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In today's increasingly culturally diverse world, cultural competence, or what has become known as "cultural intelligence (CQ)" has received increasing research attention. Several authors, with various purposes and audiences, have developed assessment instruments to help individuals and groups understand their level of cultural intelligence. Included among these is the instrument developed by Earley and Mosakowski (2004), under the title "Diagnosing Your Cultural Intelligence."
Earley and Mosakowski's instrument addresses three areas of CQ: The cognitive, the physical, and the emotional/motivational. The cognitive component can be regarded as the "head" of cultural competence. On a cognitive level, this areas focuses on an individual's understanding of differences between cultures. This involves asking questions and investigations to identify any differences that might exist among cultures. Being aware of these on a cognitive level can greatly enhance a person's ability to understand and interact with foreign cultures.
The physical component focuses on a…
Earley, P.C. & Mosakowski, E. 2004. 'Cultural intelligence', Harvard Business Review, 82 (10), October, pp.139-146 [Online]
Mendenhall, Mark. 2007. Global Leadership: Research, Practice and Development. Routledge.
While it is clear that these authors were trying to present a great deal of information in a limited space, a task which necessarily calls for some oversimplification at times, acknowledging that there are far deeper issues that can arise when two or more cultures clash would go far in making this argument more powerful. The complexities and varying types of diversity do not create simple issues, and even as these issues of diversity become better understood, the actions that must be taken to foster cultural intelligence are none the less highly complex (Hays-Thomas 2004; Earley & Mosakowski 2004). This is somewhat acknowledged by the authors in a direct sense, but the scenarios as they describe them and the solutions provided in terms of better behaviors seem to belie this acknowledgement.
I fully agree with the author's conclusions that cultural intelligence, while possessed to greater levels by some than by…
Earley, P. & Mosakowski, E. (2004). "Cultural intelligence." Harvard business review (October), pp. 1-9.
Hays-Thomas, R. (2004). "Why now? The contemporary focus on managing diversity." In Stockdale, M. & Crosby, F. The psychology and management of workplace diversity. Malden, MA: Wiley.
Culture matters not just to people but also to organizations. There is always going to be an organizational culture in which people work and operate, a culture that reinforces how they interact with others and provides them with a sense of what values are appropriate and what ethical principles they should align their actions. Yet when one talks about cultural intelligence one is talking about cultural understanding, i.e., one’s knowledge of other cultures, the values that are promoted in other cultures, the experiences, ideals, worldview, and sense of identity that can be found in other cultures. Why is this important for a person in a leadership position or in human resources? The answer is easy: connecting with others, relating with them, and interacting with them in an effective manner can best be achieved if one is open to and understanding of that person’s culture. In other words, the…
Earley, P. C., & Mosakowski, E. (2004). Cultural intelligence. Harvard Business Review, 82(10), 139-146.
Kühne, B. (2016). Mattel’s Second Attempt to Crack the Chinese Market: Will China
Embrace the American Barbie Doll This Time?. In Market Entry in China (pp. 147-163). Springer, Cham.
The impact of technology and the increase of international travel and exploration, the global environment has provided a landscape that depends on the knowledge of other culture. The differences among the human race are everywhere and the denotation of such individualities create challenges for those wishing to attain a successful career based in international exposure.
The purpose of this essay is to explore various themes and ideas that relate to cross-cultural management theory applied in a practical and pragmatic manner. This essay aims to answer the following question:
Which international skills, knowledge, behaviours and experiences will be advantageous in the development of my future career?
My future career selection is not quite clear at this time but I have narrowed it down to becoming involved in hotel management in Central America. This essay will first examine the basics of culture to help give a theoretical background to my…
Branine, M. (2011). Managing across cultures: Concepts, policies and practices. Sage.
Crowne, K.A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence?. Business Horizons,51(5), 391-399.
De Bono, S., & Van Der Heijden, B. (2011). Managing cultural diversity. Meyer & Meyer Verlag.
Duncan, T. (2005). Current issues in the global hospitality industry. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 5(4), 359-366.
The event is more a series of events. I went on vacation with some friends to Miami, and while not everything I experienced on that trip would count as a cultural experience, there is little question that there were some very different experiences. There was the visit to the Haitian restaurant, for example, but the event that stands out the most was my visit to Calle Ocho, the old Cuban neighborhood. As Korean student I find it challenging enough to deal with mainstream American culture, but Hispanic culture is completely different again, so this experience provided me with an interesting counterpoint to my usual experiences in the United States.
In this neighborhood, if people can speak English they do not admit it. There are coffee windows where strong, sugary shots of Cuban coffee and cafe con leche are dispensed to passers-by in a hurry. There are old…
Devine, P. (1989). Stereotypes and prejudice: Their automatic and controlled components. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 56 (1) 5-18.
Geert Hofstede.com (2012). National culture. Geert-Hofstede.com. Retrieved May 7, 2012 from http://geert-hofstede.com
Hofstede, G. (1983). The cultural relativity of organizational practices and theories. Journal of International Business Studies. Vol. 14 (Fall 1983) 75-89.
Mallol, C., Holtom, B. & Lee, T. (2007). Job embeddedness in a culturally diverse environment. Journal of Business Psychology. Vol. 22, 35-44.
Franks (along with the Bush war cabinet, including Vice President Dick Chaney) "met repeatedly" to plan the attack on Iraq. It was groupthink through and through. At the same time Bush was saying publicly he was "pursuing a diplomatic solution" (Hamilton, 2004), "intensive war planning" was going on during the whole year 2002. It "created its own momentum" in the administration, Hamilton wrote.
In oodward's book, which was recognized as conveying authentic details about the Bush war planning and strategies, he covers much of the pre-war discussions Bush had with top members of his administration, along with decisions Bush made on his own and with help from people like his Foreign Policy Advisor, Condoleezza Rice. But according to an excerpt from oodward's book, Bush waited until the last minute (among his top staff) to brief Secretary of State Colin Powell, who had not been an advocate of going to war,…
Bar-Joseph, Uri, and Levy, Jack S. 2009, 'Conscious Action and Intelligence Failure', Political Science Quarterly, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 461-489.
Bar-Joseph, Uri. 1995, Intelligence Intervention in the Politics of Democratic States: The United States, Israel, and Britain. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania.
Gentry, John a. 2008, 'Intelligence Failure Reframed', Political Science Quarterly, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 247-260.
Hamilton, William. 2004. 'Bush Began to Plan War Three Months After 9/11.' Washington Post, April 17, 2004, p. A01.
Each customer's predictive score informs actions to be taken with that customer. usiness intelligence just doesn't get more actionable than that." (Siegel, 2009)
Predictive analytics involves: (1) a focus on actions; (2) rapid deployment; and (3) engagement of business and IT. (Siegel, 2009) Decision management is characterized by: (1) a focus on decisions; (2) the combination of business rules with analytics; and (3) putting predictive analytics to work. (Siegel, 2009) Irwin Speizer writes that there is a "new generation of workforce-planning tools" that offer great promise through the use of "sophisticated software and data-rich predictive-modeling techniques..." (Speizer, 2006) It is stated that the study of "internal staffing history and skill sets, external and internal business trends, demographic data and other variables" that the HR leader can "predict a company's talent-related needs years into the future." (Speizer, 2006)
V. Summary & Conclusion
Starbucks did manage to negotiate their way successfully through…
Kaczmarczyk, Pawel and Lewicki, Mikolaj (2007) "Lost In Transformation."
Cultural Encounters In Multinational Corporations Investing In Central And Eastern Europe. DIOSCURI Final Conference, Institute for Human Sciences, Vienna. 20-22 April. 20007. Online available at:
Fellner, Kim (2008) Private Sector: Starbucks Leaner, Meaner. 8 Jul 2008. Post-Gazette.com Business. Online available at: http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/08190/895381-28.stm
O'Neill, Brendan (2009) Israel, Starbucks and the New Irrationalism. 14 Jan 2009. War In Gaza. SPIKED.com. online available at: http://www.spiked-online.com/index.php?/site/article/6103/
Cultural Sensitivity and Language Use
Simply talking about culture can be like entering a minefield. Even the use of the word 'articulate' or praising an African-American's 'intelligence' can be questionable. The use of language is so powerful -- and so controversial -- because it can unintentionally unmask great deal about the speaker's unconscious attitudes towards race, as well as his or her conscious attitudes. "It's like weight loss. The last few pounds are the hardest to get rid of. It's the last vestiges of racism that are hard to get rid of," said one African-American comedian, despairing of how he is often called 'articulate' as if this is surprising and marvelous (Clementson 2007). Even in the upper echelons of power, at organizations such as Goldman Sachs, it is not uncommon for an African-American candidate to be labeled 'articulate' (as if that is a surprise, given the level of accomplishment one…
Clementson, Lynette. (2007). The racial politics of speaking well. The New York Times.
