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Cultural Competence in Organizations
Cultural competence is the interaction of different individuals of different cultures, social and economic backgrounds, in business organizations, government agencies, non-profit organizations and human resource departments. It incorporates four essential and fundamental concepts: consciousness of perception on culture, differences attitude regarding culture, information on cultural practices and perception and skills regarding cross-culture.
Cultural competence is the interaction of different individuals of different cultures, social and economic backgrounds, in business organizations, government agencies, non-profit organizations and human resource departments. It incorporates four essential and fundamental concepts: consciousness of perception on culture, differences attitude regarding culture, information on cultural practices and perception and skills regarding cross-culture. The development of cultural competence can assist in ensuring that people of different culture can effectively interact, understand and communicate with one another.
In order to understand the concept of cultural competence, it is essential to understand the word culture. Culture…
Fernandez, J.P. (2011). Managing a Diverse Workforce. Massachusetts: D.C. Heath and Company.
Culturally competent care
Cultural competence and the Old age homes
The basic knowledge in nursing or medical studies in itself is not enough. As Watson puts it, there is need to instill the humanistic aspect into the career or the profession. Watson believes that the nurse must establish a caring relationship with patients, display unconditional acceptance of the patient with whatever condition they are in, treat patients as holistic beings, treat patients with a positive regard, promote health through knowledge and intervention treat patients with a positive regard as well as spend uninterrupted time with patients she calls "caring moments" (Vanguard Health Systems, 2011).
In order to effectively achieve and implement the ideas in Watson's theory on culturally competent care, it is important to critically look at the cultural diversity especially among the aging American population. The cultural diversity among the old is considered to be one of…
American Speech-language Hearing Association (ASHA), (2011). Culture Change in Nursing
Homes: Pioneer Network Food and Dining Clinical Standards Task Force Summary. Retrieved July 6, 2013 from http://www.asha.org/SLP/clinical/dysphagia/Culture-Change-in-Nursing-Homes/
Larry Purnell, (2005). The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. The Journal of Multicultural
Nursing and Health, 11:2 summer. Retrieved July 10, 2013 from http://midwestclinicians.org/SharedCHCPolicies/Policies_Forms/Cultural%20Competency/PURNELL%27S%20MODEL.pdf
Cultural Competence Health Practioner Assessment for Nurses
In this situation, the nurse must be very kind, gentle, and firm in emphasizing to the parents that urinating on a newborn baby is fairly harmful to the health and the life of the infant. In attempting to convey these sentiments, the nurse must essentially assume the role of a teacher. Firstly, he or she should explain that he or she realizes that in the native culture of the parents, such a practice is normal and probably a good tradition. However, the nurse must carefully explain that there are a number of noxious conditions that urine and such unclean bacteria can transmit. The nurse should also explain that newborn infants are particularly susceptible to diseases, infections, and other forms of maladies -- especially during their first several hours of life. Urinating on a newborn actually worsens, not increases, its chances for a healthy…
There are also some generalizations that do not include all, but some, Puerto ican culture: conversations are usually very interactive and full of interruptions. Interruptions mean interest in the subject discussed; silence denotes disinterest rather than paying close attention. If someone is talking to someone else and a third person joins in, the people talking are expected to stop what they are saying and acknowledge the newcomer. Also, it is rude for a man to dance too close to a woman who is not his wife or girlfriend, even if others seem to be doing it. It is considered vulgar and ostentatious to open gifts in public. Gifts are never opened in front of a group of people to avoid people comparing the merits of different gifts.
One of the main areas of differences between cultures is in nonverbal communication. If people are not aware of these differences, there can…
Brislin, R., Cushner, K., Cherrie, C. & Young, M. Intercultural interactions: A practical guide. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1986.
Galanti, Geri-Ann. The Challenge of Serving and Working with Diverse Populations in American Hospitals. (2001) Diversity Factor, 9.3: 21-26
Garrison, E., Roy, I., & Azar, V. Responding to the mental health needs of Latino children and families through school-based services. (1999). Clinical Psychology Review, 19, 199-219.
Lum, Doman (Ed). Culturally Competent Practice: A Framework for Understanding Diverse Groups and Justice Issues. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole, 2003).
Nursing, like any of the fields within the medical professions, requires a wide-ranging set of skills. Some of these can be seen as purely technical, such as knowing how to triage a patient coming into an emergency department or how to ensure that anti-infection and anti-contagion processes are being followed. In addition to these skills, nurses must also be able to connect to their patients on a personal level, helping to alleviate the stress and fear that so often accompany medical procedures. Part of this latter set of skills requires nurses to be culturally competent, a phrase that is relatively new to the profession although nurses have been aware of the importance of this perspective on an informal level for generations. The fact that it now has a name, however, is an indicator that cultural competence is now increasingly important to the profession.
I would like to begin…
Bridging the Health Care Gap through Cultural Competency Continuing Education Programs. Retrieved from http://www.thinkculturalhealth.org
Diversity in Practice: Becoming Culturally Competent. Retrieved from http://www.centre4activeliving.ca/publications/wellspring/2006/oct/oct06.pdf
University of Michigan Program For Multicultural Health. Retrieved from http://www.med.umich.edu/multicultural/ccp/tools.htm.
Cultural Competence and Ethics Community Research and Intervention Methods Before Referencing
Research methods, definitions of community, and informed consent processes are all marked by complexities in knowledge, culture, changing conditions and other factors, that present challenges to the field of community interventions and research approaches. Please discuss several of these complexities and offer a reflection on the strengths or weaknesses of various ways to deal with them.
According to Meredith Minkler, Nina allerstein, and Budd Hall's text entitled Community-Based Participatory Research for Health, research initiatives designed to promote community health must take into consideration the unique needs of the population the study is designed to address. Attempting to eradicate AIDS in a population of IV drug users may require different forms of preventative care than a gay population, for example. Ethnic groups may put up cultural barriers to talking about sexually transmitted diseases and sexuality in general that researchers may…
Beauchamp, T. And Childress, J. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics, Oxford University Press.
Minkler, M., Nina Wallerstein, & Budd Hall. (2003). Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. Josey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.
Instead, the doctor or nurse must obey the same ethical principle in all cases. They must uphold their moral duty to save the lives of all of their patients, and dispense the highest quality care they can conceivably give under the circumstances.
However, while the Kantian ethics of duty might be useful when making individual moral decisions for healthcare practitioners, the idea of utilitarianism popularized by John Stuart Mill and Jeremy entham sometimes must prevail in the system as a whole, given that health care is dispensed in a world of finite, scarce resources (Mautner, 2004). Utilitarianism stresses the utility, or usefulness of every moral action for society, not simply the individual patient. For example, although it might be optimal for the individual to receive all the possible screening tests for every conceivable medical ailment, health care insurance companies will only pay for screenings deemed to be of a great…
Beauchamp, T. And Childress. Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press,
Mautner, Thomas. "Utilitarianism." The Penguin Dictionary of Philosophy. 2004. 29 Jan 2008. http://www.utilitarianism.com/utilitarian.htm
Minkler, M. & Nina Wallerstein. Community-Based Participatory Research for Health
Josey-Bass, San Francisco, CA 2003
The web page on the website Health esources and Services Administration has its own guidelines for cultural competency on behalf of health care providers. The domain that deals specifically with the patient population at Hospice House are People with Disabilities. Those with dementia make up just such a population at the Hospice House (Hrsa.gov., 2012). This treatment of the population with its special needs would help the staff deal with the increase in the number of unusual occurrence reports that have centered on difficult
combative behavior by patients who have been recently admitted to Hospice House. Obviously, something has changed in the population regarding their special needs. In this case, special emphasis will be need to be placed upon servicing the changing needs of this population in order to deal with the spike in incidents of combative behavior between the staff and the patients. In such a case,…
Hrsa.gov. (2012). Culture, Language and Health Literacy. Available:
http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/index.html. Last accessed 25 Mar. 2012.
Purnell, L. (2002). The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence. Journal of Transcultural Nursing. 1
(3), pp. 193-196.
