With increased competition being witnessed in many industries, Multinational companies are setting shop to new foreign markets as a way of increasing their profitability and remaining competitive. Many countries have liberalized their markets, and present advancement in technologies has made it easy for companies to open new branches in foreign markets. However, this also comes with it challenges, particularly relating to cross-cultural communication. Effective cross-cultural communication is very important to the organization that some scholars such as Levitt (1983) argue that it can determine the success or failure of a foreign business in the local market. It is against such statements that this paper examines the factors that impact cross-cultural communication at the workplace.
The paper will particularly aim at answering the following four questions; what is communication? What does it look like? What is the purpose of communication within organizations? And, what factors can negatively impact effective…… [Read More]
The online library has nothing that matches a full-text search for "intercultural communication" or "cross-cultural communication" for the last 60 days. So the article used was Three Skills every 21st century manager needs, by Andrew Molinsky, published in the Harvard Business Review. The HBR is not a journal article but is a highly-respected article from business professors that is read by practitioners and academics alike.
The article outlines common scenarios in international business, where employees and managers from different parts of the world experienced difficulty in communicating with one another. This is phenomenon is becoming increasingly common in our globalized world, and firms needs to adapt effective intercultural communication strategies in order to maximize the effectiveness of communication within the company between agents of different cultural background.
The author outlines three steps, being "to diagnose the challenges you face," "to adapt your behavior to reduce your distress" and…… [Read More]
As these examples convey, it is highly important that anyone who will be engaged in cross cultural communication be familiar with the nuances in behavior or even the lack of behavior of other nationalities as dictated by their cultures. In American business culture, communication tends to be more dynamic compared to the Japanese (Lee, 2). Most Americans expect a lively discussion when they are involved in negotiations. In American business culture, it is expected that there will be interruptions every now and then and it is often that a speaker's turn is stolen by another. This way of discussion is said to be rarely found in Japanese communication. What is observed is "a smooth transition of speakers is the norm, and frequent and often long periods of silence are common. The listener is expected to interpret what is unsaid" (Lee, 2).
Other difficulties in cross cultural communication are influenced by…… [Read More]
Email was found to be a key culprit in the development of cultural misunderstandings among a diverse group of online users (ainey, 2000). Stereotypes were found to interfere with online communication, and enhance the potential for cultural misunderstandings (Leidner, 1999). Navigation design, visual design, and information design had an effect on trust that varied among different cultures viewing a website (Cyr, 2008). This research suggests a need for culturally relevant web design, particularly in the area of retail sales. The buyer-seller network contains critical information that will help the consumer to establish trust with the retailer.
Hwa-Froelich & Vigil (2004) divide communication relationships into three basic types. esponsibility relationships are among those who are responsible for family members. This can be seen as a spectrum. On one end in the individual perspective and the other is the collective approach. In collective societies, directives are usually phrased as suggestions, rather than…… [Read More]
In that regard, fundamentally different interactions between the genders is one element of cultural practices that differs most substantially from national culture to culture and even among individuals of different ethnic or religious backgrounds within the dominant national culture. Typically, individuals of Muslim and Jewish religious traditions (and others) avoid any incidental or polite physical contact between members of the opposite gender, even though such gestures (like handshaking) might be completely appropriate under ordinary circumstances (Moran, Harris, & Moran, 2007).
Dealing with Cultural Differences Positively:
Cultural differences have tremendous potential for creating divisiveness in the workplace where no appropriate effort is made by management to increase cultural awareness and mutual sensitivity and respect among coworkers with different cultural backgrounds and expectations. Conversely, any negative effects attributable to cultural differences can be minimized or neutralized entirely by effective approaches designed to do so (Locker, 2003; Moran, Harris, & Moran, 2007). Ideally,…… [Read More]
Had this measure been implemented six months ago, after the skit, it is quite probable that before sending the puppy e-mail, Douglas L. Getter (manager of the company's European Merger and Acquisition division) would have better thought through the implications of his comment. If only for a second, had he remembered that the author of the skit had been subjected to a pay cut (even a symbolic pay cut) or that he had been forced to join sensitivity training programs, it is possible that Getter would not have even send out the e-mail and the entire situation would not have even been created in the first place.
The adoption of punishments combined with the implementation of repercussions is generally a rudimentary, but an effective means of handling organizational situations. Nevertheless, it must be remembered that the punishments must fit the crime; they must be just, well understood by the employees…… [Read More]
This would certainly be the case for any organization creating a virtual development team of engineers from Japan for example, which has a MAS score of 95, reporting to women in the U.S. Conversely the countries of Norway, Sweden and the Netherlands, with some of the lowest MAS scores, would find these working arrangements in a virtual team amendable and easily adapted to. Two additional measures included in the Cultural Dimensions Index, are the Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UAI) and Long-Term Orientation (LTO). UAI is a measure of risk aversion in a culture and LTO is one that defines the perspective of time itself in a culture. Not surprisingly China leads all nations included in the index in LTO as their culture greatly values the ordering of relations and the defining of status over time.