Three Rivers, Amoja. (1996). Cultural etiquette. Communities. Retrieved:
While it is almost certain that intelligence ahs a neurological basis, the extent to which intelligence is determined by neurological and chemical changes is not fully understood. A recent study suggests that changing hormone levels prior to and during puberty have a large effect on intelligence; high salivary testosterone levels in ten-year-old boys showed a positive correlation with intelligence, but a negative correlation in twelve-year-olds (Shangguan & Shi 2009). This shows that intelligence can be quite fluid, and can even be affected quite differently by the same mechanisms. The exact nature of the changing influence testosterone seems to provide or signal is not known, but the correlation demands further study.
These three different research studies display very different theories of intelligence. In the first study, accepted methods of cognitive relationships with the environment are valid, if perhaps somewhat inaccurate at the extremes of the intelligence spectrum. The second study points…
CJ. (2009). "Working memory predicts learning outcomes." Psychologist 22910), pp. 827.
Shangguan, F. & Shi, J. (2009). "Puberty timing and fluid intelligence: A study of correlations between testosterone and intelligence in 8- to 12-year-old Chinese boys." Psychoneuroendocrinology 34(7), pp. 983-8.
Whitaker, S. & Wood, J. (2007). "The Distribution of Scaled Scores and Possible Floor Effects on the WISC-III and WAIS-III." Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, 21(2), pp. 136-41.
Emotional Intelligence (EI) Defined. Despite the common usage of defining intelligence in terms of numbers there are many psychologists that do not agree with the concept that intelligence is measurable and quantifiable and representative strictly on the basis of cognition. Some theorists believe that intelligence not only includes analytical and problem solving ability but creativity and practical problem solving components as well. In fact there are even some theorists who have totally abandoned the idea of measuring intelligence and purport that intelligence is not measurable visa via a pencil and paper test. These particular theorists believe that ethnicity, cultural heritage, and even religious factors (i.e., Emotional Intelligence factors) have a tremendous influence on that which is commonly called the Intelligence Quotient. More than likely the safest way in which to view intelligence is to consider the concept as one being influenced by dietary factors, physical and mental exercise, emotional states,…
Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experimental Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Mayer, J.D., DiPaolo, M.T., and Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality.
Assessment. 54: 772-781.
Salovey, P., and Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9: 185-211.
Intelligence Practical Exercise
Geospatial Intelligence Analysis
GEOINT which means Geospatial Intelligence is a system which is used to analyse an environment for intelligence and operational purposes. (GEOINT Analysis, 2017).
Describe the Environment: Collect key data that defines the precise destination for the planned mission. Geographical, government and cultural limitations must be established. In most cases, the gathered data could consist of vectors, heights, natural landmarks such as rivers, mountains etc., longitude and latitude locations and several others. All these are the basic requirements of the GEOINT invention.
Outline the Effects of The Environment: Elaborate thoroughly on the mission location identified in the previous step. Locate and define its natural state, any existing structures and its cultural atmosphere. Account for all possible factors that might have an effect on a mission in the location such as roads, people, buildings, plants, climate, language, government, cultural divides or social factors. Add this new…
Ali Rathore, S. (2016). Brussels Attack - Lessons Learned. A JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND TERRORISM RESEARCH.
Brown, G., Carlyle, M., Salmeron, J., & Wood, K. (2005). Analyzing the Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure to Attack and Planning Defenses. Tutorials inOperations Research, 102 - 123.
GEOINT Analysis. (2017). Retrieved from National Geospatial Intelligence Agency: https://www.nga.mil/ProductsServices/GEOINTAnalysis/Pages/default.aspx
International Nuclear Safety Group. (2010). The Interface Between Safety and Security at Nuclear Power Plants. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
2001 1. Then, they could sort taxonomically. In other words, one man's 'smart' is another man's 'dopey', concepts that have little to do with the "intelligence" IQ tests are designed to measure. This is certainly, as well, a clear indication of how completely IQ tests are based in a narrow range of cultural norms. Indeed, they could be viewed as impoverished measures for failing to account for the values, intellectual and otherwise, of any society except the well-defined, homogenized and 'unjuicy' western society that invented the tests. Sternberg et al. concluded that, regarding IQ tests, "scores from tests used in cultures or subcultures other than those for which the tests were specifically created are suspect, and probably of doubtful validity in many if not most cases (2001 1).
What about race?
The myths about race and IQ go back a long way, to a time before IQ tests. Philosophers Hume,…
Keita, L. (1999). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 23(1), 65. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Reeve, C.L. (2002). Race and Intelligence: Separating Science from Myth. Personnel Psychology, 55(3), 778+. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database,
Cross Cultural Leadership
Cultural Differences in Leadership
Cultural differences determine certain leadership traits and portions of our personality. It is easy to discredit the importance of cross-cultural differences and their influences on various leadership styles. Different cultures are known for certain traits. For instance, the Australian culture is known for it egalitarianism. Chinese culture is known as an authority oriented culture (Sharpe, 2007). These differences in culture result in the development of different leadership styles and traits. The following will explore the issue of cultural differences and will support the thesis that leaders from authoritarian countries have a greater power distance from their employees than do those in egalitarian cultures.
Sharpe (2007) found that the Australian culture and the Chinese culture dictated certain traits in regards to desirable leadership traits. Both the Australian and Chinese participants felt that these leadership traits were more important on the lower levels than on…
DeGrosky, M. (2011). Lost in Translation. Wildfire. Retrieved March 4,.2011 from http://wildfiremag.com/command/cultural-context-leadership-200907/
Deng, L. & Gibson, P. (2008). A Qualitative Evaluation on the Role of Cultural Intelligence in Cross-Cultural Leadership Effectiveness. The International Journal of Leadership Studies. 3 (2): 181-197.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
Lewis, R. (2006). Cultural Differences in a Shrinking World: Leadership Implications. Personnel Decisions. January 2006. Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.hreonline.com/pdfs/PDIPaper.pdf
Cross Cultural Interaction etween Corporations
As per CEO of Finisar, Jerry Rawls, 'Culture eats strategy for breakfast'.
During a panel discussion revolving around authentic leadership, Jerry Rawls said this famous line to signify the influence culture can have on best of strategic plans which companies fail to oversee and implement at around 70% of the time (Charan & Colvin, 1999). All small, medium and large enterprises are held responsible for this strategic implementation failure as global trends affects business strategy increasingly. The leaders need to assess the challenges arising whilst working in a worldwide marketplace relying on information, goods and services changing borders quickly which have transformed the landscape for competitive edge for most companies (Clapp-Smith, 2009)
In this modern era, communication takes place regularly between international suppliers, consumers, moderators and workers in a real time or a virtual time environment. The changes coming with globalization had compelled organization's top…
Barmeyer, C., & Mayrhofer, U. (2008). The contribution of intercultural management to the success of international mergers and acquisitions: An analysis of the EADS group. Elsevier, 28-38. Retrieved from: http://www.phil.uni-passau.de/fileadmin/group_upload/54/Zeitungsartikel_pdf/78.EADSBarmeyerMayrhofer.pdf
Bovee, C.L., & Thill, J.V. (2010). Business communication today (10th ed.). Boston: Prentice Hall.
Clapp-Smith, R. (2009). Global Mindset Development During Cultural Transitions. Nebaska: College of Business Administration. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=businessdiss
Charan, R., & Colvin, G. (1999, June 21, 1999). Why CEOs Fail. Fortune.
Examples of global leadership are easily found, but it is important to make distinctions based on criteria other than fiscal gain or corporate revenue. The example of global leadership discussed in Section 2 of this paper is Dr. Paul Farmer, the founder of Partners in Health. Dr. Farmer's innovations in the global healthcare truly use Blue Ocean strategy and have altered the landscape of providing medicine to people in poverty. Farmer's primary attributes -- in addition to his extraordinary intellect -- are humility, compassion, and vision. Indeed, it is Farmer's vision and his ability to recruit followers and funds that have changed healthcare policy and practices around the world. Training executives to become competent global leaders requires a comprehensive plan such as that developed for the Global Leadership Expertise Development model. This model forms the basis for the training plan provided and recommended in this discussion.
____. (2008, May 5). Dr. Farmer's Remedy. 60 Minutes. CBS News. http://www.cbsnews.com/videos/dr-farmers-remedy/
Celenk, O., & Van de Vijver, F. (2011). Assessment of acculturation: Issues and overview of measures. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 8(1). Available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.9707 / 2307-0919.1105
Dyer, J.H., Gregersen, H.B. And Christensen, C.M. (2009) 'The innovator's DNA,' Harvard Business Review, 87 (12), December, pp.60-67 [Online]. Available from: University of Liverpool Library: http://sfxhosted.exlibrisgroup.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/lpu?title=Harvard+Business+Review&volume=87&issue=12&spage=60&date=2009 (Accessed: 22 February 2015).