"Culturally different clients are clients who racial, ethnic, gender, socioeconomic, and/or religious backgrounds and/or identities are different from the healthcare professional or student…[healthcare students must learn cultural competence] so that quality outcomes indicators such as enhanced client satisfaction and positive health outcomes may be achieved." (Jeffreys, p. 24)
Nursing is definitely not the only profession demanding cultural competence; it has also become an important part of skills required of a good business manager. In fact every person who is working in a multicultural environment must know the value of cultural competence because it helps in facilitating communication and improves effectiveness. For example in an educational setting, a teacher who doesn't understand the culture of his students may find it difficult to connect with them and hence his effectiveness might decline. With a cultural competent teacher, students "feel accepted, engaged and safe…they become interested in class community and more responsive to…
M. Diane Klein and Deborah Chen (2000) Working with Children from Culturally Diverse. Delmar Cengage Learning; 1 edition (November 7, 2000)
Marianne R. Jeffreys. Teaching cultural competence in nursing and health care Springer Publishing Company; 1 edition (June 19, 2006)
Dana Haight Cattani. A Classroom of Her Own: How New Teachers Develop Instructional, Professional, and Cultural Competence. Corwin Press; 1 edition (June 15, 2002)
Lynch EW, Hanson MJ (1992)Developing Cross-Cultural Competence -- A Guide for Working with Young Children and Their Families. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Company.
" (a Manager's Guide to Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals, nd) Cultural competence is a development process as no individual "becomes culturally competent overnight or with one or two hours of training." (a Manager's Guide to Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals, nd) Cultural competence training is stated to involve "attitude changes and the examining of personal biases and stereotypes as an initial step to acquiring the skills and competencies necessary for quality cross-cultural care." (a Manager's Guide to Cultural Competence Education for Health Care Professionals, nd)
The Kaiser Family Foundation (2003) states in the work entitled: "Compendium of Cultural Competence Initiatives in Health Care" that cultural competency faces challenges which include: (1) the lack of agreement on the terms, definitions and core approaches; (2) limited research on impact and effectiveness; (3) a misperception that the activities are focused exclusively on people of color, rather than also…
Foley, R. And Wurmser, T.A. (2004) Culture Diversity/a Mobile Workforce Command Creative Leadership, New Partnerships, and Innovative Approaches to Integration. Nursing Administration Quarterly, Vol. 28 (2) April/May 2004.
Cultural Competency in Medicine (2008) American Medical Student Association. AMSA Foundation 2008.
Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care: A Position Paper of the American College of Physicians. 3 Aug 2004. Vol. 141 Issue 3. Annals of Internal Medicine. Online available at http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/full/141/3/226
Like, Robert C. (nd) Cultural Competency Training: Best and Promising Practices. Center for Healthy Families and Cultural Diversity. Department of Family Medicine UMDNJ - Robert Wood Johnson Medical School.
Cultural competence: What does this really mean to health care professionals?
Cultural Competency is a significant issue that faces health care providers today. It is important for organizations to have and utilize polices, trained and skilled employees and resources to foresee, distinguish and respond to a variety of expectations in language, cultural and religion of members and health care providers. Health literacy takes place when there is shared understanding between healthcare providers or anyone communicating health information and patients. Joint understanding is not just good medicine; it is also a right and responsibility (Health Literacy and Cultural Competency Provider Tool Kit, 2008).
Addressing disparities in health care and health results is more and more becoming a main concern on national and state levels. The Department of Health is dedicated to generating health justness and devoted to endorsing cultural competency among health care providers, to enhance affirmative results for all…
Cultural Competence. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.culturediversity.org/cultcomp.htm
Cultural Competency in Health Services and Care. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.doh.wa.gov/hsqa/professions/Publications/documents/CulturalComp.pdf
Health Literacy and Cultural Competency Provider Tool Kit. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.bcbst.com/providers/08-538CulturalCompProvToolKit.pdf
We are more than welcome to assist any client who has trouble understanding anything. However, we do not offer to meet with clients whose first language is not English to decipher communications that they might not understand. Making this effort goes a long way toward promoting client health and well being.
We do have bilingual staff but Spanish is the only language besides English that is well-represented. It would be more helpful to hire people who have some command of other languages that our clients might speak. One of the areas I believe we do well in is sensitivity to diverse views of family and health. We allow extended members of the family to visit and consult with them too. I understand that people from different cultures grieve differently, too. Finally, I would be better off reading peer-reviewed journal articles as to the most current best practices that take cultural…
Nursing: Cultural Competence, Sensitivity and Empowerment
Cultural Competence, Sensitivity and Empowerment: Nursing
The changing demographics of the modern-day multicultural world are increasingly challenging healthcare professionals to consider cultural diversity as a priority in the health sector. Being able to deliver effective care to patients from diverse backgrounds begins with understanding the values, beliefs, and customs associated with different cultures. This text summarizes the writer's experience in a Native American powwow, and explores the effect of the Native American culture on the nursing profession.
Nursing: Cultural Competence, Sensitivity and Empowerment
Diversity is a word that perhaps means something different to each and every individual (Campinha-Bacote, 2003). What is for sure, however, is that the changing demographics of the modern-day multicultural world have, and continue to challenge healthcare professionals to consider cultural diversity as a fundamental concern in the health sector. The U.S. population is projected to reach 400 million by 2050,…
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2003). Many Faces: Addressing Diversity in Healthcare. The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 8 (1), Manuscript 1. Retrieved from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/Volume82003/No1Jan2003/AddressingDiversityinHealthCare.aspx
Cooper, M. (2012, December 12). Census Officials, Citing Increasing Diversity, Say U.S. will be a Plurality Nation. The New York Times, p. A20.
Grandbois, D. M. (2012). The Impact of History and Culture on Nursing Care of Native American Elders. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 38(1), 3-5.
McCluskey, M. (2009). Indian Education for All: Your Guide to Understanding and Enjoying Powwows. Montana Office of Public Instruction. Retrieved from http://www.opi.mt.gov/Pdf/IndianEd/Resources/PowWows.pdf
The culture that I have chosen is Native Americans, which for U.S. government purposes are usually defined as Native Americans and Alaskan Natives. This is an umbrella group for all of the different tribes, and people descended from those tribes, so there can be significant cultural differences between the groups. This group often suffers from health care outcomes that are worse than those in the general population. The leading causes of morbidity/mortality among this group have been identified as motor vehicle accidents, suicide, firearms and homicide in order. While motor vehicle accidents are the highest cause among whites as well, the rate of such among Native Americans is more than double either whites or blacks. Suicide rates among Native Americans are nearly five times what they are for whites or blacks. Firearm rates are much higher than those of whites, but lower than those for blacks. The homicide…
CDC. (2003). Morbidity and Mortality weekly report. Center for Disease Control.
Guadagnolo, B., Cina, K., Helbig, P., Molloy, K., Reiner, M., Cook, E. & Petereit, D. (2009). Medical mistrust and less satisfaction with health care among Native Americans presenting for cancer treatment. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. Vol. 2009 (1) 210-226.
ACS. (2008). Native American healing. American Cancer Society. Retrieved February 26, 2015 from http://www.cancer.org/treatment/treatmentsandsideeffects/complementaryandalternativemedicine/mindbodyandspirit/native-american-healing
Standards of Care/Mental Health/Cultural Competence
EMEGING STANDADS OF CAE/MENTAL HEALTH/CULTUAL
Sometime in 1999, the Surgeon General released Mental Health: A eport of the Surgeon General. Inside this report, it acknowledged that not every Americans, particularly minorities, are getting the equal mental health treatment, a discovery that provoked the Surgeon General to give out a supplemental report on differences in mental health care for individuals of color (Donini-Lenhoff, 2006). The addition, which was available in 2001, sends out one obvious message: culture does actually count. Cultural competency is considered to be one the vital ingredients in closing the differences hole in health care. It is looked as the way patients and doctors are able to come together and then talk about health issues without cultural differences stopping the conversation, nonetheless improving it. Fairly simply, health care services that are deferential of and receptive to the health beliefs, practices and cultural and…
Choi, H.M. (2006). ETHNIC DIFFERENCES IN ADOLESCENTS' MENTAL DISTRESS, SOCIAL STRESS, AND RESOURCES. Adolescence, 41(126), 263-83.
Donini-Lenhoff, F. (2006). HEALTH: Cultural competence in the health professions; insuring a juniform standard of care. The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education, 65(45), 45.
Furler, J. & . (2012). Mental health: Cultural competence. Australian Family Physician, 39(5), 206-8.
Sawrikar, P. & . (2013). The relationship between mental health, cultural identity and cultural values in non-english speaking background (NESB) australian adolescents. Behaviour Change, 21(3), 97-113.