Taken together all of these factors provide insight into how a lack of awareness or perception…… [Read More]
According to the vocabulary defined Geert Hofstede, America and Japan do not merely speak different languages; they also speak in different cultures. America is a low-context culture, which values someone who is plain-spoken. 'hat you see is what you get' is a compliment in America: according to one interview subject, Mr. B, who had done extensive travel back and forth from America to Japan on business, such an ideal is antithetical to Japan. "Japan is a much smaller nation, geographically. Respect for one another, rather than respect for the individual is emphasized in its highly interconnected, bureaucratic government and economy, and simply because people have to get along with one another -- there are few places one can get away and be alone!" He remarked that succeeding in encouraging his Japanese clients to innovate or to take a risk in business was rare, given that until recently there was a…… [Read More]
America's geography has contributed to its value upon rugged individualism. Geographical expansion in American initially seemed limitless, when Americans were faced with the promise of prosperity in the estern territories. The availability of land in est also cemented the American ideal of working hard and the need for rugged, masculine independence. A lack of federal control, a freedom from landlords (unlike Europe, which boasted smaller amounts of land under heredity control) created a high toleration of uncertainty and a value placed upon risking everything for profit. The promise of the est made Americans even more resistant to federal control than in 1776. The architect of the Frontier Thesis Frederick Turner wrote that to understand Americans, one must understand the est: "So long as free land exists, the opportunity for a competency exists, and economic power secures political power. But the democracy born of free land, strong in selfishness and individualism,…… [Read More]
Once an audience has been selected, one will have to find out what could motivate them to work based on their culture. For example if acquiring material wealth motivates members of a culture, one would appeal to them based on that.
In terms of setting a message strategy, managers have to determine what structure, channel and format the message will be in. With message structure managers have to discover whether the culture prefers for messages to be given directly or indirectly. With message channels managers have to discover which technologies the culture favors communicating in and whether it prefers to communicate through speaking or writing. As far as message format managers need to know what standard paper sizes and presentation layout the culture is used to.
In order to overcome language difficulties it is recommended for managers to learn the native language. If that is not possible then managers are…… [Read More]
For this reason, the Americans and Cubans probably did have to use some of the techniques proposed by Shannon and Weaver to simplify communication in order to communicate at all. Despite the fact that communication between these two groups may have been difficult, and that coming together in order to form one design project produced by such culturally diverse designers may have resulted in the portrayal of mixed messages, some theorists contend that this does not matter. Indeed, it is only the "reader's" impression upon interpreting the text that matters. In the case of O'Bryan's designers, the reader is the Toni O'Bryan, and the other founders of the project. Thus, because of this concept -- called "The Death of the Author" -- the mixed messages that the Cubans and Americans may have revealed would be overshadowed by the reader's interpretation. Thus, Bennett and Robert propose a variety of theories and…… [Read More]
Support for the second hypothesis, that male speakers would be perceived as less cooperative than female speakers, also varied across situations, and the effect was even smaller" (Edwards & Hamilton 2004). Support for the Tannen model only was found after additional research was done, and a new questionnaire was given that scored recipient's self-perception in terms of feminine and masculine characteristics and inculcation into traditional gender roles. Individuals with strong gender self-images were more likely to fall in line with the Tannen model of women perceiving nurturance and males perceiving conflict in relatively neutral scenarios and seeing men in general as less cooperative.
This study is provocative on several levels, not the least of which in its stress upon the individualized nature of gender norms and the lack of inherent biological tendencies towards perceiving nurturance and conflict. It suggests the need to more carefully screen subjects in terms of individualized…… [Read More]
Ocial Work Practice With Individuals: Engagement Strategies
First I need to get past Mr. Fahza's son in order to get to his father. I need the former's agreement because I need a smooth start. His son agreement would encourage a discussion under the right auspices.
According to The Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) of 1990, Mr. Fahza has the right to be informed about his own clinical condition in order to take a decision about continuing with chemotherapy or going to the hospice and die peacefully. This is the strict approach of the western hemisphere.
The religion of Islam believes in death and resurrection of the body and soul, like Christianity. Islam also teaches about how to prepare for death, when aware that death is imminent. Statistics show that a vast majority of the American male population would want to know about the eventuality of dying because of a fatal illness…… [Read More]
Generational issues, while seemingly the obvious hindrance to a smooth flow of production, are, as Tulgan offers (198), "merely a reflection of the business issue at play - transition to the workplace of the future."
However, that said, the one pivotal / key sentence Tulgan offers, also on page 198, is very straight to the point, on the money, and a salient theme Charlie should launch in order to save his job, and the jobs of most people under his jurisdiction. "Charlie must get things back on track and restore harmony by getting people focused on mission instead of personality."
The 10 points Tulgan offers are all very cogent and wise; however, Charlie doesn't really have time to implement all those ideas. Gloria egalbuto, with Bath & Body Works, offers some common sense solutions, as do Diedra Wager, Pat Crull, and others. But Judy Corson hits the nail on the…… [Read More]
To what extent do you think cultural beliefs, values, and traditions may impact health education efforts? Please provide examples that apply to the case studies from the video.