Govindarajan, V. And Trimble, C. (2010) 'Stop the innovation wars,' Harvard Business Review, 88 (7/8), July/August, pp.76-83 [Online]. Available from: University of Liverpool Library: http://sfxhosted.exlibrisgroup.com.ezproxy.liv.ac.uk/lpu?title=Harvard+Business+Review&volume=88&issue=7%2F8&spage=76&date=2010 (Accessed: 22 February 2015).
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…
intelligence theories of Charles Spearman and Howard Gardner. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
There have been many ideas presented to the world about the theory or intelligence and while some of them have received lukewarm reviews there are two in which the world took a long hard look and decided they might be possible. It is interesting to note that the theories of Charles Spearman and Howard Gardner do not have a lot in common yet they are each respected as possible explanations for the human intelligence.
The theory of Howard Gardner of intelligence is based in the belief that there are actually multiple types of intelligence and rather than narrow the areas of measurement to one or two the world should recognize and encourage all seven of the intelligence factors.
According to Gardner the seven distinct areas of intelligence include (Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory…
Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory (accessed 6-12-2003)
Multiple Intelligences (H. Gardner) (accessed 6-12-2003)
IQ Test Scores
Cultural Differences in IQ Test Scores
Most studies carried out in the United States to measure intelligence (IQ) indicate a significant gap in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites. The gap is more pronounced in certain areas of intelligence such as general intelligence and on tests requiring problem solving and more complex mental operations than on tests of rote learning and immediate memory. The gap has narrowed since the 1970s but still persists stubbornly. Debate has raged among the psychologists and social scientists about the reasons for the gap. The "hereditists" believe that the difference in the IQ test scores of Blacks and Whites is largely due to genetic reasons. The "environmentalists" are equally certain that the gap is due to environmental reasons and has nothing to do with genetics. This paper looks at both the heredity explanation as well as the environmental explanations of…
Dorfman, Donald D. (1995). "Soft Science with a Neoconservative Agenda." A Review of the Bell Curves. 40: 5. Contemporary Psychology, APA's journal of book reviews. Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.apa.org/journals/bell.html
Haughton, Noela A. (2002). "Biased Content, Context, and Values: An Examination of the SAT." Retrieved on June 20, 2004 at http://www.sq.4mg.com/IQincome.htm
Jencks, Christopher and Phillips, Meredith. (1998). "The Black- White Test Score Ga: An Introduction." (pp. 2-22) The Black-White Test Score Gap. Christopher Jencks and Meredith Phillips - eds. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Keita, L. (1999). "Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean." The Western Journal of Black Studies. 23: 1, p. 65.
cultural diversity issue of non-American employees communicating frequently in their own native language creating an environment of sensitivity and bias amongst the non-Hispanic community.
Handling Diversity in an Organization
The contents of this paper focus on the cultural diversity involving Films ecovery Systems, an American company located at the heart of Chicago, Illinois. The paper takes an insight into the issue and also proposes solutions that can resolve the problem. The most important aspect of the paper is that it takes into account the material we find and read in books and compares to what degree the literature is actually applicable in real life situations.
The study of public administration includes a spectrum of many disciplines, which include psychology, sociology, philosophy and also management sciences. Even though, the nature of public administration does not conveniently classify its elements into components, public administration is primarily categorized to highlight the…
Leaders are Learned Optimists - The CLEMMER Group Management
Consulting, available at http://www.clemmer.net/excerpts/leaders_learned.shtml accessed on: March 31, 2004
Robert Bacal, Conflict Prevention In The Workplace, available at http://www.work911.com/products/i-coop.htm , accessed on March 31, 2004
QSM Consulting - Leadership Driving Change, available at http://www.qsmconsulting.com/lds/index.shtml, accessed on: March 31, 2004
police adopted intelligence-Led policing? What are the problems associated with its implementations?
Over time, policing methods have advanced, with the most recent strategy in improving response time of police being intelligence-led policing (or ILP). ILP is still in its initial developmental stages, is still not wholly understood, and has not yet been adopted by all agencies (Taylor, Kowalyk and Boba 2007). Studying police managers' views and attitudes can help recognize obstacles. Depending on findings of research, when initiating this strategy, top police officers obtain the information required for foreseeing problems and understanding supervisors' mind-set. Strategy transformations spring from shifts in objectives. For instance, London's Metropolitan police was organized by Sir obert Peel for focusing not on response, but on prevention of crime (Johnson 1988). Improvements were generated through technological advances like automobiles and telephones. These improvements served to lessen response time, as well as expand an officer's patrol coverage (Phillips…
Anderson, R 1994, "Intelligence-led policing: A British perspective," in A Smith(ed) Intelligence-led policing: International perspective on policing in the 21st Century, Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement intelligence Analyst.
Anderson, R 1997, "Intelligence-led policing: A British Perspective," In Intelligence-led policing: International Perspective on policing in the 21st Century: Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analyst.
Bennett, T 1994, 'Community policing on the ground: developments in Britain,' in D.P. Rosenbaum(ed) The challenge of community policing: Testing the promises, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.
Carter, DL and Carter, JG 2009, "Intelligence-Led Policing: Conceptual and Functional Considerations for Public Policy," Criminal Justice Policy Review 20, no. 3: 310-325
The standard IQ tests based on the work of Alfred Binet and Lewis Terman are also based on the idea of a single-ability measure of intelligence.
The idea of a single g factoring intelligence, however, has numerous critics. As early as 1938, psychologist L.L. Thurstone criticized the narrowness of Spearman's model. Thurstone argued that mental abilities such as verbal comprehension, spatial visualization and reasoning were distinct forms of intelligences that should be considered separate from one another (Huffman 2003).
Howard Gardner, a cognitive theorist, pursued this idea further by proposing a theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner devised a criteria of eight intelligences, including linguistic skills, bodily-kinesthetic skills and logical-mathematical skills. According to Gardner, people can have different profiles of intelligence, meaning that they can have challenges in some areas but exhibit strengths in others. Because of these different forms of intelligence, Gardner proposed that people also have distinct…
Huffman, Karen. 2003. Psychology in Action. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
gathering and using knowledge as a basis for making decisions in formal settings is an old one. If one is to gain advantage over their rivals, it is essential to gather updated knowledge that is also accurate with regard to what they intend to do and their capabilities. The principle applies across a wide range of fields including military strategies, politics, criminal intelligence circles and business. Further, it is a continually evolving process. It has been changing in response to socio-cultural factors, higher advanced analytical skill requirements, organizational demands, and even technology. Review of the roots of intelligence and the analytical procedures as a pre-occupation and profession is a consultative activity. Such analysis of the background of intelligence processes helps us to understand the past, the present and help anticipate the future. We also learn, in the process, that intelligence gathering is an ever evolving field. Consequently, if the practice…
CIA. (n.d.). Signals Intelligence Activities. Retrieved from cia.gov: https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/Policy-and-Procedures-for-CIA-Signals-Intelligence-Activities.pdf
Erickson, M. H. (1929). Study of the Relationship Between Intelligence and Crime. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.
Manget, F. F. (2006). INTELLIGENCE AND THE CRIMINAL LAW SYSTEM. STANFORD LAW AND POLICY REVIEW, 415.
Ratcliffe, J. H. (2007). Integrated Intelligence and Crime Analysis. Police Foundation.
Cultural Differences in the Perception of Intelligence
For the purposes of this assignment, two cultures will be compared with respect to how they perceive intelligence. Culture is relative, as is perception, as will be demonstrated in this paper with specific regard to intelligence. The two cultures that will be compared are American culture and Japanese culture. These two cultures have an intense past and interconnected present; they are very different with respect to social context, perspective, and perception. The paper will consider how these cultures interpret and perceive intelligence differently. The paper will reflect upon how intelligence, among other characteristics and elements, is measured differently because of variations in culture. The paper will further consider how, within varying social contexts and cultures, one might test for a spectrum of cognitive abilities, with respect to the two cultures of focus, Japanese and American.
American culture is very self-centered relative to…
Furnham, A., & Fukumoto, S. (2008). Japanese parents' estimates of their own and their children's multiple intelligences: Cultural modesty and moderate differentiation. Japanese Psychological Research, 50(2), 63 -- 76.
Smith, M.K. (2002, 2008). Howard Gardner and multiple intelligences. The Encyclopedia of Informal Education, Web, Available from: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm . 2012 December 20.
Sternberg, R.J., & Grigorenko, E.L. (2004). Why We Need to Explore Development in Its Cultural Context. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(3), 369 -- 386.
