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We have over 1000 essays for "Developmental Psychology"

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Psychology Master's Degree Methodology Degree

Words: 2396 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 70293634

The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
necessary interdependency.

sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.

Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.

hase 1:
This first phase…… [Read More]

Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)

Spring 2010:
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
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Psychology - Biological Psychology Biological

Words: 794 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75541191



Important Theorists and their Contributions:

roca contributed greatly to the initial recognition of the importance of specific brain regions to particular aspects of human psychology and behavior in the middle of the 19th century. Shortly thereafter, William James published one of the first formal academic explanation of biopsychology just before the turn of the 20th century, titled the Principles of Psychology (Dennet, 1991; Pinker, 2002). James acknowledged that personal experience and external environmental factors played a role in human psychological development, but only in so far as they represent sets and types of automatic, involuntary, and inherent biological responses to circumstances (Dennet, 1991).

Approximately 60 years later, Walter Hess pioneered a method of directly exploring the role of specific brain regions and structures through the use of electro- stimulation (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). y implanting electrodes into anesthetized laboratory animals, Hess demonstrated that specific behaviors could be triggered by electrically…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dennet, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Dennet, D. (1996). Kinds of Minds: Toward an Understanding of Consciousness. New York: Basic Books

Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature.
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Psychology Take-Home Alan Alan's Quote Clearly Illustrates

Words: 1173 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22326837

Psychology take-Home

Alan

Alan's quote clearly illustrates the concept of 'emotional intelligence.' The theory of emotional intelligence is associated with Daniel Goleman, who suggests that success in life cannot be solely attributed to intellectual ability as measured on conventional IQ tests. (Intelligence testing is a form of cognitive psychology.) Emotional intelligence has become more accepted as a 'real' intelligence in recent years because of the growing popularity of Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences, or the idea that intelligence can defined according to specific ability groupings. Alan's sense of self-reflection about his own life underlines the fact that it is possible to develop emotional intelligence, even if someone is not naturally gifted in this particular area of his or her life.

Alan is an engineer, a profession that has traditionally valued technical capacities rather than feelings. But unlike some highly successful engineers, Alan has come to realize the importance of…… [Read More]

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psychology motivation and learning

Words: 672 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Other (not listed above) Paper #: 86022754

Post

Although it is controversial to say so, it does appear that early childhood exposure to media violence can precipitate aggressive behavior and violence in adulthood. In a longitudinal study that actually was able to determine causality in the same population sample, Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski & Eron (2003) show that there is a connection between media violence exposure and violent behavior. The type of violent behavior differed, largely due to gender. For example, men in the study were more likely to use physical aggression and violence but females were more likely to use other forms of aggression like verbal abuse. Regardless, the study should alert parents about how to monitor their children and how to talk to children about the violence they see. It is not simply the exposure to the violence, but the duration of exposure or frequency of viewing. Other factors that impact violence and aggression include personality…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Evaluate sociocultural explanations of the origins of violence," (n.d.). Retrieved online:  http://www.appsychology.com/IB%20Psych/IBcontent/Options/Humanrelationships/Rel9.htm 

Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39, 201-221.
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Psychology Affect on Domestic Violence on Children

Words: 3107 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42557590

psychological research there a thousands of pressing questions, yet among all those questions one rises to the top of the list. In the area of family psychology and family therapy the question of the psychological affects of domestic violence on children has been hotly debated and eternally researched, yet many questions remain unanswered. These questions are pressing as the institution of family in our culture evolves and emerges as an entirely different social dynamic than existed even twenty years ago. The psychological effects of violence, in the family upon children are vast and will probably always need further address.

Many families garner a different definition as more and more family units are head primarily by one parent and many families combine to become families consisting of several members who are related only by law, rather than by genetics. These trends began many years ago but continue to change the face…… [Read More]

References

Breggin, P.R. (2000). Reclaiming Our Children: A Healing Solution for a Nation in Crisis. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.

Cummings, E.M., El-sheikh, M., Cummings, E.M., & El-sheikh, M. (1991). 7 Children's Coping with Angry Environments: A Process-Oriented Approach. In Life-Span Developmental Psychology: Perspectives on Stress and Coping, Cummings, E.M., Greene, a.L., & Karraker, K.H. (Eds.) (pp. 131-147). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dakof, G.A. (1996). Meaning and Measurement of Family: Comment on Gorman-Smith Et Al. (1996). Journal of Family Psychology, 10(2), 142-146.

Gorman-Smith, D., Tolan, P.H., Zelli, a., & Huesmann, L.R. (1996). The Relation of Family Functioning to Violence Among Inner-City Minority Youths. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(2), 115-129.
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Psychology Assessment Multiple Choice Questions

Words: 1116 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 73466531

In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.

Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…… [Read More]

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Psychology Briefly Describe the Differences

Words: 551 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14840903



The nature vs. nurture debate is over whether an individual learns behaviors from their environment (nurture) or whether an individual is born with certain genetic traits and predispositions toward certain behaviors. Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nurture enhances nature: that while biology is important, environment probably trumps biology in most cases. One developmental process that can be explained by both genetics and environment is gender identity. Biology does affect certain aspects of gender and sexuality but environment and conditioning are very important factors in the development of an individual's gender identity.

4. How do maternal nutrition and alcohol use potentially affect the health of a fetus?

The heath of a fetus is directly related to maternal nutrition and fetal development is hindered by malnutrition or use of alcohol. Excess drinking by the mother can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may cause birth defects, mental health problems and hyperactivity in…… [Read More]

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Psychology Movie Relation

Words: 1364 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11166389

Psychology Movie elation

A ose for Emily

Diagnosing a psychological complication are a daunting task and one that requires immense responsibility of the concerned health professionals who examine the patient and decide the appropriate diagnosis (APA, 2001). Among the many variables that a psychological professional observes, are the patient's past life history. For Emily, an examination of the setting and characters in the plot, and an assessment of some of the themes in Faulkner's short story, A ose for Emily and the occurrences involving Emily's father aids the reader to comprehend the pressures with which Emily tried coping and how she might have suffered from schizophrenia. Emily came from a family of high stature and affluence in their southern community and always had a burden of enormous expectations that people had for her. Her community anticipated her to have a hereditary obligation to uphold traditions, norms that her ancestors had…… [Read More]

References

APA. (2001). Quick Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-IV. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.

Kinney, A.F. (2000). Faulkner's Narrative Poetics: Style as Vision. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.

Staton, S.F. (2005). Literary Theories in Praxis. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

William, F. (2003). "A Rose for Emily." In The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym. 2160-2166. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
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Psychology Thinking & Intelligence How

Words: 976 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53853690

These stores then send information into Short-Term memory stores, which then send information into Long-Term memory stores. The believed that control process were performed in short-term memory which allowed information to be put into long-term memory and then recalled from it as well (Baddeley, 1997).

6. Suppose a two-year-old child believed every object a person can go into with a roof is called a house. One day the child refers to the family car as a house. The parent corrects him and says this is a car not a house. Based on Piaget's theory, what will this child have to do in order to correctly process this material and not make a similar error in the future?

