ensure that victims also have some rights in the criminal prosecution process. Victim impact statements are one way that victims are able to have an influence in the criminal justice process.

In contrast, criminal justice looks at the various systems in place that define, detect, and punish criminal behavior. Criminal justice is considered by many to be synonymous with law enforcement, but the criminal justice system actually encompasses more than just law enforcement. There are three major components in the criminal justice system: law enforcement, courts, and corrections. Each component plays a role in preventing and punishing behavior that is deemed illegal. A non-specified component of the criminal justice system is the legislature, which not only determines which behaviors are considered illegal, but also the consequences for those illegal behaviors, including the range of potential punishments for those who engage in those behaviors. Law enforcement officers, also known as police officers, serve three roles in the criminal justice system: crime prevention, crime detection, and identification and apprehension of criminals. The court systems, which consists of the courts themselves, as well as the prosecuting and defense attorneys, judges, and juries, determine whether the suspect is guilty, and sentence them to their punishments. The corrections system refers to any part of the post-sentencing process that is responsible for carrying out sentencing. Prisons, jails, halfway houses, prison guards, corrections officers, probation officers, and parole officers are all part of the corrections system. 

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Reforming the Criminal System

Words: 1110 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99288671

The Need for Criminal Justice Reform and Bail Reform
When it comes to incarceration, the U.S. has the worst record in the world: the U.S. is only 4.4% of the world’s population, but it makes up 22% of the entire planet’s prison population. 716 people for every 100,000 in the U.S. will be incarcerated; moreover, 70% of those in prison will be there simply because they cannot afford to pay for bail (ACLU, 2019). Since most people live paycheck to paycheck in the U.S. it is not surprising to find that anyone accused of a crime is unlikely to be able to post the average cost of bail, which in the U.S. is $11,000 (ACLU, 2019). For these reasons, there is a need to establish both criminal justice reform and bail reform in the U.S. The American Gulag is like that of the Soviet Gulag: people lose their entire lives…… [Read More]

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Restorative Justice Responding to Shoplifting

Words: 1605 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 57123175

Restorative justice asks fundamentally different questions, and is based on a different set of assumptions, than the current criminal justice paradigm (Restorative Justice for Oakland Youth, n.d.). The most notable and important difference between the current criminal justice paradigm and the restorative justice paradigm is that restorative justice does not focus on the punishment and does not advocate a punitive criminal justice system. Instead, the restorative justice model is based on several different points of views including how to repair harm. Restorative justice is solution-focused and also victim-centric in its approach to criminal justice. The National Institute of Justice (2007) describes restorative justice as being “grounded in community involvement,” which places a considerable degree of responsibility upon the members of the community in addition to the victims. As the Insight Prison Project (2017) puts it, restorative justice is “a philosophy and a social movement which provides an entirely different way…… [Read More]


Crawford, A. & Newburn, T. (2011). Youth Offending and Restorative Justice. New York: Routledge.
Davis, M. (2013). Restorative justice: resources for schools. Retrieved online: 
Insight Prison Project (2017). What is restorative justice? Retrieved online: 
Mahoney, S. (2011). Teen shoplifting. Family Circle. Retrieved online: 
National Institute of Justice (2007). How to build community support for restorative justice. Retrieved online: 
Restorative Justice for Oakland Youth (n.d.). Restorative justice. Retrieved online: 
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theories of criminal behavior

Words: 766 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73331296

Understanding why individuals or groups engage in deviant or criminal behavior helps better inform therapeutic interventions and public policy. No one theory of crime can explain all criminal behavior. However, each theory does offer the potential for better understanding individual criminal acts or patterns of criminal behavior that take place within specific cultural or historical contexts. Integrating multiple theories can be helpful, too, showing how biology, psychology, politics, culture, and sociology intersect.
Biological Theories of Criminal Behavior
Some of the earliest theories of criminal behavior evolved out of biological determinism and evolutionary theory, which suggested that some people have a genetic predisposition towards criminality. Biological theories of criminal behavior can be based on different perspectives, including those that focus on neurochemistry, genetic conditions, developmental disorders, and even nutritional deficiencies (The Scottish Centre for Crime & Justice Research, 2016). Although the original biological theories of crime like those of Lombroso have…… [Read More]

