Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Critical Thinking in Humanities
Essential Characteristics of Critical Thinking in Humanities
We, the students of humanities, are aware that critical thinking and inquire are essential for our discipline. But what does it really mean? How do we understand and exercise critical thinking? The readings in this class taught me that critical thinking is learn best from real life experiences of people who have struggled and fought for freedom and liberation of the mind. In the writings of Levi, Haffner, Sartre, Woolf, and Delillo we see the recurring theme of struggle for freedom and liberation of humanity's mental world. Whether it is for struggle against patriarchy, or whether it is against Nazi tyranny or likewise against rampant consumerism, the authors continuously discuss or allude to the absolute importance of critically engaging with what is going on around us. In this paper, I plan to discuss these authors as critical thinkers by…
DeLillo, D. (1985) White Noise. New York: Viking.
Haffner, S. (2002) A Memoir. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux.
Levi, P. (1958) Survival in Auschwitz, trans. By Stuart Woolf. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Manchester University Faculty of Humanities Study Skills Website. Retrieved on 9 Dec. 2011, from http://www.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/studyskills/essentials/reading/critical_thinking.html
Critical Thinking Skills
hen today's university student is asked to apply critical thinking skills to a specific social problem, does that student understand what is being asked and how to go about applying critical thinking skills? hen questions from the professor involve, for example, the current dilemma in the United States Congress -- Democrats and Republicans engaged in a near-constant standoff when it comes to ideology and legislation -- does the typical university student understand how to approach those questions utilizing critical thinking skills? This paper investigates what the average student probably knows about critical thinking, what he or she should know, and how that student can become more effective in scholarship using critical thinking skills.
ONE: Address a Topic hile Embracing Critical Thinking Skills
hat are critical thinking skills? How are they taught?
An Australian university -- the University of ollongong -- presents for its students a meaningful definition:…
Bensley, Alan D. Crowe, Deborah S., Bernhardt, Paul, Buckner, Camille, and Allman, Amanda
L. (2010). Teaching and Assessing Critical Thinking Skills for Argument Analysis in Psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 37(2), 91-96.
Cotter, Ellen M., and Tally, Carrie Sacco. (2009). Do Critical Thinking Exercises Improve
Critical Thinking Skills? Educational Research Quarterly, 33(2), 3-11.
Critical Thinking and Society Exercise:
Critical thinking is a process that is used by individuals on a daily basis though many people use it without realizing it. Critical thinking can basically be defined as the process of exercising or involving skilled observation or judgment. This process requires the use of a variety of cognitive skills and intellectual capabilities to evaluate arguments, overcome personal biases and prejudices, and make intelligent and reasonable decisions (Huebner, 2013). Critical thinking is important in today's world because it contributes to accuracy, depth, fairness, relevance, precision, clarity, and logical correctness. Therefore, it is important for every individual to think creatively and critically, especially when facing challenges.
Situation equiring Critical Thinking:
A good situation that could have involved the use of critical thinking for a better outcome is the development of tourist tax in Alaska in 2009. Generally, Alaska's economy during summer time is usually driven by…
Bradner, T. (2009, August 29). Tourist Tax May Cost State Dearly. Retrieved February 13, 2014,
Huebner, T. (2013). Linguistics 21: Language and Thinking. Retrieved from San Jose State
University website: http://www.sjsu.edu/people/thom.huebner/courses/Ling21/s0/Ling%2021%20-%20lecture%201%20-%20Logical%20Thinking.ppt
Critical thinking is the rationally closely controlled process of aggressively and competently conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and assessing information gathered from observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. It involves the scrutiny of those structures or elements of thought implicit in all reasoning, purpose, problem, or question, assumptions; concepts; empirical grounding; reasoning leading to conclusions; implications and consequences; objections from alternative viewpoints; and frame of reference. Critical thinking is incorporated in a family of interwoven forms of thinking, such as scientific thinking, mathematical thinking, historical thinking, anthropological thinking, economic thinking, moral thinking, and philosophical thinking. And, of course, there are forces of influences on these types of thinking. Some of the forces of influences are cultures, race, religion, gender, ethics, and birth order.
When problem solving, it is very important to use critical thinking to make clear decisions And, when a person is a…
It would also create intensifying competition, which would force purveyors of e-books to increase the quality of their products and services. In all, it would have the ultimate positive benefit of supporting the development of virtual reading.
As it has been previously mentioned, Kindle is not the first electronic reader, but it is the most popular one. Having observed the triumphs of Amazon, other producers are striving to enter the market and get a share of the profits. This will materialize in more customer choices, but also intensifying levels of competition, which will reduce the e-readers' price, enhance its quality and the complementary features, all to culminate with a greater access to the product. Barnes and Noble's Nook allows users to transfer books and also incorporates touch-screen navigation (Gallagher, 2009).
Save the environment
Electronic readers are more environmentally friendly than books. First of all, they save trees by…
Biggs, J., 10 Reasons to Buy a Kindle 2… and 10 Reasons Not to, Crunch Gear, 2009, http://www.crunchgear.com/2009/02/25/10-reasons-to-buy-a-kindle-2-and-10-reasons-not-to / last accessed on October 29, 2009
Eisenmann, T., Stuart, T.E., Chakravorti, B., Dessain, V., Harrow, S., Corsi, E., Orange: Read&Go, Harvard Business School, March 5, 2009
Gallagher, D., Amazon Fights to Keep Kindle on Top of E-Book Crowd, Market Watch, 2009, http://www.marketwatch.com/story/amazons-kindle-faces-tougher-market-this-season-2009-10-23 last accessed on October 29, 2009
Smith, P., Amazon Kindle's Impact on Book Sales, it World, http://www.itworld.com/personal-tech/62479/amazon-kindles-impact-book-sales last accessed on October 29, 2009
Critical Thinking From a Philosophic Application
It is often said that critical thinking is a way we humans think but not specifically what we humans are thinking about. Philosophers and Psychologists all seem to concur on the fact that we take the critical thinking process and utilize it as an ongoing progression that may stem from a simple observation or some unanswered question. In other words, the process of critical thinking is something that never truly ends, yet it often creates additional or more questions or provides an avenue for new levels of curiosity, open-mindedness, skepticism, or persistent reasoning.
This report aims to present more insights into the process of critical thinking from a philosophic point-of-view. The report tries to answer various questions like what is the importance of critical thinking, what elements of the process are essential, what tactics do people use to guide the complete thinking process. Critical…
Chance, P. (1986). Thinking in the classroom: A survey of programs. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University.
Coe UGA. (n.d.). 100 Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. Retrieved on March 14, 2005, from http://www.coe.uga.edu/echd/counpsy/eminentpsychologists_new.htm#rosenthal
Davis, William Eric (2003). "A Kind Word For Theory X: Or Why So Many Newfangled Management Techniques Quickly Fail." Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory: July.
Ennis, R. (1992). Critical thinking: What is it? Proceedings of the Forty-Eighth Annual Meeting of the Philosophy of Education Society Denver, Colorado, March 27-30. Retrieved on March 14, 2005, from http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/PES/92_docs/Ennis.HTM.
Critical Thinking Self-Analysis
I always assumed that psychology was a bunch of mumbo jumbo related to Freud and sexuality. I always thought that I was a decent learner, prior to taking this course. I now see that I have the potential to be an excellent learner if I simply make the effort. Cognitively, I thought that this assignment and the article it is based on would be dull due to the length of both. Behaviorally, this fact made procrastinate a little bit. Affectively, I dreaded doing the work initially for the assignment. However, I now know that my own self-efficacy is greater than I anticipated.
Bandura's purpose in writing this article was largely to empower people. eading the article certainly served as a means to empower me, since it taught me different mechanisms I have related to my own self-efficacy. I actually believe that this effect is the purpose for…
Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V.S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. 4, pp. 71-81). New York: Academic Press. (Reprinted in H.
Friedman [Ed.], Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998).
Elder, L. (2007) Thinkers guide to analytic thinking: How to take thinking apart and what to look for when you do. Foundation for Critical Thinking: Dillon Beach, CA.
Glaser, E.M. (1941) An experiment in the development of critical thinking. Teacher's College, Columbia University, 1941).
Normally, the level of performance that this employee demonstrated was so poor as to warrant a written warning, the first step in the process towards dismissal. However, I applied my critical thinking skills to the situation. The person's current behavior was inconsistent with her past behavior. I decided to gather information. The next morning I noticed that she was late again, and I monitored her behavior. I continued monitoring over the course of the day. I now had more information to go on, but it was not enough. I caller her in to speak to her directly. Information gathering is essential to critical thinking. I learned that she had some profound personal issues that were distracting her, and making it difficult for her either to be punctual or to perform at an acceptable level. I gathered more information from my fellow team leaders about the best ways to handle such…
Scriven, M. & Paul, R. (1987). Critical thinking as defined by the National Council for Excellence in Critical Thinking. Foundation for Critical Thinking. Retrieved March 14, 2010 from http://www.criticalthinking.org/ aboutct/define_critical_thinking.cfm
Schachter, D. (2006). The importance of good decision-making. Information Outlook. Retrieved March 14, 2010 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FWE/is_4_10/ai_n16533561/
adical retraining of staff was clearly necessary, but there was a need to avoid the mistakes of the past in the way training sessions were structured.
Several approaches were considered. One solution was that management could improve 'quality control' of the worker's performance with customers. Management would inform the workers their phone conversations would be recorded and screened so this would not seem like a 'gotcha' method of enforcement. Screening would theoretically act as an incentive to improve performance, and problem employees would have personal meetings with supervisor to improve their demeanor with customers. However, there was concern that this would merely result in even lower morale amongst the workers. I pointed out that it was necessary, in customer service, to seem enthusiastic and caring, and the sense of being watched in a punitive way might prevent egregious errors from happening, but would not result in the type of responsive…
Paul, Richard. Critical Thinking: How to Prepare Students for a Rapidly Changing World
Dillon Beach: Foundation for Critical Thinking, 1995.
Excerpt retrieved March 25, 2010 at http://www.criticalthinking.org/ articles/accelerating-change.cfm
Schafersman, Steven. (1991). An introduction to critical thinking. Free Inquiry.
A work experience of mine from a few years ago demonstrates this pretty clearly. It was the Christmas shopping season and I was working in a small toy store where we offered gift wrapping, and where we still wrote out the receipts by hand (no barcode scanners or computerized registers). There was a line form the register counter at the back of the store to the entrance, a pile of gifts on the back counter being wrapped, and the manager has just gone to lunch when one of the registers went berserk.
I wasn't officially in charge, but as the most senior employee there I knew we had to do something. The register couldn't be used, but we had a huge mass of people waiting to buy their presents. Most of them would be getting wrapped, I assumed from experience, and most of the people having their presents wrapped would…
Alwasilah, a. (2002). "Critical thinking crucial to global success." Jakarta Post May 2, pp. 7.
Elder, L. & Paul, R. (2002). "Critical thinking: Distinguishing between inferences and assumptions." Journal of developmental education 25(3), pp. 34-5.
Elder, L. & Paulr, R. (2006). Critical Thinking:Tools for Taking Charge of Your Learning and Your Life. New York: Prentice Hall.
Kirby, G. & Goodpaster, J. (2007). Thinking. New York: Prentice Hall.
4. Abstract sequential thought
The third category is commonly referred to as the abstract sequential style of thinking. This is essentially a combination of the two thinking styles discussed above. This type of thinking tends to view the world on terms of larger concepts and situations, and it is prone to theoretical considerations. However, this form of thinking also makes use of logic and reason to organize the concepts, generalizations and abstract thoughts. This style makes it easy for these thinkers to "… zoom in on what's important, such as key points and significant details. Their thinking processes are logical, rational and intellectual" (Four Types Of Thinking Style, para. 8)
5. Workplace examples
The most common workplace example of rational and sequential thinking in an organization or business is inventory or stock taking. The decision to buy more stock is a result of a logical and rational analysis of the…
CS:Concrete Sequential. Retrieved July 30, 2009, from http://www.cgribben.com/psych/cs.html
Four Types Of Thinking Style. Retrieved July 30, 2009, from http://lrobertson.files.wordpress.com/2007/09/wk-2-four-types-of-thinking-style.doc
Learning Styles. 'Gregoric Learning Styles', section 5. Retrieved July 30, 2009, from http://www.ware.k12.ga.us/superintendent/08-09%20Goal%20Presentations/Curriculum/Learning%20Styles.pdf
UNDERSTANDING DIFFERENT THINKING STYLES. Retrieved July 30, 2009, from http://www.humanlinks.com/orgsn/thinking_styles.htm
g., the "march" toward "freedom") was occurring as he said. One cannot have critical thinking without language, and most language at least invites critical thinking (even if critical thinking does not take place).
2) How does language empower or limit the expression of our thoughts?
Language springs from a combination of our thoughts and the context in which language is used. Language (depending, on how we choose to, or feel we must use it) can either empower or limit expression. A professor lecturing to a class may use language, either more or less effectively, to either empower or limit expression of his or her thoughts. The ability of language itself to empower or limit the professor's thoughts depends on factors like the professor's speaking skill, passion, knowledge, etc. Still, the professor has license in that context to use language to either empower or limit personal expression. Conversely, a student in…
Critical Thinking arriers
At the core of every learning process is the involvement of the mind in analysis and critical thinking. Essential to this is the active participation of the brain to communicate its judgment, assumptions, sense, and logical reasoning. There are several strategies an individual may implement to sharpen his critical thinking skills. Focusing the intellect on a particular subject requiring critical thinking may facilitate the smooth flow of ideas. Such may also enable the mind to dig deeper on the subject. However, in contrast to these strategies, there are also aspects that may hinder the mind to carry out an effective critical thinking. Such hindrances are called critical thinking barriers.
Critical thinking barriers may be classified into types. Two of which can be classified as either barriers related to the subject or ideas, and barriers that are dependent to the perception or concept of the thinking individual. An…
Critical Thinking Strategies.
Retrieved August 21, 2003, from The National Teaching and Learning Forum.
Web site: http://www.ntlf.com/html/lib/suppmat/103chap7.pdf
Critical Thinking and the Media
Critical thinking is a skill that enables us to evaluate information from our sources. Today, the majority of information we process comes from some types of media, including television, radio show, newspapers and the Internet. The relationship between critical thinking and the media is an important one, as it helps us to decipher what is true and what is not. Critical thinking helps us assess information that may be deliberately misleading so that an accurate conclusion can be made on a subject or issue.
The relationship between critical thinking and the media is strongly influenced by media literacy, which refers to being literate about forms of media and understanding how to watch and listen carefully and think critically. Critical thinking skills are necessary in today's media age in order to be able to "read" all the media messages that are informing, entertaining and selling to…
Ennis, Robert. (1962). A Concept of Critical Thinking. Harvard Educational Review, Winter 1962: p. 38.
Critical Thinking about BiotechnologyBiotech Educational Web-Based Resource, developed by Canola Info
Critical Thinking and Statistics
Statistics is an approach to research in which case data collected from a sample is used to draw conclusions about the population. To this end, statistics provides a crucial basis for decision-making, in addition to understanding population complexities. However, in the light of all their usefulness, statistics have one major flaw that cannot be overlooked -- since their creation is done by human beings and the counting and analyses therein based solely on human definitions, statistics can neither be regarded as magical, nor can they be taken as being always true. In this regard, statistics can mislead a reader as much as they can educate, and can lie just as much as they can depict the truth. The key to discerning good and bad statistics lies in the evaluation approach chosen; naivety and cynicism make people lose a great deal, but a critical mind-set leads a…
Best, Joel. "4- Critical Thinking about Statistics." Comcast. Web. 7 May 2014 http://jfk83.home.comcast.net/~jfk83/Best-critical-statistics.pdf
Ganio, Lisa. "Teaching Critical Thinking (in Statistics) for Natural Resource Education." 8th Biennial Conference on University Education in Natural Resources. Utah State University, 2010. Web. 7 May 2014 http://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1047&context=cuenr
Schield, Milo. "Statistical Literacy: Thinking Critically About Statistics." The Inaugural Issue of the Journal of Significance. 1999. Web. 7 May 2014 http://web.augsburg.edu/~schield/milopapers/984statisticalliteracy6.pdf
Although we were all in the same situation together, one of my fellow employees took this sudden abuse very personally. She thought that she was being punished for what she thought was her "laziness" earlier during the year. She was suffering from an illness and had to take a significant amount of paid leave, along with all her available sick leave, in order to recover sufficiently to return to work. She perceived the manager as not very understanding of her situation at the time, and was now telling herself that this was the reason for the sudden odd behavior. egardless of the fact that I attempted to convince her otherwise, she simply did not listen to reason, and let her emotions do the reasoning for her.
The outcome of the situation was that I eventually spoke to the manager to find out what was going on. He explained that upper…
Diestler, S. (2009). Becoming a Critical Thinker: A User Friendly Manual, fifth edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ, Prentice Hall, 2009.
Most anthropologists consider human language to be one of the most essential mechanisms behind the evolution of primitive human ancestors into Homo Sapiens (Wenke & Olzewski 2007), as well as behind the development of early human cooperative societies.
By definition, therefore, wherever language differences exist between individuals who wish to communicate, their ability to bridge the language gap will determine whether or not they will be successful. Society is becoming ever-more ethnically diverse; consequently, language barriers arise more often and in more contexts than ever before.
Diverse language skills enable individuals to communicate complex thoughts, because the alternative without multilingual abilities is to reduce most communications to rudimentary gestures and hand signals that are just not effective for communicating complex ideas (Wenke & Olzewski 2007).
Critical Thinking in Persuasion:
In human beings, cognitive development occurs in stages with fundamental differences in the specific intellectual concepts one is capable of understanding…
Copi, Irving M. (1998) Introduction to Logic. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Gerrig, Richard, J., Zimbardo, Phillip, G. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Wenke, Robert J., Olzewski, Deborah I. (2007) Patterns in Prehistory: Humankind's First Three Million Years. New York: Oxford University Press.
Critical Thinking is an important and valuable skill. The perception process in critical thinking allows information to be sorted, organized, interpreted and evaluated. Creation of importances in this process is crucial, as it allows information to be ranked according to its logical strength and importance.
Intuitively, almost everyone has a basic understanding of critical thinking. It is articulate reasoned thought, based on reason and insight, as opposed to emotion and a lack of logic. Facione (1998) notes that at one level we can think of critical thinking as "good thinking, almost the opposite of illogical, irrational, thinking" (p. 1).
The perception process of critical thinking is crucial. Facione (1998) notes that perception is an important component of beginning to evaluate the credibility of information. In the perception process, an individual selects what information to pay attention to, organizes the information, and interprets and evaluates this information.
The creation of importances…
Facione, Peter. (1998). Critical Thinking: What It Is and Why It Counts. California Academic Press. 12 October 2004. http://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/what&why98.pdf
Critical Thinking in Professional Life & Career
Using critical thinking skills in my life as a professional develops my ability to become competent and motivated in my work. Critically thinking, for me, is like thinking "within the box." This means that I get to center my attention towards a problem and find a solution or immediate response to this dilemma. As a result, I become motivated to work on the decision-making task in the soonest time possible, with the least number of compromises and negative effects on my welfare and the organization I am affiliated with. In effect, I develop competence because of effective decision-making processes I make as a member of the organization. My motivation and competence -- results of my skillful use of critical thinking -- will also be applicable not only in the workplace setting but in my personal life as well. Thus, whenever I am faced…
Critical Thinking and Logical Fallacies
Author and speaker rian Tracy says that people do not make decisions rationally, or logically. He believes that individuals make decisions emotionally, and then only seek to justify them on a rational, logical, or rational thought basis. For example, purchasing a vehicle is less often the rational decision regarding what is needed, and more often influences by what the person wants to gain from an individual vehicle, and how he or she wants to be perceived. The same can be said of purchasing clothing, filling a closet full of shoes when a few pair are needed, or justifying a third scope of ice cream on a late night snack. Thus when discussing critical thinking, and logical fallacies, we are attempting to move individuals out of the normal thought process, into an environment which is totally foreign to traditional thought, and decision making.
For these reasons,…
Duplass JA, Ziedler DL. (2002) Critical Thinking and Logical Argument Social Education, Vol. 66.
Fauth JM, Klaczynski PA, Swanger A. (1998) Adolescent Identity: Rational vs. Experiential Processing, Formal Operations, and Critical Thinking Beliefs., Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 27.
Griggs, RA. (1998) Critical Thinking in Introductory Psychology Teaching of Psychology, Vol. 25.
Smith, R.A. (1995). Challenging your preconceptions: Thinking critically about psychology. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Critical Thinking Case Study
Faith Community Hospital is a not-for-profit hospital and has a mission statement which is interpreted by everyone the way the want to interpret it. Their mission statement compels them to provide health care services and work towards better health and well-being of the people who belong to the communities that Faith Community Hospital serves. It further includes that they are to provide these services in collaboration with others who share this common vision. Unfortunately the only common vision left amongst the stakeholders at the Faith Community Hospital's board is that this hospital should survive and not be shutdown. The ground realities however are pushing the hospital towards a dead end where it will have no option but to shutdown itself, thus bringing an end to the health care services provided to the people. This is proving to be troublesome for Pat, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO)…
In an economy that is based primarily on private enterprise, public efforts to promote equality represent a deliberate interference
This passage posed crucial questions from the reader, one of which is the determination of the terms "split-level institutional structure" and "capitalistic level" for better comprehension among readers, especially those who does not have any background in economics. Apart from this fault in Okun's conceptual framework, this passage also failed to capture the readers' understanding because the author failed to provide specific cases and examples to prove his argument.
Another problem in Okun's conceptualization of the equality-efficiency relationship is that he displayed lack of flexibility and open-mindedness in considering that the issue of rights as encompassing the economic sphere, and also includes the socio- political, cultural, and even historical roots from which human rights developed. This was evident when he claimed that "the domain of rights is full of infringements on…
In nursing practice, critical thinking plays a crucial role of providing a nurse with the necessary skills for prioritizing and making key decision that would save lives. There is a high degree of sensitivity in clinical practice, which means that a simple error could result in serious repercussions like loss of life for the patient (Victor-Chmil, 2013). Therefore, it is vital that a nurse has the requisite critical thinking skills. Nurses are responsible for the well-being of the patients and they should make use of all the skills they have attained in order to offer the patient the best care. The role of a nurse requires that they have the relevant framework for critical thinking. For example, making use of critical thinking, a nurse can develop sufficient procedure for allocating the available resources. This would assist in determining the relevant tasks required for specific situations and have the required resources…
Martyn, J., Terwijn, R., Kek, M. Y., & Huijser, H. (2014). Exploring the relationships between teaching, approaches to learning and critical thinking in a problem-based learning foundation nursing course. Nurse education today, 34(5), 829-835.
Victor-Chmil, J. (2013). Critical thinking versus clinical reasoning versus clinical judgment: Differential diagnosis. Nurse educator, 38(1), 34-36.
Article Review of ‘The Mental Virtues’
In his article titled “The Mental Virtues,” David Brooks focus of various mental traits that the mainstream society would fail to appreciate that someone is virtuous by having them. He premises his ideas on the fact that even in the current information age; it is possible for people to be of good character without doing something physical, as we have been accustomed to believe. Some of the traits that he identified include the love of learning, humility, generosity, autonomy, and firmness. He looks at these factors from a different angle, which does not augur well with how we normally grade ourselves or define our behavioral styles. The article focuses on how an individual can be a courageous and intelligent in the workplace, class, and or while interacting with others in the society. Therefore, it reminds us of how critical thinking skills are important when…
Brooks D. (2014). The Mental Virtues. The New York Times. Retrieved on 17 Nov. 2017 from https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/29/opinion/david-brooks-the-mental-virtues.html?
Critical thinking is one of many vital skills that learners must develop in order to successfully examine research, analyze data, and complete a dissertation. Consider the characteristics and practices associated with the skill of critical thinking. Which of these are more or less beneficial or important than others? How does synthesis integrate into your view of critical thinking?
As the question indicates, the synthesis and usage of the material is what really matters the most. Further, there is a direct linkage between synthesis and critical thinking. Indeed, critical thinking is about evaluating and assessing an issue properly. As the question indicates, there is more than one sub-section to critical analysis. One way to approach it is to look at the what, where, when and why. Some of those are indeed more important than others. Knowing the “what” and the “when” are important. However, knowing the “why” and the “how” are…
The problem in having a firm grasp of critical thought is that it can be clouded by many different distractions and affected by variables outside of controllable circumstances. One of these factors is cognitive development. It is evident that cognitive development as a strong overall impact on the development of critical thinking. Genetics plays a strong role within cognitive development, as individuals are all born with differing genetic levels of comprehension and thus some people will have better critical thinking abilities purely based on their genes. The circumstances that an individual grows up in also have a profound effect on their critical thinking abilities and process. This is because as an individual grows up they can form differing opinions and stigmas that are taught both explicitly and implicitly through cultural doctrine, social convention, as well as education in both informal settings such as at home as well as formal settings…
Critical Thinking Application
"Every job, and every company, can benefit from critical thinking" (Pauker, 2010). Pauker makes this assertion with good reason. In considering this argument, Pauker suggests taking a second to think about any job, and the daily responsibilities and decisions that people need to make. She argues that if one considers the margin of error that could ultimately cost a company a project, a client, profits or even its reputation, it is clear how dependent every company is on its employees' ability to execute critical thinking in every position. Pauker concludes that, after several days of pondering, she could not come up with any job that would not benefit from critical thinking. She supports this conclusion by quoting a survey of 400 senior H professionals who, when asked what skills their employees will need in the next five years, put critical thinking skills at the top of the…
Chartrand, J., Ishikawa, H., and Flander, S. (2009). Critical thinking means business: Learn to apply and develop the new #1 workplace skill. Retrieved on April 14, 2011 from http://www.talentlens.com/en/downloads/whitepapers/Pearson_TalentLens_Critical_Thinking_Means_Business.pdf
Pauker, L. (2010). What job doesn't benefit from critical thinking? Critical Thinkers website. Retrieved on April 14, 2011 from http://critical-thinkers.com/2010/06/what-job-doesnt-benefit-from-critical-thinking/
Paul, R., Elder, L. & Bartell, T. (1997). California Teacher Preparation for Instruction in Critical Thinking: Research Findings and Policy Recommendations: State of California, California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. Retrieved on April 14, 2011 from http://www.criticalthinking.org/ aboutCT/briefHistoryCT.cfm
Sumner, W.G. (1906). Folkways: A Study of the Sociological Importance of Usages, Manners, Customs, Mores, and Morals, pp. 632, 633. New York: Ginn and Company. Retrieved on April 14, 2011 from
With the debate and analysis aspects, critical thinking is, in fact, incorporated in the decision making process.
With the description of these three important elements of the decision making process (discussion, debate, and analysis), one can better understand the important and benefits of critical thinking in the decision making process. First of all, with critical thinking, everybody in the group is allowed to express and argue for his own opinion. There are several benefits deriving from this, most notably the fact that the final decision is likely to be embraced by all members in the group and the fact that the discussion and debate can generate a large volume of ideas and opinions, making the final decision one that better reflects reality.
The other great benefit comes from the analysis part of both the critical thinking and the decision making processes. The fact that critical thinking is part of the…
1. Facione, Peter. Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus For Purposes Of Educational Assessment and Instruction. 1990. American Philosophical Association Delphi Research Report
2. Moore, Brooke; Parker, Richard. Critical Thinking. McGraw-Hill; 7th edition. 2007.
3. Lipset, S.M. (Ed.). (1995). The encyclopedia of democracy. Washington DC: Congressional Quarterly
Facione, Peter. Critical Thinking: A Statement of Expert Consensus For Purposes Of Educational Assessment and Instruction. 1990. American Philosophical Association Delphi Research Report
During the critical thinking process the thinker will use all of these components, evaluating the implications and consequences of each, until they reach a satisfactory answer.
In order to reach a conclusion using critical thinking, one must hold off making judgment until all available facts are given and fully evaluated. However, the very nature of the critical thinking process means that there is no end to the critical thinking process. Although one may end at a conclusion, this conclusion is only tentative based on the evidence used in the evaluation that led to that particular conclusion. However, a conclusion is always subject to new information and evidence, thus the critical thinking process goes on.
Each of will employ the methods of critical thinking on a regular basis. Often times we find ourselves using critical thinking when we are presented with a situation where our perception of reality is far from…
Damer, T. Edward. (2005): Attacking Faulty Reasoning. New York: Wadsworth.
Fisher, Alec. (2001): Critical Thinking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Paul, Richard and Linda Elder. (2002): Critical Thinking: Tools for Taking Charge of Your Professional and Personal Life. New York: Prentice Hall.
Finally, as he or she goes to express which type of furniture he or she means to buy, he or she uses "couch" to denote an informal piece of furniture and "sofa" to denote a formal one. If others have different interpretations of these two words, then they will have trouble understanding what this buyer wants to purchase.
Thus, language and the diversity of language greatly impact the critical thinking process. People assign linguistic terms to objects, ideas, and abstractions, which impacts how they are characterized in a person's mind. In addition, these characterizations affect the expression of one's thoughts, limiting that expression. These expressions are limited because no two people have the exact same understanding of different words and phrases. Each word or phrase has, for each individual person, a repertoire of childhood memories, connotations, associations, etc. Thus, it is never possible to be sure that what you are…
elf-regulation and analysis are interpersonal skills used by the nurse to convey potentially upsetting news, or to analyze the nurse's own behavior and professionalism in his or her nursing duties.
Critical thinking in nursing is further delineated by the UNM College of Nursing (2005). As seen above, this aspect of the profession is not only essential in terms of the patient-nurse relationship, but also in terms of the intrapersonal relationship of the nurse with him- or herself. The self-regulation and morality developed by means of critical thinking in the profession helps the nurse to make the often difficult decisions required on a daily basis. It also provides the nurse with the ability to serve as a liberating force for patients and their families, as the nurse helps them to face medical dilemmas.
Facione, Peter A. (2004). "Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts." California Academic Press. http://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/what&why2004.pdf…
Facione, Peter A. (2004). "Critical thinking: What it is and why it counts." California Academic Press. http://www.insightassessment.com/pdf_files/what&why2004.pdf
UNM College of Nursing. (2005, Sept. 16-17). "What is critical thinking? http://hsc.unm.edu/consg/conct/whatis.shtml
Critical Thinking Action Project
The fact that Manager Michael Lee Ray is in trouble "yet again" for an inappropriate interaction with the Tokyo office is a reminder that ExtraVert has not addressed its most serious problem. An observer can presuppose that Ray is intellectually or morally deficient -- but on the other hand, an observer doesn't know that but it is unlikely that a global organization would place a social outcast in a position of authority. who lacks cultural intelligence. How many times is corporate management for ExtraVert going to allow this problem to exist and fester like an open wound that hasn't been cleaned or disinfected?
First of all, the proper name of the employee in Tokyo should always be used, so "Hey Itchy" is a sign of ignorance of the cultural realities in Japan. "Too much sake…" is a bigoted and insensitive phrase that shows a lack of…
Dewhurst, M., Harris, J., and Heywood, S. (2012). The global Company's challenge. McKinsey
Quarterly. Retrieved February 20, 2014, from http://www.mckinsey.com
Economist Intelligence Unit. (2012). Competing across Borders: How cultural and communication barriers affect business. The Economist. Retrieved February 20, 2014,
from http://www.economistinsights.com .
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
Everyone navigates their way through the world using a set of preconceived ideas, stereotypes, notions and beliefs concerning how things work and how others will behave in any given situation. Not surprisingly, many people are surprised and even shocked to learn that some of the things they have firmly believed to be true all of their lives are inaccurate or even false. These frailties of the human condition mean that the search for the truth is ongoing and learning how to find it represents a critical part of the skill set needed in the 21st century. This paper provides a discussion and comparison of "elements of truth" and the "right questions" that should be asked in any given situation to discern the facts, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Not only does…
Browne, N. & Keeley, S.M. (2012). Asking the right questions. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice.
Critical Thinking Case Study: Let it Pour - My First Assignment as Executive Assistant
Key Problems and Issues
The first of the problems are coming from the origin of the hospital as it is an organization with a lot of spiritual heritage and values. These have to be retained even while providing all the required services and satisfaction for the patients. The second problem that the hospital is facing is due to the difficulties that exist in the operations of any hospital, and those difficulties exist irrespective of the mission or the origin of the hospital. One of the problems from this origin is the headlines and extensive coverage given by the media to medical errors that hospitals are committing. These are mentioned and reflect on all hospitals whether they are a party to such errors or not. Another problem arises from the differences within the issues of living up…
Baldwin, Fred. "Emergency Room Drama: Be Prepared Before a Crisis Happens" Retrieved
from http://www.icepts.com/pennmed/25-147.htm Accessed on 23 June, 2005
Colliver, Victoria. (12 April, 2005) "St. Luke's could face merger California Pacific may join forces with S.F. hospital known for treating poor" San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved from http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/chronicle/archive/2005/04/12/BUG63C6H4T1.DTL& ; type=business Accessed on 23 June, 2005
Evans BJ; Kiellerup FD; Stanley RO; Burrows GD; Sweet B. "A communication skills program for increasing patient's satisfaction with general practice consultations" Br Journal of Medical Psychology. 1987; December: 60 (Pt 4):373-378. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve& ; db=PubMed& list_uids=3426975& dopt=Abstract Accessed on 23 June, 2005
Although the circularity of the logic of insanity as demonstrated by the very fact that a man desires to be eaten (because he is insane, because he wants to be eaten, because he is insane…) loses credibility due to the redundancy of such thinking, the implicit conclusion that the author comes to regarding this matter, "if every person with emotional problems were denied the right to determine what is in his own interest, none of us would be self-determining in the eyes of the law, except those of us who had no emotions to have problems with," may very well be inductive. It certainly seems to be a considerable assumption to say that people with mental (or "emotional") problems, should not be restrained from their actions, because in doing so virtually everyone -- who is at least half-crazy, if not further along on his or her way to being crazy…
Critical Thinking Essay Photography
Examining Photographs: Bias in Photography
A picture is worth a thousand words. Yet, what goes on behind the scene to make that image possible in reality? Photography as a genre is incredibly powerful. On the one hand, it is seen as more realistic than any other art form; yet at the same time, many within the field have constructed tailored messages within this preconceived preference within the public mind frame.
The philosophy behind photography is actually much more complex than it may seem. Examining the writings of Sontang (2005), there is clearly a much more abstract conception of the power of photographs and their position within society. As such, Sontang presents a very interesting view of the paradox with photographs in contemporary societal life. Photographic images are everywhere in society. As our technology has continued to evolve, so has our fascination with images. As photographs are…
Sontag, Susan. (2005). On Photography. Rosetta Books.
Critical Thinking Action Project
Finding fallacies in the prior assignment
In the Introduction the statement was made that because the two offices of ExtraVert are in different locations and have "different objectives" that strategic situation will "create tension and conflict, which detract from the objectives and mission of ExtraVert."
This phrase could raise the question as to the possibility that a "sweeping generalization" (Fullerton.edu) was made. Is it likely that "tension and conflict" are the logical results of having different objectives? It is possible, but a sweeping generalization doesn't assure that tension and conflict are inevitable. Asserting that the tension and conflict will detract from the mission and objectives could be considered a "hasty generalization" (Fullerton.edu) as well. Moreover, stating that solutions can "almost always be arrived at" if understanding, courtesy and thoughtfulness are embraced could be considered "post hoc" (unc.edu). In other words, asserting that because one thing happens…
California State University at Fullerton. (2011). Common Fallacies in Reasoning. Retrieved February 12, 2014, from http://commfaculty.fullerton.edu.
University of North Carolina. (2010). Fallacies. Writing Center. Retrieved February 12, 2014,
From http://writingcenter.unc.edu .
Critical Thinking Action Project
The assumptions that can be reached through deductive reasoning -- that there are most definitely problems between the home office and the foreign office; and that the two offices have different objectives -- are certainly not rocket science. These kinds of problems create tension and conflict, which detract from the objectives and mission of ExtraVert. The solution (or solutions) to the problem presented by this assignment -- what has gone wrong with ExtraVert and can the problem be solved -- will be presented in this paper. Solutions can almost always be arrived at if careful, thoughtful, thorough understanding and courtesy is the strategy and theme of the problem-solving project.
Cultural Differences and Constructive Behaviors
Clearly, with any global operation, there needs to be clear-cut communication established between the home office and the foreign office -- or offices, if there is more than one foreign unit as…
Chan, A.W.H., and Cheung, H.Y. (2012). Cultural Dimensions, Ethical Sensitivity, and Corporate Governance. Journal of Business Ethics, 110(1), 45-59.
Van Hove, N. (2012). Successful Global S&OP: Leadership, Change Management, Behavior,
& Cross-Cultural Differences. Journal of Business Forecasting, 31(3), 4-20.
Critical Thinking Styles and Forces of Influence
Any choice or decision that a manager makes influences the organization's performance. It is one of an employee's job responsibilities to make decisions that are in favor of the organization. If the decision taken serves any personal interest of one person or a few people then it is bound to prove harmful for the organization. Therefore such decisions can bring devastating results for the entire company. However it cannot be ignored that any decision made by an employee is influenced by a number of factors since decisions are not made in a vacuum. These factors include the different thinking patterns that are employed by a person in making a choice and the various forces of influences that act upon him and determine the choice he is going to make.
Critical Thinking Patterns
One of the most important factor that determines the choice or…
McAulay, Laurie, Russell, Graeme and Sims, Julian. How Do Financial Directors Make Decisions? Management Accounting (British), (1997): Vol. 75.
McCall, Morgan, Jr. And Robert E. Kaplan. Whatever it Takes. The Realities of Decision Making. Prentice Hall 1990.
Waldersee, Robert and Sheather, Simon. The Effects Of Strategy Type On Strategy Implementation Actions. Human Relations, (1996): Vol. 49, No. 1.
In my experience, this is quite rarely the case. In fact, the truth in most families appears to be quite opposite: namely, the holiday season is the time that most people associate with their highest degrees of stress that highlights and exacerbates long-standing family conflicts and feuds. For every family where holiday arrangements are primarily a time of great joy and unity, there might be as many as ten times that many families where holidays generate annual arguments over whose turn it is to host (or not to host), whose families to visit in what order, and whom to invite. As often as not, hosting holiday parties involves keeping separate members of extended family who actually detest one another from coming to blows after drinking to much alcohol.
Instead of being the most peaceful time of year, the newspapers report that the holiday season is always the peak of suicides.…
UPB management will be able to capitalize on the five years of training and other investments in Mark Williams
The colleagues will feel a sense of security as Williams has decided to stick with the company
Costs with replacing him will now be incurred and the money could be used in another direction
UPB clients will be content as they will not have to switch consultants
Mark Williams will feel loyal and the sense that he has betrayed his 'savior' will not torment him
Mark Williams will continually feel frustrated with the sense of things at UPB
He will give up his opportunities for further professional development and promotions
It is highly possible that his sacrifice will not even be recognized by the UPB stakeholders
Mark Williams graduated Business College and found a job at UBP Consulting in a time in which nobody else…
Brown, C., Ethical Theories Compared, Trinity University, 2001, http://www.trinity.edu/cbrown/intro/ethical_theories.html last accessed on June 26, 2009
Geuras, D., Garofalo, C., Practical Ethics in Public Administration, 2nd Edition, 2005, Management Concepts, ISBN 1567261612
Todd, H.C., Speaking of Ethics -- Changing Jobs, The District of Columbia Bar, 2009, http://www.dcbar.org/for_lawyers/resources/publications/washington_lawyer/march_2009/ethics.cfm last accessed on June 26, 2009
Thus, the idea of a strong, female leader is created through conceptual blending, and the ultimately oxymoronic pairing of unlike words. Something new is created, through the use of cultural, political, religious, and historical references, and of the pairing of these two specific nouns together.
3. Explain what Fauconnier and Turner mean when they assert on page 15, in effect, that, "Metaphor is not just something derived from 'core meaning'?" Are they right? (Please refer to The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities by Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Tuner)
Because unlike the literary device or trope of simile, the use of metaphor deploys the verb 'is,' as in, 'hope is a thing with feathers,' in the famous poem of Emily Dickinson of this title, one is tempted to assume that metaphor accesses some core meaning of a word or concept. But as this example shows, the…
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
The objective of the article is to question the credibility of the decision adopting by the Bush's administration on North Korea due to claims that it (North Korea) was constructing a Uranium plant. Based on the universal structures of thought by Elder and Paul, it is apparent that the question at issue in the presented case is the credibility of the decision taken by the U.S. government towards North Korea. The U.S. believed that the North Korean state was in its quest of building a nuclear power plant secretly without the awareness of the U.S. As such, it promoted to U.S. To adopt sanctions against the North Korea such as suspending its deals with the state. The U.S. depended on unreliable information since up-to-date it has not verified the existence of a Uranium plant in North Korea as speculated by the report.
The decision adopted…
Another Intelligence Twist. (2007, March 2). Washington Post. Retrieved August 23, 2014, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/03/01/AR2007030101507.html
By teaching other professionals, I can indirectly reach hundreds or eventually thousands of people with hearing disabilities.
In my current work as a tutor for students who wish to become American ign Language interpreters, it is clear to me that many of these students have been taught incorrectly. This is part of the wider problem in the United tates. Rather than being able to teach these students the correct way of interpretation from the beginning, I first have to correct the previous learning. Teaching quality is of the vital importance, particularly in a field that can make a difference in so many lives. I therefore find both my tutoring and my studies as a very significant direction to ensure not only a bright future for myself, but by association also for those who have tended to be marginalized both by society and of necessity by themselves.
American ign Language…
American Sign Language Teachers Association. ASL as a Language. 2004-2007. http://www.aslta.org/lang.php
Coltrane, Bronwyn. American Sign Language. Center for Applied Linguistics Resource Guide. http://www.cal.org/resources/archive/rgos/asl.html
Sorenson Communications. Meeting the Growing Need for American sign Language Interpreters. White Paper, 2005. http://www.sorensonvrs.com/newsletter/interpreterShortage.pdf
The question then becomes do these nurses become worried about the long hours that they may have to work and the quality of care that the patients are getting, or do they sit back and remind the world that they knew this was going to happen, because pay has traditionally been low for nurses and this is why more people are choosing other fields of study when looking for career (Taft, 2001).
Perhaps many nurses will not choose either of these options. Many may choose to continue doing the job that they've been doing for years, for the pay that they have come to expect. Those that choose this option will likely be more concerned with care of the patient then they will with the money that they receive from their job, or how many hours they have to put in for that paycheck. Their primary concern will always remain…
Beu, Burke. 2002. Nursing Issues. The Association of Perioperative Registered Nurses. Retrieved at http://www.aorn.org/journal/2002/novhpi.htm
Cheskin Life Sciences Perspectives: The emerging healthcare consumer. 2001. Cheskin. http://www.cheskin.com/life .
Grace, Helen, & Gloria Smith. Women in Health Leadership Roles: The Challenges of Change. 2002. Center for Research on Women and Gender, the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Green, David. French health service is best. 2001. Guardian Unlimited. http://www.societyguardian.co.uk/health/comment/0,7894,440883,00.html .
A full box of small finishing nails was accidentally spilt on the floor of a retail toy establishment, behind the counter where the cash registers were located. Softly clinging to the carpet and embedded in the hols and grooves of a rubber mat that was lying on the floor, the nails were quite difficult to pick up and the task looked like it would be quite time consuming, and with the store about to open time wasn't something there was a lot of. This is where critical thinking came into play: rather than simply dealing with the issue in the first way that came to mind -- i.e. laboriously picking up each individual nail, needing to pick some out of small spaces with some sort of tweezers -- this author recalled the large magnets sold as novelties at the other end of the store. One slow pass of the magnet…
Ennis, R. (2011). Critical thinking defintion, instruction, and assessment. Accessed 11 October 2011. www.criticalthinking.net
FCT. (2011). Defining critical thinking. Foundation for Critical Thinking. Accessed 11 October 2011. www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766
Critical Thinking & Generational Teams
In the course of caring for patients, nurses deal with life threatening situations every day. This constitutes the necessity to develop critical thinking skills in order to know what to do, when to do it, and how it needs to be done to ensure safety and sensibility in patient care. Critical thinking skills develop over time with experience, developing deeper knowledge, and developing higher levels of judgment in the course of care (Alfaro-LeFevre, Apr 2000).
Critical thinking skills involve checking accuracy and reliability of information, recognizing inconsistencies, and identifying patterns of missing information. In the course of busy times, natural tendencies cause people to react without thinking. These patterns are dangerous in patient care. It is important to realize that critical thinking takes time to develop and implement. It requires knowledge, skills, practice, caution, and judgment and is best away from the patient…
Alfaro-LeFevre, R. (Apr 2000). Critical thinking: Usually not rapid fire. AACN News, 2(12).
Halfer, D.S.-L. (2013). Bridging the generational gaps. Retrieved from Nurse.com: http://ce.nurse.com/RetailCourseView.aspx?CourseNum=ce478&page=1&IsA=1
Critical Thinking and the Thought Process
The practice of critical thinking is an influence of various elements that affect not only individual behavior and personality, but one's thought processes as well. The first element that affects an individual's thought processes, i.e., critical thinking, is the personality of the individual. A person's thought processes is influenced by external factors such as time and place where the individual constantly interacts with others, influence of society via the mass culture, and self-perceptions developed from the self and through other people. Determining an individual's thought processes also takes into account the cognitive development within the individual as well, where the line distinguishing mind and brain is determined. Brain is the physical manifestation of thinking and thought processes in humans, while the mind represents the metaphysical form in which thinking occurs. Distinguishing between these two concepts is vital, since each concept plays a role in…
Critical Thinking Standards: Depth
Paul and Elder (2008) describe what they believe to be the essential standards of the critical thinking process. These standards, in order of importance, are the following: clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, and fairness. When the authors recommend questioning the depth of one's question they are implying that the question under consideration may be more superficial than it should to be. A critical thinker who wishes to render a question less superficial will acknowledge the complexities inherent to the question, judge the relative value of different factors to enable prioritizing the thought process, and setting aside any urges to ignore problems with the question. Once the depth of a question has been considered, along with the other standards, the information thus gleamed can be used to inform the elements of reasoning, which in turn promote intellectual traits inherent to critical thinkers.
In another class…
CDC. (2013). Overweight and obesity: A growing problem. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/obesity/childhood/problem.html .
Paul, R. & Elder, L. (2008). The Miniature Guide to Critical Thinking: Concepts and Tools. Special Edition, 28th International Conference on Critical Thinking, Berkeley, California. Retrieved from https://www.amherst.edu/system/files/media/Paul%2520and%2520Elder-Miniature%2520Guide%2520to%2520Critical%2520Thinking_0.pdf.
The decade-old system that specifies least standards for staffing in nursing homes need to be restructured, the report says. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services must call for nursing homes to have at least one N within the facility during all times. Based on the departments' 2001 report to Congress on minimum staff-to-patient ratios for nursing homes, the HHS should mention the staffing levels that increased with the number of patients. Central and state report cards on nursing homes should give information on levels of nursing staff, and measuring of staffing levels should be developed for hospital report cards. The healthcare facilities should avoid using nurses from temporary agencies to fill the vacancy. (Substantial Changes equired in Nurses Work Environment to Protect Patients from Health Care Errors)
Working for long hours on the part of the nurse's makes them fatigue since it decreases their energy and reduces their…
ANA Commends IOM Report Outlining Critical Role of Nursing Work Environment in Patient Safety" (November 5, 2003) Retrieved at http://www.nursingworld.org/pressrel/2003/pr1105.htm . Accessed on 11 February 2005
Hallmarks of the Professional Nursing Practice Environment" (January, 2002) AACN White Paper. Retrieved at http://www.aacn.nche.edu/Publications/positions/hallmarks.htm . Accessed on 11 February 2005
Statement of the American Nurses Association for the Institute of Medicine's Committee on Work Environment for Nurses and Patient Safety" (September 24, 2002) Retrieved at http://www.nursingworld.org/pressrel/2002/iom924.htm . Accessed on 11 February 2005
Substantial Changes Required in Nurses Work Environment
The other problem is regarding third party reimbursements and state regulators which have had a significant effect on hospitals during the last ten years. Another factor that is brought out by the study is that during both 1983 and 1986 there were important variations in the inpatient reimbursement system that helped in improving the operating and final margins of hospitals. At the same time there are the health insurance companies who provide a large portion of the funds to hospitals are continually on the look out for reducing payment amounts. There are methods through which this is done and one of that is changing from inpatient settings to ambulatory surgery. Another set of problems come from settlements with labor unions. As an example a major portion of the health care providers were affected due to the settlement with Local 1199. This settlement also created similar effects in other…
Brennan, Phil. (April 12, 2002) "Church Crises Threaten Charities, Schools, Hospitals"
Retrieved from http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2002/4/11/212641.shtml Accessed on 27 June, 2005
"Challenge of being chief of the hospitals" Retrieved from http://www.thisisworcester.co.uk/worcestershire/worcester/news/WEN_NEWS_FEATURES_COUNTY9.html Accessed on 27 June, 2005
Donoghue, Richard J. (December, 1990) "Evaluation of hospitals as entities able to continue as going concerns" The CPA Journal. Retrieved from http://www.nysscpa.org/cpajournal/old/09691991.htm Accessed on 27 June, 2005
Critical Thinking Case Study
Faith Community Hospital is a not-for-profit health care services organization that is currently facing a situation, which may compel it to resort to stringent cost cutting measures just to break even, and that too providing the average reimbursement rate does not change. Financial problems, however, are just one of the several problems that Faith Community Hospital must resolve in order for the organization to maintain and further build its reputation as a quality health care services provider. In brief, some of the other critical issues that the hospital needs to address are the conflict between the organization's spiritual heritage and values and the ethics of the medical profession; non-compliance with government, managed care, and insurance regulations; and non-adherence to hospital operational policies. Indeed, it is evident from the preceding list of issues that Faith Community Hospital has an organizational management problem on its hands, which needs…
Personally, a critical thinker will be able to evaluate the world in which they live and make conscious choices about what will be most beneficial to their own life and the lives of those around them. They will be able to be an actively engaged citizen able to understand public policies that will impact their life and do something about it if they disagree. They will be able to enrich their mind through reading and study and have the tools to interpret information on their own. Critical thinkers can have more fulfilling conversations when they know how to incite thoughtfulness in others.
Professionally, a critical thinker will be more of an asset in the business world than someone who is not able to think critically. They will be able to work more independently and be able to come up with more creative ideas. A critical thinker will be able to…
Benson, H. (2000). Socratic Wisdom: The Model of Knowledge in Plato's Early Dialogue. New York: Oxford University Press.
Foundation for Critical Thinking. (2009). Defining Critical Thinking. Accessed 13 November 2010. http://www.criticalthinking.org/ aboutCT/define_critical_thinking.cfm.
Hooks, B. (2010). Teaching Critical Thinking: Practical Wisdom. New York: Routledge.
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
The capacity of a government to protect its citizens pivots on the ability of its leaders and high-placed specialists to think critically. Few times in history point so clearly to this principle than the 9/11 disaster. In 1941, the same year that the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred, Edward M. Glaser published a book titled, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. Glaser's practice of psychiatry was remarkable in that he dispensed with the Freudian deep dive into past events, pushing his patients to deal with problem solving in the present -- a critical thinking practice he called reality therapy. Many of Glaser's tenets were adopted by other disciplines because of their universal utility and association with positive results. Glaser defined critical thinking as, "A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports…
Albert Einstein. Brainy Quotes. Retrieved from http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/albert_einstein.html
Chow, D. (2011, January 25). Space Shuttle Challenger disaster FAQ: What went wrong? www.SPACE.com. Retrieved from http://www.space.com/10677-challenger-tragedy-overview.html
Eichorn, R. (2012). Developing thinking skills: Critical thinking at the Army Management Staff College. Fort Belvoir, VA: Strategic Systems Department. [Webpage, last modified: 4 2012 January.] Retreived from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/critical/roy.htm
Glaser, E.M. (1941). An experiment in the development of critical thinking. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University.
sphere of life, there needs to be thought process that precedes any action or decision, otherwise things would be done in erratic and haphazard manner and end up in absolute chaos and disorder. However, for better results and accurate outcomes as always envisioned and required, there is need for critical thinking. This is a step higher than merely thinking as an individual or sitting down to participate in a brainstorming session.
Critical thinking is therefore the dissection of a claim to determine whether the assertion is true, false or partially true or partially false. The ratio of partiality in the truth in an assertion can also be determined in a critical thinking process. This process hence leads to acquisition of skills or standpoints that can be mastered by the relevant persons or learned and used for better results in a process. Critical thinking is a type of reasoning and is…
Foundation for Critical Thinking, (2013). Defining Critical Thinking. Retrieved March 27, 2014 from https://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766
Moira Wilson, (2009). Critical thinking: What is this critical thinking and how do you do it? Retrieved March 27, 2014 from http://www.sussex.ac.uk/s3/?id=87
Business Case Studies
Critical Thinking -- Erroneous Thinking
Logical Fallacies in Business Reporting
lthough the reporting of facts and figures is often thought of as an objective science, quite frequently even business reporting is characterized by logical fallacies, including but not limited to appeals to ignorance, hasty generalizations, and ad hominem attacks. In fact, one could argue that these logical fallacies, however, are particularly common and pernicious in business reporting because of the frequently technically complex nature of the subject matter in regards to facts and figures, combined with the emotional texture of business reporting that involves the fabric and texture of individuals lives. Reporters wish to attract attention and render complexities comprehensible, but frequently fall into logically fallacious traps to accomplish these objectives.
Hasty Generalization hasty generalization is often characterized by an all or nothing style of reporting. The fallacy of the hasty generalization is a failure of…
Appeal to Ignorance.
An appeal to ignorance is an appeal to the lowest common denominator of knowledge -- 'it's the economy, stupid,' one might say is the ideal example of this rhetorical device. It is a seductive rhetorical technique because it implies an individual's gut instinct and gut ignorance is correct, regardless of the facts. Recently, "William Wolman, author and former Business Week chief economist" has questioned "the usual explanation of the job problem -- a rise in productivity. In his opinion, many Americans are working far more hours than the productivity numbers measure. In fact, he ventures what he calls a radical notion that the workweek should be shortened, but with no reduction in pay." Wolman cites how the simplistic 'lazy American' trope is in fact misguided. In fact, Europeans work fewer hours and although the anti-European sentiment may contain American pride in our longer hours, one must ask if longer hours are really personally and economically profitable for the economy as a whole. ("The Key to Wealth," January 19, 2004, Business Week Online retrieved on January 19, 2004 at (http://www.aol.businessweek.com/bwdaily/index.html#top)
The fact that the American economy appears to be growing is assumed in the rhetoric of politicians to be proof that the economy is improving -- an 'I don't know much, but I know I have a job approach.' However, the quality of the jobs being generated and their long-term stability is important as well. "Everyone should realize that what the productivity number actually measures is nothing that you or I would call productivity. Instead, it's output per measured hour worked. Stress the word 'measured,' because it seems
Part One: Main Ideas and Insights
Critical thinking does not necessarily come naturally to people, who are subject to biases and prejudicial assumptions. According to Paul & Elder (2016), critical thinking can be learned and mastered. Critical thinking is essential for improving quality of life and promoting best practices in any field. With critical thinking, a person actively seeks answers and solutions to problems, probing multiple points of view and perspectives. Therefore, critical thinking requires open-mindedness and strong communication skills. Critical thinking also requires time and self-discipline, including the painstaking gathering of data, information, and evidence, and picking apart each issue using systematic methods. Rather than being reactive or subjective, critical thinking involves thorough analyses and assessments, with problem solving as its primary goal. Critical thinking is clear, accurate, significant, and ultimately, fair.
According to Paul & Elder (2016), all thought involves the same eight elements including point of view,…
Letter to the Editor
The Washington Post
1150 15th Street, NW
Washington, D.C. 20071
Enhancing the American education system to increase the higher order thinking ability of learners for a better opportunity to achieve future success in the workforce
Through your renowned newspaper, it is an honor to express our views on enhancing the American education system to increase the higher order thinking ability of learners.
The writer has worked in a training capacity for a major corporation in the north for five years and with the University of Harvard for four years. The writer has spent four years volunteering at the local community center working with both secondary and postsecondary children. The writer's role at the Harvard University was as program coordinator for a special committee working with the local communities, universities, and school districts in developing a community of higher order thinkers that can contribute to…
Cavanagh, S. (2004). Students ill-prepared for college-ACT warns. Education Week, 24(8), .
Conley, D.T., & Barton, P.E. (2007). The challenge of college readiness. Educational Leadership, (), 23.
Horn, C.E., & Schaffner, H.A. (2003). Work in America: an encyclopedia of history, policy, and society. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, Inc.
McCarthy, M., & Kuh, G. (2006). Are students ready for college? What student engagement data says. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(9), 664.
Responsibilities of a Critical Thinker in a Contemporary Society
Some thinkers consider critical thinking to be solely a type of mental skill, devoid of any moral value; it is often utilized to rationalize prejudice and to promote self-interest. While moral integrity is understood as good heartedness, it is also susceptible to manipulation to satisfy vested interests in the same way as responsible citizenship can be manipulated. The human mind, regardless of conscious goodwill, is subject to the more powerful and self-deceptive egocentricity of the unconscious part of the mind. The complete development of each and every characteristic, be it critical thought, responsible citizenship, and moral integrity - needs to include cultivation of each other characteristic, in a parallel strong sense (Paul, 1993). The three characteristics of higher thought can only be developed in an environment that promotes intellectual virtues such as integrity, intellectual courage, intellectual fair-mindedness, intellectual empathy, intellectual perseverance,…
Ambert, A. Parents, (1997) Children, and Adolescents: Interactive Relationships and Development in Context. New York, NY: Hayworth Press.
Duffy, A. & Momirov, J.(1997) Family Violence: A Canadian Introduction. Toronto: James Lorimer and Company.
Duperrin, B. (2013). Social Media make critical thinking critical. Www.duperrin.com. Retrieved from www.dupperin.com: http://www.duperrin.com/english/2013/06/28/social-media-critical-thinking/
Erdur-Baker, O. (2010). .Cyberbullying and its correlation to traditional bullying, gender and frequent and risky usage of internet-mediated communication tools. New Media & Society, 12(1), 109-125. DOI: 10.1177/1461444809341260
Globalization of Superficiality
The contemporary society has suffered the cursing benefit of the global connection and the information technology that allows for the ease of communication in a fast mode and indeed, in a real time manner. The progress, though widely welcome and changed the society in significant measure over the last decade, has come with curse to the same society that it has helped change. The curse or challenges of instant communication specifically are numerous and wide in range and scope but this paper will limit itself to the jurisdiction of critical thinking and deep reflection on issues with the Jesuit perspective in the issues.
The Jesuit perspective has a strong foundation of seeing God in everything they do and as Fr. Adolfo puts it, "exercising an imagination which grasps reality and involves a refusal to let go until we get beneath the surface." Social media has provided platform…