According to Piaget the child would have to assimilate and accommodate the information in order to not make the same mistake in the future. Assimilation is the process by which a person takes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baddeley, Alan D. (1997). Human Memory. Retrieved July 7, 2009, from Google Books Web

site: http://books.google.com/books?id=fMgm-

2 NXAXYC&pg=PA44&lpg=PA44&dq=Atkinson+and+Shiffrin%27s+(1971)+model+of

+memory&source=bl&ots=jLZi5KhHLo&sig=7Xk6Pz5i8SK3njg7lPGVsXSsIBE&hl=e n&ei=qk9TSv-MLoG6NfKlmOgI&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1
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Psychology Development Early Childhood Medelein N Moody

Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43288987

Psychology Development

Early Childhood

Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.

The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.

The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.

The results that were observed showed…… [Read More]

Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46

The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.

The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
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Psychology How Have You Been Labeled as

Words: 565 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42299334

Psychology

How have you been labeled as a child or as an adult, and how has this impacted your identity and performance?

As a child I was always labeled as intelligent. This impacted my identity by showing me how I was different from others (because of this special talent). When I became older, this established certain standards for academic performance. I used this to push myself to do more (based upon these beliefs).

Based on the newer, broader definitions of intelligence, (such as Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences), assess your own strengths and weaknesses. Do these definitions change the way you see yourself now?

These strengths and weaknesses are showing how I meet the various categories for intelligence (according to Gardner's theory). This based upon several predetermined criteria to include: the potential for brain isolation, the presence in core operations, a place in evolutionary history, distinct developmental progression, symbolic expression,…… [Read More]

Reference

Howard Gardner. (2012). In Fed. Retrieved from:  http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm 

Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
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Developmental Theories

Words: 1075 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99069675

Developmental Theories

Limitations of Great Theories

The psychoanalytic theory (Saul Mcleod, 2007)

ejection of the free will

Lack of scientific support

Samples were biased. For instance, only Austrian women were considered in proving the theory

Case studies were subjective

Cognitive Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)

Does not consider biology

The section on humanism dismisses scientific approaches

The ecological validity of the experiments is low

There is subjective introspection

Behavioral Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)

It is misplaced to compare humans and animals

It ignores the role of biology such as testosterone effects

There is little free will

Dismisses meditational process

The Surprises from Harlow's experiments

Harlow noted that that the existence of systems of affection that could fill in the gap for each other was sensible; from evolutionary standpoint. Indeed, compensations that were reciprocal presented a higher chance of social survival. According to Marga Vicedo (2010), diverse affectional…… [Read More]

References

Jake Edwards. (2009, Febraury 17). New Criticism. Retrieved from Reading Theory with Jolliffe: http://jolliffereadingtheory.blogspot.in/

KESSENICH, MAUREEN, MORRISON, FREDERICK J, & BISANZ, JEFFREY. (2002). Developmental Theory. The Gale Group Inc.

Marga Vicedo. (2010). The evolution of Harry Harlow: from the nature to the nurture of love. History of Psychiatry, 1-16.

Saul Mcleod. (2007). Psychodynamic Approach. Simplypsychology.
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Psychology the Roles of Nature

Words: 585 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 11986076

These hidden issues influence our conscious decisions. So, people may have both conscious and unconscious reasons for behaving as they do. People might be able to give what seem like rational reasons for behavior. Someone who sets fires might say he or she enjoys seeing the flames and likes watching the fire department put the fire out. Those may be the factors the individual is conscious of, but a psychologist might find that there were other reasons driving the person's behavior as well.

One of the things that often makes it hard for one person to understand another person's actions is that we have only observable behavior to go on. We can't examine the internal mental processes that take place. This makes it easy to judge people as acting in ways that suggest a moral flaw or lack of character. A woman who dresses very suggestively might be considered to…… [Read More]

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Psychology Developing Children and Multicultural

Words: 614 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 47055164

"

Response

The authors assessments about the power of television in influencing the ideas children have about multiculturalism are extremely relevant and accurate. All forms of media are extremely popular and as a result the messages that are presented about people from various cultures also become popular, even if the messages are untrue or based on stereotypes. The benefit of understanding the power of television on the minds of young people, is that parents have the ability to monitor how much television that their children watch. In addition, when questionable images do appear parents can discuss these images with children. y monitoring the images that children see on television, parents have the ability to shape the opinions of children concerning multiculturalism.

The article seems to also articulate the idea that the images seen on television can be used to reinforce positive attitudes in children concerning the culture that they belong…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berry G.L. (2003). Developing Children and Multicultural Attitudes: The Systemic

Psychosocial Influences of Television Portrayals in a Multimedia Society.

Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 9(4), 360 -- 366
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Psychology Terrorism the Stuff IT'S Made of

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70640262

Psychology Terrorism

THE STUFF IT'S MADE OF

Psychology Terrorism

Psychological Profile of a Terrorist

More than four decades of investigation on the profiling of terrorists yielded two major findings (Hudson, 1999; Nance, 2008). First, there does not seem to a single terrorist personality by which they can be profiled. Terrorism psychologists, political scientists and sociologists shared this consensus. Terrorist personalities are as varied as practitioners in the legal profession or any group. Terrorists do not possess neatly identifiable personality traits by which they can be visibly detected. Second, terrorists are not typically diagnosably psychopathic or mentally sick. Although they act and proceed with their task out of a delusional view of the world, they are actually and ironically sane and quite deliberate (Hudson, Nance).

Terrorist groups are carefully and highly selected during recruitment, although their top leaders may possess psychopathic traits (Hudson, 1999; Nance, 2008). ut members cannot depose a…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alexander, D.A. And Klein, S. (2005). The psychological aspects of terrorism: from denial to hyperbole. Vol. 98 # 12, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine: The

Royal Society of Medicine Press. Retrieved on December 7, 2013 from  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1299349 

Hudson, R.A. (1999). The sociology and psychology of terrorism: who becomes a terrorist and why? Federal Research Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on December 7, 2013 from  http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf 

Kershaw, S. 2010). The terrorist mind: an update. The New York Times: The New York
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Psychology Counseling One Thing That

Words: 1306 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80694416

This handbook was compiled as a remedy in the form of a sourcebook or guide to current work on free will and related subjects for those who wish to keep up with the latest research. (p. 3)

What is often called "the free will issue" or "the problem of free will," when viewed in historical perspective, is related to a cluster of philosophical issues -- all of them to be dealt with to some degree in this volume. 3 These include issues about (1) moral agency and responsibility, dignity, desert, accountability, and blameworthiness in ethics; (2) the nature and limits of human freedom, autonomy, coercion, and control in social and political theory; issues about (3) compulsion, addiction, self-control, self-deception, and weakness of will in philosophical psychology; (4) criminal liability, responsibility, and punishment in legal theory; (5) the relation of mind to body, consciousness, the nature of action, 4 and personhood…… [Read More]

References

Kane, R. (2001). The Oxford Handbook of Free Will.: Oxford University.

Midgley, M. (2002). Beast & Man. London & New York: Routledge.

Spruill, D.A., & Benshoff, J.M. (2000). Helping beginning counselors develop a personal theory of counseling. Counselor Education and Supervision, 40, p.70.