Ethics and Culture
Ethical and Cultural Competency
Vanaki, Z., Memarian, A. (2009). Professional ethics: beyond the clinical competency. Journal of Professional Nursing, 25 (5), 285 -- 291
The author found that the professional ethics are the core determinants to perform a better duty at the workplace. The behavior of a person at work place helps in making relationship and bonds with the team members, responsibilities, the patients, the staff and helps in better understanding of workplace strategies that are termed as professional ethics. The researchers found that the personality of a person depends a lot on the expression of compassion, love, care and attention. The survey was done on the nurses working in the hospital where they explained that despite the cultural differences, if they make a bond or a relationship of care with the patients. That helps a lot in maintaining the confidence of the patient and…
Siegel, C., Haugland, G., Rose, L.R., Reid, L., Hopper, K. (2011). Components of Cultural Competence in Three Mental Health Programs. Psychiatric services, 62 (6).
Vanaki, Z., Memarian, A. (2009). Professional ethics: beyond the clinical competency.
Journal of Professional Nursing, 25 (5), 285 -- 291
Culural Competence |
Cultural Competence in the Criminal Justice System
Culture determines people's experiences of their world. It is important in the reception and delivery of services. Cultural competence starts with knowing your cultural practices and beliefs, and recognizing the different practices and values of people from different cultures. This goes beyond speaking a different language, or just acknowledging a different group's cultural icons. Cultural competence involves changing your biases or prejudgments on a different people's cultural traditions or beliefs (Continuing Education Online, 2002-2016).
Cultural competence, therefore, can be described as a group of attitudes and behavior within a culture. These attitudes and behavior are incorporated into the methods of practice of an agency, system or its experts, and helps them work productively under cross-cultural circumstances. To successfully achieve cultural competency, knowledge about groups and individuals must be incorporated and translated into certain practices and rules applied in suitable cultural…
Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1998). Case Management for Clients With Special Needs. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from National Center for Biotechnology Information: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
Continuing Education Online. (2002-2016). Cultural Competency and Diversity. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from Continuing Education Online: http://www.getceusnow.com
Otu, N. (2015). Decoding Nonverbal Communication In Law Enforcement. Salus Journal, Issue 3, No. 2, 1-16. Retrieved from Salus Journal: http://www.salusjournal.com
Patel, S. (2016). Cultural Competency Training: Preparing Law Students for Practice in Our Multicultural World. Retrieved August 7, 2016, from UCLA Law Review: http://www.uclalawreview.org
LAY PUNELL'S MODEL FO CULTUAL COMPETENCE
It is true that sociologists and anthropologists have many definitions of culture. Purnell defines it as totality of behaviors, arts, custom, ways of life, beliefs, and values that are transmitted from one society to another. He looks at it as the product of human work that is believed to guide the way people view the world and how they make decisions. These patterns may be explicit or implicit but are learned and transmitted from family and could be shared by members of a particular culture. It could include emergent phenomena, which changes in response to the global phenomena. People learn about their culture in the family, community, school and social organizations such as the church (Purnell, 2003, p. 3).
Chose a Cultural Group That Is Different from Yours
In this case we choose Hispanic/Latino population. These are the people of Latin America, or Iberian…
Colby, S. E. (n.d.). Multicultural Food Perspectives: Strategies for Health Care Providers. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 7(1), 13-19.
Escarce, J. J., Morales, L. S., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2006). The Health Status and Health Behaviors of Hispanics. In T. M, & M. F (Eds.), Hispanics and the Future of America. Washington (DC): National Academies Press.
Nevaer, L. E. (2016). "Hispanic" versus "Latino" versus "Latin." Retrieved from Hispanic Economics: http://hispaniceconomics.com/overviewofushispanics/hispaniclatinolatin.html
Peterson-Iyer, K. (2008, July 1). Culturally competent care for latino patients: An introduction. Retrieved from http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/medical/culturally - competent-care/hispanic.html
Examples of global leadership are easily found, but it is important to make distinctions based on criteria other than fiscal gain or corporate revenue. The example of global leadership discussed in Section 2 of this paper is Dr. Paul Farmer, the founder of Partners in Health. Dr. Farmer's innovations in the global healthcare truly use Blue Ocean strategy and have altered the landscape of providing medicine to people in poverty. Farmer's primary attributes -- in addition to his extraordinary intellect -- are humility, compassion, and vision. Indeed, it is Farmer's vision and his ability to recruit followers and funds that have changed healthcare policy and practices around the world. Training executives to become competent global leaders requires a comprehensive plan such as that developed for the Global Leadership Expertise Development model. This model forms the basis for the training plan provided and recommended in this discussion.
____. (2008, May 5). Dr. Farmer's Remedy. 60 Minutes. CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/videos/dr-farmers-remedy/
Celenk, O., & Van de Vijver, F. (2011). Assessment of acculturation: Issues and overview of measures. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 8(1). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.9707 / 2307-0919.1105
Dyer, J.H., Gregersen, H.B. And Christensen, C.M. (2009) 'The innovator's DNA,' Harvard Business Review, 87 (12), December, pp.60-67 [Online]. Available from: University of Liverpool Library: http://sfxhosted.exlibrisgroup.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/lpu?title=Harvard+Business+Review&volume=87&issue=12&spage=60&date=2009 (Accessed: 22 February 2015).
Govindarajan, V. And Trimble, C. (2010) 'Stop the innovation wars,' Harvard Business Review, 88 (7/8), July/August, pp.76-83 [Online]. Available from: University of Liverpool Library: http://sfxhosted.exlibrisgroup.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/lpu?title=Harvard+Business+Review&volume=88&issue=7%2F8&spage=76&date=2010 (Accessed: 22 February 2015).
Cultural Schemata Theory:
Together with formal schemata and linguistic schemata, cultural schemata are some of the main types of schema theory, which is a hypothesis on how knowledge is gained and processed. Actually, schema is a technical word used by cognitive supporters to explain how people arrange, process, and store information in their brain. Notably, schemata focus on how people arrange information to long-term memory in relation to experiences, attitudes, values, strategies, skills, and conceptual understanding. The schema theory is founded on the belief that every act of an individual's understanding includes his/her knowledge of the world. The received knowledge is in turn organized into units that contain stores information.
Understanding Cultural Schemata Theory:
Cultural schemata is also known as abstract, story, or linguistic schema and is developed on the basis of people's basic experiences ("Schemata Theory in Learning," n.d.). Cultural schemata theory is described as the pre-existing knowledge about…
Fuhong, T. (2004, April 10). Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension. Retrieved December 5, 2011, from http://www.celea.org.cn/pastversion/lw/pdf/TanFuhong.pdf
Gilakjani, A.P. & Ahmadi, S.M. (2011. June). The Relationship between L2 Reading
Comprehension and Schema Theory: A Matter of Text Familiarity. Journal of Information and Education Technology, 1(2), pp. 142-149, Retrieved from http://www.ijiet.org/papers/24-K002.pdf
Gudykunst, W.B. (2005). Theorizing about intercultural communication. Thousand Oaks:
Cultural Competency in Nursing
The basic knowledge in nursing or medical studies needs substantial facilitation in order to be effective and appropriate towards addressing the needs and preferences of the patients. Watson notes the need to integrate humanistic aspect into the career or nursing profession. He also believes on the need for the establishment of the caring relationship between the patients and nurses thus demonstration of unconditional acceptance of the patients in any condition. Nurses should integrate holistic and positive treatment with the aim of promoting health through knowledge and interventions thus elimination of interruptions during treatments or 'caring moments'. Modern patients have diverse problems and issues because of the cultural differences, races, and ethnicity thus the need to enhance the operations of the nurses. There is need to ensure that the nurses obtain cultural competencies with the aim of enhancing their ability to address diverse issues and problems faced…
Anderson, N.L.R., Calvillo, E.R., & Fongwa, M.N. (2007). Community-based approaches to strengthen cultural competency in nursing education and practice. Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 18(1), 49S-59S.
Beach, M.C. (2005). Cultural competency: A systematic review of health care provider educational interventions. Cultural Competency, 43(4), 356-373.
Campinha-Bacote, J. (2002). The process of cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A model of care. The Journal of Transcultural Nursing, 13(3), 181-185.
Rosswurm and Larrabee, (1999). A Model for Change to Evidence-Based
cultural differences in today's world. Then explain two ways you might address those challenges in your professional life. Support your responses using current literature.