For first generation immigrants, I believe that the influence of cultural beliefs, traditions, and values is very strong. When dealing with complex medical issues that may not be well understood within their cultural context, it is normal coping behavior to fall back on what is familiar and what those people who are valued believe in or pressure their family members to comply with what the traditions and beliefs to which they cling. The religious belief that surgery would mutilate Justine for all eternity is a tough challenge for a medical team to address, particularly when the underlying belief is that avoiding the scarring that surgery would cause, even if it meant a shorter natural life, was the preferred choice.
The…… [Read More]
Cross Cultural Leadership
Cultural Differences in Leadership
Cultural differences determine certain leadership traits and portions of our personality. It is easy to discredit the importance of cross-cultural differences and their influences on various leadership styles. Different cultures are known for certain traits. For instance, the Australian culture is known for it egalitarianism. Chinese culture is known as an authority oriented culture (Sharpe, 2007). These differences in culture result in the development of different leadership styles and traits. The following will explore the issue of cultural differences and will support the thesis that leaders from authoritarian countries have a greater power distance from their employees than do those in egalitarian cultures.
Sharpe (2007) found that the Australian culture and the Chinese culture dictated certain traits in regards to desirable leadership traits. Both the Australian and Chinese participants felt that these leadership traits were more important on the lower levels than on…… [Read More]
Typically, difference in expectations between Japanese and American is manifested because of the cultural variables. American believes that it is acceptable to express emotions openly. On the other hand, Japanese culture does not believe in overt expression. Japanese considers the overt expression as unacceptable, and in most cases, Japanese considers the American overt expression as a sign of aggressiveness.
Japanese considers endurance and harmony to be important. Japanese believes that individual is expected to endure hardship in fulfilling the business obligations and this is reflected in the Japanese business style. On the other hand, American believes in business deal that reflects little or no hardship. That is the reason American believes in achieving short-term and immediately goals in the business outcome. (Kumayama, 1991).
Saee (2008) discusses in how the non-verbal behavior varies between Japanese and American culture and its impact in the negotiation process. Non-verbal behaviors such as facial expression,…… [Read More]
To deal with these difficulties, several recommendations can be formulated:
1. Cross-cultural variables: Ethnic matches should be arranged between client and therapist. These will be effective in dealing not only with communication problems, but also with cultural perceptions of the disease as well as with possible social stigmas attached to the disease. The therapist, sharing similar cultural background to the patient understands the patient's concern and speaks the patient's language therefore is more able than another to 'pull' her through.
Other recommendations include items such as that Government should allocate more funding to establishing specific mental health treatments that are run by and appeal to the various ethnic minorities. In a similar manner, government should increase their funding for research and clinical training of ethnic and racial minority members (e.g. The minority Fellowship Program and the CO). Finally, general Mental health services should incorporate cross-cultural communication variables in…… [Read More]
Cross Cultural Theories Based on Bend it Like
COSS CULTUAL THEOIES BASED ON BEND IT LIKE BECKHAM
Cross cultural theories based on bend it like Beckham
Movies are one way in which different issues such as social and cultural backgrounds of different societies are filmed to educate or enlighten the community at large on different life styles as well as cultural diversity. Different films do have different numbers of characters, who act as family members, friends, and business personnel's in order to portray to the different issues to their viewers. With the help of a team comprising of the writer, producer and the directors, the characters are able to follow instructions so as to produce a film with the required themes. Bend it like Beckham, is a comedy-drama film in which the title is derived from a famous England football player David Beckham and his ability to score from…… [Read More]
herefore, the standpoint of social embeddedness is a tool that offers to provide a clear picture if one wants to comprehend the contribution of the relational factors in the success of outsourced IS projects (Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009).
If one is to increase his/her comprehension and develop an insight about how to monitor and control outsourced IS projects, Johns' (2006 as cited in Rai, Maruping and Venkatesh, 2009) suggestions come in useful. He recommended that the theory be contextualized by assessing the effect of characteristics of social framework in the setting of outsourced IS projects. It should be assessed how the adopted cultural features of the project affect its success and performance.
Later, the social embeddedness standpoint needs to be contextualized to the setting of the outsourcing of IS projects and a cultural variation framework should be applied to assess mutual principles and standards for those projects that are…… [Read More]
The employee could not however wait until the launch and directly entered in conflict with the manager, accusing him of conspiring to steal the employees' hard earned wages.
3. Framing of the Conflict
Framing the conflict can be achieved from numerous standpoints, but given the characteristics of this particular conflict, the most relevant frame would be that of identity. This basically means that the two parties have different identities and the conflict could have even aroused due to their appurtenance to different groups. In this particular case then, it becomes obvious that each individual belongs to a different group, serving different interests. The head of the sales department belongs to the managerial team, and his focus falls on the company's success onto the market. This success also implies an increased cost efficiency, which, in the eyes of the employee, could explain his interest in granting lowered wages. The employee on…… [Read More]
Internal and external customers are both considered important and their needs must be anticipated and satisfied in the most suitable manner. The decisions that the executive leader makes must be based on solid information. He must be aware of the consequences of his decisions. At the same time, he must have a long-term perspective and make the best choice even if at the beginning its consequences might seem negative.
A further competency that must be taken into consideration refers to the ability to efficaciously manage strategic resources including the human ones, the financial ones and the information ones. From this point-of-view, one needs to be updated with the technological development which are relevant for his work area. In addition, he must make sure that everything from the recruitment process to the selection and rewarding of the staff members is done in the manner which best serves the organization.
A leadership…… [Read More]
Holding my arms across my chest and pretending to shiver, she quickly nodded her head and retrieved a space heater. She "explained" to me that when I went to sleep, I had to turn it off. We were getting quite good with our nonverbal communication!
The next morning was very cold! The heater had been off for hours, and there was no hot bath. When my breakfast arrived -- cold rice, topped with a raw egg and fish with its head still on -- my grimace made the woman wrinkle her brow in concern. I apologized and took some of the rice with a smile and a "thank you" in Japanese (a couple of the words I knew.) stayed at the inn for a few days, and it became easier as we shared some words and became more comfortable with each other's actions. I know that she probably found many…… [Read More]
opportunities to improve the cross-cultural and cultural-awareness training at Hilton Hotels International, Inc. This study was important because Hilton Hotels compete in 78 countries across six continents and hosts guests from virtually every country in the world during a given year. In order to continue to its efforts that began in the late 1990s to rebuild its eroded brand, Hilton Hotels has sought to exceed customer expectations at every turn. To achieve this goal, the study examines how Hilton Hotels can identify existing resources and use them to their optimal effect in developing timely human resource responses to the need for cross-cultural and cultural-awareness training. To this end, Chapter One of the study introduces the company and the issues under consideration, followed by a SWOT analysis of Hilton Hotels in Chapter Two. An analysis of the world's most widely spoken languages and their impact on Hilton Hotels in Chapter Three…… [Read More]
However, gender expectations of different nations can impede free and open discussion in intercultural communications, if a particular culture has yet to accept that it is appropriate for women to confidently assume positions of authority.
Although cross-cultural communication presents a challenge, globalization has made understanding the difference between high-context and low-context cultures even more vital than ever before. Implied meanings in different cultures have different levels of signification, based upon relationships. "In relationship-oriented countries like Mexico, India and China, people tend to prioritize projects based on the hierarchy of the person who owns it" in contrast to the United States, where the project itself is viewed more important than the person in charge (Frase 2007).
Much like male-female communication tropes, social expectations rather than actual message or even delivery can affect the message conveyed and impede communication. An analysis of diverse work teams at international firms by Brett et al.…… [Read More]
More specifically, because the potential for miscommunication, misunderstanding, and pejorative or other negative interpretations is so much greater in remote communications especially through email (SHM, 2010), the implications of failure to establish trust remotely are even greater. As Yoong (2009) points out, that is largely a function of the fact that genuineness in expressions of cultural awareness and sensitivity (as opposed to patronizing or otherwise insincere) expressions is absolutely crucial.
Sincerity and genuineness are much more difficult to communicate effectively in impersonal communications media (SHM, 2010; Yoong, 2009). Therefore, appropriate expressions and other manifestations of cultural awareness and sensitivity are most appropriately communicated to virtual working groups via two-way video conferencing instead of other less personal methods of communications, notwithstanding the substantive sufficiency or factual accuracy of those expressions in writing, for example (SHM, 2010;Yoong, 2009).
This project relies primarily on a review of secondary research in the…… [Read More]
There is only so far Google Translate can take a person hoping to achieve social harmony across cultures. Language barriers are enhanced, and exacerbated, by the differences in non-verbal communication across cultures. Whether for business or personal interactions, non-verbal communications characterize a culture's values and social norms. This is why places like Sweden feel completely different from places like Saudi Arabia; and places are dramatically different in terms of how the society is structured, who is in power, and what norms govern behavior. Understanding the complex facets of cross-cultural communication can greatly enhance a travel experience, or a business interaction.
Of the innumerable sociological and anthropological frameworks used to understand and explain cross-cultural differences in communication, Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions are among the most useful and well used. Power distance, individualism vs. collectivism, masculinity vs. femininity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term vs. short-term orientation, and indulgence vs. restraint are important and…… [Read More]
2009). Othe studies had peviously concluded that English infants developed a pefeence fo tochaic wods, the dominant stess constuct of English wods, ove iambic stess pattens within the fist yea of life (Hohle et al. 2009). A compaison of Geman and Fecnh infants in fou distinct expeiments confims and even naows down the timefame in which this diffeentiation of pefeence occus, and also shows (though the Fench language expeiments) that the ability to distinguish the two opposing stess pattens does not necessaily esult in the development of pefeence, if the taget language itself lacks a dominant stess stuctue (Hohle et al. 2009). Even at six months, a specific language begins to mediate peception.
An ealie study suggests that the timing of stess and intonation pefeence development is even soone than six months. While citing evidence suggesting that language-independent phonetic contasts and melodic vaiations ae ecognized within the fist fou months…… [Read More]
Often, in fact, there can be an overabundance of communication without any effective organization or leveraging of the information thus obtained, which can lead to serious detriments to any organization or endeavor (Lager 2006). It is bad enough when one arm of an organization doesn't seem to know what the other is doing, but the problem seems somehow conceptually worse when the various arms have information regarding the rest of the organization, but don't utilize it. This is, unfortunately, partly occurring in my organization, and is also an issue I need to deal with personally as I incorporate the organization's goals and actions into my own thinking and methods.
This concept of the correct processing and utilization of information goes further than simply making the organization run more efficiently on an internal level. Especially as new regions of the world are becoming increasingly important for business, the use of communication…… [Read More]
"Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." - Dr. Geert Hofstede
After working for six years as a clinical psychologist at BM, both collecting and analyzing data from over 100,000 individuals from forty different counties, Hofstede became interested in the sociology of communication between people of different cultures. An expert, Hofstede's influential wisdom on the interactions between national cultures and organization cultures begot a model identifying five dimensions to differentiate cultures; these dimensions, particularly as they relate to strategy, team communications, influence tactics, and conflict management, are integral in analyzing the cultural communications of such vastly different states as the United Arab Emirates, Mexico, and Spain.
n his work, Gert Hofstede demonstrated that there are national and regional cultural groupings that affect the different dynamics of behavior in organizations, both corporate and civic.…… [Read More]
In a large measure, these concepts reflect the problems that have accompanied increased diversity as both a consequence and a cause of a great many social problems" (1999, p. 1). In this regard, Naylor defines culture as being "the learned way (or ways) of belief, behavior, and the products of these (both physically and socially) that is shared (at least to some degree) within human groups and serves to distinguish that culture group from another learning different beliefs and behaviors" (1999, p. 2). It is important to note as well that "cultural diversity is not restricted to particular nationalities; it includes issues of gender and individuals with disabilities" (Russell & McLean, 1999). Because there are some fundamental differences between cultural beliefs and behaviors, it is not surprising that cross-cultural differences can have a profound effect on organizational performance, and these issues are discussed further below.
Effect of Cultural Diversity on…… [Read More]
In "UN Summit to push for corporate green plans," Clark (2012) mentions a summit in io de Janeiro, in Brazil. In addition to the cultures represented by the host country, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, Denmark, and India are also mentioned in the article. Clark's (2012) article, which is published in The Financial Times, illustrates some of the challenges with cross-cultural communications and business.
In "UN Summit to Push for Corporate Green Plans," Clark (2012) refers directly to the "resistance" of countries including the United States, Canada, and India to some environmental strategies "because of fears that it will add to companies' regulatory burdens." The cultural values this represents include an economic model in which businesses operate with as little regulation on the part of government as possible. However, some businesses are on board with the environmental regulations. As Clark (2012) points out, "a group of businesses…… [Read More]
Impact of the Issue on the Profession of Nursing
As the patient population of America continues to become increasingly diverse, nurses will be forced to find ways to overcome the language barriers that separate them from their ability to provide optimum care. Nurses will not only need to learn how to communicate effectively with non- or limited English speakers, but will need to become comfortable with the use of interpreters.
Suggestions for Addressing the Issue
Hospitals need to devise training and development programs designed to reduce cross-cultural communication barriers. Obviously healthcare personnel cannot be expected to learn to speak every language fluently. However they need to learn the basics of the languages that they encounter most often. Hospitals also need to work more closely with interpreters and have interpreters for every language they may encounter available on-call.
The population of America is becoming increasingly diverse, with more and more…… [Read More]
Schwartz Values -- Conformity
Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence
Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.
Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.
Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Metropolitan University. Cited in:
Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…… [Read More]
Management Issues Facing Australian Banks in Asia Today
Today, the Australian banking industry enjoys a high level of confidence among domestic and international investors alike, and the nation has managed to weather the fallout from the Asian financial crisis and Great ecession far better than many of its neighbors, and continues to grow economically. This economic development is due in large part to Australia's increasing commercial trade and cultural exchanges with its largest trading partner, China (Chinese economy, 2016). Not surprisingly, the Australian banking industry has taken advantage of these opportunities to establish an ever-increasing number of branches in China, which have largely experienced positive returns on their investment. Nevertheless, given the fundamental cultural differences and worldviews that exist between consumers in Australia and China, it is the argument of this paper that there are also a number of significant management issues facing Australian banks in Asia in general and…… [Read More]
Cross-Cultural Tourist esearch
From the onset, it would be prudent to offer a concise definition of two of the terms that will be variously used in this text, i.e. cross-cultural interactions and culture. Culture, according to Hofstede (as cited in Bowe and Martin, 2007, p. 80), is "the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from another." It, hence, has got to do with that cumulative deposit of roles, societal hierarchies, as well as values and beliefs adopted by a group of people over a long period of time. In that regard, therefore, cross-cultural interactions are in line with the ability of an individual or group of persons to not only form but also foster and enhance relationships with those who may not be members of their own culture. On this front, successful cross-cultural interactions are essentially based on…… [Read More]
In the contemporary, globalization continues to increase rapidly and this has given rise to diversity within organizations. This has necessitated leaders to nurture and advance a cultural mindset that permits diversity to success devoid of risking the extent of productivity and output. Devoid of this, personnel can constantly be in conflict with each other, and this can give rise to inefficiency, increase in turnover and lower performance and productivity (Gupta and Govindarajan, 2002). The purpose of this paper is to address the development and carrying out of a cultural mindset amongst a diverse global group of employees.
Integrating Varied Perspectives in Dynamic Environments to Lead Successfully in a Culturally Diverse Society
In order to become a successful leader in a culturally diverse society, it is necessary to undertake the integration of varied perspectives in dynamic settings. One of the ways is acknowledging that indeed there exist differences in perspective and…… [Read More]
Healthcare Service Delivery
Interpersonal communication in delivery of health communication
Interpersonal communication is the form of communication that exists between two people and it is the type of communication that is deemed universal in many measures. Interpersonal communication involves the daily exchange which could be informal or formal in nature depending on the purpose and surrounding, it can take the form of facial expression, sounds, gestures, written words, spoken words and postures (MBA Knowledge base, 2011).
Interpersonal communication, involves dissemination and reception of objective message or information between two or more people/groups with an aim of getting the desired effect on the receiving individual or groups (Ally & Bacon, 1999). Some professional however contend that for a communication to qualify to be considered interpersonal communication then the two parties involved must be at close proximity and must be familiar with each other or share something in common. The health sector…… [Read More]
The impact of technology and the increase of international travel and exploration, the global environment has provided a landscape that depends on the knowledge of other culture. The differences among the human race are everywhere and the denotation of such individualities create challenges for those wishing to attain a successful career based in international exposure.
The purpose of this essay is to explore various themes and ideas that relate to cross-cultural management theory applied in a practical and pragmatic manner. This essay aims to answer the following question:
Which international skills, knowledge, behaviours and experiences will be advantageous in the development of my future career?
My future career selection is not quite clear at this time but I have narrowed it down to becoming involved in hotel management in Central America. This essay will first examine the basics of culture to help give a theoretical background to my…… [Read More]
Negotiating Cross-Cultural Issues at the End of Life
The clinical problem and dearth of research which led to the study was directly connected to the fact that there was a clear understanding that not enough clinicians had cultural competency, particularly with patients receiving end of life care, but there wasn't a clear sense of how to fix this. The fundamental issue at stake was how cultural competency could improve end of life care and the services which needed to be available to clinicians in order to improve healthcare delivery and patient outcomes. As the researchers assert, "Thus the risk for cross-cultural misunderstandings surrounding care at the end of life is also increasing. Studies have shown cultural differences in attitudes toward truth telling, life-prolonging technology, and decision-making styles at the end of life" (Kagawa-Singer & Blackhall, 2001). These notions illuminate clearly the need for the study and the relevancy of the…… [Read More]
Cross Cultural Interaction etween Corporations
As per CEO of Finisar, Jerry Rawls, 'Culture eats strategy for breakfast'.
During a panel discussion revolving around authentic leadership, Jerry Rawls said this famous line to signify the influence culture can have on best of strategic plans which companies fail to oversee and implement at around 70% of the time (Charan & Colvin, 1999). All small, medium and large enterprises are held responsible for this strategic implementation failure as global trends affects business strategy increasingly. The leaders need to assess the challenges arising whilst working in a worldwide marketplace relying on information, goods and services changing borders quickly which have transformed the landscape for competitive edge for most companies (Clapp-Smith, 2009)
In this modern era, communication takes place regularly between international suppliers, consumers, moderators and workers in a real time or a virtual time environment. The changes coming with globalization had compelled organization's top…… [Read More]
Management STYLE IN THE United States
Cultural Values and Business
Theory X vs. Theory Y
Management the High Tech Way
Management STYLE IN THE DOMINICAN EPUBLIC
CULTUAL VALUES AND Business
ole of Entrepreneurship
In the United States, management values, beliefs and attitudes have undergone a gradual shift away from the simplistic stance of planning, organizing and directing. Valuable managerial skills, no matter what culture is being considered, have traditionally been masculine skills, highlighting the dominant, assertive, and decisive elements of management behavior and downplaying the team and supportive aspects that are more readily identified with women. This traditional view is now giving way in the United States to an approach where team behaviour is seen as increasingly important to a truly successful management style.
The global leadership skills of the future will evolve from a combination of individual/group and masculine/feminine traits involving strategic thinking and communication skills. The final result…… [Read More]
Cross Cultural Education
The information gathered was mostly from my grandparents and my parents. From the interviews conducted, I found out that my ancestors came to the United States in 1850. The main reason why they came to the United States is due to famine. According to information obtained, at the time, Ireland was facing a severe famine, owing to upsetting crop disasters. Due to lack of food for lengthy periods, my ancestors were left with no other option but to move to the United States. However, there are quite a number of challenges they faced upon arrival. To begin with, they had no expertise and no preceding experience in becoming accustomed to a new nation. In addition, they also faced the challenge of having no cash, minimal clothes and lack of education. Another distinctive challenge that they faced upon arrival to the United States was a great…… [Read More]
cross-cultural values and mores to identify the author's interactions with gay, lesbian, and transgendered individuals, Latinas and individuals with disabilities. Further, this paper integrates the case study analyses provided in "Case Studies in Multicultural Counseling and Therapy" and relevant Social Justice Counseling issues to support the discussions. In addition, for each of these three cultures, a discussion concerning what factors should be kept in mind during interfaces with each so that all parties are honored to facilitate work with them as a therapist, colleague, social acquaintance, partner, and neighbor. Finally, an analysis concerning what was especially easy and fun and what was challenging to understand about these cultures given the author's unique worldview is followed by a summary of the research and important findings about these three cultures and cross-cultural values and mores in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Gay, Lesbian, and Transgendered Individuals
With growing numbers of states legalizing…… [Read More]
Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.
When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…… [Read More]
Communication theory is described as any systematic explanations of the nature of the communication process. It's important for businesses and organizations to understand communication theory because they can't accomplish their objectives and goals without effective communication between workers. Since it focuses on analyzing the processes with which information is transmitted from the sender to the receiver, communication theory also focuses on the various ways with which information is transferred from one medium to another.
Generally, communication is regarded as the magical factor that can guarantee a happy long-term relationship and organization success (Dainton, 2004). It's an important factor within the Navy, particularly in the Casualty Assistance Calls section since this section deals with helping sailors who have suffered a casualty. Therefore, it's important for the Casualty Assistance Calls Officer to possess effective communication skills because his/her main duty is to provide information, resources, and assistance in the event of a…… [Read More]
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…… [Read More]
17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.
I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.
18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?
The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…… [Read More]
esearch also helps in planning marketing programs through helping to identify new opportunities and thus to evaluate the potential for a new idea and also to identify the areas where the marketing efforts will be concentrated KnowThis LLC, 2012()
esearch also helps to minimize risks. By the marketing managers being able to plan the marketing efforts effectively and they can then identify what is required and to ensure that the development of the programs is highly focused towards the demand in the market. Market research also helps to create benchmarks and to measure progress. Early research helps to highlight any major gaps in the marketing plan which need to be bridged and regular market research helps to show if there are any improvements in sales being brought about by the marketing efforts.
Segmentation and the marketing mix
Segmentation helps greatly in customer retention and acquisition of new clientele. This is…… [Read More]
The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.
In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…… [Read More]
CULTURAL ISSUES in four texts
Cultural issues usually surface in a multicultural society like that of America's because co-existence of people from various different ethnic backgrounds can lead to undesired and unexpected conflicts. But these issues have also become important for those not living in a multicultural society because of the fact that world is rapidly turning into a global village. The closer the people of the world come, the more cultural issues they are likely to encounter. For this reason, it is important to study the reasons why cultural clashes take place and find out how cultural differences affect our perceptions. The authors of the texts chosen for this paper have skillfully and appropriately highlighted these issues.
Though the stories presented in these sources differ still the one thing that connects them to each other is the fact that they all revolve around cultural clashes resulting from racial, ethnic…… [Read More]
Particularly in the conflict between Gerstner and the IBM head in Europe, conflicts arise because of the different culture that Americans and Europeans have. There are several assumptions that can be considered to deduce why conflicts arise between Gerstner and IBM head in Europe. First, the action of directly sending emails to European employees may be offending to the head of IBM Europe. It may be a culture to Europeans to show respect to the organization heads by communicating with them first before any other employees. Second, it can also be assumed that the action committed by Gerstner may just really be a normal procedure to the culture he was brought in. That is, that his business culture is to be straight and direct to the point and that he did not really intend any harm to the IBM head in Europe. Thirdly, based on several researches on the European…… [Read More]
As the saying goes, 'two heads are better than one' so teams working together can find solutions better than a person working alone. Collective wisdom is important in business and as such, given the diversity in the workforce, professionals are required to be adaptable and willing to evaluate the way they conduct business. According to the Anti-Defamation League diversity has a direct impact on the marketplace, talent, and organizational effectiveness.
Moreover, according to them, when companies value diversity and effectively manage it, they can build better relationships, improve decision-making, stimulate effective team building, expand the ability to change problems into opportunities, provide employees with skills that promote organizational effectiveness, increase employee initiative, camaraderie and morale, and reduce conflict among many other benefits. In today's economy, successful organizations "recognize that managing diversity is an opportunity to increase productivity and create effective business strategies." (Anti-Defamation League, 2003).
Anti-Defamation League. (2003).…… [Read More]
Plan of Action to Build Trust: Introduction
The Waasa-Inaabidaa people are the original inhabitants of the Great Lakes region. European settlement in the Great Lakes regions including Wisconsin and Minnesota dramatically transformed the relationships between Waasa-Inaabidaa and each other, and between Waasa-Inaabidaa and their geo-spatial territory. Over a century of conflict and mistrust characterizes the relationship between the aboriginal people and the newer inhabitants of the area, who now claim control over political, economic, and social systems. Therefore, it is important to develop a culturally conscious and culturally competent plan of action to build trust in this diverse community.
Plan for Professional Development (Session)
A professional development session should ideally take place over the course of a month. All teachers need to first view themselves as “agents of change,” who act in “cooperation with community,” (Ahuja, 2015, p. 11). As such, the professional development plan should be focused on…… [Read More]
Unlike the culture of my interviewee, African-American isn't really broken into subgroups. I was born and raised in Buffalo, New York, which is very close to the Canadian Border and the "U.S. Peace Bridge." I grew up speaking English, and it is the only language I speak.
My religion is not typical of most African-Americans, who tend to be Baptist, Methodist, or Lutheran. I was raised as a Catholic and still practice that religion today. I'm not the only African-American I know who is Catholic, but it's not common in my subculture.
Like my interviewee, I think the media is generally doing a good job of representing African-Americans in the media. However, I still see instances when African-Americans seem to be portrayed as being ruthless and slovenly, which in my opinion makes all African-Americans appear to be the same way (association assimilation).
I believe that all cultures have something that…… [Read More]
The solutions are numerous and more diversified.
Knowledge is crucial for business success. There are two types of knowledge: explicit or tacit. The explicit type is easily codified, stored and transmitted to other individuals. As opposed to the former, the tacit one is embedded in people. The size of the tacit knowledge is proportional to the diversity of the workplace. Therefore, organizations face the increasing challenge today of finding ways to grasp into the pool of tacit knowledge they own in order to create competitive advantage. This is the type of knowledge to which competition doesn't have access because it's embedded in unique individuals belonging to a give organization.
Knowledge can be enhanced by the learning process. Its final objective is to be materialized into products and services. This final stage of the process refers to the innovation part. Innovations are the most important tool an organization has in hand…… [Read More]
TASTES & COMMUNICATION
On a recent trip to India, Mr. Yang, a prominent Chinese executive, dined with his client Himanshu Jain. Mr. Yang commented that the food was spicy, which Mr. Jain interpreted as an opportunity to discuss Indian cuisine. After lengthy explanations, Mr. Yang commented again that the food was spicy. What happened? What barrier is likely getting in the way of clear communication and how could this barrier have been overcome?
This situation exemplifies a breakdown in crosscultural communication. There could have been several factors that contributed to their miscommunication. Language is likely a prominent factor in why they had a problem. Certainly, they must share some common language in order that they conduct business together, but because this cultural conundrum stems from a linguistic misfire, language barriers are a good place to start. There also seems to be some contextual confusion. Yang perceived his comment…… [Read More]
Police officers interact with the public on a daily basis, requiring cross-cultural competency and communications skills. Whereas lack of awareness of cross-cultural differences may lead to conflicts and misunderstandings, cultural competency can foster harmonious relationships among multiple community stakeholders. Misunderstandings can also lead to inefficiencies in inter-agency communication, potentially complicating cases by unnecessarily diverting a case to child protective services or the courts. For police officers, cross-cultural competencies impact interactions with citizens, victims, suspects, and coworkers. Cross-cultural competency directly affects the quality of service delivery. Both police officers and civilian employees in multiple sectors need to enhance cross-cultural knowledge as part of their organization’s mission, vision, and ethical practice.
Scenario One shows how even a little police officer knowledge about traditional medicine in Asian communities could have prevented the problems in this case. Officers jumped to conclusions about the marks on the children’s bodies. While it is…… [Read More]
The Japanese man may fail to make eye contact, mumble his responses, and stand far away from his negotiating opposite, while, in frustration with this apparent diffidence, the Lebanese man may raise his voice, lean across the table, nod vigorously, do anything to raise the energy level of the room, potentially intimidate his opponent, but simply look weak because of his force and high level of animation. The plethora of courses in cross cultural communications show there is a need for future original study and analysis in this area, but it is an area that has not been addressed, except in passing, or in brackets, as of yet.
Describe what you envision as your own contributions to knowledge in these areas.
The use of body language, I believe, must be studied more not only in terms of how it is deployed, but also the question of how mutable it is,…… [Read More]
Furthermore it has become critically necessary to be equipped technologically in handling today's increased IT demands for business communication.
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Martin, Jeannet S. And Chaney, Lillian H. (2006) Global usiness Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs. Online available at http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/greenwood.jsp?doi=10.1336/0275988155.
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Jarvenpaa, Sirkka L. And Leidner, Dorothy E. (1998) Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams - JCMC 3 (4) June 1998. Online available at http://jcmc.indiana.edu/vol3/issue4/jarvenpaa.html
Global Alliance Joins the Organization of the World Congress on Communication for Development (2006) Global Alliance 5 July 2006 Online available at http://www.globalpr.org/news/industry_news_direct.asp?v1=86
usiness Communications Applications on Any Network (2005) Avaya White Paper May 2005.
Avaya White Paper, "New Era of Intelligent…… [Read More]