ID 83416 psychology
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Psychology - Developmental Scenario 1 the Single

Words: 1623 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 64983382

Psychology - Developmental

Scenario #1

The single mother comes home after a long day of work. The little girl, (Sara) is approximately 4-5 years old. Her mother realizes that someone there are small pieces of M&M's sprinkled around this kitchen floor, and assumes that her child has been eating the candy instead of waiting until after dinner. The mother asks Sara if she has been eating candy, and Sara looks down at the floor and adamantly denies that she has had any candy. She states that she has spent the afternoon watching television and painting pictures with grandma. Mom and child have been working on learning the difference between telling the truth and telling a lie and the mother is certain that the little girl has indeed been eating the candy. Telling lies is typically of children in this age group. Children may lie for several reasons, including trying to…… [Read More]

References

Mlyniec, Vicky. "Got An Attitude?" Parents. December 2003:209

Mlyniec, Vicky. "To Tell The Truth." Parents. December, 2003: 202

Martinez, Teresa. "Why Kids Want the Most - And More." Parenting, November 2003: 206
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Psychology of Consumer Behavior

Words: 1197 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92312808

Psychology of Consumer Behavior

Over the last several years, the issue of compulsive buying has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a number of individuals are making decisions that are not considered to be financially prudent. Instead, they are based the person feeling good about their purchase in the short-term. This is giving them a sense of emotional satisfaction. However, in the longer periods of time, is when these kinds of decisions can lead to varying financial consequences. As a result, marketers are more likely to target specific segments that are considered to be impulsive.

Two specific groups that were often perused include women and younger adults. This is because a number of studies were indicating, how these two segments are more than likely to engage in compulsive shopping. The main reason why is because women and young adults were often the focus of their surveys. This…… [Read More]

References

Men, Women have Similar Rates. (2006). Stanford School of Medicine. Retrieved from:

http://med.stanford.edu/news_releases/2006/october/shopping.html

What is Comparative Effectiveness Research. (2012). AHRQ. Retrieved from:

 http://www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/index.cfm/what-is-comparative-effectiveness-research1/
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Psychology Emotional Intelligence Individual Development

Words: 1184 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 33295569



Collaboration and co-operation - working with others towards a shared goal.

Team abilities - creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals.

Influence: - exerting effective tactics for persuasion.

Leadership: exciting and guiding individuals and groups (Emotional Intelligence Competencies, 2005).

The focus of my Individual Development Plan is to work on increasing my leadership skills. Leadership skills are important in both the academic world as well as in the business world. Those people who have strong leadership skills tend to be very successful at whatever they do. I really want to work hard at improving my skills so that I can be seen as a strong leader in everything that I do. The first thing that I need to do in developing my plan is to pick the specific things that I want to work on and then come up with an action plan on how to go about working on…… [Read More]

References

Emotional Intelligence Competencies. (2005). Retrieved February 6, 2010, from Potentials

Unliminted Web site:  http://kartikvyas.com/articles5.html 

How to Write a Great Individual Development Plan (IDP). (2008). Retrieved February 5, 2010,

from Web site:  http://www.greatleadershipbydan.com/2008/11/how-to-write-great-individual.html
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Psychology - Foundations for Graduate

Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 57473669



Unfortunately, the above-cited paragraph on computer science does not achieve these standards. First and foremost, although directed to a general audience, it blatantly assumes that the reader agrees with the author when it states that computers have changed the world in a self-evident fashion. Even if the reader is an enthusiastic consumer of technology, the question arises of what evidence there is of a real change in terms of society, versus superficial and cosmetic shifts. Even the selection of 'fifty years' taken to manifest this change seems arbitrary rather than justified by any evidence. "What, if any, scientific research supports such claims? It appears that there are no scientific studies published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature that establish the validity of these statements. It is not just conclusions, such as those above, but also evaluative instruments that may lack a basis in research providing scientific evidence of their validity or…… [Read More]

References

Douglas, N.L. (2000). Enemies of critical thinking: Lessons from social psychology research.

Reading Psychology, 21(2), 129-144

Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2003). Critical thinking: Teaching students how to study and learn (Part

III). Journal of Developmental Education, 26(3), 36-37.
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Psychology of Trust This Research

Words: 2580 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61539899

" (2003) in other words this is a trust based on possible rewards or possible punishment, or gains vs. losses. Over a period of time when the relationship is further tested trust evolves to 'identification-based trust which is stated to be the "highest level" of trust in that "the parties have internalized each other's desires and intentions. They understand what the other party cares about so completely that each party is able to act as an agent for the other." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) at this stage of trust Lewicki and Tomlinson state that "a strong emotional bond between the parties" (2003) has been formed.

Violations of trust occur when the individual holding "confident positive expectations of the trustee are disconfirmed." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) the result is lower trust because research has shown that violation of trust result in a stifling of "mutual support and information sharing" (Lewicki and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers (2007) Child Development Institute. Online available at  http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/erickson.shtml 

Rousseau, D.M., Sitkin, S.B., Burt, R.S., and Camerer, C. (1998). "Not so Different After All: A Cross-Discipline View of Trust," in Academy of Management Review, 23, 393-404. In Lewicki, Roy J. And Tomlinson, Edward C. (2003) Trust and Trust Building. Beyond Intractability. Online available at  http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/trust_building/ 

Lewicki, Roy J. And Tomlinson, Edward C. (2003) Trust and Trust Building. Beyond Intractability. Online available at
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Psychology - Counseling Race &

Words: 963 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51076789



Diversity and its Discontents" (Arturo Madrid)

Madrid provides, perhaps, the most intriguing look into the pessimistic parliamentary assemblies of conceived perceptions focusing on the diversifying components of diversity itself. Sneaking in subtle notations about the idiocy behind many of the prominent malcontents that we have recognized through history in terms of segregation and racial provocation, "Diversity and its Discontents" prompts for more of a diverted attention to the perceptions that develop through persisting diversity than the fundamental signifying contributions that outline the progression of diversity. Madrid's concepts do not exemplify the persona of atonement that inflicts the prose of our other authors, but does come through as a genuine consort of the experiences in ethnical divide.

Day in the Life of Two Americas" (Leonard Steinhorn and arbara Diggs-rown)

Steinhorn and Diggs-rown perfect the proportionate degrees of reprimanded division within the United States as an entire collective nation. Sprouting from intricate…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Thandenka. 1999. Afro Centric News Network. Retrieved from the World Wide Web; December 10th, 2007:

 http://www.afrocentricnews.com/html/cost_of_whiteness.html 

Jelita McCLeod, Special to The Washington Post Monday, July 7, 2003; Page C10;

 http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn?pagename=article&contentId=A10683-2003Jul4&notFound=true
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Psychology - Fatherless Children Psychological

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 83955821



However, as male children transition into late childhood and adolescence, they tend to withdraw from their mothers and confide much more in their fathers. In fatherless households, the male child often withdraws from the mother in much the same way, but without the option of shifting emotional connection to the father. As a result, fatherless male adolescents exhibit substantially higher rates of delinquency, alcoholism, illegal activity, and perform worse academically (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 226).

The Importance of Fatherhood for Female Children:

In female children, absentee fathers predispose them either to negative expectations or to unrealistic idealized expectations in their dating relationships with men that ultimately increase the likelihood of disappointment and by virtue of multiple mechanisms that undermine those relationships (annon & Southern, 22-3). Typically, females raised without their fathers select emotionally unavailable partners who will allow them to reenact the male abandonment they experienced as children. Alternately, they may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bannon, Jill a. And Southern, Mara L. "Father-absent women: Self-concept and modes of relating to men" Sex Roles, February, 1980. Branden, Nathaniel. The Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam (1999).