The concept of intelligence and the pactice (and pacticality) of testing fo intelligence has been one of the moe contovesial aeas of psychology and psychometics since the fist tests wee developed and administeed a centuy ago. Fa fom thee being a consensus in the scientific community on exactly what makes up intelligence, the list of chaacteistics that compise intelligence has instead been a matte of exteme and ongoing debate. Measuing intelligence in individuals has found an even geate shae of disageement and contovesy. Even when eseaches ae able to agee on what aspects should be measued to develop an accuate pictue of intelligence, the methods poposed and implemented fo testing these aeas have often been widely disputed. The contovesy suounding intelligence testing eached new heights in the ea of cultual divesity, as it became clea that the standad intelligence tests in use fo the bette pat of the…
references in four categories: introvert/extrovert, intuitive/sensing, thinking/feeling, and perceiving/judging. This test is closely related to both intelligence tests in certain ways, but completely unrelated in others. That is, both intelligence tests reflect the way each individual thinks -- their intellectual strengths and weaknesses -- to some degree. The Myers-Briggs personality type test reveals a great deal about the way an individual thinks and interacts with the world, but it does not predict how efficiently this occurs -- that is the realm of the intelligence tests. Both types of tests can be used to measure someone's capabilities and proclivities to aid in employment placement or in psychological testing, to determine where problems might lie or how they might best be handled.
These issues lead to what could be some major ethical issues with both types of test. Given the fact that some bias is inherent to even the most carefully designed test, the use of either (or both) intelligence or personality tests to determine suitability for employment could be viewed as ethically unacceptable in terms of discriminatory practices. Online testing is somewhat less fraught with ethical considerations, as it is (or should be) assumed that tehse tests are not fully accurate measures and are taken more for reasons of personal enjoyment. The fact that many tests try to sell you things, or claim to be incredibly accurate, does diminish the harmlessness somewhat, but our culture should know no to trust everything on the web.
Perceptions of Intelligence
Intelligence is a concept that has numerous meanings across time, geography and culture. Typically, most of the definitions connect some sort of skill, plan or understanding of concepts, new things, etc. -- and the way that knowledge is combined with other ideas to form something new or adaptive. Numerous psychologists and neurologists continue to debate the differing types of intelligence and the ways individuals combine them to form a unique (and individual) basis for the way they view the world (Garlick, 2010). Creative intelligence, for instance, is the way individuals perceive their universe -- the world around them, and how that changes. Of course, because of the differences in the way people perceive their world, and the differences in the way and manner the external world is constructed, all individuals may be creative in one way or another. For instance, imagine how creative it was for our…
Yuri Bronfenbrenner. (2005, September 26). Retrieved from Cornell University News:
Benjamin, L. (2009). The Birth of American Intelligence Testing. Monitor on Psychology.
40(1): Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/01/assessment.html
ecruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity
The Effects of ecruiting Methods on Cultural Diversity
Maintaining cultural diversity in an organization can lead to innovation and an increased competitive advantage in the marketplace. In the past, the term cultural diversity referred to differences in race or religion. Now, the term cultural diversity means much more than that. As the uniqueness of each individual is recognized, the term cultural diversity has grown to encompass many factors about a person and their background. Cultural diversity is no longer delineated by major lines of color and national origin. This research will explore the effects of human resources on cultural diversity within an organization.
Cultural Diversity and the Workforce
acial diversity issues have increased in importance since the Civil ights Movement of 1964. It was recognized that white, Caucasian, males still constituted the majority in the workforce. Until that time, the select group was treated as…
Avery, D.R. & McKay, P.F. (2006). Target practice. An organizational impression management approach to attracting minority and female job applicants. Personal Psychology.
Chrobot-Mason, D. & Leslie, J.B. (2003). The role of multicultural competence and emotional intelligence in managing diversity. 32 (3): 269-263.
Cox, T. (1993). Cultural diversity in organizations: Theory, research and practice. San Francisco,
CA: Berrett-Koehle Publishers, Inc.
Counterterrorism and Intelligence Framework
Terrorism has been the greatest threat to American soil since the end of the Cold ar, and the country has responded to these threats by creating an elaborate counterterrorism and intelligence framework. This counterterrorism strategy must use every possible tool in America's arsenal, and must meet the highest standards in excellence for the duty it is tasked to perform. The nature of terrorist threats in America in the 21st century is the fact that nobody knows where and why terrorism may appear.
Three agencies will form the core of the new counterterrorism and intelligence gather efforts coordinated by the Department of Homeland Security. (Homeland Security, 2012) These three agencies are the CIA, the FBI, and the DOD, and each already fulfills necessary functions in America's fight on terror. hile still operating within the legal framework that surrounds each agency, I look to improve the overall effectiveness…
Coker, M. (2012, March 6). U.S., Yemen Restart Training. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204276304577265321207513952.html
Homeland security. (2012, February 3). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/gc_1240598490142.shtm
Intelligence.gov. (2012). Seventeen Agencies and Organizations United Under One Goal. Retrieved from website: http://www.intelligence.gov/about-the-intelligence-community/
Lee Myers, S. (2012, March 22). www.nytimes.com. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/23/world/us-intelligence-report-warns-of-global-water-tensions.html
S. directly. Evidently, the long-term objectives indirectly face the smooth running of the U.S. government. Priority should be given to those aspects that will pull the resources of the country to extreme levels. The U.S. As a super-power is privileged when tackling issues affecting other nations; it is mandated to help developing long-term solutions.
Long-term also implies that the impacts and effects need to be widespread in order to maintain balance and ensure the prosperity of all sectors is recognized. The above long-term objectives are issues that need time and resources in order to be able to resolve the issue that affects the stability of these countries among other issues. The Soviet Union, for example, is crying to have political relations with ussia. This means that the military forces will be deployed to this country. However, the negotiation process is hefty and requires time and adequate resources in order to…
Bruce, J. & Bennett, M. (2008). "Foreign Denial and Deception: Analytical Imperatives,"
Analyzing Intelligence: Origins, Obstacles, and Innovations. Washington, DC:
Burch, J. (2008). The Domestic Intelligence Gap: Progress Since 9/11? Homeland Security
U.S. Intelligence Stategy Histoy
The United States has always been a county that pided itself on the excellence of its militay excellenc and pecision. The defense and national foces have been at the heat of militay intelligence thoughout the yeas stating with 2001, in Septembe. Many govenment agencies, fo example, have joined foces with moe taditional militay foces to help combat both mino cime foces with those of a moe sophisticated body of cime thoughtout the United States and the wold. A histoical examination of the vaious elements elated to U.S. intelligence duing militay intense times eveal that moe attention to social o human concens duing the times involved might have ceated a geate dive towads caing fo those left destitute by a focus on militay o social concens duing Wold Wa II, the militay inquiies of the 1970s, and the invasion of Iaq stated in 2003. When examining the…
r, intelligence analysts had grossly underestimated Japanese capabilities and intentions, revealing a tendency to misunderstand Japanese actions by looking at them with American cultural biases. After the war, the resolve of America's leaders "never again" to permit another Pearl Harbor largely prompted the establishment of a centralized intelligence structure.
America's entrance into World War II created an immediate need for intelligence to support the warfighter. While the Army and the Navy maintained their own intelligence capabilities, none were prepared to provide the kind of support needed.1 To bolster this effort, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was created in June 1942, under the recently established Joint Chiefs of Staff to succeed the Coordinator of Information. William Donovan remained in charge of the reorganized unit. In addition to assuming the analytical role of its predecessor, the OSS was chartered to carry out clandestine operations against the Axis powers on a worldwide scale. It was not, however, readily accepted by the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), who remained skeptical of the value of OSS activities, and the new unit faced strong competition from the FBI and the Army's intelligence organization.
Usually glamorized as the dashing operations arm of the U.S. Army (with its well-known espionage exploits with the Resistance in Europe), the OSS' contribution to intelligence production has gone largely unnoticed. It was, however, one of the seven major intelligence producers and was an important training ground for a generation of intelligence analysts, as well as operatives. Decidedly different than the British system, the OSS established the tradition of putting analysts and operatives in the same organization. The difficulties, however, that the OSS had in establishing itself within the JCS structure reaffirmed
Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: A longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States
Crossvergence in a Period of Dynamic. Turbulent Cultural Change: Assessing The Kelley, MacNab, And Worthley Study
The nuances and subtle shifts in a culture as a result of globalization is a paradox for many enterprises to manage over time and also for shot nations to anticipate and plan for economic, political and social shifts over time. As globalization continues to accelerate the integration and assimilation of diverse cultures together, the long-standing cultural frameworks including Hofstede's Model of Cultural Dimensions increasingly appears unable to capture cultural nuances effectively, and often, due to its structure, generalize differences between cultures (Kelley, MacNab, Worthley, 2006). One of the most valuable lessons learned from the Kelley, MacNab, and Worthley study is that there are often significant nuances and differences in the five cultural dimensions within a region, which…
Gupta, V. & Wang, J. 2004, "The Transvergence Proposition Under Globalization: Looking Beyond Convergence, Divergence and Crossvergence," Multinational Business Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 37-57.