Challenges of diversity: Positives and negatives
Affirmative action embodies many of the paradoxes of the diversity of American society. On one hand, America has long proclaimed itself a land of freedom and equality. However, for many years, African-Americans and other minority groups were discriminated against, resulting in economic, educational, as well as political disenfranchisement. Affirmative action, or taking race into consideration to promote a more diverse environment in schools and in the workplace, is one way to create a fairer and more pluralistic society. It reflects the fact that persons who are privileged in America have historically come from specific races, classes, and ethnicities. However, many people believe that affirmative action's use of racial preference is, in effect, a form of discrimination itself. The courts have…
Kassin, S., Fein, S., & Markus, H.R. (2010). Social psychology. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
The Harvard Clinical and Translation Science Center (2009). Cultural Competence in Research. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from http://www.mfdp.med.harvard.edu/catalyst/publications/Cultural_Competence_Annotated_Bibliograp
Write Response to colleague's
Culture & Social Work
Regardless of the background and upbringing of an individual, there are common threads and patterns that typify everyone's life as a child and as they develop. However, there are most certainly variations when it comes to things like culture and the society that is lived within during this process. Even when speaking of a singular cultural area like a city, state or especially a nation, there will be differing norms, values and so forth based on the culture or cultures that one is exposed to and raised within. This report will look at the common Latino experience as well as a few other notable cultures and how this can affect and vary the interactions and reactions seen when it comes to social work. While trying to treat every situation with the same cultural and societal lens might seem attractive, the underlying cultures and patterns that actually…
Australia, indigenous people recognize themselves as belonging to Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander or by descent, and also identified as the same by the society. A resistance has been observed in them to access hospitals for healthcare. Therefore, healthcare professionals need to plan, implement and maintain appropriate policies for their treatment. Also, cross-cultural awareness training should be given to paediatric hospital staff. (Munns & Shields, 2013, p. 22)
How would you support ianna and her family in this situation?
The poor health status of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians is well documented, and has been the subject of official policy and program attention for many years. The mainstream health system has responded to increased funding and clear portfolio responsibility, with increasing attention to the burden of illness that Aboriginal people experience and the need for effective health care (Dwyer et al., 2014). I would thus make arrangement for proper…
Ansuya. (2012). Transcultural Nursing: Cultural Competence in Nurses. International Journal of Nursing Education, Volume 4(1), pp. 5-7.
Durey, A, Wynaden, D, Thompson, SC, Davidson, PM, Bessarab, D & Katzenellenbogen, JM. (2012). Owning Solutions: A Collaborative Model to Improve Quality in Hospital Care for Aboriginal Australians. Nursing Inquiry, Volume 19(2), pp. 144-152.
Dwyer, J, Willis, E & Kelly, J. (2014). Hospitals Caring for Rural Aboriginal Patients: Holding Response and Denial. Australian Health Review, Volume 38(5), pp. 546-551.
Kelly, J & Willis, E. (2014). Travelling to the City for Hospital Care: Access Factors in Country Aboriginal Patient Journeys. Australian Journal of Rural Health, Volume 22(3), pp. 109-113.
U.S. healthcare system built dominant European-American cultural values, beliefs, practices. These differ dominant values, beliefs, practices cultural groups Mexicans. Compare contrast values/beliefs/practices cultural group.
The first important difference is one between formalism and lack of formalism. European-American cultural values are less formal, but Mexicans will need to be addressed with Mr. / Mrs. At the first meeting. It will also be important to continue this type of address throughout the consultation. Compared to the European-American approach, the male is believed to be the head of the family and, in a traditional Mexican family, he will be the one who provides for the family, as well as the one making the final decisions. This could imply that he is the one who needs to be explained in more detail the procedures, the treatment etc.
It is also important to note the religiousness of the Mexican community, usually much more profound that…
1. http://www.aarphealthcare.com/insurance/managed-care-plans.html. Last retrieved on April 18, 2014
2. Cartwright, A., Shingles, R.R. Cultural considerations when working with Mexicans. On the Internet at http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/cultural-considerations-when-working-with-mexicans . Last retrieved on April 18, 2014
3. Betancourt, J. (2002). CULTURAL COMPETENCE IN HEALTH CARE:
EMERGING FRAMEWORKS AND PRACTICAL APPROACHES. New York.
Cultural bias implies an emphasized distinction or preferential status that indicates a predilection for one culture, over another. It is often discriminative, and is characterized by an absence of integration in a group, in terms of social principles, codes of conduct, and beliefs. Cultural partisanship introduces the accepted behaviors of one group as superior, and more valued, than those of another lesser-respected cultural group. In my surroundings, most of the residents, and hence, patients are white, making us (Afro-Americans and Asians) minorities, feel different if not isolated. Such deferential factors are responsible for establishing where specific individuals live, and what opportunities are available to them, in the healthcare and educational context (Sue et al., 2009)
The presence of cultural bias within the context of healthcare-related recommendations and decision-making gives rise to significant challenges. Well-documented inequalities in health status of different racial and ethnic communities, in addition to nationally-publicized…
Resources and Services Administration (http://www.hrsa.gov/culturalcompetence/)
American Psychiatric Association's Steering Committee to Reduce Disparities in Access to Psychiatric Care (2004) (Natl. Assoc. Social Workers 2007).
These and many more substantive readings from research are listed by the author for assimilating culture-centric education. (Sue, Zane, Nagayama Hall, & Berger, 2009)
As a Counselor, I will need to be aware that being culturally aware implies delivering services in a manner consistent with the recipient's culture, through regards to linguistic variation and cultural discussion. I would seek to be more sensitive to unaccultured ethnic minority clients. In addition, I would use discretion in cases where patients of a particular community or ethnicity are prone to certain clinical problems (for which I would study the ethnic group and its history in more depth) and if certain ethnic groups respond poorly to EBT (Evidence-based Treatment). (Sue et al., 2009)
Being a counselor can sometimes be a really tough job. Counseling can only be effective and beneficial when the counselor places himself or herself in the shoes of his or her client. If he or she is unable to do so, he or she will never become an effective counselor. Placing oneself in the circumstances of someone else is not easy, let alone placing oneself in the shoes of a person who is of a different race, religion or culture. That is the real test of a counselor. In this paper I shall discuss what is required to understand the cross-cultural relationships in counseling to help the client get over their problem easily. All the dimensions pertaining to counseling (of a client of a different background that the counselor) will discussed with the case scenario.
When clients and counselors have different cultural (or ethnic or racial)…
Cannon, E.P. (2008). "Promoting moral reasoning and multicultural competence during internship." Journal of Moral Education, 37(4), 503-518.
Crethar, Hugh C. And Ratts, Manivong J. (2008). "Why Social Justice is a Counseling Concern?"
Gilbert, Jane. (2002). "Cross-cultural issues in counseling skillstraining: lessons from Lesotho."
Journal of Social Development in Africa. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
When planning a health promotion program, we should consider the positive (empowerment process) and the negative behaviors. As we begin to understand our intended audience we can assure the most culturally-appropriate educational intervention. In doing so, we are more likely to create partnerships that help people successfully achieve lasting change and truly promote health.
One of the most common issues that are not discussed in the armed forces is military sexual trauma (MST). This is when an individual will face unnecessary amounts of sexual pain from others they are serving with. A few most common forms include: unwanted sexual touching / grabbing, threating / offensive remarks about someone's body / sexual activities and unwarranted sexual advances. This has begun to occur so frequently that the Veteran Administration conducted a study, where they found that the total amounts of MST affected: 1 in every 5 women and 1 in…
Coping Skills for Trauma. (2004). Ibiblio.org. Retrieved from: http://www.ibiblio.org/rcip/copingskills.html
Military Sexual Trauma. (2011). VA. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/pages/military-sexual-trauma-general.asp
Robins, A. (1992). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Competence in Ethics
ithin the university student's ken, "competent ethics" is an ideal that the student might achieve at some point in the future, after obtaining some basic skills in the university, practicing in the field, and earnestly remaining a perpetual student of ethics scholarship and interdisciplinary collaboration. A review of ethics research reveals that reputable scholars tend to build on and synthesize each other's work, constantly developing a framework for ethical professional behavior. Applying the best of these models to each ethical dilemma, the counseling professional acts competently in the instant situation, hones his/her skills and absorbs significant information for the next inevitable ethical dilemma.
Hanford points out the impossible burden imposed upon American universities by stating, "…America has given its universities the task of producing competent professionals…" (Hanford, 2002, p. 106). In reality, university students "learn how to learn" to be competent professionals. Upon graduation, he/she is…
While we are supposed to discuss "competing ethics," my research shows a more organic process of scholars learning, developing and synthesizing steps for proper ethical consideration. For just one example, Seligman's Diagnosis and treatment planning in counseling, 3rd Edition, synthesizes the ethical models set forth by Elizabeth Reynolds Welfel in 1998 and Forest-Miller & Davis in 1995 to form a 10-step process for ethical decision-making (Seligman, 2004, p. 363). In 2009 development, Kocet, McCauley and Thompson further synthesize steps used by Seligman and others to set forth a 12-step process for ethical decision-making regarding student affairs which, with very little alteration, can be applied to counseling for all individuals. Kocet set forth the 12 steps in a 2011 Power Point presentation and, modified for counseling all individuals, the steps are:
"Develop an ethical worldview; identify the ethical dilemma/problem; weigh competing ethical principles; select relevant ethical guidelines/professional standards; examine potential cultural/contextual issues impacting the ethical dilemma; investigate applicable laws, policies, procedures, websites, etc., search for ethical/legal/professional precedence; collaborative consultation and brainstorming; evaluate possible consequences and options of action/inaction; choose a course of action; implement selected course of action; reflect on the experience as it relates to future ethical decisions" (Kocet, 2011, pp. 17-18).
The time, effort, knowledge, skill and collaboration involved in effectively applying these 12 steps shows the difficult-yet-vital job of developing ethical competence. Reviewing Kocet's 12 steps, the first step of "developing an ethical worldview" is acceptable provided it is based on a thorough knowledge of the American Counseling Association's Code of Ethics (American Counseling Association, 2012). It is incumbent on professional counselors to develop that "ethical worldview" according to the Ethics Code governing our profession; consequently, if there is dissonance between the ACA Ethics Code and the worldview we have already developed, we must defer to the Code, so long as we intend to remain professional American counselors. Thorough knowledge
Schwartz Values -- Conformity
Again, a paradigm shift between the old (traditional) ways and the new (seeing more Western influence
Tend to conform and obey clearer rules and structures; obeying parents, preserving the world as it is; no drastic changes.
Former ally, urban (non-conformist) versus rural (conformist); now non-conforming groups, fringe groups, opinions, blogs, political parties, social networking, clubs, etc. abound -- diversity is king; but there is a confrontation in this with advertising and media, which seeks to "sell" conformity in image.
Hodgetts, ., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. etrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
Metropolitan University. Cited in:
Knoppen, D. And Saris, W. (2009).…
Hodgetts, R., et.al. (2005). International Management: Culture, Strategy and Behavior. New York: McGraw Hill.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
House, et.al., (1998). Cultural Influences on Leadership and Organizations. Project Globe. Retrieved from: http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/sites/globe/pdf/process.pdf
Killick, D. (2004). "Developing Awareness and Transforming Experience." Leeds
The study reveals the ways culture and religion intersect with gender, and in fact the authors base their research on the theory of intersectionality. White privilege, gender, and any other issue related to social justice and personal consciousness is situational. Each individual will experience race, class, gender, power, religion, and ethnicity in different ways.
When reading the three articles, I first note their similarities. All three articles address white privilege. The problem with white privilege is that it is built into the social institutions upon which societies are built. White privilege can also be extended to refer to gender privilege and patriarchy, which is why Greenwood & Christian (2008) note that women from whatever culture or religion tend to gloss over their differences to bond together in sisterhood. Sisterhood might trump experiences such as racial prejudice and bias. However, when faced with the problem of the hijab, women who are…
ecruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity
The Effects of ecruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity
Maintaining cultural diversity in an organization can lead to innovation and an increased competitive advantage in the marketplace. In the past, the term cultural diversity referred to differences in race or religion. Now, the term cultural diversity means much more than that. As the uniqueness of each individual is recognized, the term cultural diversity has grown to encompass many factors about a person and their background. Cultural diversity is no longer delineated by major lines of color and national origin. This research will explore the effects of human resources on cultural diversity within an organization.
Cultural Diversity and the Workforce
acial diversity issues have increased in importance since the Civil ights Movement of 1964. It was recognized that white, Caucasian, males still constituted the majority in the workforce. Until that time, the select group was treated as…
Avery, D.R. & McKay, P.F. (2006). Target practice. An organizational impression management approach to attracting minority and female job applicants. Personal Psychology.
Chrobot-Mason, D. & Leslie, J.B. (2003). The role of multicultural competence and emotional intelligence in managing diversity. 32 (3): 269-263.
Cox, T. (1993). Cultural diversity in organizations: Theory, research and practice. San Francisco,
CA: Berrett-Koehle Publishers, Inc.
Coss Cultual Moes and Values: Middle-Easten Ameicans, South Asian-Ameicans and Native Ameicans
No longe a melting pot but moe like a salad bowl, the United States has always been a land of immigants and its divese demogaphic composition today is a eflection of this pocess. In fact, just one goup, Native Ameicans, can be egaded as being the oiginal inhabitants, but anthopologists ague that even these people likely migated fom othe continents tens of thousands of yeas ago, making them immigants in a sense as well. Thee goups in paticula stand out in the Ameican demogaphic mix as being in need of thoughtful attention in coss-cultual counseling situations, namely Middle-Easten Ameicans, South Asian-Ameicans and Native Ameicans. To detemine what counselos need to know in ode to develop effective inteventions fo membes fom these thee goups, this pape povides a eview of the liteatue, followed by a summay of the eseach…
A study of Lumbee undergraduates. Journal of College Counseling, 9(1), 47-55.
South Asia countries. (2014). World Bank. Retrieved from http://web.worldbank.org/ .
.....dreamed of becoming successful the field of social work or another career that involves helping people, I was told that I could not succeed in college because of my learning disability. The situation occurred when I was applying to join college to advance my professional development and skills. Throughout high school, I was in an individualized education program (IEP) because of the learning disability. I obtained decent grades in high school and also held several leadership and volunteer positions because of my passion to help others. However, when applying for college, I was told that I may not succeed because the learning disability was affecting my academic performance. The school administration told me that the course I was applying for was very demanding and a learning disability would affect my chances of success.
The situation was influenced by some external social, political and cultural factors, which made the school administration…
cross-cultural values and mores to identify the author's interactions with gay, lesbian, and transgendered individuals, Latinas and individuals with disabilities. Further, this paper integrates the case study analyses provided in "Case Studies in Multicultural Counseling and Therapy" and relevant Social Justice Counseling issues to support the discussions. In addition, for each of these three cultures, a discussion concerning what factors should be kept in mind during interfaces with each so that all parties are honored to facilitate work with them as a therapist, colleague, social acquaintance, partner, and neighbor. Finally, an analysis concerning what was especially easy and fun and what was challenging to understand about these cultures given the author's unique worldview is followed by a summary of the research and important findings about these three cultures and cross-cultural values and mores in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Gay, Lesbian, and Transgendered Individuals
With growing numbers of states legalizing…
Beam, C. (2014). Is Hispanic the same thing as Latina? Slate. Retrieved from http://www.
Beecher, M.E. & Rabe, R.A. (2007, Spring). Practical guidelines for counseling students with disabilities. Journal of College Counseling, 7(1), 83-87.
Bess, J.A. & Stabb, S.D. (2009, July). The experiences of transgendered persons in psychotherapy: Voices and recommendations. Journal of Mental Health Counseling,
cultural diversity issues and its impact on nursing professionals' practice. It assesses a client hailing from a different culture, and employs information derived from the assessment determining and reflecting on health practices and beliefs of the client's culture. Lastly, nurses' role in the care of patients hailing from diverse backgrounds care is analyzed, and a conclusion is drawn.
Client Interview Data
Client's health beliefs in relation to cultural diversity
The client comes from a family-focused background, in which she plays the role of chief household organizer and attends to her family and their needs. She believes one ought to lead a life of a good and virtuous individual, and support one's family, particularly in times of need. In her opinion, sickness must be tended to, for preserving life. She believes in healthcare professionals and services they offer, for leading a healthy life. She is comfortable having healthcare professionals take care…
American Nurses Association. (1998). Discrimination and Racism in Health Care. Silver Spring, MD: American Nurses Association.