Engelen, P., Lander, M.W. & van Essen, M. (2016). What determines crime rates? The Social Science Journal 53(2): 247-262.
Hirschi, T. (2014). On the compatibility of rational choice and social control theories of crime. In Scott, M. (Ed.) The Reasoning Criminal. New York: Routledge.
Miller L. (2017) Psychological Theories of Criminal Behavior. In: Van Hasselt V., Bourke M. (eds) Handbook of Behavioral Criminology. Springer, Cham
Newsome, J. (2014). Biological theories of crime. The Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice. Blackwell:
The Scottish Centre for Crime & Justice Research (2016). Theories and causes of crime. University of Glasgow:
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Restorative Justice and the Contingent Exclusionary Rule

Words: 1186 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99731069

From my knowledge in taking this course thus far as well as with my knowledge of being certified as a police officer, my position for how Dripps model would work is that it would not work. From reviewing and researching his model, I believe his model is very anti-police and seems to take the stance that all police departments and judicial systems have some type of buddy system that embraces corruption in criminal justice. That is something that I completely disagree with. In his article it states that, “The judge is not offering to cancel the suppression order if the police department mows the judge's lawn or provides free security at rock concerts. The judge is offering to rescind one, purely deterrent, remedy if and only if the government submits to another remedy that deters equally and compensates better” (Dripps, 2001). This to me is incredibly offensive that one would…… [Read More]

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How Just is the Philosophy Restorative Justice

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19526504

Restorative Justice: How Just is the Philosophy?

The principle of restorative justice was first created as an alternative to the two dominant philosophies of corrections: retribution and rehabilitation. The retributive view of corrections suggests that the purpose of corrections is to punish the offender. The rehabilitative view suggests that the purpose of corrections is to change the character of the offender for the better and prevent future crimes from taking place. Both neglect the needs of the victim, however, which is how the principle of restorative justice arose. According to the Centre for Justice and Reconciliation’s definition of “What is Restorative Justice” (2018), the philosophy: “emphasizes accountability, making amends, and — if they are interested — facilitated meetings between victims, offenders, and other persons.”
For some crimes, the principles of restorative justice would seem to be highly appropriate. A good example of this is vandalism, in which perpetrators are required…… [Read More]

Nusrat, N. (2013). What is—and is not—restorative justice? National Centre for Crime and Delinquency. Retrieved form: and-not-restorative-justice
What is restorative justice? (2018). Centre for Justice and Reconciliation. Retrieved from:
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How to Solve the Drug Problem in the US

Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95098583

Drugs: A Big Problem in Criminal Justice
The problem of drug use in America is one that has been around for many years. However, with the recent passage of marijuana laws in states like Colorado, Oregon and California (to name just a few), the way the nation views drug use has shifted. Recreational marijuana use has become accepted in Colorado, where it is legal to buy and sell a substance that is still considered a schedule 1 narcotic by the federal government. In fact, in states like Colorado, there is a clear conflict between the state laws and the federal laws: the states says cannabis is legal, while the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) says it is still prohibited. Researchers would like to research the drug to better understand its medicinal qualities, but they are afraid of violating federal law, so do not. Thus, the problem of drugs and how to…… [Read More]

James, T. (2016). The failed promise of legal pot. Retrieved from 
Miroff, N. (2015). Losing marijuana business, Mexican cartels push heroin and meth.
Retrieved from 
Roeder, O. (2015). Releasing drug offenders won’t end mass incarceration. Retrieved

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Organizational Behavior

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26535132

Behavioral Influences
There are many behaviors that can influence change in criminal justice organizations. Social behavior influences change because the social systems that exist within an organization can help to disseminate change, or build resistance to it (Qian, 2007). Organizational change requires buy-in from the people that comprise the organization, so social behaviors such as the formation of social groups, gossip and other social communication and behavioral norms will all play a role in how quickly buy-in to the change occurs.
Political behaviors also matter, not just in terms of how the leaders leverage the formal political systems within the organization, but how informal systems are leveraged as well. Within any organization, there are key influencers, and they are not always in positions of formal power. The ability of management to leverage both these influencers and the formal political systems to disseminate a change program will have an influence on…… [Read More]

Duan, L., Sheeren, E. & Weiss, L. (2014) Tapping the power of hidden influencers. McKinsey Quarterly. Retrieved May 8, 2018 from
Gupton-Krumweide, R. (2018) Observable aspects of organizational culture. Brainmass. Retrieved May 8, 2018 from
Qian, Y. (2007). A communication model of employee cynicism toward organizational change. Scripps College of Communication. Retrieved May 8, 2018 from!etd.send_file?accession=ohiou1195512463&disposition=inline
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Evolution of Forensic Science