Kelley, L., MacNab, B. & Worthley, R. (2006) 'Crossvergence and cultural tendencies: a longitudinal test of the Hong Kong, Taiwan and United States banking sectors', Journal of International Management, 12 (1), pp. 67 -- 84, Science Direct [Online]. DOI:10.1016/j.intman.2005.04.002 (Accessed: 23 December 2009).
Ralston, D.A. 2008, "The crossvergence perspective: reflections and projections," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 27-40.
Sarala, R.M. & Vaara, E. 2010, "Cultural differences, convergence, and crossvergence as explanations of knowledge transfer in international acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 1365-1390.
Attribution Theory and Emotional Intelligence
Attribution theory is a theory that focuses on creating an understanding of the ways in which people interpret events and the relationship of the events to their thinking and behaviors. The theory was proposed by Heider (1958), Weiner (1972 and 1986), and Weiner (1074). Attribution theory takes into assuption that individuals try to understand why people behave the way they do (attribute causes of events to behaviors). It also creates an understanding of behavior of individuals using three-stage processes that are considered to build the strength of the attribution. Among the processes include the fact that an individual should perceive or see their behavior, individuals should believe that their behaviors were due their intentional circumstances. Finally, individuals should determine whether they believe somebody else forced them to perform or engage in that behavior.
The relationship between these factors creates a web of causation…
Goleman, D., Boyatzis, R.E., & McKee, A. (2002). Primal leadership: realizing the power of emotional intelligence. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.
Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003). Rising tide: gender equality and cultural change around the world. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Macleod, D.V. (2004). Tourism, globalisation, and cultural change an island community perspective. Clevedon: Channel View Publications.
Matthews, G., Zeidner, M., & Roberts, R.D. (2002). Emotional intelligence science and myth. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Measurement and Statistics
Intelligence: Definition and assessment
Two major interpretations of intelligence exist -- the concept of 'general intelligence,' which is often pitted against the concept of 'multiple intelligences.' For many years, it was though that only one kind of intelligence existed, known as the 'g-factor,' or general intelligence. "In recent decades, psychologists have devoted much effort to isolating that general factor, which is abbreviated g, from the other aspects of cognitive ability gauged in mental tests" (Gottfredson 2010). However, some researchers such as Howard Gardner have attempted to reframe the g-factor and advocate that intelligence is a multi-faceted concept.
Intelligence tests are often contrasted against personality tests, in which different characteristics are viewed to exist as unrelated to one another. For example, in a standard Myers-Briggs personality test, a person can be 'extroverted' and a 'judging' type or 'introverted' and a 'judging' type. Different personality characteristics do not necessarily…
Achievement tests. (2011). Institute of Mental Measurements. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at http://www.unl.edu/buros/bimm/html/index01.html
Becker, Kirt. (2003). History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales. Houghton-Mifflin.
Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.assess.nelson.com/pdf/sb5-asb1.pdf
Gilman, Linda. (2001). Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Intelligence Theory.
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…
Ashton, S.R. "Keeping a Foot in the Door: Britain's China Policy, 1945 -- 50." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (2004): 79-94.
Bjorge, Gary J. "The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 1 (2010):
Boyd, James. "Japanese Cultural Diplomacy in Action: The Zenrin ky? okai in Inner Mongolia,
Gardner's Seven Intelligences - Implications for Differentiated Language Instructions in the Classroom
Multiple intelligence theory, found by Howard Gardner, had created a challenge, as well as a hole to fix in classroom practical approaches. Previously, public only related and judged intelligence from one's ability to perform mathematic aspect, ability to memorize. Even schools commonly assess students' intelligence and put grades based on these types. In fact, human brain is more complex and each person develops unique approach in learning.
Gardner's Multiple-Intelligence Theory
Gardner had developed different conception against intelligence, which he believed to be integration of all elements of human thinking skills or one's capability to "solve problems or to fashion products that are valued in one or more cultural setting" (Gardner & Hatch, 1989 as cited in Brualdi, 1996). ithin this definition, human should see intelligence as an active effort of human brain to contribute various aspects while thinking…
Brualdi, Amy C. Multiple Intelligences: Gardner's Theory. ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation Washington DC. 1996. ED410226. Accessed May 30, 2003. Web site: http://ericae.net/digests/tm9601.htm
Florez, MaryAnn C. Current Concepts and Terms in Adult ESL Q & A. ERIC/National Center for ESL Literacy Education (NCLE) Document. Nov. 1998. Accessed May 30, 2003. Web site: http://www.cal.org/ncle/digests/TermsQA.htm
Hoerr, Thomas R. How Our School Applied Multiple Intelligences Theory. Educational Leadership. Vol. 50 No. 2. Oct. 1992. The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Accessed May 30, 2003. Web site: http://www.ascd.org/readingroom/edlead/9210/hoerr.html
Theisen, Toni. Differentiated Instruction in the Foreign Language Classroom: Meeting the Diverse Needs of All Learners. The Communique. The Languages Other Than English Center for Educator Development. Issue 6. Accessed May 30, 2003. Southwest Educational Development Laboratory. Web site: http://www.sedl.org/loteced/communique/n06.pdf
.....leadership outlines a number of different hypotheses regarding leadership style that have emerged over the years. At the intersection of traits and more progressive views of leadership style is the idea that emotional intelligence is a significant contributor to leadership success. Similarly, it has become leadership orthodoxy that transformational leaders are more successful than transactional ones. Given that transformational leadership requires the leader to inspire and motivate followers, and that a high degree of emotional intelligence would reasonably be thought to aid in this, the hypothesis can be formed that leaders with emotional intelligence are more likely to be transformational leaders, and more successful ones as well.
Several studies have explored the link between emotional intelligence and the transformational leadership style. Quader (2011) notes that emotional leadership can be subdivided into five different areas. Of these, three are more associated with transactional leadership: self-awareness, self-motivation and emotional mentoring). As such,…
Spearman and Gardner Intelligence
Spearman's Model of Intelligence and Gardner's Multiple Intelligences theories have both played important roles in modern understanding of intelligence. At the same time, the theories are fundamentally very different. Spearman's model is based on an understanding of intelligence as a single, measurable variable 'g'. In contrast, Gardner sees intelligence as an amalgamation of as many as eight different forms of intelligence. Gardner's model allows for a more fluid understanding of intelligence that takes into consideration cultural differences, while Spearman's model is more rigid and innate.
The study of intelligence is notoriously difficult. In many ways, intelligence is an abstract concept that is composed of a number of different components. It is an internal, mental process that is not truly based in a concrete, objective reality. As such, Spearman and Gardner's attempts at understanding intelligence are both ultimately limited by the very nature of intelligence itself.
Harvard University. Theory of Multiple Intelligences. 06 December 2003. http://www.pz.harvard.edu/sumit/MISUMIT.htm
Spearman, C. (1904.) General Intelligence objectively determined and measured. American Journal Of Psychology, 15, 201-293.
Although the content of the article is positioned for management Harmon very effectively presents the reader with a historical perspective on the concept of emotional intelligence and explains to the reader that this particular psychological trait begins in infancy. She concludes the historical presentation with the thought that emotional intelligence is clearly based on well-developed communication patterns through out a person's lifetime. In other words, emotional intelligence is not bio-neurological trait, rather that which is learned through effective communication - a life-long process.
Harmon carries her thesis over to management style by informing the reader that all too often managers pride themselves on possessing a level of knowledge that employees do not have and are, therefore, reluctant to accept the idea that emotional intelligence is a way in which to coach, mentor, and guide employees with respect to performing better. Harmon goes on to report that emotional intelligence is extremely…
Patricia, Harmon. "Emotional Intelligence: Another Management Fad, or a Skill of Leverage?"
Center for Quality of
emotional intelligence" was first used in the academic literature in the early 1990s. In the mid-1990s, emotional intelligence made the pages of mainstream news magazines and bestseller books. According to James Kierstead (1999), "emotional intelligence is an umbrella term that captures a broad collection of individual skills and dispositions usually referred to as soft skills or inter and intra-personal skills," (1). Emotional intelligence has received some attention recently in literature pertaining to human resources, largely because the essence of human resources depends on aspects of emotional intelligence. However, research into the interface between emotional intelligence and leadership has yet to be thoroughly examined. In particular, I would like to postulate a connection between emotional intelligence and leadership, with a research hypothesis stating basically that emotionally intelligent interpersonal traits can be found in all strong leaders regardless of their leadership styles.
2. One of the most exciting topics in the field…
Kierstead, James. (1999). "Human Resource Management Trends and Issues: Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace." Online at .