Gerrig, Richard J. And Phillip G. Zimbardo. Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon (2005).

Kasl, Charlotte Davis. Women, Sex, and Addiction. New York: Harper & Row (1998).

Wen, Ming. "Single-Parent Family Structure, Child Development, and Child's Well- being" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005.
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Psychology Theories and Models of

Words: 3348 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26105035

There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).

A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.

As one discovers how much they like…… [Read More]

References

Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction. (2010). Retreived from  http://www.addictioninfo.org/articles/4173/1/Choice-and-Free-Will-Beyond-the-Disease -

Model-of-Addiction/Page1.html

Drug Addiction. (2006). Retreived from  http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/salmon/year3/psy337DrugAddiction/theorydrugaddiction.htm 

Drug and Alcohol Information - Disease Model of Addiction-. (2011). Retreived from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/addiction_disease_model.asp
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Expectations of Psychology Prior to

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66425707

All of the information I was gaining about a topic I had not previously understood was intriguing to me, and made me excited and ready to learn more. General Psychology I and Abnormal Psychology were my two favorite classes at Bergen, and I wanted to pursue additional psychology classes.

I transferred to Fairleigh Dickinson and enrolled in General Psychology II with the expectation that I would learn even more about psychology. I did not have an expectation as far as what topics would be covered in the course, but I did expect the material to be harder and more complex; I was right. I did not expect to study the biology and physiology of the brain, and I struggled with understanding and memorizing the material. Memorizing and understanding the parts of the brain and their function, such as the thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, etc. did not appeal to me and…… [Read More]

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Cognitive Changes Developmental Cognitive Occur Starting Age

Words: 2472 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19195806

Cognitive Changes

Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.

Developmental and cognitive changes

The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).

Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…… [Read More]

References

Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.

Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.

Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...

Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
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Environmental Psychology

Words: 772 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32530301

Environmental Psychology

The objective of this paper is to examine the discipline of environmental psychology with an additional goal of defining it and comparing and contrasting some underlying theoretical approaches to environmental psychology. "Developmental psychology, as a discipline, is currently undergoing a paradigmatic/world view change. Consequently, several different theoretical approaches to the study of development and the life course have been proposed and advocated." (Wolf, 2009) There are three major world views and some developmental issues in regard to environmental psychology and this short response will attempt to outline them.

To begin, it is best to define the subject matter. Environmental psychology studies the ways in which humans perceive their environment. Human beings have certain ways in which they interact with their environment. Environmental psychology examines and makes assumptions based on these interactions such as interpretation, evaluation, operation, and response to stimuli. The bulk of environmental psychology focuses on a…… [Read More]

References

Das, Jagannath P., and Naglieri, Jack A. (1997). The Cognitive Assessment System. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.

Koltko-Rivera, Mark E. (2004). The Psychology of Worldviews. Review of General Psychology. 2004, Vol. 8, No. 1, 3 -- 58.

Woolf, Linda M. (2009). Theoretical Perspectives Relevant to Developmental Psychology. Retrieved on December 5, 2009, from Webster at  http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/theories.html .
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Discovery of Psychology at the

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 8563197

They developed several laws and principles to describe human experiences and perceptions. The cognitive movement was pioneered by the works of Chomsky and Piaget and focused on the role of cognition in relation with the outer environment (which provides input for information processing) and behavior.

The most important findings so far regard the components of visual perception, the most important stages of development (according to Piaget), how do most of our complex mental processes work (for instance memory, attention, decision-making etc.), how do processes like the orienting response, habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and imitation influence behavior, how does the speech develop, the components of an emotional reaction, the relationship between cognition and emotion, how does the infant attachment develop and what impact it has on adult life, how the concepts of self-concept, self-awareness develop, the concept of self-esteem, the different temperamental types and personality etc.

This multitude of problems…… [Read More]

References

Pillsbury W.B. (1917). The New Developments in Psychology in the Past Quarter Century

The Philosophical Review, Vol. 26, No. 1,Jan., pp. 56-69 Johnson, D. (1998)The Future of Psychology Minds in Brains in Bodies in environments, Science Communication, Vol. 20, No. 1, 28-48
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Biopsychology Nature and Nature Psychology Explains the

Words: 2533 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39058309

Biopsychology

Nature and nature psychology explains the behavior of man and the origin of individual differences and their personalities. Nature and nature theories explain the origin of individual differences and type development of personality. In the history of developmental psychology, heredity- environment issue has been identified as the central touchstone of theoretical differences between nature and nurture. Darwin's theory of evolution has impact on notions of human origin and their abilities. In this theory the environment does the selecting on organisms and not vice versa; natural selection dictates that organisms will survive best in the environments they find themselves. Nature- nurture discussions imply that Darwin's evolutionary theory is nature driven, while it contains an interaction of both nature and nurture. Galton (a psychologist) uses twins in his studies to differentiate between nature and nurture. The study shows that twins had little variation on their similarities despite exposure to different environments.…… [Read More]

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social psychology

Words: 3123 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24588195

Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…… [Read More]

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behaviorism psychoanalysis and HTE psychology

Words: 2184 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69098940

Introduction
Psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential (HTE) psychology are the three primary movements in the study of the human experience. Each of these movements uses different research methodologies and epistemologies, and each focuses on different aspects of the human experience. Moreover, each of these movements presents unique therapeutic interventions and goals in the field of psychology. With each having contributed tremendously to the social sciences, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology can also be integrated for a richer understanding of human consciousness and the human condition. Historical context of the science and practice of psychology helps illuminate the field’s core values.
Historical Context and Rationale
Although inquiries into the human experience can be traced through the disciplines of philosophy and religion, the first scientific, empirical studies of human nature and behavior began more concertedly in the nineteenth century. William Wundt opened the first real laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychology…… [Read More]

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Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice True Psychology

Words: 19429 Length: 71 Pages Document Type: Dissertation or Thesis complete Paper #: 78576075

Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"

Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…… [Read More]

References

American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.

Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
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Theories of Psychology in Group Work

Words: 1268 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 79630563

Psychology in Group Work

Learning Theory

There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).

The learning theory of Bandura

The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…… [Read More]

References

Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:

10.1093/sf/64.1.151

Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
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Educational psychology

Words: 2086 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15378338

psychologists, especially Freudians, considered experiences undergone at the tender, early childhood age to be crucial to social, psychological and mental growth. Newer studies reveal that even late-childhood experiences are influential, capable of altering a child's developmental course. A majority of contemporary psychologists discuss sensitive, rather than critical, phases, which are phases when an individual is found to be particularly reactive towards or equipped to handle particular experiences. Hence, while childhood is deemed to be the ideal age to independently learn any second language (i.e., without direct teaching on others' part), adults also can and have effectively learnt second languages (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2012).

Different Individuals' Development Occurs at Different Paces

Within classroom settings, one can witness several examples demonstrating varied developmental rates of pupils. While some pupils will be better, faster, organized or more responsible and conscientious with regard to their social relationships and attitudes, others may be relatively slower…… [Read More]

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Sister's Keeper -- Case Study Using Developmental

Words: 1567 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 24900791

Sister's Keeper -- Case Study Using Developmental Theories

Anna Fitzgerald was given a life so that she could keep another person alive, her seriously ill older sister Kate. On the surface that seems terrible cruel and wholly unfair. Looking deeper into the issues surrounding the Fitzgerald family, Anna and her older sister Kate, it is more unfair and cruel than it appears on the surface. There are important ethical issues involved in this novel by Jodi Picoult, but there are also developmental issues that cry out to be addressed. Hence, this paper will review the developmental theories of Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, and use instances and circumstances from Picoult's book to link to concepts in the developmental theorists' work. The terribly inequitable theme of this book will be juxtaposed at the outset with what would be considered a "normal adolescent development" for a girl just reaching her…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2001). Facts for Families: Normal

Adolescent Development. Retrieved July 9, 2011, from  http://www.aacap.org .