Words: 1241 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 57032460

Forensic science evolved as an attempt to introduce scientific methods into criminal justice. From the 18th century onward, advancements in chemistry, biology, and physics paved the way for forensic science (Gaensslen & Larsen, 2019). Likewise, the routine use of autopsy and forensic pathology helped improve the ability to understand the causes of death (Gaensslen & Larsen, 2019). Forensic science steadily evolved, in conjunctions with advancements in scientific instruments and the methods used for data collection and analysis. DNA evidence and analysis has made a huge impact on forensic science. Current concerns in forensic science include the need for increased reliability and validity of forensic science methods, as well as public perceptions of forensic science. Because perceptions of forensic science could have a direct impact on juror decisions, distinguishing real from junk science becomes one of the most important issues in criminal justice.
Scientific Methods in Forensic Science
Forensic scientific methods…… [Read More]

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Central Park Five Documentary Analysis

Words: 1035 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85516329

The 2012 Ken Burns documentary entitled The Central Park Five offers disturbing insight into institutionalized racism and the criminal justice system. Co-produced by Sarah Burns and David McMahon, The Central Park Five is about five children of color—teenagers—who were wrongfully convicted of multiple charges including sexual assault. In addition to illuminating the way the media can feed into racial stereotypes about criminality, the documentary also shows how law enforcement uses unethical tactics of interrogation to secure a conviction at all costs. Pressures to arrest and convict are shared among all members of the law enforcement team, even though individual officers will claim that they were following orders. Therefore, The Central Park Five is also instructive for the way it shows how police organizational culture needs to change. The practices and tactics used by New York police undermine the constitutional rights of citizens to due process.
Essentially, the five teenagers referred…… [Read More]

Drake, K.E., Gonzalez, R.A., Sigurdsson, J.F., et al. (2017). A national study into temperament as a critical susceptibility factor for reported false confessions amongst adolescents. Personality and Individual Differences 111(2017): 220-226.
Drizin, S.A. & Leo, R.A. (2004). The problem of false confessions in the post-DNA world. 82 N.C. L. Rev. 891 (2003-2004).
Duru, N.J. (2004). The Central Park Five, the Scottsboro Boys, and the myth of the bestial black man. 25 Cardozo L. Rev. 1315 (2003-2004).
Kassin, S.M. & Kiechel, K.L. (1996). The social psychology of false confessions. Psychological Science 7(3): 125-128.
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Solitary Confinement and Mental Health Issues in Corrections

Words: 3163 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96033944

Functions, Issues, and Objectives in Corrections
The functions of the historical state correctional system have changed since the founding of the nation more than 200 years ago. The Jacksonian Era, the Era of Reconstruction and the Progressive Era on up to the reform of the 1970s all effected different changes to the function—i.e., the goals and activities—of the correctional system. Pennsylvania’s state correctional system was the first to introduce solitary confinement as a way of removing the deviant element from society. This was part of William Penn’s attempt at social reform, a fundamental characteristic of his Quaker ideals (Fantel, 1974). The goal of Penn’s plan was to promote moral rehabilitation and it was believed that through the inmate’s lengthy time alone to reflect on his misdeeds he would begin to develop the moral resolve to reform himself and become a better contributing member of society. Today, solitary confinement is…… [Read More]

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Diversionary Programs for Juvenile Offenders

Words: 1926 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55247692

Pros and Cons: Juvenile Justice
There are pros and cons to indeterminate sentencing. As Portman (2018) points out, prison officials like the idea of indeterminate sentencing because they feel it provides prisoners with an incentive to behave, show progress towards reform, and serve time quietly with the hope of getting an early release from the parole board. While this may be true, it also places a great deal of power into the hands of the parole board, the members of which essentially determine the fate of the incarcerated every time the individual is up for review. If the board holds any sort of prejudice or if the individual has few supporters on the outside to intervene on his behalf before the board, it could mean that there is less chance of early parole. For these reasons, it is important to weigh the pros and cons of indeterminate sentencing, especially…… [Read More]

ACLU. (2018). End juvenile life without parole. Retrieved from
Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C. (2015). Restorative Justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.
McCarthy, P., Schiraldi, V., & Shark, M. (2016). The future of youth justice: A community-based alternative to the youth prison model. US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.
Mears, D. P., Kuch, J. J., Lindsey, A. M., Siennick, S. E., Pesta, G. B., Greenwald, M. A., & Blomberg, T. G. (2016). Juvenile court and contemporary diversion: Helpful, harmful, or both?. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(3), 953-981.
Portman, J. (2018). Indeterminate vs. determinate prison sentences explained. Retrieved from
Roach, M., & Schanzenbach, M. (2015). The Effect of Prison Sentence Length on Recidivism: Evidence from Random Judicial Assignment. Retrieved from
Sentencing Guidelines Commission. (2005). Recidivism of Juvenile Offenders Fiscal Year 2005. Sentencing Guidelines Commission.
Walsh, N., & Weber, J. (2014). Measuring and using juvenile recidivism data to inform policy, practice, and resource allocation. The National Reentry Resource Center.
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Why Prison Incarceration Rates are High