A psychologist named Ulric Nessier believes that flashbulb memories are formed because they represent an intersection of historical and personal trajectories, and this makes them events that people want to retell and rehearse again and again. t is through these rehearsals and retellings that inaccuracies manage to creep in, and as they are reinforced through repeated retellings they become just as much a part of the memories as the actual events. That is, retelling the flashbulb memory to others is the same as rehearsing the memory, or reliving it to a certain degree, and when there are inaccurate elements in this reliving they eventually become as firmly entrenched in the memory of the true-life event as the factual memories. This explains why so many people remember seeing both planes hit on 9/11 when this was actually impossible.
For this assignment, completed the test found at http://www.intelligencetest.com/, after searching…
For this assignment, I completed the test found at http://www.intelligencetest.com/ , after searching the term "intelligence test" at askjeeves.com. While many of the questions did seem to be fairly accurate ways of gauging intelligence in certain areas, such as pattern recognition or mathematical abilities, many of the questions seemed to depend on knowledge that would have to be acquired prior to taking the test. While this information was fairly basic for the most part, it was easy to see that someone who simply hadn't been exposed to the facts would be gauged as having a lower intelligence than they might actually possess based on this feature of the test. While I feel that I possessed the knowledge that was required in these certain items on the test, this reflects the cultural bias that exists in many intelligence tests, and arguably in all intelligence tests. It also calls into question the definition of intelligence as it is defined in various intelligence tests, including this one.
As far as how it felt to take this test, I actually found it kind of exciting -- especially when I was pretty sure (or positive) that I had the right answer. Many of the items appeared incredibly easy, while others were less so, and the fact that I didn't get a perfect score means that the test obviously had some items that were more difficult than I thought. I was very eager to see my results, and throughout the test I found it difficult to concentrate only on the questions/items as they were presented because I kept wondering what each specific item was supposed to measure and what my answer would say about my intelligence. Ultimately, I don't think any internet-administered test that takes a maximum of fifteen minutes to complete can accurately assess anyone's intelligence, so I do not have a great deal of faith in my score, but the experience was definitely fun and made taking the test worthwhile.
" (Pettersson, 2006) Oral and written verbal art languages are both used for the purpose of information communication as well as information presentation with the reader and listener receiving an invitation to consider the information.
The Narrative & the Symbolic
The work of Abiola Irele (2001) entitled: "The African Imagination: Literature in Africa & the lack Diaspora" states that Hampate a "...incorporates the essential feature of the oral narrative at significant points in his work in order to reflect their appropriateness to situations and for special effects. Their conjunction with the narrative procedures sanctioned by the Western model thus enlarges their scope and give them an unusual resonance. At the same time, although he writes with conscious reference to this Western model, he does not feel so constrained by the framework of its conventions that he is unable to go beyond its limitations. His departures from the established codes of…
Aggarwal, Kusum. Amadou Hampate Ba et l'africanisme. De la recherche anthropologique a l'exercice de la fonction auctoriale. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1999.
Dielika Diallo "Hampate Ba: the great conciliator." UNESCO Courier. FindArticles.com. 30 Sep, 2009. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1310/is_1992_Jan/ai_11921818/ . UNESCO 1992. Online available at:
Over the years, there have been discussions surrounding the issue of intelligence and how it can be measured as well as what parameters determined who is more intelligent than the other. Controversy has surrounded the definition and measurement of intelligence and many scholars have opined that the controversy is mainly based on the fact that historically intelligence has been defined on the grounds of how much one knows rather than how well one processes (Fagan J.F., 2000:Pp1). IQ has been defined in perspective of how much an individual knows in relation to the age mates. This has been faulted several times and hence this paper will highlight some of the theories that have been historically used to define intelligence, the biases in the testing of intelligence and the controversies that have surrounded the entire aspect of intelligence.
On of the major theorists in intelligence is Galton, indeed, he is…
Golstein H., (2012). Francis Galton, measurement, psychometrics and social progress. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.bristol.ac.uk/cmm/team/hg/full-publications/2012/Galton.pdf
Fagan J.F., (2000). A Theory of Intelligence as Processing: Implication for Society. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~rakison/fagan.pdf
Kane H. & Brand C., (2003). The Importance of Spearman's g as a Psychometric, Social, and Educational Construct. The Occidental Quarterly. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from https://www.toqonline.com/archives/v3n1/TOQv3n1Kane-Brand.pdf
McGraw Kevin, (2009). Evolution of CHC Theory of Intelligence and Assessment. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.ibapnet.org.br/congresso2009/material/chctimeline2.pdf
National Intelligence Strategy
The Five Mission Objectives
Under the leadership of the Director of National Intelligence, John Negroponte, in 2005, the National Intelligence Strategy was developed. The strategy had a clear description of how the United States of America intelligence community was going to overhaul its function in intelligence in and out of America. It had five Mission Objectives in the effort of predicting, penetrating, and preempting the possible threats that face the security of the United States of America. The five objectives were (National Intelligence, 2005):
The National Intelligence was out to ensure that all the efforts posed by terrorists in the fulfillment of their terrorism activities against the U.S.A. were defeated. They intended to do this through destabilization of their systems of support, leadership and the entire network. The strategy went further to state whose responsibility it was to carry this objective by naming the National…
Catino, M.S. Strategic Intelligence: The Soviet Union and Strategic Intelligence in the Early Cold War, 1945-1953. Henley Putnam University.
National Intelligence. (2005). Transformation through Integration and Innovation. . The National Intelligence Strategy of the United States of America .
Powell, J.H., & Bradford, J.P. (2000). Targeting intelligence gathering in a dynamic competitive environment. International Journal of Information Management. 20, 181- 195.
Rolington, A. (2013). Strategic Intelligence for the 21st Century: The Mosaic Method. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Global Business Cultural Analysis
Synopsis of Nigerian government
Nigerian monarchy to presidential system
The evolution of Nigeria from British control to a civilian democratic government
Nigerian major commodities
The major elements and dimensions of culture in Nigeria
Model of culture
Universalism or Particularize
How is the integration of elements and dimensions that Nigerians doing business in the country?
The effects of governments on the prospects for its business around the world
How the elements and dimensions compared with the United States, culture, and business?
The role of women in the workplace
Business visitors must be dressed in an elegant and tie (for men!)
Cross-cultural business transactions between the United States and Nigeria
Thurstan Shaw and Steve Daniels, who are the founder for archaeological research proved in their research that Nigeria has been developed since 9,000…
Afolayan, T.E. (2011). Coming To America: The Social and Economic Mobility of African Immigrants in the United States. Inquiry (University of New Hampshire), 6-11. Retrieved from EBSCO host.
Alutu, O.E., & Udhawuve, M.L. (2009). Unethical Practices in Nigerian Engineering Industries: Complications for Project Management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 25(1), 40-43. Doi: 10.1061 / (ASCE) 0742-597X (2009)25:1(40)
Global Perspectives on Leadership
Working with individuals from Latin America requires significant consideration of various factors that influence the relationship and the realization of a shared organizational objective. Firstly, taking into consideration the cross-cultural communication that will dominate the interaction with individuals from this culture is imperative. The fact that cultural differences exist translate to the communication breakdown that should be managed by the leader of an organization. Developing a culture-sensitive environment will help eliminate such barriers. The leader should also consider the context and content of understanding business setup when working with individuals with Latin America culture. Textual analysis shows that Latin business culture focuses on the broad aspects of the organizational relationship, social approaches, and broad circumstances influencing the business (Moran, 2011, p. 215).
However, the culture of other states such as the U.S. places a strong emphasis on the communication content. The content of focus includes facts,…
Moran, Robert T. Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success (8th Edition).: Routledge, . (2011). Print
orking in the field of research analysis, a person must literally wade through thousands of pieces of information in order to determine the proper courses of action that should be undertaken under various circumstances. All research analysts work in either the government or in the private sector, most often in fields such as marketing wherein they acquire data based on consumers and consumption. From that data, they must determine what trends influence consumerism and how to best provide for their clients way that would induce consumers to purchase or utilize various goods and/or services (Roberts 2010). The governments of the world have always been responsible for accumulating and exposing information to the populations under their control. In the United States, there are laws which ensure that information is made available to any persons who demand it. Although, there is still information which is under the strict control of…
Baker, Seth M. (2011). "Information is Overrated." HappenChance. Word Press.
"Freedom of Information FAQS." (2011).
McKellar, Ian (2011). "We Already Have Information, Why do We Need More Data?" Word
Also, virtue ethics must ensure that the leader acts in the best interest of those who he represents, works with, and works for. However, this does not suffice in order to implement an effective leadership style.
In addition to this, the leader must be surrounded by individuals with similar ethical behavior. This would help the leader to achieve ethical responsibilities. Also, it would make it easier to observe any unethical conduct from the leader.
As mentioned above, there are also different levels of ethics, like mandatory and aspirational ethics. The lowest level of ethics, but not the least important, is represented by mandatory ethics. This type of ethics refers to compliance with the law. In this case, things are clear. All individuals, especially leaders, must respect the law.
Aspirational ethics refer to the effects and influence that leaders' actions have on others. The first people leaders influence are represented by…
1. Finkelstein, S. (1992). Power in Top Management Teams: Dimensions, Measurement and Validation. Academy of Management Journal. No. 8. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
2. Snell, S.A., Dean, J.W. (1992). Integrated Manufacturing Resources Management, A Human Capital Perspective. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 35, No. 2. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
3. Kings, Queens, and Dictators (2000). Forbes.com, Inc. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2000/0703/6515256a.html?partner=whiteglove_google .
4. Saddam Hussein (2005). Global Security Organization. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/saddam.htm .
American Cultural History And Cult of Matthias
There had been many changes occurs in terms of the progress of the economy, population and intellectual abilities during the 18th century and these could be considered as the possible reasons for the evolution of a fresh thinking in all the various spheres of life, and this pertains to religion as well. This was in complete a need for change and a great desire for bring about changes. To a certain extent, this was considered to bring about the end of earlier concepts of religion of pertaining to the thought that it can be handled only by the privileged classes also ended. This led to the emergence of certain new religious thinkers and practical leaders like that of Mathias as leaders like him could not have become popular religious figures in the previous era. The line of thinking of Matthias was very much…
Amazon Book Review: The Kingdom of Matthias/a Story of Sex and Salvation in 19Th-Century
America: A Story of Sex and Salvation in 19Th-Centtury America. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/product-description/0195098358/ref=dp_proddesc_0/102-8894187-2176153?%5Fencoding=UTF8& ; n=283155 Accessed 30 September, 2005
Bush, Perry. The Kingdom of Matthias: A Story of Sex and Salvation in 19th-Century America.
Book reviews. Journal of Social History. Spring, 1997. Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2005/is_n3_v30/ai_19409248
Culturally Biased Intelligence Assessment
Intelligence assessments have existed since the early twentieth century and have continued to be a topic of debate. We all know full well that intelligence assessment is critical to the type if academic success that we achieve in life. One of the primary tools used to assess intelligence is the IQ test. However, the intelligence quotient test has been under scrutiny for decades because it is believed to harbor culturally biased precepts.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the cultural bias' that exist in intelligence quotient testing. We will begin with a literary review which will start by explaining the definition of cultural bias in testing and the historical implications. We will explain the origins of the IQ test and the reasons why the cultural bias exist. Our discussion will then focus on how cultural bias in intelligence assessment has produced historical implications.
Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132.
Enriching the Focus on ethnicity and race. (1998). APA Monitor. VOLUME 29, NUMBER 3 - March 1998 www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=95784671
Alexander, K.L. (1997). Public Schools and the Public Good. Social Forces, 76(1), 1-30.
The researchers found that the student's minimum performance rate correlated more closely with their IQ scores than any other single variable. High and low IQ scores were predicted on the basis of the worst performance (minimum recall) and the best performance (maximum recall). When compared, those that were predicted on the basis of the worst performance were more accurate, indicating that "worst performance reveals more about intelligence than best performance" (p. 9). The study was significant because it measured preparatory strategies which earlier research did not. It was also the first time the Worst Performance rule was tested on children rather than adults. The findings suggested "developmental invariance," that is, no difference between people of different ages. But this should be tested in a project that puts adults and children together and gives them the same task. The researcher points out that low-IQ participants sometimes do well, but they dip…
Coyle, T.R. (2001). IQ is related to the worst performance rule in a memory task involving children. Ablex Publishing Corporation, 29 (2), 117. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from Expanded Academic ASAP database via Gale.
Hogan, R. (2002). Might outdoor education help develop intelligence? Outdoor Council of Australia, 6 (2), 2. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from Expanded Academic ASAP database via Gale.
Holden, C. (2003). The practical benefits of general intelligence. American Association for the Advancement of Science, 299 (5604), 192. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from Expanded Academic ASAP database via Gale.
Nunley, M. (1995). "The bell curve" too smooth to be true, 39 (1), 74. Retrieved 3 December 2008 from General OneFile database via Gale.
Evolution of the Concept of Intelligence
The concept of IQ is relatively recent, despite the widespread cultural tendency to regard intelligence as a discrete and measurable category that has existed since time began. Intelligence tests were initially constructed with a relatively straightforward purpose -- to discern which children could flourish in the rigid French school system. After the French government passed a law requiring all French children attend school, it commissioned Alfred Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon to identify which children exhibited cognitive deficits. Binet focused upon skills that were not necessarily 'taught' to children, such as "attention, memory and problem-solving skills," to ensure that children from more privileged backgrounds did not have an advantage on the test (Cherry 2010). Binet also created a distinction between children able to answer more advanced questions only older children were capable of solving and average children. "Based on this observation, Binet suggested…
Bensen, Etienne. (2003). Intelligent intelligence testing. APA Monitor, 34(2): 48.
Retrieved July 9, 2011 at http://www.apa.org/monitor/feb03/intelligent.aspx
Cherry, Kendra. (2011). History of intelligence testing. Retrieved July 9, 2011 at http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologicaltesting/a/int-history.htm
Gardner's multiple intelligences. (2006). Personality and Individual Differences.
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Stanford -- Binet Intelligence Scales
Analysis of Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Stanford -- Binet Intelligence
Present use of Stanford -- Binet Intelligence and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
esults from Studies
The performance IQ
Assessment of Intellectual Functioning
Psychological testing -- also known as the psychological assessment -- is basically the foundation of how psychologists are able to get a better understanding a person and their behavior. It is a process of problem solving for many professionals -- to try and regulate the core components of a person's psychological or mental health difficulties, personality, IQ, or some other element. It is likewise some kind of process that aids and identifies not just flaws of a person, but also all of their strengths. Psychological testing are done to measure a person's performance at a particular point in time. Psychologists discuss about an individual's…
Arrigo, B.A. (2009). Police corruption and psychological testing: A strategy for preemployment screening. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 12(3), 23-45.
Emerson, E., Einfeld, S., & Stancliffe, R.J. (2010). The mental health of young children with intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(21), 21-34.
Gonzalez-Gordon, R.G., Salvador-Carulla, L., Romero, C., Gonzalez-Saiz, F., & Romero, D. (2012). Feasibility, reliability and validity of the Spanish version of Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disability: A structured psychiatric interview for intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 21(6), 111-120.
Maeda, S., Kita, F., Miyawaki, T., & Takeuchi. (2012). Assessment of patients with intellectual disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to evaluate dental treatment tolerability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 24(9), 253-259.
Foreign Intelligence Services
There is much controversy with regard to the foreign policy practiced by the majority of powerful nations in the contemporary society. In an environment where intelligence is often the key to success, emerging powers have the tendency to improve their intelligence services and to get actively involved in competing with some of the established actors in the international setting. hile Russia proved to be an impressive adversary for the U.S. during the Cold ar era, new powers such as China and Iran currently represent significant opponents for the est. hen considering the U.S.' current role in international affairs, it would be important for someone to gain a complex understanding of the degree to which countries such as Russia, China, and Iran represent significant threats today.
Russian-American relations have been turbulent throughout the second half of the twentieth century. The 1990s have brought a breath of fresh air…
Schoen, D. "The Russia-China Axis: The New Cold War and America's Crisis of Leadership." (Encounter Books, 9 Sep 2014)
United States. Congress. House. Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence . "Annual Threat Assessment of the U.S. Intelligence Community: Hearing Before the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, Second Session, Hearing Held in Washington, DC, February 3, 2010," (U.S. Government Printing Office, 2010)
"Iran's Ministry of Intelligence and Security: A Profile," A Report Prepared by the Federal Research Division, Library of Congress under an Interagency Agreement with the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office's Irregular Warfare Support Program December 2012.
2003, when the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) was instituted, the concept of geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) was largely at its outset. Its beginnings had been propagated in preceding decades, but the circumstances were finally prime for the discipline to develop, grow and spring new branches with the ability to support a growing community practicing a verified dexterity.[footnoteef:1] In delineation, geospatial intelligence takes into account taking advantage of and analyzing images and geospatial information to outline, appraise, and visually portray physical features and geographically mentioned activities on Earth. This is purposed to distinguish the important property of geographical position linked with the data that the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency and the intelligence community generate and analyze. It is also purposed to lay emphasis on the value-added examinations that the NGA undertakes to generate a specific kind of actionable intelligence.[footnoteef:2] Taking into consideration that the purpose of geospatial intelligence is to pinpoint and…
Alderton, Matt. "The Defining Decade of GEOINT." Trajectory, 2014.
Buxbaum, Peter. "Geospatial's Big Data Challenge." Intelligence Geospatial Forum, 2015.
Flint, Colin. Introduction to geopolitics. Routledge, 2016.
Mapping Science Committee. New research directions for the national geospatial-intelligence agency. National Academies Press, 2010.
Kubrick himself suggested the baton be passed onto Spielberg due to that director's unique abilities.
The play was originally-based Brian Aldiss's short story "Supertoys Last All Summer Long," on which a.I. is based, in 1983 (Corliss 1-3). In the Kubrick formulation, the world is a lot darker and Gigolo Joe is much more aggressive. According to Corliss in the "Joe was much more aggressive, more twisted." Here he is, in Spielberg's word, David's "scoutmaster." Spielberg did this to solve many of the problems Spielberg had with the text, Joe being one of the biggest problems. By softening things and making them more human and less dark, he provided solution to the problem (Ibid 1). The Flesh Fair and Rouge City are vintage Kubric and remained a part of the body of the work. Garish scenery completes this menagerie Spielberg identifies himself with the abandoned child (ibid 2).
It is the…
Corliss, Richard. Time 17 June 2001: 1-3. Web. 3 Nov 2010.
All in all, Turkey is once again western through democracy, but eastern through its identity elements.
4. Impact on Turkey's development and the relations with the United States, Europe and the Middle East
An interesting element at this stage is constituted by the undying desire of Turkey to adhere to the European Union. On the one hand, the country perceives this adherence as a natural step in the historical process and continually prepares for the entrance to the community. Yet, most members of the EU fear the inclusion of Turkey within the community's structures. The main arguments, while they have suffered modifications through time, refer to the different cultural values (including both religion as well as ethnicity) in Turkey and in Europe (Gole). In other words, there is the perception that Islam and other Middle East resembling features would not be adequately integrated within the European Union.
The same features…
Cagaptay, S., Not a bigger slice, a bigger pie, Cagaptay, 2009, http://www.cagaptay.com/6189/not-a-bigger-slice-but-a-bigger-pie last accessed on April 19, 2010
Eller, J.D., From culture to ethnicity to conflict: an anthropological perspective on international ethnic conflict, University of Michigan Press, 1999 http://books.google.com/books?id=a8CxvhZfPYoC&dq=From+Culture+to+Ethnicity+to+Conflict&printsec=frontcover&source=bn&hl=en&ei=d2DKS73CMobmswP_wOX7Ag&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CCIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false last accessed on April 19, 2010
Gokhan, S., The role of religion in law and politics: Turkish secularism, The Law and Society Association, http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/2/1/1/2/p121122_index.html last accessed on April 19, 2010
Gole, N., Europe- an identity or a project? Sign and Sight, http://www.signandsight.com/features/514.html last accessed on April 19, 2010
S. Family influence, as measured, for instance in giving money back to family in Mexico, declined depending on te Mexican-American's duration in America. Levels of political interest varied widely in Mexico, wit leftists, more igly educated and affluent persons, of te male gender sowing greater interest. Te U.S.'s greater perceived opportunities for meaningful involvement in te political process, risk-taking as a national caracteristic, participation in civic as opposed to religious organizations, and trust in te process seemed to spark greater interest. Interestingly, wile political affiliation is muc iger in Mexican-Americans compared wit teir Mexican counterparts, low levels of civic trust remain constant witin tese two groups. But Wite Americans specifically tend to equate democracy wit liberty, wile Mexican-Americans adopt tese attitudes fairly quickly, in contrast to Mexicans. In sort, some attitudes and patterns of beavior, te study found, are more open to socialization and cange and oters are not.
Democracy is not a static or trans-cultural concept. Rather, it is a complicated cultural construction that is highly dependant upon an individual's national origin and heritage, as well as his or her personal values and some attitudes towards democracy are more apt to change than others. These are the findings summarized in Roderic Ai Camp's article "Learning Democracy in Mexico and the United States," which examines the attitudes of Americans, Mexicans, and Mexican-Americans in a cross-national attitudinal study. Some of the findings were surprising, such as the high value placed upon education as a vehicle of improvement amongst all three groups, despite the significant differences between the three groups in terms of access. Others were more predictable, such as the tendency for Americans to be more centrist in their affiliations, while Mexicans are more concentrated at the polarized ends of the spectrum, which reflects the more economically stratified nature of Mexico.
As typical of another class-bound society, that of Great Britain, political affiliations and levels of interest seemed to be passed on from parents to children in Mexico, in contrast to the U.S. Family influence, as measured, for instance in giving money back to family in Mexico, declined depending on the Mexican-American's duration in America. Levels of political interest varied widely in Mexico, with leftists, more highly educated and affluent persons, of the male gender showing greater interest. The U.S.'s greater perceived opportunities for meaningful involvement in the political process, risk-taking as a national characteristic, participation in civic as opposed to religious organizations, and trust in the process seemed to spark greater interest. Interestingly, while political affiliation is much higher in Mexican-Americans compared with their Mexican counterparts, low levels of civic trust remain constant within these two groups. But White Americans specifically tend to equate democracy with liberty, while Mexican-Americans adopt these attitudes fairly quickly, in contrast to Mexicans. In short, some attitudes and patterns of behavior, the study found, are more open to socialization and change and others are not.
Management STYLE IN THE United States
Cultural Values and Business
Theory X vs. Theory Y
Management the High Tech Way
Management STYLE IN THE DOMINICAN EPUBLIC
CULTUAL VALUES AND Business
ole of Entrepreneurship
In the United States, management values, beliefs and attitudes have undergone a gradual shift away from the simplistic stance of planning, organizing and directing. Valuable managerial skills, no matter what culture is being considered, have traditionally been masculine skills, highlighting the dominant, assertive, and decisive elements of management behavior and downplaying the team and supportive aspects that are more readily identified with women. This traditional view is now giving way in the United States to an approach where team behaviour is seen as increasingly important to a truly successful management style.
The global leadership skills of the future will evolve from a combination of individual/group and masculine/feminine traits involving strategic thinking and communication skills. The final result…
Arnold, D.J. & Quelch, J.A. (1998). "New strategies in emerging markets." Sloan Management Review, 40, 7-20.
Bakhtari, H. (1995). "Cultural Effects on Management Style: A Comparative Study of American and Middle Eastern Management Styles." International Studies of Management & Organization, 25(3), 97+.
Barham, K., Fraser, J. & Heath, L. (1988). Management for the future. Foundation for Management Education/Ashridge Management College.
Bennis, W., Heil, G. & Stephens, D. (2000). Douglas McGregor, revisited: Managing the human side of enterprise. New York: John Wiley.
To deal with these difficulties, several recommendations can be formulated:
1. Cross-cultural variables: Ethnic matches should be arranged between client and therapist. These will be effective in dealing not only with communication problems, but also with cultural perceptions of the disease as well as with possible social stigmas attached to the disease. The therapist, sharing similar cultural background to the patient understands the patient's concern and speaks the patient's language therefore is more able than another to 'pull' her through.
Other recommendations include items such as that Government should allocate more funding to establishing specific mental health treatments that are run by and appeal to the various ethnic minorities. In a similar manner, government should increase their funding for research and clinical training of ethnic and racial minority members (e.g. The minority Fellowship Program and the CO). Finally, general Mental health services should incorporate cross-cultural communication variables in…
Leong, F.T.L., & Lau, A.S.L. (2001). Barriers to providing effective mental health services to Asian-Americans. Mental Health Services Research, 3, 201 -- 214.
Leong, F.T.L., & Kalibatseva, Z. (2011) Cross-cultura Barriers to mental Health services in United States. Cerebrum. The DANA Foundation. http://www.dana.org/news/cerebrum/detail.aspx?id=31364
People's Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom, by Lisa Delpit
Lisa Delpit's piece's first part entitled "Controversies Revisited" started off with an example of her point-of-view where there is language diversity in the classroom seen between white teachers and children of color. Through this experience, Delpit found that children may know that there is a difference in the codes of how people speak, they may not know how to properly express these codes or reproduce them, however they definitely know that they exists. Delpit stresses on page 48 that there is a need for educators to be sensitive about the codes in which they speak for the better learning facilitation of children from all sorts of different cultural backgrounds. Delpit stresses her main point that teachers need to be able to embrace the languages brought about by different students from all different cultures by giving them a way to express…
Chinese Atist AI Weiwei
"Tuth, No Matte the Powe: China govenment's aggesso."
This pesentation will povide you with an intoduction to Ai's life and wok, including his pesonal backgound, some of his geatest woks of at and thei significance as well as the contovesies they have caused in his native China.
Although AI has faced temendous opposition fom the Chinese govenment, he is a foce to be eckoned with: he has dedicated his life to change and expanding awaeness about human ights abuses in China. His intenational fame has made him a global voice fo China's 1.3 billion people.
Fist, I will povide you with a bief backgound as to Ai's beginnings. Ai is known fo his conceptual at, at that emphasizes ideas ove aesthetics and visual appeal. Ai believes that being an atist is moe about a lifestyle and attitude than poducing an atistic poduct. His ealy, seminal influence…