Anderson, L. (2012, October 10). Cultural Competence in the Nursing Practice. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://www.nursetogether.com/cultural-competence-nursing-practice
Coe, S. (2013, January 15). Cultural Competency in the Nursing Profession. Retrieved from Nurse Together: http://www.nursetogether.com/cultural-competency-nursing-profession
Graue, M., Dunning, T., Hausken, M. F., & Rokne, B. (2013). Challenges in managing elderly people with diabetes in primary care settings in Norway. Scand J Prim Health Care, 31(4), 241-247.
Social and Cultural Diversity
The U.S.A. is widely viewed as a unifying state in which immigrants are accommodated and assimilated into the largely 'white' dominant socio cultural structure. This principle has allowed the country to facilitate a friendly environment for the nation to sustain a pluralistic perspective. The immigrants retain and maintain their beliefs and ideals even as they adjust their lives to be practically functional in their new American society. Multicultural counseling has come up against three core challenges linked to such diversity. There is the culture, attitude and theoretical perspective; then there is the culture of the client and, finally the many variables naturally wound around individual characteristics (olton-rownlee, n.d.).
Oversimplifying the Client's Social asis: Application of universal categories is essential for our understanding of human experiences. However, if we lose sight of differences between individuals, it would lead to a range of ethical breaches. Clients are influenced…
ACA. (2014). 2014 ACA Code of Ethics. American Counselling Association.
Banks, J. A. (1996). Multicultural Education, Transformative Knowledge, and Action. New York: Teachers College Press.
Barnett, J., & Bivings, N. (n.d.). Culturally Sensitive Treatment and Ethical Practice. APA Divisions.
Bolton-Brownlee, A. (n.d.). Issues in Multicultural Counseling. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest. Retrieved from Eric Digests: http://www.ericdigests.org/pre-925/issues.htm
Krentzman and Townsend (2008) indicates that multicultural competence means "having the beliefs, knowledge, and skills necessary to work effectively with individuals different from one's self; that cultural competence includes all forms of difference; and that issues of social justice cannot be overlooked" (p. 7). Although improved cultural competency is widely regarded as being an important element of high quality health care services, it is not a "magic bullet" for mitigating existing inequities in the provision of such care (Larson & Ott, 2010). Nevertheless, developing cross-cultural competencies is viewed by many health care providers as an essential first step in improving access and the quality of health care services in Australia today (Sharma & Phillion, 2011). Therefore, in this context, the term "multicultural competence" is used to describe the relationship between a counselor and a patient in cross-cultural settings (An introduction to cultural competency, 2012). The focus of cultural competence is…
An introduction to cultural competency. (2012). Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Retrieved July 21, 2014 from https://www.racp.edu.au/index.cfm?objectid=FCBB0411 -
Hawley, L.D. (2006, Fall). Reflecting teams and microcounseling in beginning counselor training: Practice in collaboration. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 45(2), 198-202.
It is never just about the music.
No matter how great the musician, music is always the expression of an entire culture, of a moment in history, of a particular place in time. The genius of a particular musician, the synergy of a particular group - these are both essential to the success or failure of a particular group. But that success or failure is never intrinsic to a single song, to a single album. Music that succeeds - both in its own time and later - does so because it has the ability to express something important about that moment in time. eggae has been able to provide just such an expression of the beliefs of a particular people at a moment in history for the last two years - and it has been able to do so because of its ability to change with larger political…
Cross-Cultural Differences and Communication
Cultural identity is a significant force that shapes the interaction between people from different cultures. The contemporary globalization has made intercultural interactions inevitable in the contemporary society. People draw conclusions about other people's culture depending on a wide range of observations about the individual's way of live, values and behavior. For instance, understanding what people from specific cultural values helps in drawing about that culture in that specific aspect of value or behavior (Byram, 2015). For example, I have drawn the conclusion that martial art is a significant cultural practice in the Chinese culture. This conclusion is informed by the several Chinese films that I have watched that have largely been characterized by Martial Arts. This predominance of martial arts in these films informed the conclusion I have drawn from the Chinese culture.
UNIT 4 DISCUSSION
I am visiting a new country within a different culture…
IQ Test Scores
Cultural Differences in IQ Test Scores
Most studies carried out in the United States to measure intelligence (IQ) indicate a significant gap in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites. The gap is more pronounced in certain areas of intelligence such as general intelligence and on tests requiring problem solving and more complex mental operations than on tests of rote learning and immediate memory. The gap has narrowed since the 1970s but still persists stubbornly. Debate has raged among the psychologists and social scientists about the reasons for the gap. The "hereditists" believe that the difference in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites is largely due to genetic reasons. The "environmentalists" are equally certain that the gap is due to environmental reasons and has nothing to do with genetics. This paper looks at both the heredity explanation as well as the environmental explanations of…
Dorfman, Donald D. (1995). "Soft Science with a Neoconservative Agenda." A Review of the Bell Curves. 40: 5. Contemporary Psychology, APA's journal of book reviews. Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.apa.org/journals/bell.html
Haughton, Noela A. (2002). "Biased Content, Context, and Values: An Examination of the SAT." Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.sq.4mg.com/IQincome.htm
Jencks, Christopher and Phillips, Meredith. (1998). "The Black- White Test Score Ga: An Introduction." (pp. 2-22) The Black-White Test Score Gap. Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips - eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Keita, L. (1999). "Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean." The Western Journal of Black Studies. 23: 1, p. 65.
cultural diversity issue of non-American employees communicating frequently in their own native language creating an environment of sensitivity and bias amongst the non-Hispanic community.
Handling Diversity in an Organization
The contents of this paper focus on the cultural diversity involving Films ecovery Systems, an American company located at the heart of Chicago, Illinois. The paper takes an insight into the issue and also proposes solutions that can resolve the problem. The most important aspect of the paper is that it takes into account the material we find and read in books and compares to what degree the literature is actually applicable in real life situations.
The study of public administration includes a spectrum of many disciplines, which include psychology, sociology, philosophy and also management sciences. Even though, the nature of public administration does not conveniently classify its elements into components, public administration is primarily categorized to highlight the…
Leaders are Learned Optimists - The CLEMMER Group Management
Consulting, available at http://www.clemmer.net/excerpts/leaders_learned.shtml accessed on: March 31, 2004
Robert Bacal, Conflict Prevention In The Workplace, available at http://www.work911.com/products/i-coop.htm , accessed on March 31, 2004
QSM Consulting - Leadership Driving Change, available at http://www.qsmconsulting.com/lds/index.shtml, accessed on: March 31, 2004
Cultural Diversity in Rural Settings for Nurses
On a continuum of cultural awareness to cultural relativity, how do you view yourself and your interactions with others?
As a nurse practitioner, it is easy to see the patient simply as a patient, as a sick person needing treatment, rather than a well person who perceives his or her body as only temporarily ill, but sees his or her person as permanently a part of a family and culture outside of the hospital. As Small and Dennis (2003) counsel, the increase in immigration has resulted in greater diversity of both patients and practitioners within the United States, rather than in traditional urban locations. Thus Small and Dennis remind the nurse that it is not simply enough to treat the patient, but the patient must also understand his or her illness in culturally comprehensible terms. A nurse must be able to communicate to…
Dennis, Betty Pierce & Ernestine B. Small. (Jan-Feb, 2003) "Incorporating cultural diversity in nursing care: an action plan" The ABNF Journal.
"New Position Statement Originated by: Council on Cultural Diversity in Nursing Practice, Congress of Nursing." (1996) Adopted by: ANA Board of Directors.
Professional Communication: Cultural Sensitivity Among Native Americans
In nursing school, we are normally taught that we should respect the dignity and rights of all clients. As the "world becomes reduced" and societies and individuals become more mobile, we are progressively able to network with people that are from other cultures. Cultural respect and competence for others becomes particularly significant for us as nurses and patient supporters. Applying the principles and theories of communication is important for sufficient patient care. A lot of various communication methods are executed and have diverse focuses. Small groups use mechanisms such as objectives, standards, cohesiveness, behaviors, and therapeutic issues. Duty, process and midrange groups are separate categories. Orientation, tension, cohesion, working and dissolution are stages groups go through. Successful personal and professional communication profits the patients and other health professionals; however, the lack of applicable communication can lead to poor patient results and a hostile…
Barker, A.M. (2009). Advanced practice nursing -- Essential knowledge for the profession. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Doane, G. (2004). Exploring the heart of nursing Ethical Pratices. Nursing Ethics, 11(3), 241-251.
Makaroff, K.S. (210). Do We speak of Ethics. Nursing Ethics and, 17(5), 566-576.
Ryan, M. (2000). Learning to Care for Clients In Their World not Mine. Journal of Nursing Education, 3(9), 25-79.