Words: 2612 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23024222

The High Incarceration Rate: A Significant Issue Faced by the Criminal Justice System
This paper examines the problem of the high rate of incarceration in America. This is a major challenge for the criminal justice system, as many people, families and communities suffer as a result of this high rate. It prevents individuals from improving their lives and can lead to the deterioration of families and neighborhoods. The paper discusses some of the policies that have been put in place in recent years to address this issue. It also discusses alternative solutions and how the rate could be brought down by way of decriminalization of drug use and the implementation of diversion programs or restorative justice programs.
The problem of the high incarceration rate is one that affects more than prisoners and the prison population. It affects communities as well as the economics and politics of the nation.…… [Read More]

Brewer, R. M., & Heitzeg, N. A. (2008). The racialization of crime and punishment: Criminal justice, color-blind racism, and the political economy of the prison industrial complex. American Behavioral Scientist, 51(5), 625-644.
Davis, A. (2012). The Meaning of Freedom. San Francisco, CA: City Light Books.
Gramlich, J. (2018). America’s incarceration rate is at a two-decade low. Retrieved from
Johnson, T., Quintana, E., Kelly, D. A., Graves, C., Schub, O., Newman, P., & Casas, C. (2015). Restorative Justice Hubs Concept Paper. Revista de Mediación, 8(2), 2340-9754.
Mears, D. P., Kuch, J. J., Lindsey, A. M., Siennick, S. E., Pesta, G. B., Greenwald, M. A., & Blomberg, T. G. (2016). Juvenile court and contemporary diversion: Helpful, harmful, or both?. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(3), 953-981.
Peters, R. H., Wexler, H. K., & Lurigio, A. J. (2015). Co-occurring substance use and mental disorders in the criminal justice system: A new frontier of clinical practice and research. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 38(1), 1-6.
Smith, E., & Hattery, A. (2006). The prison industrial complex. Sociation Today, 4(2), 1-28.
Soyer, M. (2016). A dream denied: Incarceration, recidivism, and young minority men in America. Univ of California Press.
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The History of Forensic Pathology

Words: 2269 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94998218

Forensic Pathology
Forensic pathology is a field in criminology and medical jurisprudence that focuses on the study of a corpse to determine evidence that can be used in criminal justice or to determine the cause of death. The post mortem conducted by a forensic pathologist serves as the source of information for the autopsy report that is generated at the conclusion of the investigation. Having trained previously in anatomical pathology, the forensic pathologist will be able to determine the cause of death by examining the body and determining the process by which the person died. This paper will discuss forensic pathology in detail and show how it is of use in criminal justice.
Meaning of the Terms
The history of forensic pathology is rooted in the terminology: as Choo and Choi (2012) point out, “forensic” comes from the Latin term “forum,” which means “public.” Pathology is Greek in its…… [Read More]

Catts, E. P., & Goff, M. L. (1992). Forensic entomology in criminal investigations. Annual Review of Entomology, 37(1), 253-272.
Choo, T. M., & Choi, Y. S. (2012). Historical development of forensic pathology in the United States. Korean Journal of Legal Medicine, 36(1), 15-21.
Finkbeiner, W. E., Ursell, P. C. & Davis, R. S. (2009). Autopsy pathology: a manual and atlas. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Houck, M. & Siegel, J. (2010). Fundamentals of forensic Science. Burlington:Academic Press.
Joseph, I., Mathew, D. G., Sathyan, P., & Vargheese, G. (2011). The use of insects in forensic investigations: An overview on the scope of forensic entomology. Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, 3(2), 89.
Maio, V. D. & Maio, D. D. (2001). Forensic pathology. Florida: CRC Press.
Newell, R. (1995). Follow the royal road: The case for dissection. Clinical Anatomy: The Official Journal of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists and the British Association of Clinical Anatomists, 8(2), 124-127.
Prayson, R. (2007). Autopsy: Learning from the dead. Cleveland, OH: Cleveland Clinic Press.
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How to Use DNA Analysis in Court