Harder, Arlene F. (2008). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online,

Retrieved July 9, 2011, from  http://www.learningplaceonline.com .
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Factors Affecting Inner City Developmental Outcomes

Words: 1135 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8813876

Amato, P.R. (2005). The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the next generation. arriage and Child Wellbeing, 15(2), 75-96. The author addressed two questions related to child development in single-parent households: (1) cognitive, social, and emotional consequences, and (2) etiology of outcome differences. This review of the research literature was up-to-date 2005. Overall, the author concluded that children of single-parent households will do more poorly throughout their life, but only modestly so. Protective variables included remarriage and cohabitation, in that order. The author pays careful attention to inconsistent and mixed findings within and between studies, thereby rendering the review credible.

Shook, S.E., Jones, D.J., Forehand, R., Dorsey, S., & Brody, G. (2010). The mother-coparent relationship and youth adjustment: A study of African-American single-mother families. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(3), 243-51. This study examined the impact of coparent relationship quality on child development outcomes…… [Read More]

McMahon, T.J., & Luthar, S.S. (2007). Defining characteristics and potential consequences of caretaking burden among children living in urban poverty. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(2), 267-81. This study examined the impact of caretaker burden imposed on children between the ages of 8 and 17, living in inner-city households with mothers abusing drugs or suffering from psychiatric problems. Doing household chores, caring for siblings, and/or caring for mother were significant predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and social competence. The authors mentioned continued controversy about how to measure caretaker burden in children, which could represent a significant limitation of this study.

Sagrestano, L.M., Paikoff, R.L., Holmbeck, G.N., & Fendrich, M. (2003). A longitudinal examination of familial risk factors for depression among inner-city African-American adolescents. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(1), 108-20. This longitudinal study followed children of inner-city, African-American single-parent household to better understand how family factors influenced the incidence of depression and anxiety among children and parents. Increased family conflict and reduced parental monitoring were both significant predictors of child depression, while increased positive parenting was protective. Interestingly, parental depression was increased by peer interactions with the child and decreased by positive parenting. The data was based on self-reports from child and mother and revealed significant differences in perceptions, which the authors attributed in part to the immaturity of the child.

Florsheim, P., Tolan, P., & Gorman-Smith, D. (1998). Family relationships, parenting practices, the availability of male family members, and the behavior of inner-city boys in single-mother and two-parent families. Child Development, 69(5), 1437-47. African-American and Latino families, with boys between 10- and 15-years of age and living in inner-city Chicago neighborhoods, were recruited to participate in a study examining possible predictors of externalizing behaviors. Externalizing behaviors by the boys in the study were reduced significantly by feelings of family cohesion, structure, discipline, affiliation, and the presence of a positive male influence. Although child self-reports were the source for much of this data, the externalizing data was based on child, parent, and teacher reports.
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Barbie Jennifer Fleitas Noone-Kirkpatrick Developmental

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26707509

S. woman." (288).

In response to this negative impact of Barbie not being found in the 7 1/2 to 8-1/2-year-old girls, the researchers admit that the finding was unanticipated and assert that, "For these older girls, if they have already internalized the thinness ideal, then the depiction of a full body could represent a possible, but feared, future self." (290)

The study is weak in several areas. The research sample is small, predominately white and middle class and comes from the same geographic region, causing one to wonder how much socio-economic factors play a role in the results of this study. it's not clear if the use of picture books rather than just dolls introduced bias into the study. Clearly, the researchers tried to emulate similar scenes for Barbie and Emme, but there are differences such as there as the use of an image of Barbie in the supermarket and…… [Read More]

References

Dittmar, H., Halliwell, E., & Ive, S. (2006). Does Barbie Make Girls want to Be thin? The Effect of Experimental exposure to Images of Dolls on the Body Image of 5- to 8-year-old Girls. Developmental Psychology, 42, 283-292.
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Psychology Peer Rejection the Issue

Words: 508 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65110213



unctions of Emotions

Though the text does go into some detail about the practical functions that emotions serve on page 336 in chapter 10, it is rather brief and perfunctory when addressing these practical functions. Though this issue is not particularly confusing, it is also not very well explained in the textbook, and so a website was found that provides more information on the subject. At the URL http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content= a713751220~frm=titlelink, the abstract of an in-depth research article can be found that details the wide array of literature documenting the evolutionary functions served by emotions, and that also notes the relative lack of information concerning emotions' developmental functions. This could possibly explain why there is not a great deal of depth in the textbook regarding these functions; the text is more concerned with developmental issues than with evolutionary phenomena, and the developmental functions of emotions have not been as thoroughly researched…… [Read More]

Functions of Emotions

Though the text does go into some detail about the practical functions that emotions serve on page 336 in chapter 10, it is rather brief and perfunctory when addressing these practical functions. Though this issue is not particularly confusing, it is also not very well explained in the textbook, and so a website was found that provides more information on the subject. At the URL  http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content=  a713751220~frm=titlelink, the abstract of an in-depth research article can be found that details the wide array of literature documenting the evolutionary functions served by emotions, and that also notes the relative lack of information concerning emotions' developmental functions. This could possibly explain why there is not a great deal of depth in the textbook regarding these functions; the text is more concerned with developmental issues than with evolutionary phenomena, and the developmental functions of emotions have not been as thoroughly researched (informaworld.com 2010). This site provides more information than is given in the text, yet is still somewhat brief due to the lack of research on the subject.

The developmental functions of emotions are seen to be primarily related to social cognitive attainments throughout the periods of human life, enabling more efficient interactions and interpersonal decisions (informaworld.com 2010). As many major developmental milestones involve abilities to function in social groups, emotional access and development are seen to be essential in overall mental and psychological development (informaworld.com 2010).
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Psychology to Advertising the Field

Words: 897 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29290892

282). Furthermore, research supports that an audience is more likely to be persuaded when the persuasion technique matches their attitude functions. Thus, people in the advertising industry are far more likely to be successful persuaders when they carefully consider the predominant attitude type of their audience and tailor their advertisements to that specific group.

A final example of the contributions of psychology to advertising is a highly significant one. In 1957, Vance Packard wrote a book titled The Hidden Persuasion, which discussed the psychoanalytical techniques used by many advertising companies (Nelson, 2008). The book sold millions of copies, was translated into 12 languages, and remained on the U.S. bestseller list for a year. Nevertheless, it was highly criticized by many academics and people in the advertising industry who wrongfully assumed that it was focused mainly on subliminal messages. However, Packard never actually used the term "subliminal" and focused very little…… [Read More]

References

Gresko, J., Kennedy, L. & Lesniak, J. (1996). Social psychological factors underlying the impact of advertising. Retrieved from Miami University Website:

 http://www.users.muohio.edu/shermarc/P324ads.shtml 

Kardes, F.R. (2005). The psychology of advertising. In Brock, T.C. & Green, M.C. (Eds.),

Persuasion: psychological insights and perspectives (p. 281-303). Thousand Oaks,
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Psychology Matrix in the Workplace

Words: 1583 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 66487800

Of great importance is the position of respondents.

On the basis of the questionnaire an experimental design can be drawn, using two groups of subjects: one group consisting of high level positions, maybe people working in Human esource Management, and the other group being composed of university students or people holding different positions, non-managerial. The hypothesis would be aimed at testing gender stereotypes for higher position and lower position employees. A second hypothesis that will be tested is refers to the possibility that Human esources Management employees to be more prejudiced (more affected by) in what concerns gender roles.

Any research study should be very careful in establishing the relationships of cause and effect and should avoid ethical problems (dilemmas). The study suggested should take into consideration cultural differences and individual differences in the respondents in terms of personal beliefs regarding gender roles, but in such way as to be…… [Read More]

References

Agars, M. (2004), Reconsidering the Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Advancement of Women in Organizations Psychology of Women Quarterly, Volume 28, P. 103

Cann a., William D.S. (1990), Gender stereotypes and dimensions of effective leader behavior, Journal of Sex Roles, http://www.springerlink.com/content/j64h77642025/" Volume 23, Numbers 7-8 / October,

Campbell a., Shirley L., Candy J. (2004): A longitudinal study of gender-related cognition and behaviour, Journal of Developmental Science, Volume 7 P. 1

Allen, B., (1995), Sex Roles, a Journal of Research,  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n9-10_v32/ai_17589713
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Psychology Learning Outcome the Best Method for

Words: 5136 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 78750258

Psychology

Learning Outcome

The best method for conducting the study would involve the use of a case study. Since this would be a group, setting, the case study method would allow the researcher to conduct in-depth investigations. Case studies offer the researcher an opportunity to use various data gathering sources like interviews, and observations (Halligan & Marshall, 2013). In order for the researcher to conduct an in-depth study of the subjects, the case study would offer an effective method for data gathering. The researcher would manage to immerse him/herself into the group or could make observations as the participants attend their quit smoking classes. Being a participant would allow the other participants to open up to the researcher more easily. Since the classes mostly consist of around 20 people, this makes it a small number and easy for the researcher to deal with. A case study method would ensure that…… [Read More]

References

Everly, J.B., Holtyn, A.F., & Perone, M. (2014). Behavioral functions of stimuli signaling transitions across rich and lean schedules of reinforcement. Journal of the experimental analysis of behavior, 101(2), 201-214.

Graham, S., & Folkes, V.S. (2014). Attribution theory: Applications to achievement, mental health, and interpersonal conflict. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Halligan, P.W., & Marshall, J.C. (2013). Method in madness: Case studies in cognitive neuropsychiatry. New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Huitema, B. (2011). The analysis of covariance and alternatives: Statistical methods for experiments, quasi-experiments, and single-case studies (Vol. 608). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
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Psychology Questionnaire

Words: 1213 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28828574

Part I
1.
It seems like the more a person goes to church, the more they accept the idea of torture (Thistlethwaite, 2009).When looking at the Savior, Jesus, this is a religious figure demonstrating the virtue of forgiveness. Jesus did not condone violence even when Peter was arrested. Yet, how does the church allow such violence in approving of torture? Remmel’s “Personality and Politics” describes personality as involving “the investigation of individual differences, both differences across individuals and the manifestation of those differences within individuals. Certainly, such an approach holds a great deal of interest for political scientists studying the beliefs and behaviors of individuals” (Remmel, 2016). When looking at the politics of torture, it means that certain efforts must be made to acquire something important, like information.
The article on torture notes that white evangelical Protestants are the most likely to accept torture for the overall ‘good’. They believe…… [Read More]

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Psychology and Development

Words: 1444 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98919814

Childhood Development of Sexual Minorities

One might originally think it odd to approach a question about the experienced childhood development of minorities by opening a discussion of the children who will grow to be sexual and gender-identity minorities. Unlike most other minorities, these children are not generally being raised in a minority culture and family, and do not have the immediate support of their own race or culture about them to help prepare them for life as a minority. So in some ways, this is actually the ideal place to start such a discussion, because in this area one has unmitigated access to the experience of being a minority on the child's development, without the sheltering environment that surrounds other minorities. These children will, a majority of the time, emerge from the crucible of childhood as homosexual or possibly bisexual adults. A few more will go on to actually have…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ACPM. "Report XX of the Council on Scientific Affairs." American College of Preventive Medicine.  http://www.acpm.org/pol_compNOTPOLICYbullying.htm 

Ceglie, Domenico.

GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER IN YOUNG PEOPLE. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2000), vol.6,pp. 458-466,  http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/gidyp.html 

Mermaids. "Newspaper Archive  http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/newarch.html
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Psychology Statistics

Words: 2278 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 51433500

Divorce on the Lives of Children

In today's society, half of all marriages end in divorce. Many of those marriages involve children. Parents who are involved in a divorce are often concerned about the effect of the divorce on their children. During the time of a divorce the parents may be preoccupied with their problems but still hold their roles as the most important people in their children's lives.

While a divorce may be devastating or relieving to a couple, children are frightened and confused by the terrible threat to their security. However, if a child feels secure and loved throughout the divorce, he or she may not be harmed by the divorce at all. Reflecting on these concerns, this paper aims to determine the effects of divorce on the lives of children.

etween the years 1950 to 1983, divorce broke up more families than parental death did in the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Amato, P.R. (1993). Children's adjustment to divorce: Theories, hypotheses, and empirical support. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 23-38.

Brown, Alec. Young, Ellie. Allen, Melissa. The Effects of Divorce on Children (November, 2003). NASP Communique, Vol. 32, #3.

Hyatt, K. (November, 1999) Children's Adjustment to Divorce Largely in Hands of Parents, with One Exception: Dad's Departure Depresses Boys. Journal of Marriage and the Family: 44.

Newberger, C. (December, 1986). The American Family in Crisis: Implications for Children. Current Problems in Pediatrics. Vol. 16: 686-688, 713.
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Developmental Job Experience

Words: 2206 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66950163

Business and Management Journal

There is much controversy with regard to developmental job experience (DJE) and the degree to which it plays a significant role in a person's behavior and success in the workplace. "NO PAIN, NO GAIN: AN AFFECT-BASED MODEL OF DEVELOPMENTAL JOB EXPERIENCE AND THE BUFFERING EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE" addresses this topic thoroughly and attempts to determine whether or not can actually have a positive effect on an individual in the context of his or her experience in the work environment. The article is meant to provide readers with a more complex understanding of the concept and of the attitudes one should employ with regard to it.

In order to be able to get actively involved in a DJE process, a person would have to be willing to go through great efforts and to show a significant amount of determination in achieving his or her goals in…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Axelrod, W., & Coyle, J. "Make Talent Your Business: How Exceptional Managers Develop People While Getting Results," (Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 6 Jun 2011)

Bilimoria, D. "Handbook on Women in Business and Management," (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007)

Dong, Y, Seo, M., & Bartol, K.M., "NO PAIN, NO GAIN: AN AFFECT-BASED MODEL OF DEVELOPMENTAL JOB EXPERIENCE AND THE BUFFERING EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE," Academy of Management Journal 2014, Vol. 57, No. 4, 1056 -- 1077.  http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amj.2011.0687 

Jex, S.M., & Britt, T.W., "Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach," (John Wiley & Sons, 2 Jun 2008)
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Psychology the Term Identity Crisis

Words: 950 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22312824



If the identity crisis is caused by a lack of self-certainty, one must work to become consistent in their self-image as it pertains to the image one presents to others. A role experimentation identity crisis is resolved by trying out new roles in order to find the role that feels most comfortable to use. An anticipation of achievement identity crisis can be resolved by evaluating one's actual chances of success in their role and adapting their role, or their expectations, accordingly in order to create more achievement and success.

An identity crisis can also be caused by a sexual identity crisis. A sex identity crisis is often best resolved by personally evaluating one's persona, asking whether he or she is comfortable with being male or female and in dealing with others of the other sexes.

When leadership polarization occurs, an identity crisis can follow. This type of identity crisis occurs…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Erikson, Erik. (1980): Identity and the Life Cycle. New York.

Friedman, Lawrence J. (1999): Identity's Architect: A Biography of Erik H. Erikson. Oxford.

Hoare, Carol Hren. (2002): Erikson on Development in Adulthood: New Insights from the Unpublished Papers. New York.

Marcia, J.E. (1966): "Development and Validation of Ego Identity Status." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2, pp. 551-58.
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Psychology of Tom Thumb the

Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86957948

The father only sees Tom's limitations, but Tom knows the horse has been trained to follow voice commands. "Put me in his ear," he says, and he guides the horse through the woods successfully. ecause of this, evil men notice Tom and offer to buy him from the father. The father refuses, but Tom talks him into it, and tricks the men by escaping. In this scene we see Tom acting immorally, as he actively plans to cheat the men. Through this, ettelheim would probably argue that the reader has the fact that children sometimes act badly validated, making the reader less of a monster: his parents may expect him to always act well, but he has an example to demonstrate that other children besides him sometimes make mistakes or even deliberately do something they shouldn't do, and remain loveable. The reader learns that a child does not have to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment. New York: Alfred a Knopf, 1976.

The Brothers Grimm. "Tom Thumb." Translated by Edgar Taylor and Marian Edwardes. Accessed via the Internet 2/8/05.  http://www.rickwalton.com/folktale/grimm24.htm
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Psychology and Offender Rehab

Words: 2710 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 77000192

riginality, Applicability, and Relevance; Interdisciplinarity; Literature Review;)

It is the typically the norm for many offender programs follow the long-standing conventions that have been developed in the last few generations. However, the traditional route does not seem to consider fully the psychosocial factors that influence individual engagement in intervention settings. While factors related to offending behavior are known throughout the research community, their influence on what causes the behavior or motivational engagement still remains unclear. Brooks & Khan (2015) provided an effort to pursue these gaps in knowledge by creating a study that attempted to examine the precursors to behavior and engagement by interviewing and monitoring 109 juvenile offenders. The sample existed within a non-custodial community intervention and the researchers explored the antisocial behavior, influence of aggression, and disruptive and problematic behavior during school hours. They also monitored and explored self-esteem and parental bonding as possible moderators and reported on…… [Read More]

Other research efforts also suggest that the positive role evidence-based practice has a positive influence on juvenile offender rehabilitation. Another study found that "the intervention had a beneficial impact on antisocial influence potential of adolescents' friendship networks, with p < .05 for both of the primary composite measures. Current evidence-based preventive interventions can alter adolescents' friendship networks in ways that reduce the potential for peer influence toward antisocial behavior" (Osgood et al., 2013, p. 174). Furthermore, diversion programs and preventative programs can also benefit from evidence-based practices (Schwalbe, Gearing, MacKenzie, Brewer & Ibrahim, 2012, p. 28). The value in such models is based on the premise that the research examines reasons why juveniles offend, or could offend, and take into consideration various psycho-social factors and influences that lead to juvenile crime (Sim, 2014).

More insights into effective rehabilitation are provided by a 2014 study which identified the juvenile offenders' need for stimulation, which represents a common behavioral predisposition. "Results showed that need for stimulation, "irresponsibility," and callous & unemotional were sensitive to changes in respondents' varying psychopathy levels, whereas lack of realistic, long-term goals; superficial charm; and revocation of conditional release were less so" (Tsang, Piquero & Cauffman, 2014, p. 1333). By studying factors such as the lack motivation, long-term goals, and other behavioral characteristics commonly associated with offenders provide insights on the complex nature of the criminal offenses. Rehabilitation of criminal offenders, especially juvenile offenders, must clearly involve the study of individual motivations and behaviors to be effective (Ward, 2012). Traditional methods of offender rehabilitation have yet to apply such considerations despite substantial amounts of evidence that suggests that treatment psychosocial factors are more effective in preventing negative outcomes such as juvenile re-offense among others.

In a 2013 study, researchers sought to investigate the usefulness of two main methods for interpreting research into evidence-based practice within the juvenile justice setting. These methods were introduced in the form of brand-name programs, which are recognized via lists of several expert groups, and also come with quality guarantee packages presented by the program's developers. From an investigation that included large-scale meta-analyses, researchers have presented a number of universal approaches that may be applied for the purpose of refining existing programs. For example, the results of the study suggest that brand-name programs have a big benefit in the form of application success when compared to universal programs. In fact, they found brand-name programs had the top expected values offering conclusions that support statements such as that both "brand-name programs and meta-analyses represent two rigorous and transparent approaches for advancing evidence-based practice in juvenile justice. State governments should consider the merits of both approaches through a decision-tree model" (Welsh, Rocque & Greenwood, 2013, p. 207). Such studies can help to clarify salient factors that would otherwise be overlooked in a vague intervention model, and have the potential to significantly refine and strengthen rehabilitation and prevention programs in the future.
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Infancy and toddlerhood's Developmental Stage Age Group

Words: 944 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69129653

Developmental Stages
Developmental Stage/Age Group: Infancy and toddlerhood (0 - 3 years)
Erickson maintains that the first human developmental stage involves an individual’s interactions with his/her surroundings, normally the baby’s immediate social and physical environment, which is made up of home and family (Levinson, 1986). Especially important at this point (i.e. infancy) is the mother- baby relationship – the very first social bond one forms. Receptive mothers sensitive to the distinctive requirements of their baby will help cultivate a sound sense of self- worth within the baby, facilitating the development of a sound, all- round physical, emotional and psychological constitution, which happens between 0 and 18 months (Thomas et.al 2000).
Babies experience a feeling of uncertainty/insecurity when it comes to the world they are born into. For resolving this insecurity, they rely on their mother (primary caregiver) to acquire stable, consistent care. Hope arises from success at this point. The…… [Read More]

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Family Systems and Marriage Psychology

Words: 3816 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87974286

Psychology of Marriage and Family Systems

The literal meaning of the word "psychopathology" is a mind disorder or disease. Psychological diagnosticians, while assuming that the illness is located inside a person, always use the medical model in treating or studying patients with 'mental illnesses'. In comparison with the approach they take, I present two converging and related psychopathology perspectives. The two perspectives give an analysis based on context from the family's viewpoint. The first approach, the "family systems" approach, is a conception that came up in the 1950s as a substitute to the traditional focus of psychopathology on individuals (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 1996).

The second approach, "family risk factors" has been in existence in psychopathology but not in the foreground. It tries to identify a couple family aspects of the functioning of the family that are significant in the treatment as well as etiology of patients that have tested positive…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, N.W. (1958). The psychodynamics of family life. New York, NY: Basic Books.

Ackerman, N.W. (1962), Family Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis: The Implications of Difference. Family Process, 1: 30-43.

Ackerman, N.W. (1962). Family Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis: The implications of difference. Family Process, 1(1): 30-43.

Ackerman, N.W. (1966). Treating the troubled family. New York, NY: Basic Books.
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Social Psychology Is the Study

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43188761



Looking at a problem from several different angles and viewpoints is the ultimate goal of group work and group decision-making. Having people who are different from one another helps to avoid 'groupthink' and contributes to in-depth discussions and better ideas than could be found in a group where the participants were basically all alike (Chartrand, van aaren, & argh, 2006). How a person reacts to others and to the situation, though, can seriously affect the outcome of the group. Society is made up of many different kinds of people, so a good group will be comprised of the same. This will help to ensure the success of whatever decision that the group comes to, since there will be a greater suggestion that the public will be receptive to it, as based on the opinions of the various group members.

oth internal and external information must be tracked in order to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chartrand, TL, van Baaren, RB, & Bargh, JA. (2006). Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: Consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 135(1), 70-77.

Livingston, BA & Judge, TA (2008). Emotional responses to work-family conflict: An examination of gender role orientation among working men and women. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93(1), 207-216.

Molden, DC & Dweck, CS. (2006). Finding "meaning" in psychology: A lay theories approach to self-regulation, social perception, and social development. American Psychologist. 61(3), 192-203.
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Supervisory Relationship in Psychology

Words: 1509 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53608959

Supervisory elationship in Psychology

In psychology, supervision is playing an important role in determining how effectively professionals are able to monitor their colleagues and ensure they are following the highest standards. This takes place by meeting with another associate inside the same discipline and field. The basic idea is to review the techniques that are utilized and seek out alternate avenues for enhancing professionalism. This occurs with both people serving as equals to understand how specific techniques and practices could have an impact on quality. During this process, there is an emphasis on engagement, uncertainty and formation. (Watkins, 2011, pg. 58, para. 2)

These models are serving as a foundation in understanding key challenges and the effects they are having on stakeholders. To fully comprehend this role requires examining how supervision is utilized. This will be accomplished by describing the attributes and the process for an optimal relationship. Together, these…… [Read More]

References

Bennett, S. (2008). The Interface Attachment. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 78 (2), 301 -- 317.

Farber, E. (2010). Introduction to the special section. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 1.

Landany, N. (2013). Effective and Ineffective Supervision. The Counseling Psychologist, 41 (1), 28-47.

Lyne, A. (2007). Empathetic Relational Bonds and Personal Agency is Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, Theory, Research, Practice and Training, 44 (4), 371-377.
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Psychodynamic Model the Model's Developmental Processes and

Words: 2966 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1938969

Psychodynamic Model, The Model's Developmental Processes, And Use In Assessment And Treatment Psychodynamic Model

A large proportion of this research relied on historical data. Most of the data originated from institutions that take care of the aged, books, and journal articles. The views of health experts and professionals in mental health also shaped the judgement of this paper. The paper focused on extracting information from the four models under its analysis. Most of the findings originated from the four frameworks. ( The psychodynamic, the cognitive behavior, the stress and coping model, and the family systems model).

Given the demographics of the present age, almost all adult mental shape practice will certainly include older adults. As people grow older, various changes occur, more valuable is the vulnerability to stress and illnesses. The challenges one faces through the years like the death of loved ones, loneliness and others exposes one to the…… [Read More]

ReferencesTop of For

Top of F

Blaikie, A. (2009). Ageing And Popular Culture. Cambridge U.A.: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Kerry Kelly, N., & Jack, N. (n.d). A New Model of Techniques for Concurrent Psychodynamic

Work with Parents of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Patients. Child And
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Impacts on Change Developmental Levels Systems and Diversity

Words: 1406 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52517433

Change: Developmental Levels, Systems, and Diversity

The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of Domestic Abuse related to the change management and diversity. According to Burnett & Brenner (2011) domestic violence is the result of the victimization of a person with whom "the abuser has or has had an intimate, romantic, or spousal relationship." Traditionally it includes a pattern of behaviors that attempt to coerce adults or youths that are ordinarily competent, into behaviors that establish the abuser as the power figure, so that they maintain control over other members of the party in question. Behaviors of patterns that proffer control often build upon each other, setting a stage for "future violence" (Burnett & Brenner, 2011). Psychological abuse, stalking, sexual abuse, physical abuse, and isolation are all forms of domestic abuse resulting in annual economic costs exceeding $8 million dollars according to the CDC (Burnett & Brenner,…… [Read More]

References:

Burnett, Lynn Barkley, MD, EdD, Brenner, Barry E. MD, PhD, et. al. (2011 April) Domestic

Violence. Medscape, Retrieved July 18, 2011:  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805546-overview 

Hall, D.T. & Chandler, D.E. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling Journal

of Organizational Behavior, 26, 155-176.
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Counseling Case Study Developmental Issues

Words: 2650 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 44860429

In that regard, the counselor would want to explore any possible connection between the social turmoil that might have been responsible for generating his subsequent social disillusionment. To the extent the counselor determines that the subject's social disenfranchisement is attributable to his involvement or response to those social conflicts he would assist the subject evaluate the objective conclusions and expectations that have shaped his outlook as an older adult in substantially different social circumstances and living in a very different society than the one responsible for his feelings about government representatives and authority figures in general (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).

B. Preliminary Hypotheses of Main Apparent Problems

Hypothesis # 1 -- Multiple Causes of Intimacy Issues

First, it is likely that there are multiple concurrent causes of the subject's apparent difficulty establishing and maintaining close intimate relationships and effective communications within his marriage. The psychodynamic perspective teaches that it is…… [Read More]

References

Adler, a. (1927) Understanding Human Nature. Center City: Hazelden

Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Volume 76,

No. 1; (2010): 13-21.

Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life.. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Biblical Principles in the Field of Psychology

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68394007

Biblical Principles in the Field of Psychology

Biblical Principles in Psychology

Subject Code

This question is still a subject of debate in the academia. One of the two definitions of psychology is through the biblical vantage point and thus using religious material to enrich it would be welcome in the broad sense that psychology finds a place in the biblical arena. Outside this consideration, psychology is generally considered as the subject interested in studying human and animal behavior. Nevertheless, the soul is a very important subject in the study of psychology. First off, psychology attempts to address issues such as the nature of human soul, explores the origin of a soul, and attempts to establish the purpose of man's soul and what might be at the final destiny of a soul.

Discussion

There have been mixed reactions to whether biblical principles should be used in the field of psychology. For…… [Read More]

References

Cosgrove, M. (1979) "Psychology Gone Awry" Grand Rapids: Zondervan

Wayne, J. (2010) "Modern Psychology and the Bible" Available Online:
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Abnormal Psychology Theories Issues Diagnosis

Words: 2437 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 61912524

The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.

Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abnormal psychology. (2009). a2psychology. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at  http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/abnormal.htm 

Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Definitions. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 1. University of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture1.html

Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Classifications. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 2. University

of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture2.html