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With increased competition being witnessed in many industries, Multinational companies are setting shop to new foreign markets as a way of increasing their profitability and remaining competitive. Many countries have liberalized their markets, and present advancement in technologies has made it easy for companies to open new branches in foreign markets. However, this also comes with it challenges, particularly relating to cross-cultural communication. Effective cross-cultural communication is very important to the organization that some scholars such as Levitt (1983) argue that it can determine the success or failure of a foreign business in the local market. It is against such statements that this paper examines the factors that impact cross-cultural communication at the workplace.
The paper will particularly aim at answering the following four questions; what is communication? What does it look like? What is the purpose of communication within organizations? And, what factors can negatively impact effective…
Ayelet K., Lingard, L. & Levinson W. (2008) critically appraising qualitative research BMJ 2008; 337:a1035, DOI: 10.1136/bmj.a1035
Berger, C.R., & Calabrese, R.J. (1975). Some explorations in initial interaction and beyond: Toward a developmental theory of interpersonal communication. Human Communication Theory, 1, 99-112.
Denzin, K.N. & Lincoln, S.Y. (2000). Handbook of qualitative research (2nd Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Gudykunst, W., & Kim, Y.Y. (2002). Communicating With Strangers: An Approach to Intercultural Communication (4th ed.). McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.
The online library has nothing that matches a full-text search for "intercultural communication" or "cross-cultural communication" for the last 60 days. So the article used was Three Skills every 21st century manager needs, by Andrew Molinsky, published in the Harvard Business Review. The HBR is not a journal article but is a highly-respected article from business professors that is read by practitioners and academics alike.
The article outlines common scenarios in international business, where employees and managers from different parts of the world experienced difficulty in communicating with one another. This is phenomenon is becoming increasingly common in our globalized world, and firms needs to adapt effective intercultural communication strategies in order to maximize the effectiveness of communication within the company between agents of different cultural background.
The author outlines three steps, being "to diagnose the challenges you face," "to adapt your behavior to reduce your distress" and…
Lauring, J. (2011). Intercultural organizational communication: The social organizing of interaction in international encounters. Journal of Business Communication. Vol. 48 (3) 231-255.
Molinsky, A. (2012). 3 skills every 21st century manager needs. Harvard Business Review. Jan-Feb 2012. 139-144.
Yu, H. (2012). Intercultural competence in technical communication: A working definition and review of assessment methods. Technical Communication Quarterly. Vol. 21 (2) 168-186.
As these examples convey, it is highly important that anyone who will be engaged in cross cultural communication be familiar with the nuances in behavior or even the lack of behavior of other nationalities as dictated by their cultures. In American business culture, communication tends to be more dynamic compared to the Japanese (Lee, 2). Most Americans expect a lively discussion when they are involved in negotiations. In American business culture, it is expected that there will be interruptions every now and then and it is often that a speaker's turn is stolen by another. This way of discussion is said to be rarely found in Japanese communication. What is observed is "a smooth transition of speakers is the norm, and frequent and often long periods of silence are common. The listener is expected to interpret what is unsaid" (Lee, 2).
Other difficulties in cross cultural communication are influenced by…
Blanford, Roxanne. "Cross Cultural Communication: Understanding Human Communication in the Context of Culture." Suite101.com. 25 September 2009. Web. 25 November 2009.
D'Herbais Alexis, Antoine Lacoquerie, Shi Jing, Antoine Soubigou, Romain Thibert, Vincent Lescroart, and Shijiao Li. "Negotiation with the Japanese from a Westerner Point-of-View: A Case Study of the Influence of Culture on the Negotiation Style." Intitut De Gestion De Rennes (n.d.). Web. 25 November 2009.
Graham, John. "The Japanese Negotiation Style: Characteristics of a Distinct Approach." Negotiation Journal (1993): 123-140. Print.
Ingram, Dave. "Business Culture in Japan: A primer in Japanese Business Etiquette." Suite101.com. 14 October 2009. Web. 25 November 2009
Email was found to be a key culprit in the development of cultural misunderstandings among a diverse group of online users (ainey, 2000). Stereotypes were found to interfere with online communication, and enhance the potential for cultural misunderstandings (Leidner, 1999). Navigation design, visual design, and information design had an effect on trust that varied among different cultures viewing a website (Cyr, 2008). This research suggests a need for culturally relevant web design, particularly in the area of retail sales. The buyer-seller network contains critical information that will help the consumer to establish trust with the retailer.
Hwa-Froelich & Vigil (2004) divide communication relationships into three basic types. esponsibility relationships are among those who are responsible for family members. This can be seen as a spectrum. On one end in the individual perspective and the other is the collective approach. In collective societies, directives are usually phrased as suggestions, rather than…
Awad, N. & Ragowsky, A. 2008. Establishing Trust in Electronic Commerce Through Online Word of Mouth: An Examination Across Genders, Journal of Management Information Systems. 24 (4), 101-121.
Boh, W. 2007. Mechanisms for sharing knowledge in project-based organizations, Information and Organization. 17(1), 27-58.
Borgatti, S., & Cross, R. A Relational View of Information Seeking and Learning in Social Networks. Management Science. 49 (4), 432-445.
Burn, J. & Barnett, M. 1999. Communicating for advantage in the virtual organization. IEEE Transactions on Professional Communication. 42 (4), 215-222.
In that regard, fundamentally different interactions between the genders is one element of cultural practices that differs most substantially from national culture to culture and even among individuals of different ethnic or religious backgrounds within the dominant national culture. Typically, individuals of Muslim and Jewish religious traditions (and others) avoid any incidental or polite physical contact between members of the opposite gender, even though such gestures (like handshaking) might be completely appropriate under ordinary circumstances (Moran, Harris, & Moran, 2007).
Dealing with Cultural Differences Positively:
Cultural differences have tremendous potential for creating divisiveness in the workplace where no appropriate effort is made by management to increase cultural awareness and mutual sensitivity and respect among coworkers with different cultural backgrounds and expectations. Conversely, any negative effects attributable to cultural differences can be minimized or neutralized entirely by effective approaches designed to do so (Locker, 2003; Moran, Harris, & Moran, 2007). Ideally,…
Aronson E., Wilson T., Akert R. (2003). Social Psychology. New York: Longman.
Blair G. (2003). Groups that Work. Washington, DC: IEEE Press.
Galin, A., Avraham, S. "A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Aggressiveness in the Workplace: A Comparison Between Jews and Arabs in Israel" Cross-Cultural
Research, 43(1), 30; 2009. Retrieved May 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM.com
Had this measure been implemented six months ago, after the skit, it is quite probable that before sending the puppy e-mail, Douglas L. Getter (manager of the company's European Merger and Acquisition division) would have better thought through the implications of his comment. If only for a second, had he remembered that the author of the skit had been subjected to a pay cut (even a symbolic pay cut) or that he had been forced to join sensitivity training programs, it is possible that Getter would not have even send out the e-mail and the entire situation would not have even been created in the first place.
The adoption of punishments combined with the implementation of repercussions is generally a rudimentary, but an effective means of handling organizational situations. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that the punishments must fit the crime; they must be just, well understood by the employees…
Drenth, P.J.D., Thierry, H., De Wolf, C.J., 2001, Handbook of Work and Organizational Psychology, Vol. 4, 2nd Edition, Psychology Press, ISBN 0863775276
Furnham, a., 1994, Personality at Work: The Role of Individual Difference in the Workplace, Routledge, ISBN 0415106486
LaGuardia, T.S., 2004, the Decommissioning Handbook, ASME Press, ISBN 0894480413
Miner, JB, 2006, Organizational Behavior, Vol. 2, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 0765615258
This would certainly be the case for any organization creating a virtual development team of engineers from Japan for example, which has a MAS score of 95, reporting to women in the U.S. Conversely the countries of Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands, with some of the lowest MAS scores, would find these working arrangements in a virtual team amendable and easily adapted to. Two additional measures included in the Cultural Dimensions Index, are the Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) and Long-Term Orientation (LTO). UAI is a measure of risk aversion in a culture and LTO is one that defines the perspective of time itself in a culture. Not surprisingly China leads all nations included in the index in LTO as their culture greatly values the ordering of relations and the defining of status over time.
Taken together all of these factors provide insight into how a lack of awareness or perception…
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Ross A Hammond, & Robert Axelrod. (2006). The Evolution of Ethnocentrism. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 50(6), 926-936.
Geert Hofstede. (1998). Identifying organizational subcultures: An empirical approach. The Journal of Management Studies, 35(1), 1-12.
Marques, J., Dhiman, S., & King, R. (2009). What Really Matters at Work in Turbulent Times. Business Renaissance Quarterly, 4(1), 13-29.
According to the vocabulary defined Geert Hofstede, America and Japan do not merely speak different languages; they also speak in different cultures. America is a low-context culture, which values someone who is plain-spoken. 'hat you see is what you get' is a compliment in America: according to one interview subject, Mr. B, who had done extensive travel back and forth from America to Japan on business, such an ideal is antithetical to Japan. "Japan is a much smaller nation, geographically. Respect for one another, rather than respect for the individual is emphasized in its highly interconnected, bureaucratic government and economy, and simply because people have to get along with one another -- there are few places one can get away and be alone!" He remarked that succeeding in encouraging his Japanese clients to innovate or to take a risk in business was rare, given that until recently there was a…
Geert Hofstede: Cultural dimensions -- Japan. Geert Hofstede.
October 20, 2009 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_japan.shtml
Hall, Edward Twitchell & Mildred Reed Hall. Understanding Cultural Differences: Germans,
French, and Americans, Intercultural Press, 1990.
America's geography has contributed to its value upon rugged individualism. Geographical expansion in American initially seemed limitless, when Americans were faced with the promise of prosperity in the estern territories. The availability of land in est also cemented the American ideal of working hard and the need for rugged, masculine independence. A lack of federal control, a freedom from landlords (unlike Europe, which boasted smaller amounts of land under heredity control) created a high toleration of uncertainty and a value placed upon risking everything for profit. The promise of the est made Americans even more resistant to federal control than in 1776. The architect of the Frontier Thesis Frederick Turner wrote that to understand Americans, one must understand the est: "So long as free land exists, the opportunity for a competency exists, and economic power secures political power. But the democracy born of free land, strong in selfishness and individualism,…
Geert Hofstede: Cultural dimensions -- United States. Geert Hofstede.
October 25, 2009 at http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_united_states.shtml
Interview: B. (personal friend). October 21, 2009.
Interview: S. (acquaintance). October 20, 2009.
Once an audience has been selected, one will have to find out what could motivate them to work based on their culture. For example if acquiring material wealth motivates members of a culture, one would appeal to them based on that.
In terms of setting a message strategy, managers have to determine what structure, channel and format the message will be in. With message structure managers have to discover whether the culture prefers for messages to be given directly or indirectly. With message channels managers have to discover which technologies the culture favors communicating in and whether it prefers to communicate through speaking or writing. As far as message format managers need to know what standard paper sizes and presentation layout the culture is used to.
In order to overcome language difficulties it is recommended for managers to learn the native language. If that is not possible then managers are…
Munter, M. (May/June 1993). "Cross-cultural communication for managers." Business Horizons. 36(3), 69-78.
For this reason, the Americans and Cubans probably did have to use some of the techniques proposed by Shannon and Weaver to simplify communication in order to communicate at all. Despite the fact that communication between these two groups may have been difficult, and that coming together in order to form one design project produced by such culturally diverse designers may have resulted in the portrayal of mixed messages, some theorists contend that this does not matter. Indeed, it is only the "reader's" impression upon interpreting the text that matters. In the case of O'Bryan's designers, the reader is the Toni O'Bryan, and the other founders of the project. Thus, because of this concept -- called "The Death of the Author" -- the mixed messages that the Cubans and Americans may have revealed would be overshadowed by the reader's interpretation. Thus, Bennett and Robert propose a variety of theories and…
Support for the second hypothesis, that male speakers would be perceived as less cooperative than female speakers, also varied across situations, and the effect was even smaller" (Edwards & Hamilton 2004). Support for the Tannen model only was found after additional research was done, and a new questionnaire was given that scored recipient's self-perception in terms of feminine and masculine characteristics and inculcation into traditional gender roles. Individuals with strong gender self-images were more likely to fall in line with the Tannen model of women perceiving nurturance and males perceiving conflict in relatively neutral scenarios and seeing men in general as less cooperative.
This study is provocative on several levels, not the least of which in its stress upon the individualized nature of gender norms and the lack of inherent biological tendencies towards perceiving nurturance and conflict. It suggests the need to more carefully screen subjects in terms of individualized…
Edwards, Renee & Mark a Hamilton. "You Need to Understand My Gender Role: An Empirical
Test of Tannen's Model of Gender and Communication." Sex Roles. 50.7/8 (2004):
491-504. Research Library. ProQuest. 30 Oct. 2008 http://www.proquest.com/
Oetzel, John G. & Stella Ting-Toomey. "Face concerns in interpersonal conflict."
Ocial Work Practice With Individuals: Engagement Strategies
First I need to get past Mr. Fahza's son in order to get to his father. I need the former's agreement because I need a smooth start. His son agreement would encourage a discussion under the right auspices.
According to The Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) of 1990, Mr. Fahza has the right to be informed about his own clinical condition in order to take a decision about continuing with chemotherapy or going to the hospice and die peacefully. This is the strict approach of the western hemisphere.
The religion of Islam believes in death and resurrection of the body and soul, like Christianity. Islam also teaches about how to prepare for death, when aware that death is imminent. Statistics show that a vast majority of the American male population would want to know about the eventuality of dying because of a fatal illness…
Kagawa-Singer, M., & Backhall, L. (2001). "Negotiating cross-cultural issues at end of life." Journal of American Medical Association, 286(3001), 2993-. Available at: http://ethnomed.org/clinical/end-of-life/Table2.pdf retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014
Koenig B.A., Gates-Williams J. (1995) "Understanding cultural difference in caring for dying patients." West J. Med. Sep 1995; 163(3): 244 -- 249. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1303047/?page=4
Coolen Phyllis R., DNP, MN, RN. (2012)Cultural Relevance in End-of-Life Care. EthnoMed. Available at: https://ethnomed.org/clinical/end-of-life/cultural-relevance-in-end-of-life-care
Rizvi, Sayyid Muhammad. What You Should Do Just Before Death. Islam.org. Available at: http://www.al-islam.org/articles/what-you-should-do-just-before-death-sayyid-muhammad-rizvi
Generational issues, while seemingly the obvious hindrance to a smooth flow of production, are, as Tulgan offers (198), "merely a reflection of the business issue at play - transition to the workplace of the future."
However, that said, the one pivotal / key sentence Tulgan offers, also on page 198, is very straight to the point, on the money, and a salient theme Charlie should launch in order to save his job, and the jobs of most people under his jurisdiction. "Charlie must get things back on track and restore harmony by getting people focused on mission instead of personality."
The 10 points Tulgan offers are all very cogent and wise; however, Charlie doesn't really have time to implement all those ideas. Gloria egalbuto, with Bath & Body Works, offers some common sense solutions, as do Diedra Wager, Pat Crull, and others. But Judy Corson hits the nail on the…
Zemke, Ron; & Raines, Claire; & Filipczak, Bob. Generations at Work: Managing the Clash of Veterans, Boomers, Xers, and Nexters in Your Workplace. New York:
To what extent do you think cultural beliefs, values, and traditions may impact health education efforts? Please provide examples that apply to the case studies from the video.
For first generation immigrants, I believe that the influence of cultural beliefs, traditions, and values is very strong. When dealing with complex medical issues that may not be well understood within their cultural context, it is normal coping behavior to fall back on what is familiar and what those people who are valued believe in or pressure their family members to comply with what the traditions and beliefs to which they cling. The religious belief that surgery would mutilate Justine for all eternity is a tough challenge for a medical team to address, particularly when the underlying belief is that avoiding the scarring that surgery would cause, even if it meant a shorter natural life, was the preferred choice.
Cross Cultural Leadership
Cultural Differences in Leadership
Cultural differences determine certain leadership traits and portions of our personality. It is easy to discredit the importance of cross-cultural differences and their influences on various leadership styles. Different cultures are known for certain traits. For instance, the Australian culture is known for it egalitarianism. Chinese culture is known as an authority oriented culture (Sharpe, 2007). These differences in culture result in the development of different leadership styles and traits. The following will explore the issue of cultural differences and will support the thesis that leaders from authoritarian countries have a greater power distance from their employees than do those in egalitarian cultures.
Sharpe (2007) found that the Australian culture and the Chinese culture dictated certain traits in regards to desirable leadership traits. Both the Australian and Chinese participants felt that these leadership traits were more important on the lower levels than on…
DeGrosky, M. (2011). Lost in Translation. Wildfire. Retrieved March 4,.2011 from http://wildfiremag.com/command/cultural-context-leadership-200907/
Deng, L. & Gibson, P. (2008). A Qualitative Evaluation on the Role of Cultural Intelligence in Cross-Cultural Leadership Effectiveness. The International Journal of Leadership Studies. 3 (2): 181-197.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Lewis, R. (2006). Cultural Differences in a Shrinking World: Leadership Implications. Personnel Decisions. January 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.hreonline.com/pdfs/PDIPaper.pdf
Typically, difference in expectations between Japanese and American is manifested because of the cultural variables. American believes that it is acceptable to express emotions openly. On the other hand, Japanese culture does not believe in overt expression. Japanese considers the overt expression as unacceptable, and in most cases, Japanese considers the American overt expression as a sign of aggressiveness.
Japanese considers endurance and harmony to be important. Japanese believes that individual is expected to endure hardship in fulfilling the business obligations and this is reflected in the Japanese business style. On the other hand, American believes in business deal that reflects little or no hardship. That is the reason American believes in achieving short-term and immediately goals in the business outcome. (Kumayama, 1991).
Saee (2008) discusses in how the non-verbal behavior varies between Japanese and American culture and its impact in the negotiation process. Non-verbal behaviors such as facial expression,…
Adachi, Y. (1997). Business Negotiations between the Americans and the Japanese. Global Business Languages. 2(4): 18-30. Retrieved 23 September 2012 From
Adair, W.L. (2003). Integrated Sequences and Negotiation Outcome in Same and Mixed Culture. International Journal of Conflict Management. 14 (3/4):. 273-296. Retrieved 23 September 2012 From
To deal with these difficulties, several recommendations can be formulated:
1. Cross-cultural variables: Ethnic matches should be arranged between client and therapist. These will be effective in dealing not only with communication problems, but also with cultural perceptions of the disease as well as with possible social stigmas attached to the disease. The therapist, sharing similar cultural background to the patient understands the patient's concern and speaks the patient's language therefore is more able than another to 'pull' her through.
Other recommendations include items such as that Government should allocate more funding to establishing specific mental health treatments that are run by and appeal to the various ethnic minorities. In a similar manner, government should increase their funding for research and clinical training of ethnic and racial minority members (e.g. The minority Fellowship Program and the CO). Finally, general Mental health services should incorporate cross-cultural communication variables in…
Leong, F.T.L., & Lau, A.S.L. (2001). Barriers to providing effective mental health services to Asian-Americans. Mental Health Services Research, 3, 201 -- 214.
Leong, F.T.L., & Kalibatseva, Z. (2011) Cross-cultura Barriers to mental Health services in United States. Cerebrum. The DANA Foundation. http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=31364
Cross Cultural Theories Based on Bend it Like
COSS CULTUAL THEOIES BASED ON BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM
Cross cultural theories based on bend it like Beckham
Movies are one way in which different issues such as social and cultural backgrounds of different societies are filmed to educate or enlighten the community at large on different life styles as well as cultural diversity. Different films do have different numbers of characters, who act as family members, friends, and business personnel's in order to portray to the different issues to their viewers. With the help of a team comprising of the writer, producer and the directors, the characters are able to follow instructions so as to produce a film with the required themes. Bend it like Beckham, is a comedy-drama film in which the title is derived from a famous England football player David Beckham and his ability to score from…
Bates, D.G., & Plog, F. (1976). Cultural Anthropology, 3rd Ed., New York: McGraw-Hil
Baruth, L.G., & Manning, M.L. (2003). Multicultural counseling and psychotherapy: A lifespan perspective (3rd Ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., and M.W. Feldman (1981), Cultural Transmission and Evolution.
Princeton: Princeton University Press
herefore, the standpoint of social embeddedness is a tool that offers to provide a clear picture if one wants to comprehend the contribution of the relational factors in the success of outsourced IS projects (Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009).
If one is to increase his/her comprehension and develop an insight about how to monitor and control outsourced IS projects, Johns' (2006 as cited in Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009) suggestions come in useful. He recommended that the theory be contextualized by assessing the effect of characteristics of social framework in the setting of outsourced IS projects. It should be assessed how the adopted cultural features of the project affect its success and performance.
Later, the social embeddedness standpoint needs to be contextualized to the setting of the outsourcing of IS projects and a cultural variation framework should be applied to assess mutual principles and standards for those projects that are…
Trent, R.J. And R.M. Monczka (2003). "International purchasing and global sourcing -- what are the differences?" Journal of Supply Chain Management 39(4): 26-37. Taken from: Mittal, R. (2010). CULTURAL CONGRUENCE in CROSS-BORDER ALLIANCES: A MULTI-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of Business RESEARCH, Volume 10, Number 3.
Uzzi, B. 1997. "Social Structure and Competition in Interfirm Networks: The Paradox of Embeddedness," Administrative Science Quarterly (42), pp. 35-67. Taken from: Rai, a., Maruping, L.M. And Venkatesh, V. (2009). OFFSHORE INFORMATION SYSTEMS PROJECT SUCCESS: THE ROLE of SOCIAL EMBEDDEDNESS and CULTURALCHARACTERISTICS. MIS Quarterly Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 617-641.
Werner, S. (2002). "Recent Developments in International Management Research: A Review of 20 Top Management Journals." Journal of Management 28(3): 277-305. Taken from: Mittal, R. (2010). CULTURAL CONGRUENCE in CROSS-BORDER ALLIANCES: A MULTI-LEVEL PERSPECTIVE. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of Business RESEARCH, Volume 10, Number 3.
The employee could not however wait until the launch and directly entered in conflict with the manager, accusing him of conspiring to steal the employees' hard earned wages.
3. Framing of the Conflict
Framing the conflict can be achieved from numerous standpoints, but given the characteristics of this particular conflict, the most relevant frame would be that of identity. This basically means that the two parties have different identities and the conflict could have even aroused due to their appurtenance to different groups. In this particular case then, it becomes obvious that each individual belongs to a different group, serving different interests. The head of the sales department belongs to the managerial team, and his focus falls on the company's success onto the market. This success also implies an increased cost efficiency, which, in the eyes of the employee, could explain his interest in granting lowered wages. The employee on…
Gilboa, E., 2002, Media and Conflict: Framing Issues, Making Policy, Shaping Opinions, Transnational Pub
Kaufman, S., Elliot, M., Shmueli, D., 2003, Frames, Framing and Reframing, Beyond Intractability, http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/framing/last accessed on September 15, 2008
1998, General Information About Framing, University of Colorado, http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/problem/framing.html . Ast accessed on September 15, 2008
Internal and external customers are both considered important and their needs must be anticipated and satisfied in the most suitable manner. The decisions that the executive leader makes must be based on solid information. He must be aware of the consequences of his decisions. At the same time, he must have a long-term perspective and make the best choice even if at the beginning its consequences might seem negative.
A further competency that must be taken into consideration refers to the ability to efficaciously manage strategic resources including the human ones, the financial ones and the information ones. From this point-of-view, one needs to be updated with the technological development which are relevant for his work area. In addition, he must make sure that everything from the recruitment process to the selection and rewarding of the staff members is done in the manner which best serves the organization.
Executive Competencies, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site: https://www.opm.gov/ses/ecq.asp
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Krishnan, R. (2002). Impact of gender on influence, power and authoritarianism, Women in management review, vol.17, 197-206
Leadership, Retrieved November 26, 2007 from web site: http://www.leadershiplouisville.org/programs/network
Holding my arms across my chest and pretending to shiver, she quickly nodded her head and retrieved a space heater. She "explained" to me that when I went to sleep, I had to turn it off. We were getting quite good with our nonverbal communication!
The next morning was very cold! The heater had been off for hours, and there was no hot bath. When my breakfast arrived -- cold rice, topped with a raw egg and fish with its head still on -- my grimace made the woman wrinkle her brow in concern. I apologized and took some of the rice with a smile and a "thank you" in Japanese (a couple of the words I knew.) stayed at the inn for a few days, and it became easier as we shared some words and became more comfortable with each other's actions. I know that she probably found many…
However, gender expectations of different nations can impede free and open discussion in intercultural communications, if a particular culture has yet to accept that it is appropriate for women to confidently assume positions of authority.
Although cross-cultural communication presents a challenge, globalization has made understanding the difference between high-context and low-context cultures even more vital than ever before. Implied meanings in different cultures have different levels of signification, based upon relationships. "In relationship-oriented countries like Mexico, India and China, people tend to prioritize projects based on the hierarchy of the person who owns it" in contrast to the United States, where the project itself is viewed more important than the person in charge (Frase 2007).
Much like male-female communication tropes, social expectations rather than actual message or even delivery can affect the message conveyed and impede communication. An analysis of diverse work teams at international firms by Brett et al.…
Bond, J. (2007, December). Training in a diverse environment. Canadian HR
Reporter, 20(21), 19, 26. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global
through ProQuest (Document ID: 1410548371).
Brett, Jeanne, Kristin Behfar, & Mary C. Kern. (2006, November). Managing multicultural teams. Harvard Business Review, 84(11), 84-91. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global through ProQuest (Document ID: 1151916931).
More specifically, because the potential for miscommunication, misunderstanding, and pejorative or other negative interpretations is so much greater in remote communications especially through email (SHM, 2010), the implications of failure to establish trust remotely are even greater. As Yoong (2009) points out, that is largely a function of the fact that genuineness in expressions of cultural awareness and sensitivity (as opposed to patronizing or otherwise insincere) expressions is absolutely crucial.
Sincerity and genuineness are much more difficult to communicate effectively in impersonal communications media (SHM, 2010; Yoong, 2009). Therefore, appropriate expressions and other manifestations of cultural awareness and sensitivity are most appropriately communicated to virtual working groups via two-way video conferencing instead of other less personal methods of communications, notwithstanding the substantive sufficiency or factual accuracy of those expressions in writing, for example (SHM, 2010;Yoong, 2009).
This project relies primarily on a review of secondary research in the…
Douglas, C. And Zivnuska, S. "Developing trust in leaders: an antecedent of firm performance." SAM Advanced Management Journal. Society for the Advancement of Management. 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-177101798.html
George, J.M. And Jones G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Maxwell, J.C. (2007). The 21 Irrefutable Rules of Leadership. Georgia: Maxwell
There is only so far Google Translate can take a person hoping to achieve social harmony across cultures. Language barriers are enhanced, and exacerbated, by the differences in non-verbal communication across cultures. Whether for business or personal interactions, non-verbal communications characterize a culture's values and social norms. This is why places like Sweden feel completely different from places like Saudi Arabia; and places are dramatically different in terms of how the society is structured, who is in power, and what norms govern behavior. Understanding the complex facets of cross-cultural communication can greatly enhance a travel experience, or a business interaction.
Of the innumerable sociological and anthropological frameworks used to understand and explain cross-cultural differences in communication, Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions are among the most useful and well used. Power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term vs. short-term orientation, and indulgence vs. restraint are important and…
In a travel article about Stockholm, Alford (2012) relates tales that reveal the unique communication styles of Sweden. These styles can be conceptualized in terms of Hoftstede's cultural dimensions. For example, Swedish society has quite a low power distance; its culture is not hierarchical and is self-defined as being "socialist" in spirit (Alford, 2012, p. 2). Moreover, as Alford (2012) points out, most people in Stockholm also have a cabin in the woods or on an island -- highlighting the relatively flat social structure that has a low distance between haves and have-nots (p. 2). The power distance factor in Sweden can be readily compared to more hierarchical societies, such as India, in which the haves and the have-nots are separated by wide and usually insurmountable chasms. Even the United States has a higher power distance factor than does Sweden, as many Americans are fundamentally opposed to social institutions and structures that generate equality such as free higher education for all citizens, and free healthcare funded by taxpayer dollars. As American onlooker Alford (2012) describes it, " New parents get 480 days of parental leave?! Everyone I talk to seems to have a summer house on an island?!" (p. 2).
As Allwood (1999) points out, Sweden shares many communication traits in common with other Nordic countries like Finland. However, there are a few culture-specific variables that should be taken into account to better understand non-verbal communication patterns. One is specific to social gatherings in which alcohol is involved. Allwood (1999) notes that in Sweden, it is customary for each guest to bring and drink his or her own alcoholic beverages rather than expect the host to provide it. Moreover, the guests will not start drinking until a communal toast has been proposed (Allwood, 1999). This is somewhat similar to the Jamaican custom of not starting to eat at a party until the host makes an invitation to do so; which is ironic given the informal nature of Jamaican communication styles in general ("Jamaica: Language, Culture, Customs, and Etiquette," n.d.). Swedes appreciate informality, but do not appreciate superficiality in terms of conversation topics and styles ("Sweden: Conversation," 2009).
Allwood (1999) also notes that Swedish teaching styles are noticeably different from those in other cultures including other Nordic cultures. There is less authoritarian teaching styles in
2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.
An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…
references during the first half year of life: Evidence from German and French infants." Infant behavior and development 32(3), pp. 262-74.
Laroche, M.; Pons, F. & Richard, M. (2009). "The role of language in ethnic identity measurement: A multitrait-multimethod approach to construct validation." Journal of social psychology 149(4), pp. 513-40.
Nguyen, T.; Ingrahm, C. & Pensalfini, J. (2008). "Prosodic transfer in Vietnamese acquisition of English contrastive stress patterns." Journal of phonetics 36(1), pp. 158.
Turk, a. & Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. (2007). "Multiple targets of phrase-final lengthening in American English words." Journal of phonetics 35(4), pp. 445-72.
Wyatt, J. (2007). "Skinner 1, Chomsky 0." Behavior analysis digest 19(4), pp. 13-4.
Often, in fact, there can be an overabundance of communication without any effective organization or leveraging of the information thus obtained, which can lead to serious detriments to any organization or endeavor (Lager 2006). It is bad enough when one arm of an organization doesn't seem to know what the other is doing, but the problem seems somehow conceptually worse when the various arms have information regarding the rest of the organization, but don't utilize it. This is, unfortunately, partly occurring in my organization, and is also an issue I need to deal with personally as I incorporate the organization's goals and actions into my own thinking and methods.
This concept of the correct processing and utilization of information goes further than simply making the organization run more efficiently on an internal level. Especially as new regions of the world are becoming increasingly important for business, the use of communication…
Fitzgerald, Neil. (2006). "Mind the gap." Information week 28 August, pp. 8.
Friedrich, N. (2008). "Disparate solutions work to fill communications gap." Microwaves & RF 47(6), pp. 44.
Lager, M. (2006). "Overcoming a bear of a communications gap." Customer relations management 10(7), pp. 51.
In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.
Effect of Cultural Diversity on…
In "UN Summit to push for corporate green plans," Clark (2012) mentions a summit in io de Janeiro, in Brazil. In addition to the cultures represented by the host country, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and India are also mentioned in the article. Clark's (2012) article, which is published in The Financial Times, illustrates some of the challenges with cross-cultural communications and business.
In "UN Summit to Push for Corporate Green Plans," Clark (2012) refers directly to the "resistance" of countries including the United States, Canada, and India to some environmental strategies "because of fears that it will add to companies' regulatory burdens." The cultural values this represents include an economic model in which businesses operate with as little regulation on the part of government as possible. However, some businesses are on board with the environmental regulations. As Clark (2012) points out, "a group of businesses…
Clark, P. (2012). UN summit to push for corporate green plans. Financial Times. 18 June 2012.
Mander, J. (n.d.) Corporate colonialism. Retrieved online: http://theunjustmedia.com/Corporation/Articles%20on%20Corporation/Corporate%20Colonialism.htm
Impact of the Issue on the Profession of Nursing
As the patient population of America continues to become increasingly diverse, nurses will be forced to find ways to overcome the language barriers that separate them from their ability to provide optimum care. Nurses will not only need to learn how to communicate effectively with non- or limited English speakers, but will need to become comfortable with the use of interpreters.
Suggestions for Addressing the Issue
Hospitals need to devise training and development programs designed to reduce cross-cultural communication barriers. Obviously healthcare personnel cannot be expected to learn to speak every language fluently. However they need to learn the basics of the languages that they encounter most often. Hospitals also need to work more closely with interpreters and have interpreters for every language they may encounter available on-call.
The population of America is becoming increasingly diverse, with more and more…
Dressler, D. & Pils, P. (2009) A qualitative study on cross-cultural communication in post-accident in-patient rehabilitation of migrant and ethnic minority patients in Austria. Disability & Rehabilitation, 31,1181-1190
Flores, G., Milagros, A., Tomany-Korman, S.C. (2005, July/August) Limited English proficiency, primary language at home, and disparities in children's health care: how language barriers are measured matters, Public Health Reports, 120, 418-430
Hagman, L.W. (2006) Cultural self-efficacy of licensed registered nurses in New Mexico. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 13, 105-112.
Langlie J.K. (2005). Social networks, health beliefs, and preventive health behavior. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 18, 244-260.
Schwartz Values -- Conformity
Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence
Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.
Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.
Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Metropolitan University. Cited in:
Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…
Hodgetts, R., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. Retrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Management Issues Facing Australian Banks in Asia Today
Today, the Australian banking industry enjoys a high level of confidence among domestic and international investors alike, and the nation has managed to weather the fallout from the Asian financial crisis and Great ecession far better than many of its neighbors, and continues to grow economically. This economic development is due in large part to Australia's increasing commercial trade and cultural exchanges with its largest trading partner, China (Chinese economy, 2016). Not surprisingly, the Australian banking industry has taken advantage of these opportunities to establish an ever-increasing number of branches in China, which have largely experienced positive returns on their investment. Nevertheless, given the fundamental cultural differences and worldviews that exist between consumers in Australia and China, it is the argument of this paper that there are also a number of significant management issues facing Australian banks in Asia in general and…
Allen, D. E. & Powell, R. (2011, March 1). Customers and markets: Both are essential to credit-risk measurement in Australian banks. Australasian Accounting Business & Finance Journal, 5(1), 57-61.
Anbari, F. T. & Khilkhanova, E. V. (2009). Managing cross-cultural differences in projects. Orlando, FL: PMI Global Congress North America.
Australia's banking industry. (2011). Australian Trade Commission. Retrieved from http://www.austrade.gov.au/articledocuments/2792 / australias-banking-industry.pdf.aspx.
Australian banks in Asia. (n.d.).
Cross-Cultural Tourist esearch
From the onset, it would be prudent to offer a concise definition of two of the terms that will be variously used in this text, i.e. cross-cultural interactions and culture. Culture, according to Hofstede (as cited in Bowe and Martin, 2007, p. 80), is "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another." It, hence, has got to do with that cumulative deposit of roles, societal hierarchies, as well as values and beliefs adopted by a group of people over a long period of time. In that regard, therefore, cross-cultural interactions are in line with the ability of an individual or group of persons to not only form but also foster and enhance relationships with those who may not be members of their own culture. On this front, successful cross-cultural interactions are essentially based on…
Bowe, H. & Martin, K. (2007). Communication across Cultures: Mutual Understanding in a Global World. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hong, J.K. & Lee, Y. (2014). The Influence of National Culture on Customers' Cross-Buying Intentions in Asian Banking Services: Evidence from Korea and Taiwan. New York, NY: Routledge.
Mueller, B. (2008). Communicating with the Multicultural Consumer: Theoretical and Practical Perspectives. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.
Reisinger, Y. & Turner, L. (2012). Cross-Cultural Behavior in Tourism. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann.
In the contemporary, globalization continues to increase rapidly and this has given rise to diversity within organizations. This has necessitated leaders to nurture and advance a cultural mindset that permits diversity to success devoid of risking the extent of productivity and output. Devoid of this, personnel can constantly be in conflict with each other, and this can give rise to inefficiency, increase in turnover and lower performance and productivity (Gupta and Govindarajan, 2002). The purpose of this paper is to address the development and carrying out of a cultural mindset amongst a diverse global group of employees.
Integrating Varied Perspectives in Dynamic Environments to Lead Successfully in a Culturally Diverse Society
In order to become a successful leader in a culturally diverse society, it is necessary to undertake the integration of varied perspectives in dynamic settings. One of the ways is acknowledging that indeed there exist differences in perspective and…
Healthcare Service Delivery
Interpersonal communication in delivery of health communication
Interpersonal communication is the form of communication that exists between two people and it is the type of communication that is deemed universal in many measures. Interpersonal communication involves the daily exchange which could be informal or formal in nature depending on the purpose and surrounding, it can take the form of facial expression, sounds, gestures, written words, spoken words and postures (MBA Knowledge base, 2011).
Interpersonal communication, involves dissemination and reception of objective message or information between two or more people/groups with an aim of getting the desired effect on the receiving individual or groups (Ally & Bacon, 1999). Some professional however contend that for a communication to qualify to be considered interpersonal communication then the two parties involved must be at close proximity and must be familiar with each other or share something in common. The health sector…
Ally & Bacon, 1999. Interpersonal Communication: Definition of Interpersonal Communication.
Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/interpersonal/indefinition.html
Education Resources Information Center, (2008). International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ818590&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ818590
Health Promotion at EACH, (2014). Planning: Needs assessment: what issue should your program address? Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.each.com.au/health-promotion/health-promotion-at-each/what-is-health-promotion/planning/
The impact of technology and the increase of international travel and exploration, the global environment has provided a landscape that depends on the knowledge of other culture. The differences among the human race are everywhere and the denotation of such individualities create challenges for those wishing to attain a successful career based in international exposure.
The purpose of this essay is to explore various themes and ideas that relate to cross-cultural management theory applied in a practical and pragmatic manner. This essay aims to answer the following question:
Which international skills, knowledge, behaviours and experiences will be advantageous in the development of my future career?
My future career selection is not quite clear at this time but I have narrowed it down to becoming involved in hotel management in Central America. This essay will first examine the basics of culture to help give a theoretical background to my…
Branine, M. (2011). Managing across cultures: Concepts, policies and practices. Sage.
Crowne, K.A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence?. Business Horizons,51(5), 391-399.
De Bono, S., & Van Der Heijden, B. (2011). Managing cultural diversity. Meyer & Meyer Verlag.
Duncan, T. (2005). Current issues in the global hospitality industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(4), 359-366.
Cross Cultural Interaction etween Corporations
As per CEO of Finisar, Jerry Rawls, 'Culture eats strategy for breakfast'.
During a panel discussion revolving around authentic leadership, Jerry Rawls said this famous line to signify the influence culture can have on best of strategic plans which companies fail to oversee and implement at around 70% of the time (Charan & Colvin, 1999). All small, medium and large enterprises are held responsible for this strategic implementation failure as global trends affects business strategy increasingly. The leaders need to assess the challenges arising whilst working in a worldwide marketplace relying on information, goods and services changing borders quickly which have transformed the landscape for competitive edge for most companies (Clapp-Smith, 2009)
In this modern era, communication takes place regularly between international suppliers, consumers, moderators and workers in a real time or a virtual time environment. The changes coming with globalization had compelled organization's top…
Barmeyer, C., & Mayrhofer, U. (2008). The contribution of intercultural management to the success of international mergers and acquisitions: An analysis of the EADS group. Elsevier, 28-38. Retrieved from: http://www.phil.uni-passau.de/fileadmin/group_upload/54/Zeitungsartikel_pdf/78.EADSBarmeyerMayrhofer.pdf
Bovee, C.L., & Thill, J.V. (2010). Business communication today (10th ed.). Boston: Prentice Hall.
Clapp-Smith, R. (2009). Global Mindset Development During Cultural Transitions. Nebaska: College of Business Administration. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=businessdiss
Charan, R., & Colvin, G. (1999, June 21, 1999). Why CEOs Fail. Fortune.
Management STYLE IN THE United States
Cultural Values and Business
Theory X vs. Theory Y
Management the High Tech Way
Management STYLE IN THE DOMINICAN EPUBLIC
CULTUAL VALUES AND Business
ole of Entrepreneurship
In the United States, management values, beliefs and attitudes have undergone a gradual shift away from the simplistic stance of planning, organizing and directing. Valuable managerial skills, no matter what culture is being considered, have traditionally been masculine skills, highlighting the dominant, assertive, and decisive elements of management behavior and downplaying the team and supportive aspects that are more readily identified with women. This traditional view is now giving way in the United States to an approach where team behaviour is seen as increasingly important to a truly successful management style.
The global leadership skills of the future will evolve from a combination of individual/group and masculine/feminine traits involving strategic thinking and communication skills. The final result…
Arnold, D.J. & Quelch, J.A. (1998). "New strategies in emerging markets." Sloan Management Review, 40, 7-20.
Bakhtari, H. (1995). "Cultural Effects on Management Style: A Comparative Study of American and Middle Eastern Management Styles." International Studies of Management & Organization, 25(3), 97+.
Barham, K., Fraser, J. & Heath, L. (1988). Management for the future. Foundation for Management Education/Ashridge Management College.
Bennis, W., Heil, G. & Stephens, D. (2000). Douglas McGregor, revisited: Managing the human side of enterprise. New York: John Wiley.
Cross Cultural Education
The information gathered was mostly from my grandparents and my parents. From the interviews conducted, I found out that my ancestors came to the United States in 1850. The main reason why they came to the United States is due to famine. According to information obtained, at the time, Ireland was facing a severe famine, owing to upsetting crop disasters. Due to lack of food for lengthy periods, my ancestors were left with no other option but to move to the United States. However, there are quite a number of challenges they faced upon arrival. To begin with, they had no expertise and no preceding experience in becoming accustomed to a new nation. In addition, they also faced the challenge of having no cash, minimal clothes and lack of education. Another distinctive challenge that they faced upon arrival to the United States was a great…
Colin, M., O'Dea, M. (2006). The Feckin' Book of Everything Irish. New York, Barnes & Noble.
Derderian-Aghajanian, A., & Wang, C. C. (2012). How culture affects on English language learners'(ELL's) outcomes, with Chinese and Middle Eastern Immigrant Students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(5).
Frontline. (n.d). A Class Divided. PBS. Retrieved from: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/class-divided/
McDonald, K. E., Keys, C. B., & Balcazar, F. E. (2007). Disability, race/ethnicity and gender: themes of cultural oppression, acts of individual resistance. American Journal of Community Psychology, 39(1-2), 145-161.
cross-cultural values and mores to identify the author's interactions with gay, lesbian, and transgendered individuals, Latinas and individuals with disabilities. Further, this paper integrates the case study analyses provided in "Case Studies in Multicultural Counseling and Therapy" and relevant Social Justice Counseling issues to support the discussions. In addition, for each of these three cultures, a discussion concerning what factors should be kept in mind during interfaces with each so that all parties are honored to facilitate work with them as a therapist, colleague, social acquaintance, partner, and neighbor. Finally, an analysis concerning what was especially easy and fun and what was challenging to understand about these cultures given the author's unique worldview is followed by a summary of the research and important findings about these three cultures and cross-cultural values and mores in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Gay, Lesbian, and Transgendered Individuals
With growing numbers of states legalizing…
Beam, C. (2014). Is Hispanic the same thing as Latina? Slate. Retrieved from http://www.
Beecher, M.E. & Rabe, R.A. (2007, Spring). Practical guidelines for counseling students with disabilities. Journal of College Counseling, 7(1), 83-87.
Bess, J.A. & Stabb, S.D. (2009, July). The experiences of transgendered persons in psychotherapy: Voices and recommendations. Journal of Mental Health Counseling,
Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.
When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…
Cannon, E.P. (2008). "Promoting moral reasoning and multicultural competence during internship." Journal of Moral Education, 37(4), 503-518.
Crethar, Hugh C. And Ratts, Manivong J. (2008). "Why Social Justice is a Counseling Concern?"
Gilbert, Jane. (2002). "Cross-cultural issues in counseling skillstraining: lessons from Lesotho."
Journal of Social Development in Africa. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Communication theory is described as any systematic explanations of the nature of the communication process. It's important for businesses and organizations to understand communication theory because they can't accomplish their objectives and goals without effective communication between workers. Since it focuses on analyzing the processes with which information is transmitted from the sender to the receiver, communication theory also focuses on the various ways with which information is transferred from one medium to another.
Generally, communication is regarded as the magical factor that can guarantee a happy long-term relationship and organization success (Dainton, 2004). It's an important factor within the Navy, particularly in the Casualty Assistance Calls section since this section deals with helping sailors who have suffered a casualty. Therefore, it's important for the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer to possess effective communication skills because his/her main duty is to provide information, resources, and assistance in the event of a…
Brown, J.M. (n.d.). How Can Cultural Differences Affect Business Communication? Retrieved
December 20, 2011, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/can-cultural-differences-affect-business-communication-5093.html
Dainton. (2004, September 16). Introduction to Communication Theory. Retrieved December
20, 2011, from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4983_Dainton_Chapter_1.pdf
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…
Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf
Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading
Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf
Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.
I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.
18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?
The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…
Australian Indigenous HealthInfo.net (2008). Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/
Department of Education and Training (2005). "Racism No Way." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/cultural/
Indigenous Peoples of Australia: Health." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.ldb.org/oz_h.htm
esearch also helps in planning marketing programs through helping to identify new opportunities and thus to evaluate the potential for a new idea and also to identify the areas where the marketing efforts will be concentrated KnowThis LLC, 2012()
esearch also helps to minimize risks. By the marketing managers being able to plan the marketing efforts effectively and they can then identify what is required and to ensure that the development of the programs is highly focused towards the demand in the market. Market research also helps to create benchmarks and to measure progress. Early research helps to highlight any major gaps in the marketing plan which need to be bridged and regular market research helps to show if there are any improvements in sales being brought about by the marketing efforts.
Segmentation and the marketing mix
Segmentation helps greatly in customer retention and acquisition of new clientele. This is…
Cherian, M., Flores, M., & Srinivasan, G. (2008). Critical Success Factors to Collaborate in Cross Border Alliances: Experiences of Indian Manufacturing Enterprises. Paper presented at the SMF conference, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur.
Horn, L.P. (2011). Online Marketing Strategies for Reaching Today's Teens. [Article]. Young Adult Library Services, 9(2), 24-27.
KnowThis LLC. (2012). Marketing Research Retrieved May 20th, 2012, from http://www.knowthis.com/principles-of-marketing-tutorials/marketing-research/examples-of-research-in-marketing/
Kotler, P., & Keller, K.L. (2012). Marketing Management, Thirteenth Edition. New York, NY: Prentice Hall.
The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.
In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…
Devine, P. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 56 (1) 5-18.
Geert Hofstede.com (2012). National culture. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved May 7, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com
Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 14 (Fall 1983) 75-89.
Mallol, C., Holtom, B. & Lee, T. (2007). Job embeddedness in a culturally diverse environment. Journal of Business Psychology. Vol. 22, 35-44.
Particularly in the conflict between Gerstner and the IBM head in Europe, conflicts arise because of the different culture that Americans and Europeans have. There are several assumptions that can be considered to deduce why conflicts arise between Gerstner and IBM head in Europe. First, the action of directly sending emails to European employees may be offending to the head of IBM Europe. It may be a culture to Europeans to show respect to the organization heads by communicating with them first before any other employees. Second, it can also be assumed that the action committed by Gerstner may just really be a normal procedure to the culture he was brought in. That is, that his business culture is to be straight and direct to the point and that he did not really intend any harm to the IBM head in Europe. Thirdly, based on several researches on the European…
The Pitfalls of Cross-Cultural Business, in Risk Management, March 2004, Volume 51, Pages: 38-43, by Jared Wade
Business: A hyper market, The Economist, London, April7, 2001
Shah, Satish. Who Says Elephants Can't Dance. http://www.chally.com/enews/issue10/elephants.html
As the saying goes, 'two heads are better than one' so teams working together can find solutions better than a person working alone. Collective wisdom is important in business and as such, given the diversity in the workforce, professionals are required to be adaptable and willing to evaluate the way they conduct business. According to the Anti-Defamation League diversity has a direct impact on the marketplace, talent, and organizational effectiveness.
Moreover, according to them, when companies value diversity and effectively manage it, they can build better relationships, improve decision-making, stimulate effective team building, expand the ability to change problems into opportunities, provide employees with skills that promote organizational effectiveness, increase employee initiative, camaraderie and morale, and reduce conflict among many other benefits. In today's economy, successful organizations "recognize that managing diversity is an opportunity to increase productivity and create effective business strategies." (Anti-Defamation League, 2003).
Anti-Defamation League. (2003).…
Anti-Defamation League. (2003). The Business Case for Diversity. Retrieved from http://www.adl.org/education/edu_awod/anti-Bias_in_workplace.pdf
Kelly, E., Young, A., Clark, L. (1993). Sex Stereotyping in the Workplace: A Manager's Guide -- Women in Business. Business Horizons, March-April. Retrieved from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1038/is_n2_v36/ai_13815063/?tag=content;col1
Taggart, A. (2007). Beyond Diversity: Becoming a Culturally Competent Organization. Ivey Business Journal, September-October. Retrieved from http://www.iveybusinessjournal.com/article.asp?intArticle_ID=712
Workman, D. (2008). International Trade Communication: Smart Business Negotiators Adapt to Audience Cultural Styles. Retrieved from http://internationalbusiness.suite101.com/article.cfm/international_trade_communication
Plan of Action to Build Trust: Introduction
The Waasa-Inaabidaa people are the original inhabitants of the Great Lakes region. European settlement in the Great Lakes regions including Wisconsin and Minnesota dramatically transformed the relationships between Waasa-Inaabidaa and each other, and between Waasa-Inaabidaa and their geo-spatial territory. Over a century of conflict and mistrust characterizes the relationship between the aboriginal people and the newer inhabitants of the area, who now claim control over political, economic, and social systems. Therefore, it is important to develop a culturally conscious and culturally competent plan of action to build trust in this diverse community.
Plan for Professional Development (Session)
A professional development session should ideally take place over the course of a month. All teachers need to first view themselves as “agents of change,” who act in “cooperation with community,” (Ahuja, 2015, p. 11). As such, the professional development plan should be focused on…
Unlike the culture of my interviewee, African-American isn't really broken into subgroups. I was born and raised in Buffalo, New York, which is very close to the Canadian Border and the "U.S. Peace Bridge." I grew up speaking English, and it is the only language I speak.
My religion is not typical of most African-Americans, who tend to be Baptist, Methodist, or Lutheran. I was raised as a Catholic and still practice that religion today. I'm not the only African-American I know who is Catholic, but it's not common in my subculture.
Like my interviewee, I think the media is generally doing a good job of representing African-Americans in the media. However, I still see instances when African-Americans seem to be portrayed as being ruthless and slovenly, which in my opinion makes all African-Americans appear to be the same way (association assimilation).
I believe that all cultures have something that…
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…
Brittan, S. (1996, June 6). Keynes and globalization. Financial Times, p. 12.
Hofstede, G. & McRae, R.R. (2004). Personality and Culture Revisited: Linking Traits and Dimensions of Culture. Cross Cultural Research, vol. 38(1), pp. 52-88.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture Consequences, 2nd ed. London: Sage.
Hofstede, G. (1984). Cultural Dimensions in Management and Planning. Asia Pacific Journal, pp.84-99.
TASTES & COMMUNICATION
On a recent trip to India, Mr. Yang, a prominent Chinese executive, dined with his client Himanshu Jain. Mr. Yang commented that the food was spicy, which Mr. Jain interpreted as an opportunity to discuss Indian cuisine. After lengthy explanations, Mr. Yang commented again that the food was spicy. What happened? What barrier is likely getting in the way of clear communication and how could this barrier have been overcome?
This situation exemplifies a breakdown in crosscultural communication. There could have been several factors that contributed to their miscommunication. Language is likely a prominent factor in why they had a problem. Certainly, they must share some common language in order that they conduct business together, but because this cultural conundrum stems from a linguistic misfire, language barriers are a good place to start. There also seems to be some contextual confusion. Yang perceived his comment…
Rentz, L.F. (2008). Chapter 16 -- Techniques of Cross-Cultural Communication. Business Communication: Making Connections in a Digital World, 11th Edition. The McGraw-Hill Companies.
The Japanese man may fail to make eye contact, mumble his responses, and stand far away from his negotiating opposite, while, in frustration with this apparent diffidence, the Lebanese man may raise his voice, lean across the table, nod vigorously, do anything to raise the energy level of the room, potentially intimidate his opponent, but simply look weak because of his force and high level of animation. The plethora of courses in cross cultural communications show there is a need for future original study and analysis in this area, but it is an area that has not been addressed, except in passing, or in brackets, as of yet.
Describe what you envision as your own contributions to knowledge in these areas.
The use of body language, I believe, must be studied more not only in terms of how it is deployed, but also the question of how mutable it is,…
Furthermore it has become critically necessary to be equipped technologically in handling today's increased IT demands for business communication.
Video Conferencing (2006) GlobalMedia. Online available at: www.globalmedia.com.
Hart, Amy (2001) Global Communication Warming - The CEO Refresher. Online available at http://www.refresher.com/!warming.html.
Martin, Jeannet S. And Chaney, Lillian H. (2006) Global usiness Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs. Online available at http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/greenwood.jsp?doi=10.1336/0275988155.
Global usiness Support: Creating the Infrastructure for International usiness Communication (2006) Nova's Communication-ased usiness Activities. Online available at http://www.nova.ne.jp/english/corporation/02jigyo/jigyou_business.html.
Jarvenpaa, Sirkka L. And Leidner, Dorothy E. (1998) Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams - JCMC 3 (4) June 1998. Online available at http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol3/issue4/jarvenpaa.html
Global Alliance Joins the Organization of the World Congress on Communication for Development (2006) Global Alliance 5 July 2006 Online available at http://www.globalpr.org/news/industry_news_direct.asp?v1=86
usiness Communications Applications on Any Network (2005) Avaya White Paper May 2005.
Avaya White Paper, "New Era of Intelligent…
Video Conferencing (2006) GlobalMedia. Online available at: www.globalmedia.com.
Hart, Amy (2001) Global Communication Warming - The CEO Refresher. Online available at http://www.refresher.com/!warming.html.
Martin, Jeannet S. And Chaney, Lillian H. (2006) Global Business Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs. Online available at http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/greenwood.jsp?doi=10.1336/0275988155.
Global Business Support: Creating the Infrastructure for International Business Communication (2006) Nova's Communication-Based Business Activities. Online available at http://www.nova.ne.jp/english/corporation/02jigyo/jigyou_business.html.
d.). For example, in the U.S., decisions are frequently delegated, that is, an official assigns responsibility for a particular matter to a subordinate. In many European nations, like Germany, there is a strong value placed on holding decision-making responsibilities oneself. When decisions are made by groups of people, majority rule is a common approach in the U.S. while in Germany consensus is the preferred mode. One should be conscious that peoples' expectations about their own part in shaping a resolution may be influenced by their cultural orientation (Spang & Ozcan, 2009).
The fifth difference is in attitudes toward disclosure. In some cultures, it is not fitting to be forthright about emotions, about the reasons behind a disagreement or a mix-up, or about personal information. When one is involved in a dialogue or when they are working with others or when they are dealing with a conflict, they should be mindful…
Global Perspectives on Leadership
Working with individuals from Latin America requires significant consideration of various factors that influence the relationship and the realization of a shared organizational objective. Firstly, taking into consideration the cross-cultural communication that will dominate the interaction with individuals from this culture is imperative. The fact that cultural differences exist translate to the communication breakdown that should be managed by the leader of an organization. Developing a culture-sensitive environment will help eliminate such barriers. The leader should also consider the context and content of understanding business setup when working with individuals with Latin America culture. Textual analysis shows that Latin business culture focuses on the broad aspects of the organizational relationship, social approaches, and broad circumstances influencing the business (Moran, 2011, p. 215).
However, the culture of other states such as the U.S. places a strong emphasis on the communication content. The content of focus includes facts,…
Moran, Robert T. Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success (8th Edition).: Routledge, . (2011). Print
culture on communication. Then explain two ways misunderstandings might occur among cultures with different communication styles. Finally, propose two solutions to enhance cross-cultural communication.
ommunication: The influence of culture on communication
Although the urge to communicate using a common language may seem to be a universal impulse, the ways in which communication takes place is highly dependent upon an individual's cultural context. For example, within an Asian cultural context, the level of hierarchy, social distance, and expectation of obedience is different between parents and children than in a Westernized cultural context. This can often cause conflict for Asian adolescents reared in the United States who are still 'acculturated' to Asian norms by first-generation parents at home (Rhee, hang & Rhee 2003: 750). While the relationship of a child to a parent exists in all cultures, the expectations attached to that relationship are far from universal in nature and scope. Acculturation…
Communication (both verbal and non-verbal) is key to understanding a culture. Language, gestures, expressions, and other symbols for interaction, help to explain the differences between cultures and help one understand the attitudes, values, and beliefs of a certain culture. Language, including each word, utterance, and distance between conversations, are all influenced by culture.
Language and culture are closely intertwined. Language affects culture while culture affects language. Cross-cultural research has examined miscommunication and why it happens. Two umbrella explanations for miscommunication are via the interpersonal underpinnings of politeness and indirectness (Fiske, Gilbert, & Lindzey, 2001). Scollon and Scollon (1981) found that Athabaskans (indigenous peoples of North America-Alaska), " tend to assume greater distance when interacting with unacquainted individuals than do English-speaking Americans" (Fiske, Gilbert, & Lindzey, p. 1402, 2001). Thus, Athabaskans prefer more distance and more negative politeness strategies while Americans refer more positive approach-based politeness strategies. This could result in a misunderstanding when group members interact. Another communication difference ties more specifically into language. Speakers of English tend to refer to themselves via pronouns when reporting their actions (i.e. "I went to the store") while speaks of other languages (namely Japanese) often do not do this at all (i.e. "Went to the store"). Using pronouns is a linguistic practice that tends to be used in more individualistic cultures like America, where the emphasis is on the person. Conversely, not using pronouns is related to more collectivistic cultures where the target of the sentence is decontextualized (Kashima & Kashima, 2003). Related to this is another cross-cultural difference of linguistic abstractness. South Korean speakers are more likely to use verbs when they speak whereas English speakers are more likely to use adjectives, to describe a variety of social objects (Kashima, Kashima, Kim, and Gelfand, 2006). There are many other cross-cultural differences in communication that may or may affect the way we understand others.
Enhancing cross-cultural communication requires understanding a culture's background, roots, traditions, and values, amongst other factors. Knowing whether a culture is individualistic or collectivistic is hugely significant, and would really explain the differences between at least the two examples seen here. Studying the social construction of meaning to a culture requires a lot of work, but allows us to understanding a culture's language and means of communicating, at least verbally. Knowledge of expressions and gestures and other kinesics of a culture can help to understand the nonverbal communication produced by a culture. There is no other ways to decreasing misunderstandings without knowledge of the origin of the misunderstanding itself. This requires complete comprehension of the culture in all its facets. Without that ability, one will struggle to understand and accept the verbal and nonverbal communication styles used by different groups of people. If you don't grow up with it, it is foreign to you and can often seem negative, or wrong. However if looked at from the other lens, the other group feels
business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…
Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.
Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/india.htm
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
High and Low Context Communication
In low and high context cultures, the style of communication is regulated by the proximity of bonding between societal members, powerful behavioral norms, and degree of social hierarchy structuring. In high context communication, the information is typically embedded with internal meaning; hence, everything is not articulated in speech or writing clearly. The recipient of information is supposed to look for implied meaning in the message communicated, and grasp the unsaid part of the message, using their background knowledge. Hall (1976, 91), emphasizes such percept stating that high-context messages/communication are characterized by a majority of information being internalized in whichever individual receives the message or being present in the physical form of the communication -- the coded, transmitted, or clearly-stated message components contain very little information.
This paper's aim is critically analyzing low/high context communication taking place between an individual whose native tongue is…
Adler, N. S. (1997). International dimensions of organizational behaviour. Cincinnati: South-Western College Publishing.
Hall, E. (1976). Beyond culture. New York: Doubleday.
Holliday, A., Hyde, M. and Kullman, J. (2010). Intercultural Communication. An advanced resource book for students. New York: Routledge.
Varnum, M.E.W., Grossman, I., Kitayama, S. & Nisbett, R.E. (2010), The origin of cultural differences in cognition: The social orientation hypothesis. Psychological Science, 19, 9-13.