Words: 2199 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 96368215

DNA Analysis
This paper discusses the history of DNA analysis, how it came about, how it was first used in a criminal case, and some of the limitations of DNA analysis as shown by later criminal cases. It looks at how DNA analysis is currently used today, including a recent criminal investigation in Europe in which DNA analysis played a crucial role, and provides a description of the various directions that DNA analysis could be taken in the future in the field of forensics. The paper concludes with a summation of the main points of the paper.
Keywords: dna analysis, dna profiling, dna forensics, dna criminal justice history
DNA analysis, also known as DNA fingerprinting in the beginning, came about in the latter half of the 20th century through breakthroughs in scientific investigation. It has been used in forensics ever since and is defined as “comparison of the…… [Read More]

Austin, E. (2015). DNA evidence can be faked. Retrieved from
Jeffreys, A. J., Wilson, V., & Thein, S. L. (1985). Individual-specific ‘fingerprints’ of human DNA. Nature, 316(6023), 76-79.
Roewer, L. (2013). DNA fingerprinting in forensics: past, present, future. Investigative Genetics, 4(1), 22.
Worth, K. (2018). Framed for murder by his own DNA. Retrieved from
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The Need to End Solitary Confinement

Words: 1927 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61219429

Solitary Confinement
As Clark (2017) points out, solitary confinement is typically a disciplinary, administrative or personal measure employed to punish, control or protect the individual who is isolated from others. However, the practice can have lasting and devastating effects on the psychology and health of individuals who thus confined—especially for juveniles. The reason for this damaging effect is that human beings are essentially social creatures and need sociality in order to feel whole. Exceptions to this rule have existed through history by primarily because one individual or another chose to live in solitude and was not confined against his will. Confinement against one’s will can be damaging and debilitating and numerous examples of this exist, especially in cases where the individual is left in confinement for a long period of time: the case of Stephen Slevin, who was arrested for drunk driving and possession of a stolen vehicle—but never…… [Read More]

Allen, N. (2013). \\'Forgotten\\' solitary confinement prisoner wins $15.5m. Retrieved from
Clark, A. B. (2017). Juvenile Solitary Confinement as a Form of Child Abuse. The Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 45(3), 350-357.
Dimon, L. (2014). How Solitary Confinement Hurts the Teenage Brain. Retrieved from
Gonnerman, J. (2015). Kalief Browder, 1993-2015. Retrieved from
Gordon, S. E. (2014). Solitary confinement, public safety, and recidivism. U. Mich. JL Reform, 47, 495.
Grassian, S. (2006). Psychiatric effects of solitary confinement. Wash. UJL & Pol\\'y, 22, 325.
Hayes, L. M. (2009). Juvenile suicide in confinement: A national survey. Diane Publishing.
Moore, M. (2011). Michael Moore goes to Norway and visits a prison of the future. YouTube. Retrieved from
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Ethics and the Art of Profiling

Words: 1539 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29672941

Debating the Value and Ethical Concerns of Psychological Profiling
A psychological profile is created by combining individual profiles, such as a victim profile with an offender profile or a geographical profile and even a DNA profile. Through the combination of individual profiles, the psychological profile emerges with a comprehensive view of the type of person most likely to be found at a particular place at a particular time with such and such type of victim or such and such type of crime/offense being committed. Psychological profiling is both an “investigative aid” and a “conceptual tool” that is used by police to understand cases and create leads (Wilson, Lincoln & Kocsis, 1997, p. 1). Vorpagel (1982) described psychological profiling as the exercise of identifying “behavioral patterns, trends, and tendencies” used to develop a complete picture—not just of the individuals involved in a crime—but of the type of individuals who would…… [Read More]

Egger, S. A. (1999). Psychological profiling: Past, present, and future. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 15(3), 242-261.
Kocsis, R. N. (2003). Criminal psychological profiling: validities and abilities.  International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 47(2), 126-144.
Snook, B., Cullen, R. M., Bennell, C., Taylor, P. J., & Gendreau, P. (2008). The criminal profiling illusion: What\\\\'s behind the smoke and mirrors?. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 35(10), 1257-1276.
Vorpagel, R.E. (1982). Painting psychological profiles: charlatanism, coincidence, charisma or new science. Police Chief, 3(8), 156-59
Wilson, P., Lincoln, R., & Kocsis, R. (1997). Validity, utility and ethics of profiling for serial violent and sexual offenders. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 4(1), 1-11.
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The Evolution in the Rights of the Accused