This is the point that we can offer specific insights that will help corporations to establish training programs and procedures for addressing these issues. Once this happens, is when we can provide strategies that will reduce conflict and improve productivity.
What the Proposed Design will accomplish?
The proposed design will be able to determine what specific attributes must be used by corporations to deal with the various cultural differences inside their operations around the world. This will help executives in creating policies and procedures that will allow managers / employees to improve communication. While at the same time, it will help them to address a host of cultural differences that could be relevant to a specific country or region.
For example, if a firm decided to establish operations in Russia managers will have to understand that there are certain practices that must be embraced. This is because Russians are more…
Comparative Analysis. (2012). E How. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/how_2095476_write-comparative-analysis.html
Hall, E. (1990). Understanding Cultural Differences. Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
Johnson, B. (2004). Mixed Methods Research. Educational Researcher, 33, (7), 14 -- 26.
Ryan, R. (1999). The American Dream in Russia. Personal Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, (12), 1509 -- 1524.
Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
EFFETIVENESS OF MUSI ON VOABULARY
The Effectiveness of Music on Vocabulary ompetence, Writing, Reading omprehension and Motivation in English Language Learning in High-School
Most English language learners in high schools show poor vocabulary competence. The main reason for this is the limited level of exposure to the language. It is generally understood and practically acknowledged that words form the basic unit of language structure. Therefore lack of sufficient vocabulary constrains students from effectively communicating and freely expressing their ideas.
Vocabulary competence is critical to developing reading comprehension skills. Lack of vocabulary development is detrimental to the development of metacognitive skill that is important in comprehending advanced texts. omprehension is a major component of development of vocabulary, reading to learn. Therefore, reading comprehension it is quite challenging for students lacking adequate knowledge of meaning of words.…
Chapter IV: Results and Evaluation
The main purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of using music on vocabulary competence, writing, reading comprehension and motivation in English Language Learning in High school students as a part of the learning process in the classroom. Many teachers of English as a second language as well as the learners consider vocabulary as a critical factor in learning the language. Therefore it is important to develop creative and interesting ways of teaching vocabulary in English class. A qualitative study was appropriate for the research for the reason that the objective was exploratory (Creswell, 1998). The significance that was recognized to the singularities of teaching was examined with hermeneutic methods (Creswell, 2002).
In order to give a reply to the answer of the three research questions, mean scores and standard deviations were computed for each of the two groups on each of the three dependent measures at the ending of study. All three of the dependent measures are considered to be the evaluation of the sight-reading, the evaluation of the playing abilit, and the
Review of Saudi Arabia
Muslim culture is one of the religions with the oldest and most extensive histories. It has its impacts on the world's greatest civilizations such as Sultanate of Usmania, Saudi Arabia, and Middle East and in different eras, Muslim rulers have extended their kingdoms to various parts of the world. Muslim culture even has its imprints on various fields of Science and Sociology. Despite all the richness of this culture, it is the one facing major criticism globally. One after another, events are taking place in a sequence which has highlighted the importance of Muslim countries in global Politics and economy.
These days, political decisions taken by the governments of Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan and other Muslim countries have become part of daily news headlines. On the other hand, the incident of 9/11 has changed the global scenario of this world. Policies of many western…
" (Geographia) Such a country, therefore, can probably teach the world a valuable lesson on how to achieve unity within diversity. for, after all, it appears that India is a country, which has developed multicultural competence. Thus, I would be interested in understanding how an Indian manages to strike a balance between a national Indian identity and an independent cultural identity.
I am particularly interested in India's management of its cultural diversity because I believe that the development of multicultural competence is going to be a crucial skill in today's increasingly globalized world. In fact, this skill is important from both a career as well as social justice point-of-view: "A multiculturally competent person is aware of and knowledgeable about cultural differences, their own cultural identity, and the history and struggles of marginalized groups. They balance this awareness and knowledge with continuous empathy and curiosity. They also examine how social context,…
Geographia. "India." Accessed Nov. 27, 2004: http://www.geographia.com/india/
Morales, a.H. "Multicultural Education & Human Relations." Accessed Nov. 27, 2004: http://www.soemadison.wisc.edu/eas/multicultural/multiculturaled-101.htm
The Quotations Page. Accessed Nov. 27, 2004:
RCT believes that everyone desires growth and that growth is by necessity connective in relational and cultural links. Mutual empathy and mutual empowerment foster these relationships in positive ways. (Jordan, "The role of mutual")
Sigmund Freud and Erik Erickson may arguably be two of the most influential icons in the field of human development and psychology. Their fundamental concept that human's develop over a lifetime and not just in a few stages from birth to adolescence and then are frozen into psychological patterns, revolutionized thinking in the field of developmental psychology. The term Life Span Development came to the fore as Erickson devised his eight stages of psychosocial development ranging from birth to eighty years old. Later as he himself passed eighty he realized that there is yet another stage and the count became nine. (Erikson & Erikson, 1997) One can see the striking resemblance between Erickson and Freud's stages…
Comstock, Dana L., et al. "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 279-288.
Crethar, Hugh C., Edil Torres Rivera, and Sara Nash. "In Search of Common Threads: Linking Multicultural, Feminist, and Social Justice Counseling Paradigms." Journal of Counseling and Development 86.3 (2008): 269-276
Erikson, E.H. & Erikson, J. M . The Life Cycle Completed / Extended Version. New York:
W.W. Norton. 1997
Support for the second hypothesis, that male speakers would be perceived as less cooperative than female speakers, also varied across situations, and the effect was even smaller" (Edwards & Hamilton 2004). Support for the Tannen model only was found after additional research was done, and a new questionnaire was given that scored recipient's self-perception in terms of feminine and masculine characteristics and inculcation into traditional gender roles. Individuals with strong gender self-images were more likely to fall in line with the Tannen model of women perceiving nurturance and males perceiving conflict in relatively neutral scenarios and seeing men in general as less cooperative.
This study is provocative on several levels, not the least of which in its stress upon the individualized nature of gender norms and the lack of inherent biological tendencies towards perceiving nurturance and conflict. It suggests the need to more carefully screen subjects in terms of individualized…
Edwards, Renee & Mark a Hamilton. "You Need to Understand My Gender Role: An Empirical
Test of Tannen's Model of Gender and Communication." Sex Roles. 50.7/8 (2004):
491-504. Research Library. ProQuest. 30 Oct. 2008 http://www.proquest.com/
Oetzel, John G. & Stella Ting-Toomey. "Face concerns in interpersonal conflict."
Give profile to people in the organization who are high performers and who also use the policies to create a view that success and work-life balance can go hand in hand. Organize some social functions at times suitable for children as well as adults and specifically invite the employees' family members. Introduce awards for managers or supervisors nominated by employees for having provided an environment where both employees' work productivity as well as their personal needs are addressed and enhanced. Organize award ceremonies for those employees who are playing an important role in changing the workplace culture. Finally, allow people to have pictures or other personal objects in their work area (Workplace culture, 2009).
Developing and valuing a workplace culture does not happen overnight and requires commitment from both employers and employees. It is important to build consensus for culture change from the top down as well as the bottom…
Altman, Y. (2008). On the future of work -- and hr. People & Strategy, p18-18, 1p; Vol. 31 Issue 4(an 36354212).
Bates, S. (2002, July). Facing the future - human resource management is changing. Retrieved April 7, 2009, from Findarticles.com (from HR Magazine): http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3495/is_7_47/ai_89025017/
DeNisi, a., & R.W., G. (2004). Human resource management. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Hewitt, G. (2005). Connecting strategy and hr. In M.L. Michael R. Losey, the future of human resource management (pp. 208-216). Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.
Global Perspectives on Leadership
Working with individuals from Latin America requires significant consideration of various factors that influence the relationship and the realization of a shared organizational objective. Firstly, taking into consideration the cross-cultural communication that will dominate the interaction with individuals from this culture is imperative. The fact that cultural differences exist translate to the communication breakdown that should be managed by the leader of an organization. Developing a culture-sensitive environment will help eliminate such barriers. The leader should also consider the context and content of understanding business setup when working with individuals with Latin America culture. Textual analysis shows that Latin business culture focuses on the broad aspects of the organizational relationship, social approaches, and broad circumstances influencing the business (Moran, 2011, p. 215).
However, the culture of other states such as the U.S. places a strong emphasis on the communication content. The content of focus includes facts,…
Moran, Robert T. Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success (8th Edition).: Routledge, . (2011). Print
He suggests that investment in a certain relationship before that relationship occurs, providing that the customer does eventually bring more revenue than costs to the company, is warranted. In order to shed more light on this situation, Blolos decided to determine "if and how the costs of managing existing and potential relationships are assessed" (92). Interviewing managers in 20 firms in four countries, the author found that the managers had difficulty grasping a definition for "relationship marketing," although they were aware of the concept of theory. They also had "cynical" views of relationships with other firms, although they identified relationship marketing as a positive practice. Further, Blols found that "a measurement problem exits," meaning it was difficult for managers to find a way to determine which relationships with which clients were worth pursuing (98). Although managers tended to believe that they had formed successful relationships, they could not measure that…
Organizational Theory #2
What core competences give an organization competitive advantage? What are examples of an organization's functional-level strategies?
Core competencies are those capabilities that are critical to a business achieving a competitive advantage in the marketplace. Typically, core competencies can be identified by certain common characteristics -- offering a benefit to the customer, difficult to imitate, uniquely identify the organization and easily leveraged to create many products or operate in many markets (Kern, 2010). The organization that is best able to use its resources to create value is in an ideal position to outperform the competition, thus creating advantage (Jones, 2010). Core competencies tend to change in response to changes in the environment. They are flexible, evolve over time and enable the company to enter apparently different markets with a clear and distinctive brand proposition. Examples of core competencies include manufacturing, research and development, new technology or organizational design…
Jones, G. (2010). Organizational theory, design, and change (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Terry, L.D., & Hoefer, R.A. (1995). Making politics and power respectable. Public Administration Review, 55(3), 298.
Management STYLE IN THE United States
Cultural Values and Business
Theory X vs. Theory Y
Management the High Tech Way
Management STYLE IN THE DOMINICAN EPUBLIC
CULTUAL VALUES AND Business
ole of Entrepreneurship
In the United States, management values, beliefs and attitudes have undergone a gradual shift away from the simplistic stance of planning, organizing and directing. Valuable managerial skills, no matter what culture is being considered, have traditionally been masculine skills, highlighting the dominant, assertive, and decisive elements of management behavior and downplaying the team and supportive aspects that are more readily identified with women. This traditional view is now giving way in the United States to an approach where team behaviour is seen as increasingly important to a truly successful management style.
The global leadership skills of the future will evolve from a combination of individual/group and masculine/feminine traits involving strategic thinking and communication skills. The final result…
Arnold, D.J. & Quelch, J.A. (1998). "New strategies in emerging markets." Sloan Management Review, 40, 7-20.
Bakhtari, H. (1995). "Cultural Effects on Management Style: A Comparative Study of American and Middle Eastern Management Styles." International Studies of Management & Organization, 25(3), 97+.
Barham, K., Fraser, J. & Heath, L. (1988). Management for the future. Foundation for Management Education/Ashridge Management College.
Bennis, W., Heil, G. & Stephens, D. (2000). Douglas McGregor, revisited: Managing the human side of enterprise. New York: John Wiley.
Some of these causes include shift work/long work hours, sleepiness, social/familial disruptions, vulnerable groups, long-term effects, and injuries. This is an indication that various institutions should focus on the evaluation of the causes of risks faced by nurses at the workplace in order to adopt and integrate quality interventions towards enhancing the safety of the nurses (Alison Trinkoff et al., 2008). One of the effective and influential approaches towards promotion of safety of the nurses is transformation of the working schedule to offer sufficient opportunity for the practitioners to recapture their energies following stressful interaction with the patients.
This is through minimization of the working hours as well as integration of favourable shifts to operate in the favour of the nurses as they seek to enhance their safety. It will also improve concentration levels of the nurses at the workplace thus quality relationship between the patients and nurses in addition…
Williams, L. (2008). Liability landscape: The value of a root causes analysis. Long-Term
Living: For the Continuing Care Professional, 57(11), 34-37.
Okes, D. (2008). The human-side of root cause analysis. Journal for Quality & Participation,
This is a theoretical approach which assumes that the nurse will base all treatment decisions on an interest in achieving the patient's best overall health outcome. In light of this, there may be great value in approaching treatment with a cultural sensitivity to the diversity of needs which accompany the inherent diversity of individuals to be treated. Here, the healthcare practitioner must be particular immune to prejudices of an ethnic, racial, sexual or personal nature, with equal treatment quality and personal attention expected for all patrons of the medical system. This is why it is important for members of the healthcare community to be acquainted not just with the idea of a multitude of groups in its public, but with some level of understanding as to how different ethnic groups endure different health scenarios. The way that the nursing professional approaches healing -- with respect to the balance of personal…
ANA. (2004). The Nurses Code of Ethics. The Center for Ethics and Human Rights.
President's Council on Bioethics (PCB). (2010). Being Human: Readings from the President's Council on Bioethics-Chapter 3: To Heal Sometimes, To Comfort Always. Georgetown University.
Ocial Work Practice With Individuals: Engagement Strategies
First I need to get past Mr. Fahza's son in order to get to his father. I need the former's agreement because I need a smooth start. His son agreement would encourage a discussion under the right auspices.
According to The Patient Self-Determination Act (PSDA) of 1990, Mr. Fahza has the right to be informed about his own clinical condition in order to take a decision about continuing with chemotherapy or going to the hospice and die peacefully. This is the strict approach of the western hemisphere.
The religion of Islam believes in death and resurrection of the body and soul, like Christianity. Islam also teaches about how to prepare for death, when aware that death is imminent. Statistics show that a vast majority of the American male population would want to know about the eventuality of dying because of a fatal illness…
Kagawa-Singer, M., & Backhall, L. (2001). "Negotiating cross-cultural issues at end of life." Journal of American Medical Association, 286(3001), 2993-. Available at: http://ethnomed.org/clinical/end-of-life/Table2.pdf retrieved: Oct 7th, 2014
Koenig B.A., Gates-Williams J. (1995) "Understanding cultural difference in caring for dying patients." West J. Med. Sep 1995; 163(3): 244 -- 249. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov /pmc/articles/PMC1303047/?page=4' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Social Institutional Forces: The social, cultural, political, and intellectual forces that influence present educational policy in K-16 programs. What do you believe to be the goals of American public education? What should the role of public education be? List the advantages your upbringing offered to you; think of themselves as part of a dominant group, a nuclear family, a middle- or upper-middle-class community, a member of a church or other religious group, etc.
Despite the lofty proclamations made by George W. Bush and members of his administration during the legislative effort to pass the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, the optimistic reforms envisioned by conservative lawmakers more than a decade ago have failed to come to fruition. However, the educational system in place throughout America's small towns and major cities has been broken for quite some time, with the world's foremost superpower lagging far behind smaller and less…
Kohn, A. (2012, September 09). Schooling beyond measure. Education Week, Retrieved from http://www.alfiekohn.org/teaching/edweek/sbm.htm
Kohn, A. (2002). Standardized testing: Separating wheat children from chaff children. In S.
Ohanian (Ed.), What Happened to Recess and Why Are Our Children Struggling in Kindergarten? New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Cultural identity formation theories reveal the intersections between race, class, gender, sexuality, status, self-concept, and power. Applying critical race theory and racial identity development models to social work can prove tremendously helpful and promotes the overall goals of the profession. It is not just about becoming more culturally competent and aware of structural racism and other factors that might be affecting clients; the work of increasing cultural competence means becoming more self-aware. Learning about my own cultural identity formation helps me to recognize any biases that I have picked up from environmental cues. Moreover, increasing cultural competence depends on honesty and insight. It is one thing to intellectually understand that racism is psychologically and socially traumatic for people, but quite another to recognize the ways racism has affected my own perceptions and cognitions.
My plan to increase cultural competence includes daily journaling about my inner thoughts as well as my…
Abrams, L.S. & Moio, J.A. (2009). Critical race theory and the cultural competence dilemma in social work education. Journal of Social Work Education 45(2).
Hud-Aleem, R. & Countryman, J. (2008). Biracial identity development and recommendations in therapy. Psychiatry (Edgemont) 5(11): 37-44.
National Association of Social Workers (2001). NASW standards for cultural competence. Retrieved online: https://www.socialworkers.org/practice/standards/naswculturalstandards.pdf
Sue, D.W., Jackson, K.F., Rasheed, M.N. & Rasheed, J.M. (2016). Multicultural Social Work Practice. John Wiley.