Words: 805 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 86816616

Evolution over the Years
To a majority of individuals, arrest and detention within a law enforcement facility may be counted among the worst of life’s experiences; being coerced into confessing, at times under torture, is much more terrifying. However, citizens’ rights in the US ensure sound constitutional rules limit criminal law enforcement. Amazingly, a large number of these safeguards provided to citizens have only been put in place during the last few decades. The rest are entrenched in the nation’s colonial history.
From the start of the 60’s era, the US Supreme Court commenced efforts in the area of extensive expansion of defendant rights, way beyond the Constitutional Bill of Rights (BOR) developers’ grasp. For instance, though several portions of the BOR deal with law enforcement behavior, regulations pertaining to improper detention, warrants and searches (that English common law was unfamiliar with) were implemented during this period. The protection against…… [Read More]

Amar, A. R. (1995). Sixth Amendment First Principles. Geo. LJ, 84, 641.
Cummings L. (2018). Pros & Cons of the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved from
Mott J. (2018). Rights of the Accused. Retrieved from
Rights of the Accused. (1999). In American Journey. Civil Rights in America. Woodbridge, CT: Primary Source Media. Retrieved from (2018). Crime and Due Process. American Government Online Textbook. Retrieved from
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Racial and Ethnic Profiling Gang Violence

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26611722

According to the National Gang Center’s (2011) National Youth Gang Survey, the majority of gangs are comprised of non-white minorities, especially Hispanic/Latino (46 percent of all gang members) and African American (35 percent of all gang members). Because of these statistics, law enforcement has been tempted to rely on racial profiling to fight gang formation, reduce gang membership, and control gang-related crimes. As tempting as it may be to rely on ethnic or racial strategies in law enforcement, these shortcuts undermine the fundamental principles of the criminal justice system.
The use of racial and ethnic profiling and related techniques is illegal as well as unethical, presenting clear procedural justice problems for law enforcement departments that use these tactics (American Bar Association, n.d.). Using racial and ethnic strategies threatens to undermine public trust in, and the credibility of, law enforcement. Racial and ethnic strategies also defeat the purpose of more effective…… [Read More]

American Bar Association (n.d.). Report to House of Delegates Commission on Immigration, Center for Racial and Ethnic Diversity.
National Gang Center (2011). National youth gang survey analysis.
White, R. (2008). Disputed definitions and fluid identities. Youth Justice 8(2): 149-161.
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Forensic Entomology

Words: 2552 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36729585

In so far as academic studies are concerned, the field of forensic entomology is relatively new in the West—but so, too, for that matter is the field of criminology. Forensic entomology is a subset of criminology in that it focuses on the study of insects and anthropods and what they reveal about the death of a victim. This highly specialized science takes the field of entomology and combines it with the field of forensics, bringing together two very different but very useful bodies of knowledge that, when they intersect, provide valuable insights that can help investigators solve murders. This paper will define and discuss forensic entomology, examine its history and how it has developed over the years, and describe how entomology has affected the field of forensics with a few examples to illustrate this point.
The history of forensic entomology begins, as far as historical records show, in…… [Read More]

Amendt, J., Krettek, R., & Zehner, R. (2004). Forensic entomology.  Naturwissenschaften, 91(2), 51-65.
Benecke, M. (1998). Six forensic entomology cases: description and commentary. Journal of Forensic Science, 43(4), 797-805.
Benecke, M., Josephi, E., & Zweihoff, R. (2004). Neglect of the elderly: forensic entomology cases and considerations. Forensic Science International, 146, S195-S199.
Byrd, J. H., & Castner, J. (2001). Forensic Entomology: The Utility of Arthropods in Legal Investigations. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Catts, E. P., & Goff, M. L. (1992). Forensic entomology in criminal investigations. Annual Review of Entomology, 37(1), 253-272.
Goff, M. L., & Odom, C. B. (1987). Forensic entomology in the Hawaiian Islands. Three case studies. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, 8(1), 45-50.
Greenberg, B. (1985). Forensic entomology: case studies. American Entomologist, 31(4), 25-28.
Greenberg, B., & Kunich, J. (2002). Entomology and the Law. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.
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Wrongful Convictions and Eyewitness Testimony

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49820070

Law enforcement has a direct ethical responsibility to preventing wrongful convictions, no matter how heavy the pressure for a conviction may be from a political standpoint. Wrongful convictions represent a miscarriage of justice and draw attention to procedural problems in law enforcement. One of the problems that has been shown to lead to wrongful convictions is the method by which eyewitness testimony is secured. Recent criminal justice policy and procedure have changed somewhat to prevent problems with false eyewitness testimony, but these changes have been irregularly implemented (Norris, Bonventre, Redlich, et al, 2017). Therefore, the onus remains upon individual departments to develop an ethical culture that prevents wrongful convictions.
As helpful as eyewitness accounts have been in securing rightful convictions, “eyewitnesses make mistakes and that their memories can be affected by various factors including the very law enforcement procedures designed to test their memories,” (Committee on Scientific Approaches to Understanding…… [Read More]

Committee on Scientific Approaches to Understanding and Maximizing the Validity and Reliability of Eyewitness Identification in Law Enforcement and the Courts (2014). Identifying the culprit. National Research Council.
Desai, A. (2017). Actual innocence and wrongful convictions. Virginia Public Law and Legal Theory Research Paper No. 2017-20.
“Eyewitness Identification,” (n.d.). Innocence Project.
Norris, R.J., Bonventre, C.L., Redlich, A.D., et al (2017). Preventing wrongful convictions. Criminal Justice Policy Review.
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fingerprint analysis

Words: 2317 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41481398

This paper discusses the origins of fingerprinting and the usage of fingerprint analysis in the field of forensics. It traces the history of the practice from the 19th century on into the 20th and discusses the methods used to obtain fingerprints from a crime scene. It also examines some of the problems of fingerprint analysis and how it is not a foolproof manner of identification and never has been. It shows why fingerprint analysis should be used as a tool and not as an end-all-be-all means of identification for investigators conducting a criminal investigation. The numerous cases of mistaken identity based upon faulty forensics applied in the case of fingerprint analysis are sufficient to indicate the merit of this claim.
Keywords: fingerprint analysis, forensics fingerprinting, crime scene investigation
The unique characteristics and contours of the fingerprint were first noted by 17th century anatomist Marcello Malpighi, who highlighted the…… [Read More]

Hawthorne, M. (2008). Fingerprints: Analysis and understanding. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Henry, Edward R., Sir (1900). Classification and Uses of Finger Prints. London: George Rutledge & Sons, Ltd.
Herschel, W. J. (1916). The Origin of Finger-Printing. Oxford University Press.
Innocence Project. (2018). Fingerprint analysis. Retrieved from
National Academy of Sciences. (2009). Badly fragmented\\' forensic science system needs overhaul; evidence to support reliability of many techniques is lacking. Retrieved from
NFSTC. (2013). Fingerprint analysis. Retrieved from
Reid, D. L. (2003). Dr. Henry Faulds – Beith Commemorative Society. Journal of Forensic Identification, 53 (2).
Zabell, S. L. (2005). Fingerprint evidence. Journal of Law and Policy (Brooklyn College Law School), 143–77.
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Gender Specific Programs for Incarcerated Adults

Words: 294 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67552868

Gender-specific programming for offenders can help address the differential needs of men and women, while also offering opportunities for transforming successful programs into gender-neutral, global options. One such opportunity is the Extended Visiting program offered by many states. Extended visiting or enhanced visiting offers incarcerated mothers the opportunity to “enjoy longer visits that are more structured and child-oriented” than the typical visitation options (Schubert, Duininck & Shlafer, 2016, p. 213). Because of initial successes at implementing extended visiting programs, criminal justice policy analysts may consider methods of introducing similar programs for fathers. When the goals of criminal justice become more oriented towards rehabilitation, extended visiting programs are crucial for facilitating reentry.
The Extended Visiting program specifically described by Schubert, Duininck & Shlafer (2016) was designed for low-risk offenders, specifically those living in a “privileged living unit,” (p. 219). As such, it may not be suitable for all prison populations regardless…… [Read More]

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Identifying Best Practices in Offender Rehabilitation

Words: 2856 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 98361858

Although penologists disagree about how best to achieve the outcome, there is a general consensus that identifying optimal strategies that facilitate offender rehabilitation represents a valuable and timely enterprise at all levels of the criminal justice system. Various models for this purpose have emerged in recent years, including most especially the good lives model and the risk/need/responsivity model. This paper provides a critical analysis of three primary journal research papers about a offender rehabilitation from the perspective of these two key models, followed by a discussion concerning their relevance in light of the good lives model and the risk/need/responsivity model. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning these two key models and offender rehabilitation learned from this exercise are presented in the conclusion.
Summary of Relevant Articles
Summary #1: Looman, J. & Abracen, J. (2013, Fall-Winter). The risk need responsivity model of offender rehabilitation: Is there really…… [Read More]

Hillman, W. (2015, July-August). Transforming corrections: Humanistic approaches to corrections and offender treatment. Corrections Today, 77(4), 68.
Looman, J. & Abracen, J. (2013, Fall-Winter). The risk need responsivity model of offender rehabilitation: Is there really a need for a paradigm shift? The International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy, 8(3-4), 30-35.
. Schaffer, M. & Jefilc, E. L. (2010, July 1). Cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment and management of sex offenders. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 24(2), 92-96.
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Identifying Optimal Offender Rehabilitation Strategies

Words: 2413 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 75821127

Two prevailing models that influence corrections today are the risk/need/responsivity model and the good lives model. The risk/need/responsivity model is comprised of three basic principles: (1) the “risk” principle asserts that criminal behavior can be reliably predicted and that treatment should focus on the higher risk offenders; (2) the “need” principle underscores the importance of criminogenic needs in the design and delivery of treatment; and (3) the “responsivity” principle describes how the treatment should be provided (Bonta & Andrews, 2007). By contrast, the good lives model is based on the belief that everyone has certain primary needs including autonomy, happiness, health, relatedness and competence that they continually attempt to satisfy. From a good lives model perspective, criminal behaviors are effective but maladaptive strategies for satisfying these needs (Schaffer & Jeglic, 2010). Therefore, interventions should be designed to identify these unique needs and assist offenders learn honest and legitimate ways to…… [Read More]

Benbouriche, M. (2014, November 10). How virtual reality can help treat sex offenders. The Conversation. Retrieved from .
Bonta, J. & Andrews, D. A. (2007). Risk-need-responsivity model for offender assessment and rehabilitation. Ottawa: Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.
Nassen, N. & Olucha, G. (2017, July-August). How do we change course? Navigating obstacles to develop and implement a risk-need-responsivity model in a correctional setting. Corrections Today, 79(4), 20-24.
Spencer, L. S. (2013, September-October). Evidence-based practices work. Corrections Today, 74(4), 8-11.
Ticknor, B. (2017, May-June). Pilot 1.0: Creating a virtual environment for the treatment of offenders. Corrections Today, 79(3), 46-50.
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Ethical Issues Conflicts of Interest

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89213693

Ethical Issues
Conflicts of Interest
Conflict of interest emerges when an inividual in power uses their position to exploit situations to their advantage. For instance, if a law firm attempted representing the same couple in a divorce case (Legal Dictionary, 2018). Conflict of interest is a manifestation of structural failures of any society. The practice touches on a wide range of societal elements, including legal, political, and administrative aspects. Once public officers engage in acts of conflict of interest, they lose public trust (Pathranarakul, 2005).
Prosecutors often find themselves in the tight sport of conflict of interest. It is easy to be diverted from the mission to deliver justice when one is a prosecutor because of the ever-conflicting interests, and motivations one is exposed to (Green &Roiphe, 2017). In the case of lawyers, incidents in which personal interest comes into conflict with that of the client amount to a conflict…… [Read More]

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Investigative Conclusion and Testimony

Words: 2819 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 77583608

Section I
Provide a list of people you believe should be interviewed for this investigation and how they relate to the investigation. What information could they possibly supply?
For this investigation, there will be need to interrogate a number of persons. In so doing, I would be concerned with two key aspects that relate to the investigation: work-related aspects and aspects not related to the workplace. With regard to work-related aspects, I would be seeking to interview those who have closely worked with Mr. John Belcamp, i.e. his workmates and other organizational employees. These would be inclusive of his superiors (Ms. Carol McPherson, Mr. Harold Newman, Mr. John Belcamp, and Ms. Evelyn Bass), his subordinates, those at the same job level, and staff performing various key organizational roles (such as security personnel). This would essentially be a fact-finding undertaking aimed at determining whether there is indeed any possibility of violation…… [Read More]

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The Five Victim Typologies

Words: 1005 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36741921

The five victim typologies are: primary victimization, secondary victimization, tertiary victimization, mutual victimization, and no victimization. Primary victimization is defined as victimization that is personal—i.e., the individual is the victim of a crime. A common example of primary victimization would be a targeted attack (such as an assault on the individual, with a motive being hatred or revenge); the individual is physically assaulted. Secondary victimization is when an individual is indirectly victimized (Meadows, 2007). An example of this would be if a person’s loved one is murdered: the murdered person is the primary victim and the loved one is the secondary victim. Tertiary victimization would be crimes against society as a whole: crimes that are felt by the whole of the community. An example of this might be when a government unjustly spies on its citizens. Mutual victimization occurs when the criminal is retaliated against. In this case, the criminal…… [Read More]

Meadows, R.J. (2007) Understanding violence and victimization, 4th ed. Upper Saddle, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Moniuszko, S. & Kelly, C. (2017). Harvey Weinstein scandal: A complete list of the 84 accusers. Retrieved from
Siegel, L. J. (2008). Criminology: The Core, 3rd Ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage.