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Human Behavior Theories
Developmental psychology entails the changes that occur to human beings and their lives. Originally, it was concerned with children and infants: the field's expansion currently covers the entire life span of children. This field focuses on a range of topics such as psycho-physiological processes including motor skills. It also entails cognitive development involving areas such as moral understanding, language acquisition, problem solving, identity formation, emotional development, self-concept, and conceptual understanding. Developmental psychology examines the extent of development through the stage-like development vs. gradual accumulation of knowledge, and the extent to which children learn or born with innate mental structures. This report endeavors to describe the psychological, biological and socio-development of Isagani aged five years old in terms of developmental milestones and neurobiology. This study uses various theories to elucidate the degree in which a child meets expectation of normal development. It will analyze the socio-cultural and environmental…
Conger, J.K., & Kramer, L. (2010). "Introduction to the Special Section: Perspectives on Sibling Relationships: Advancing Child Development Research"
Freud, S. (1923). "The Ego and the id." Norton and Company
Goldstein, E.G. (1995). "Ego Psychology and Social Work Practice" The Free Press 2nd Edition.
Hall, C.S. (1954). A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Book.
Adolescence (13-18 Years)
Different age groups/development stages have distinct social, cognitive, physical and emotional features. Particularly, the adolescents have a lot of distinct changes and this paper gives an in-depth detail on adolescence. The paper also discusses theories that explain the development features of adolescents, with a preference to Sigmund Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory.
A number of puberty-related physical changes are apparent in adolescents by the time they reach fifteen years of age. Girls normally go through growth spurts immediately prior to their puberty, which explains why they are often temporarily taller than boys of their own age. Although a majority of girls stop growing in height after fifteen years, boys' weight as well as height increases all through adolescence. Further, the menstrual period of a majority of girls commences at this age, in addition to breast development and pubic hair growth. Boys grow both facial and pubic hair…
.....theoretical perspectives to understand human development is stage theories, which postulate that human development takes place in different stages and change throughout the life span (Lerner et al., 2013, p.466). Erikson's Psychosocial Theory is an example of a theory under this perspective, which state that there are eight stages of psychosocial development that are biologically developed to manifest in a pre-determined, sequential way. Through this theory, Erikson effectively demonstrates that lifelong development involves integration of internal forces and external situations that influence development of ego.
Borzumato-Gainey et al. (2009) conducted a study on life satisfaction, self-esteem and subjective age throughout the life span of women (p.29). The study was conducted on a group of 320 women between 21 and 69 years to examine factors that affect women's life satisfaction, self-esteem, and views of appearance. A demographic questionnaire and three paper-and-pencil assessment instruments were utilized for data collection, which was analyzed…
Narrative and Interpretation
Part 1: Life Course Concepts and Developmental Theory
Describe the life course framework according to Hutchinson
The life course perspective is mainly focused on analyzing people's lives and the changes that happen between different periods. It can be cultural or socials changes, but it is essential to point out the relationships between the two periods. A good example is how one's childhood affects adolescence and how adolescence affects one's adulthood. The life course theory is quickly gaining popularity as a great way to study pathways of different organizations, families, and even social movements (Hutchison, 2018).
2. Define developmental concepts from one developmental theory
Researchers and socials workers who depend on life course theory as their reference point applies the following concepts to explain the growth changes:
· Life events, and
· Turning points.
Life-course researchers whose primary focus is the historical…
Hutchison, E. D. (2018). Dimensions of human behavior: Person and environment. Sage Publications.
Hutchison, E. D. (2010). Dimensions of Human Behavior: Person and Environment. SAGE.
Marshall, V. W. (2006). The life course perspective: an overview in relation to the policy research initiative. In Commissioned plenary panel paper at conference of the Work and Family Consortium, Policy Research Initiative, Social Development Canada, Ottawa, March.
Martin, M. J., Blozis, S. A., Boeninger, D. K., Masarik, A. S., & Conger, R. D. (2014). The timing of entry into adult roles and changes in trajectories of problem behaviors during the transition to adulthood. Developmental psychology, 50(11), 2473.
Edmonston, B. (2013). Lifecourse perspectives on immigration. Canadian Studies in Population, 40(1-2), 1-8
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
Important Theorists and their Contributions:
roca contributed greatly to the initial recognition of the importance of specific brain regions to particular aspects of human psychology and behavior in the middle of the 19th century. Shortly thereafter, William James published one of the first formal academic explanation of biopsychology just before the turn of the 20th century, titled the Principles of Psychology (Dennet, 1991; Pinker, 2002). James acknowledged that personal experience and external environmental factors played a role in human psychological development, but only in so far as they represent sets and types of automatic, involuntary, and inherent biological responses to circumstances (Dennet, 1991).
Approximately 60 years later, Walter Hess pioneered a method of directly exploring the role of specific brain regions and structures through the use of electro- stimulation (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2005). y implanting electrodes into anesthetized laboratory animals, Hess demonstrated that specific behaviors could be triggered by electrically…
Dennet, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Dennet, D. (1996). Kinds of Minds: Toward an Understanding of Consciousness. New York: Basic Books
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005). Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Pinker, S. (2002). The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature.
Alan's quote clearly illustrates the concept of 'emotional intelligence.' The theory of emotional intelligence is associated with Daniel Goleman, who suggests that success in life cannot be solely attributed to intellectual ability as measured on conventional IQ tests. (Intelligence testing is a form of cognitive psychology.) Emotional intelligence has become more accepted as a 'real' intelligence in recent years because of the growing popularity of Howard Gardner's concept of multiple intelligences, or the idea that intelligence can defined according to specific ability groupings. Alan's sense of self-reflection about his own life underlines the fact that it is possible to develop emotional intelligence, even if someone is not naturally gifted in this particular area of his or her life.
Alan is an engineer, a profession that has traditionally valued technical capacities rather than feelings. But unlike some highly successful engineers, Alan has come to realize the importance of…
Although it is controversial to say so, it does appear that early childhood exposure to media violence can precipitate aggressive behavior and violence in adulthood. In a longitudinal study that actually was able to determine causality in the same population sample, Huesmann, Moise-Titus, Podolski & Eron (2003) show that there is a connection between media violence exposure and violent behavior. The type of violent behavior differed, largely due to gender. For example, men in the study were more likely to use physical aggression and violence but females were more likely to use other forms of aggression like verbal abuse. Regardless, the study should alert parents about how to monitor their children and how to talk to children about the violence they see. It is not simply the exposure to the violence, but the duration of exposure or frequency of viewing. Other factors that impact violence and aggression include personality…
"Evaluate sociocultural explanations of the origins of violence," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.appsychology.com/IB%20Psych/IBcontent/Options/Humanrelationships/Rel9.htm
Huesmann, L. R., Moise-Titus, J., Podolski, C., & Eron, L. D. (2003). Longitudinal relations between children's exposure to TV violence and their aggressive and violent behavior in young adulthood: 1977-1992. Developmental Psychology, 39, 201-221.
psychological research there a thousands of pressing questions, yet among all those questions one rises to the top of the list. In the area of family psychology and family therapy the question of the psychological affects of domestic violence on children has been hotly debated and eternally researched, yet many questions remain unanswered. These questions are pressing as the institution of family in our culture evolves and emerges as an entirely different social dynamic than existed even twenty years ago. The psychological effects of violence, in the family upon children are vast and will probably always need further address.
Many families garner a different definition as more and more family units are head primarily by one parent and many families combine to become families consisting of several members who are related only by law, rather than by genetics. These trends began many years ago but continue to change the face…
Breggin, P.R. (2000). Reclaiming Our Children: A Healing Solution for a Nation in Crisis. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Cummings, E.M., El-sheikh, M., Cummings, E.M., & El-sheikh, M. (1991). 7 Children's Coping with Angry Environments: A Process-Oriented Approach. In Life-Span Developmental Psychology: Perspectives on Stress and Coping, Cummings, E.M., Greene, a.L., & Karraker, K.H. (Eds.) (pp. 131-147). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Dakof, G.A. (1996). Meaning and Measurement of Family: Comment on Gorman-Smith Et Al. (1996). Journal of Family Psychology, 10(2), 142-146.
Gorman-Smith, D., Tolan, P.H., Zelli, a., & Huesmann, L.R. (1996). The Relation of Family Functioning to Violence Among Inner-City Minority Youths. Journal of Family Psychology, 10(2), 115-129.
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.
Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…
The nature vs. nurture debate is over whether an individual learns behaviors from their environment (nurture) or whether an individual is born with certain genetic traits and predispositions toward certain behaviors. Today, most developmental psychologists believe that nurture enhances nature: that while biology is important, environment probably trumps biology in most cases. One developmental process that can be explained by both genetics and environment is gender identity. Biology does affect certain aspects of gender and sexuality but environment and conditioning are very important factors in the development of an individual's gender identity.
4. How do maternal nutrition and alcohol use potentially affect the health of a fetus?
The heath of a fetus is directly related to maternal nutrition and fetal development is hindered by malnutrition or use of alcohol. Excess drinking by the mother can cause fetal alcohol syndrome, which may cause birth defects, mental health problems and hyperactivity in…
Psychology Movie elation
A ose for Emily
Diagnosing a psychological complication are a daunting task and one that requires immense responsibility of the concerned health professionals who examine the patient and decide the appropriate diagnosis (APA, 2001). Among the many variables that a psychological professional observes, are the patient's past life history. For Emily, an examination of the setting and characters in the plot, and an assessment of some of the themes in Faulkner's short story, A ose for Emily and the occurrences involving Emily's father aids the reader to comprehend the pressures with which Emily tried coping and how she might have suffered from schizophrenia. Emily came from a family of high stature and affluence in their southern community and always had a burden of enormous expectations that people had for her. Her community anticipated her to have a hereditary obligation to uphold traditions, norms that her ancestors had…
APA. (2001). Quick Reference to the Diagnostic Criteria from DSM-IV. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.
Kinney, A.F. (2000). Faulkner's Narrative Poetics: Style as Vision. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
Staton, S.F. (2005). Literary Theories in Praxis. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
William, F. (2003). "A Rose for Emily." In The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Ed. Nina Baym. 2160-2166. New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
These stores then send information into Short-Term memory stores, which then send information into Long-Term memory stores. The believed that control process were performed in short-term memory which allowed information to be put into long-term memory and then recalled from it as well (Baddeley, 1997).
6. Suppose a two-year-old child believed every object a person can go into with a roof is called a house. One day the child refers to the family car as a house. The parent corrects him and says this is a car not a house. Based on Piaget's theory, what will this child have to do in order to correctly process this material and not make a similar error in the future?
According to Piaget the child would have to assimilate and accommodate the information in order to not make the same mistake in the future. Assimilation is the process by which a person takes…
Baddeley, Alan D. (1997). Human Memory. Retrieved July 7, 2009, from Google Books Web
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
How have you been labeled as a child or as an adult, and how has this impacted your identity and performance?
As a child I was always labeled as intelligent. This impacted my identity by showing me how I was different from others (because of this special talent). When I became older, this established certain standards for academic performance. I used this to push myself to do more (based upon these beliefs).
Based on the newer, broader definitions of intelligence, (such as Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences), assess your own strengths and weaknesses. Do these definitions change the way you see yourself now?
These strengths and weaknesses are showing how I meet the various categories for intelligence (according to Gardner's theory). This based upon several predetermined criteria to include: the potential for brain isolation, the presence in core operations, a place in evolutionary history, distinct developmental progression, symbolic expression,…
Howard Gardner. (2012). In Fed. Retrieved from: http://www.infed.org/thinkers/gardner.htm
Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Limitations of Great Theories
The psychoanalytic theory (Saul Mcleod, 2007)
ejection of the free will
Lack of scientific support
Samples were biased. For instance, only Austrian women were considered in proving the theory
Case studies were subjective
Cognitive Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)
Does not consider biology
The section on humanism dismisses scientific approaches
The ecological validity of the experiments is low
There is subjective introspection
Behavioral Theory (Saul Mcleod, Cognitive Psychology, 2007)
It is misplaced to compare humans and animals
It ignores the role of biology such as testosterone effects
There is little free will
Dismisses meditational process
The Surprises from Harlow's experiments
Harlow noted that that the existence of systems of affection that could fill in the gap for each other was sensible; from evolutionary standpoint. Indeed, compensations that were reciprocal presented a higher chance of social survival. According to Marga Vicedo (2010), diverse affectional…
Jake Edwards. (2009, Febraury 17). New Criticism. Retrieved from Reading Theory with Jolliffe: http://jolliffereadingtheory.blogspot.in/
KESSENICH, MAUREEN, MORRISON, FREDERICK J, & BISANZ, JEFFREY. (2002). Developmental Theory. The Gale Group Inc.
Marga Vicedo. (2010). The evolution of Harry Harlow: from the nature to the nurture of love. History of Psychiatry, 1-16.
Saul Mcleod. (2007). Psychodynamic Approach. Simplypsychology.
These hidden issues influence our conscious decisions. So, people may have both conscious and unconscious reasons for behaving as they do. People might be able to give what seem like rational reasons for behavior. Someone who sets fires might say he or she enjoys seeing the flames and likes watching the fire department put the fire out. Those may be the factors the individual is conscious of, but a psychologist might find that there were other reasons driving the person's behavior as well.
One of the things that often makes it hard for one person to understand another person's actions is that we have only observable behavior to go on. We can't examine the internal mental processes that take place. This makes it easy to judge people as acting in ways that suggest a moral flaw or lack of character. A woman who dresses very suggestively might be considered to…
The authors assessments about the power of television in influencing the ideas children have about multiculturalism are extremely relevant and accurate. All forms of media are extremely popular and as a result the messages that are presented about people from various cultures also become popular, even if the messages are untrue or based on stereotypes. The benefit of understanding the power of television on the minds of young people, is that parents have the ability to monitor how much television that their children watch. In addition, when questionable images do appear parents can discuss these images with children. y monitoring the images that children see on television, parents have the ability to shape the opinions of children concerning multiculturalism.
The article seems to also articulate the idea that the images seen on television can be used to reinforce positive attitudes in children concerning the culture that they belong…
Berry G.L. (2003). Developing Children and Multicultural Attitudes: The Systemic
Psychosocial Influences of Television Portrayals in a Multimedia Society.
Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. 9(4), 360 -- 366
THE STUFF IT'S MADE OF
Psychological Profile of a Terrorist
More than four decades of investigation on the profiling of terrorists yielded two major findings (Hudson, 1999; Nance, 2008). First, there does not seem to a single terrorist personality by which they can be profiled. Terrorism psychologists, political scientists and sociologists shared this consensus. Terrorist personalities are as varied as practitioners in the legal profession or any group. Terrorists do not possess neatly identifiable personality traits by which they can be visibly detected. Second, terrorists are not typically diagnosably psychopathic or mentally sick. Although they act and proceed with their task out of a delusional view of the world, they are actually and ironically sane and quite deliberate (Hudson, Nance).
Terrorist groups are carefully and highly selected during recruitment, although their top leaders may possess psychopathic traits (Hudson, 1999; Nance, 2008). ut members cannot depose a…
Alexander, D.A. And Klein, S. (2005). The psychological aspects of terrorism: from denial to hyperbole. Vol. 98 # 12, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine: The
Royal Society of Medicine Press. Retrieved on December 7, 2013 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1299349
Hudson, R.A. (1999). The sociology and psychology of terrorism: who becomes a terrorist and why? Federal Research Division: Library of Congress. Retrieved on December 7, 2013 from http://www.loc.gov/rr/frd/pdf-files/Soc_Psych_of_Terrorism.pdf
Kershaw, S. 2010). The terrorist mind: an update. The New York Times: The New York
This handbook was compiled as a remedy in the form of a sourcebook or guide to current work on free will and related subjects for those who wish to keep up with the latest research. (p. 3)
What is often called "the free will issue" or "the problem of free will," when viewed in historical perspective, is related to a cluster of philosophical issues -- all of them to be dealt with to some degree in this volume. 3 These include issues about (1) moral agency and responsibility, dignity, desert, accountability, and blameworthiness in ethics; (2) the nature and limits of human freedom, autonomy, coercion, and control in social and political theory; issues about (3) compulsion, addiction, self-control, self-deception, and weakness of will in philosophical psychology; (4) criminal liability, responsibility, and punishment in legal theory; (5) the relation of mind to body, consciousness, the nature of action, 4 and personhood…
Kane, R. (2001). The Oxford Handbook of Free Will.: Oxford University.
Midgley, M. (2002). Beast & Man. London & New York: Routledge.
Spruill, D.A., & Benshoff, J.M. (2000). Helping beginning counselors develop a personal theory of counseling. Counselor Education and Supervision, 40, p.70.
ID 83416 psychology
Psychology - Developmental
The single mother comes home after a long day of work. The little girl, (Sara) is approximately 4-5 years old. Her mother realizes that someone there are small pieces of M&M's sprinkled around this kitchen floor, and assumes that her child has been eating the candy instead of waiting until after dinner. The mother asks Sara if she has been eating candy, and Sara looks down at the floor and adamantly denies that she has had any candy. She states that she has spent the afternoon watching television and painting pictures with grandma. Mom and child have been working on learning the difference between telling the truth and telling a lie and the mother is certain that the little girl has indeed been eating the candy. Telling lies is typically of children in this age group. Children may lie for several reasons, including trying to…
Mlyniec, Vicky. "Got An Attitude?" Parents. December 2003:209
Mlyniec, Vicky. "To Tell The Truth." Parents. December, 2003: 202
Martinez, Teresa. "Why Kids Want the Most - And More." Parenting, November 2003: 206
Psychology of Consumer Behavior
Over the last several years, the issue of compulsive buying has been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because a number of individuals are making decisions that are not considered to be financially prudent. Instead, they are based the person feeling good about their purchase in the short-term. This is giving them a sense of emotional satisfaction. However, in the longer periods of time, is when these kinds of decisions can lead to varying financial consequences. As a result, marketers are more likely to target specific segments that are considered to be impulsive.
Two specific groups that were often perused include women and younger adults. This is because a number of studies were indicating, how these two segments are more than likely to engage in compulsive shopping. The main reason why is because women and young adults were often the focus of their surveys. This…
Men, Women have Similar Rates. (2006). Stanford School of Medicine. Retrieved from:
What is Comparative Effectiveness Research. (2012). AHRQ. Retrieved from:
Collaboration and co-operation - working with others towards a shared goal.
Team abilities - creating group synergy in pursuing collective goals.
Influence: - exerting effective tactics for persuasion.
Leadership: exciting and guiding individuals and groups (Emotional Intelligence Competencies, 2005).
The focus of my Individual Development Plan is to work on increasing my leadership skills. Leadership skills are important in both the academic world as well as in the business world. Those people who have strong leadership skills tend to be very successful at whatever they do. I really want to work hard at improving my skills so that I can be seen as a strong leader in everything that I do. The first thing that I need to do in developing my plan is to pick the specific things that I want to work on and then come up with an action plan on how to go about working on…
Emotional Intelligence Competencies. (2005). Retrieved February 6, 2010, from Potentials
Unliminted Web site: http://kartikvyas.com/articles5.html
How to Write a Great Individual Development Plan (IDP). (2008). Retrieved February 5, 2010,
from Web site: http://www.greatleadershipbydan.com/2008/11/how-to-write-great-individual.html
Unfortunately, the above-cited paragraph on computer science does not achieve these standards. First and foremost, although directed to a general audience, it blatantly assumes that the reader agrees with the author when it states that computers have changed the world in a self-evident fashion. Even if the reader is an enthusiastic consumer of technology, the question arises of what evidence there is of a real change in terms of society, versus superficial and cosmetic shifts. Even the selection of 'fifty years' taken to manifest this change seems arbitrary rather than justified by any evidence. "What, if any, scientific research supports such claims? It appears that there are no scientific studies published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature that establish the validity of these statements. It is not just conclusions, such as those above, but also evaluative instruments that may lack a basis in research providing scientific evidence of their validity or…
Douglas, N.L. (2000). Enemies of critical thinking: Lessons from social psychology research.
Reading Psychology, 21(2), 129-144
Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2003). Critical thinking: Teaching students how to study and learn (Part
III). Journal of Developmental Education, 26(3), 36-37.
" (2003) in other words this is a trust based on possible rewards or possible punishment, or gains vs. losses. Over a period of time when the relationship is further tested trust evolves to 'identification-based trust which is stated to be the "highest level" of trust in that "the parties have internalized each other's desires and intentions. They understand what the other party cares about so completely that each party is able to act as an agent for the other." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) at this stage of trust Lewicki and Tomlinson state that "a strong emotional bond between the parties" (2003) has been formed.
Violations of trust occur when the individual holding "confident positive expectations of the trustee are disconfirmed." (Lewicki and Tomlinson, 2003) the result is lower trust because research has shown that violation of trust result in a stifling of "mutual support and information sharing" (Lewicki and…
Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers (2007) Child Development Institute. Online available at http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/erickson.shtml
Rousseau, D.M., Sitkin, S.B., Burt, R.S., and Camerer, C. (1998). "Not so Different After All: A Cross-Discipline View of Trust," in Academy of Management Review, 23, 393-404. In Lewicki, Roy J. And Tomlinson, Edward C. (2003) Trust and Trust Building. Beyond Intractability. Online available at http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/trust_building/
Lewicki, Roy J. And Tomlinson, Edward C. (2003) Trust and Trust Building. Beyond Intractability. Online available at
Diversity and its Discontents" (Arturo Madrid)
Madrid provides, perhaps, the most intriguing look into the pessimistic parliamentary assemblies of conceived perceptions focusing on the diversifying components of diversity itself. Sneaking in subtle notations about the idiocy behind many of the prominent malcontents that we have recognized through history in terms of segregation and racial provocation, "Diversity and its Discontents" prompts for more of a diverted attention to the perceptions that develop through persisting diversity than the fundamental signifying contributions that outline the progression of diversity. Madrid's concepts do not exemplify the persona of atonement that inflicts the prose of our other authors, but does come through as a genuine consort of the experiences in ethnical divide.
Day in the Life of Two Americas" (Leonard Steinhorn and arbara Diggs-rown)
Steinhorn and Diggs-rown perfect the proportionate degrees of reprimanded division within the United States as an entire collective nation. Sprouting from intricate…
Thandenka. 1999. Afro Centric News Network. Retrieved from the World Wide Web; December 10th, 2007:
Jelita McCLeod, Special to The Washington Post Monday, July 7, 2003; Page C10;
However, as male children transition into late childhood and adolescence, they tend to withdraw from their mothers and confide much more in their fathers. In fatherless households, the male child often withdraws from the mother in much the same way, but without the option of shifting emotional connection to the father. As a result, fatherless male adolescents exhibit substantially higher rates of delinquency, alcoholism, illegal activity, and perform worse academically (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 226).
The Importance of Fatherhood for Female Children:
In female children, absentee fathers predispose them either to negative expectations or to unrealistic idealized expectations in their dating relationships with men that ultimately increase the likelihood of disappointment and by virtue of multiple mechanisms that undermine those relationships (annon & Southern, 22-3). Typically, females raised without their fathers select emotionally unavailable partners who will allow them to reenact the male abandonment they experienced as children. Alternately, they may…
Bannon, Jill a. And Southern, Mara L. "Father-absent women: Self-concept and modes of relating to men" Sex Roles, February, 1980. Branden, Nathaniel. The Psychology of Romantic Love. New York: Bantam (1999).
Gerrig, Richard J. And Phillip G. Zimbardo. Psychology and Life. 17th Edition. New York: Allyn & Bacon (2005).
Kasl, Charlotte Davis. Women, Sex, and Addiction. New York: Harper & Row (1998).
Wen, Ming. "Single-Parent Family Structure, Child Development, and Child's Well- being" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, Marriott Hotel, Loews Philadelphia Hotel, Philadelphia, PA, Aug 12, 2005.
There's an understood supposition of opposing causal agency at work. No matter what pressures and factors came to bear, the addict could have done something else, but simply decided not to (Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction, 2010).
A more behavioral approach to understanding addiction is the social learning model, which suggests that people learn how to behave by watching others in their environment and by duplicating actions that create affirmative consequences. One learns to take drugs or alcohol through ones connections with family, friends, or even popular media. And through personal experimentation with drugs or alcohol, one learns that they like the way drugs make them feel. Whether it is the elation of a high, the augmented confidence they feel while intoxicated, or a reduced sense of social nervousness, intoxication can be a positively reinforcing state of being.
As one discovers how much they like…
Choice and Free Will: Beyond the Disease Model of Addiction. (2010). Retreived from http://www.addictioninfo.org/articles/4173/1/Choice-and-Free-Will-Beyond-the-Disease -
Drug Addiction. (2006). Retreived from http://www.flyfishingdevon.co.uk/salmon/year3/psy337DrugAddiction/theorydrugaddiction.htm
Drug and Alcohol Information - Disease Model of Addiction-. (2011). Retreived from http://www.egetgoing.com/drug_addiction/addiction_disease_model.asp
All of the information I was gaining about a topic I had not previously understood was intriguing to me, and made me excited and ready to learn more. General Psychology I and Abnormal Psychology were my two favorite classes at Bergen, and I wanted to pursue additional psychology classes.
I transferred to Fairleigh Dickinson and enrolled in General Psychology II with the expectation that I would learn even more about psychology. I did not have an expectation as far as what topics would be covered in the course, but I did expect the material to be harder and more complex; I was right. I did not expect to study the biology and physiology of the brain, and I struggled with understanding and memorizing the material. Memorizing and understanding the parts of the brain and their function, such as the thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, etc. did not appeal to me and…
Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.
Developmental and cognitive changes
The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).
Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…
Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.
Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.
Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...
Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
The objective of this paper is to examine the discipline of environmental psychology with an additional goal of defining it and comparing and contrasting some underlying theoretical approaches to environmental psychology. "Developmental psychology, as a discipline, is currently undergoing a paradigmatic/world view change. Consequently, several different theoretical approaches to the study of development and the life course have been proposed and advocated." (Wolf, 2009) There are three major world views and some developmental issues in regard to environmental psychology and this short response will attempt to outline them.
To begin, it is best to define the subject matter. Environmental psychology studies the ways in which humans perceive their environment. Human beings have certain ways in which they interact with their environment. Environmental psychology examines and makes assumptions based on these interactions such as interpretation, evaluation, operation, and response to stimuli. The bulk of environmental psychology focuses on a…
Das, Jagannath P., and Naglieri, Jack A. (1997). The Cognitive Assessment System. Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.
Koltko-Rivera, Mark E. (2004). The Psychology of Worldviews. Review of General Psychology. 2004, Vol. 8, No. 1, 3 -- 58.
Woolf, Linda M. (2009). Theoretical Perspectives Relevant to Developmental Psychology. Retrieved on December 5, 2009, from Webster at http://www.webster.edu/~woolflm/theories.html .
They developed several laws and principles to describe human experiences and perceptions. The cognitive movement was pioneered by the works of Chomsky and Piaget and focused on the role of cognition in relation with the outer environment (which provides input for information processing) and behavior.
The most important findings so far regard the components of visual perception, the most important stages of development (according to Piaget), how do most of our complex mental processes work (for instance memory, attention, decision-making etc.), how do processes like the orienting response, habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and imitation influence behavior, how does the speech develop, the components of an emotional reaction, the relationship between cognition and emotion, how does the infant attachment develop and what impact it has on adult life, how the concepts of self-concept, self-awareness develop, the concept of self-esteem, the different temperamental types and personality etc.
This multitude of problems…
Pillsbury W.B. (1917). The New Developments in Psychology in the Past Quarter Century
The Philosophical Review, Vol. 26, No. 1,Jan., pp. 56-69 Johnson, D. (1998)The Future of Psychology Minds in Brains in Bodies in environments, Science Communication, Vol. 20, No. 1, 28-48
Nature and nature psychology explains the behavior of man and the origin of individual differences and their personalities. Nature and nature theories explain the origin of individual differences and type development of personality. In the history of developmental psychology, heredity- environment issue has been identified as the central touchstone of theoretical differences between nature and nurture. Darwin's theory of evolution has impact on notions of human origin and their abilities. In this theory the environment does the selecting on organisms and not vice versa; natural selection dictates that organisms will survive best in the environments they find themselves. Nature- nurture discussions imply that Darwin's evolutionary theory is nature driven, while it contains an interaction of both nature and nurture. Galton (a psychologist) uses twins in his studies to differentiate between nature and nurture. The study shows that twins had little variation on their similarities despite exposure to different environments.…
Social psychology is the study of human behavior in social situations, showing how social pressures and sociological variables can impact psychological phenomenon such as identity, motivation, personality, or behavior. A quintessential topic in the field of social psychology is bullying. Bullying can be studied from a public health perspective, showing how the external variables such as how a school is designed and the leadership and organizational culture of the school affects risk factors implicated in bullying behaviors or victimization patterns. Alternatively, bullying can be examined from a purely psychological perspective to reveal the factors implicated in aggressive physical or verbal behaviors or alternatively, to study victim characteristics or why some bystanders refuse to step in when they observe bullying behaviors. This latter issue links in with the social psychology approach. The social psychology of bullying examines factors like why some people perpetrate bullying behaviors due to their upbringing, their sense…
Psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic, transpersonal, and existential (HTE) psychology are the three primary movements in the study of the human experience. Each of these movements uses different research methodologies and epistemologies, and each focuses on different aspects of the human experience. Moreover, each of these movements presents unique therapeutic interventions and goals in the field of psychology. With each having contributed tremendously to the social sciences, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanistic psychology can also be integrated for a richer understanding of human consciousness and the human condition. Historical context of the science and practice of psychology helps illuminate the field’s core values.
Historical Context and Rationale
Although inquiries into the human experience can be traced through the disciplines of philosophy and religion, the first scientific, empirical studies of human nature and behavior began more concertedly in the nineteenth century. William Wundt opened the first real laboratory dedicated exclusively to psychology…
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…
American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
Psychology in Group Work
There are many theories that describe the process of human development. Most of us have identified with the learning theory. The learning theory has been given credit because it makes sense. In this article, we shall discuss one theory, which the author developed in an educational setting. The focus is on Bandura who is the key theorist in his learning theory (Agnew, 2007). Behaviors are taken into focus in Bandura's learning theory. The theory is significantly useful offering techniques of teaching and modifying of behavior. In the following sections, examples are going to be provided. This study will begin with clarification of the basic concept of the specified theory. This will be followed with a discussion of the theory's practical use: both classroom and clinical application (Bandura, 2006).
The learning theory of Bandura
The learning theory of Bandura provides that we learn from one…
Agnew, R. (1985). A revised strained theory of delinquency. Social Forces 64 (1): 151-167. doi:
Bandura, A. (2006). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall
psychologists, especially Freudians, considered experiences undergone at the tender, early childhood age to be crucial to social, psychological and mental growth. Newer studies reveal that even late-childhood experiences are influential, capable of altering a child's developmental course. A majority of contemporary psychologists discuss sensitive, rather than critical, phases, which are phases when an individual is found to be particularly reactive towards or equipped to handle particular experiences. Hence, while childhood is deemed to be the ideal age to independently learn any second language (i.e., without direct teaching on others' part), adults also can and have effectively learnt second languages (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2012).
Different Individuals' Development Occurs at Different Paces
Within classroom settings, one can witness several examples demonstrating varied developmental rates of pupils. While some pupils will be better, faster, organized or more responsible and conscientious with regard to their social relationships and attitudes, others may be relatively slower…
Sister's Keeper -- Case Study Using Developmental Theories
Anna Fitzgerald was given a life so that she could keep another person alive, her seriously ill older sister Kate. On the surface that seems terrible cruel and wholly unfair. Looking deeper into the issues surrounding the Fitzgerald family, Anna and her older sister Kate, it is more unfair and cruel than it appears on the surface. There are important ethical issues involved in this novel by Jodi Picoult, but there are also developmental issues that cry out to be addressed. Hence, this paper will review the developmental theories of Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, and use instances and circumstances from Picoult's book to link to concepts in the developmental theorists' work. The terribly inequitable theme of this book will be juxtaposed at the outset with what would be considered a "normal adolescent development" for a girl just reaching her…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2001). Facts for Families: Normal
Adolescent Development. Retrieved July 9, 2011, from http://www.aacap.org .
Harder, Arlene F. (2008). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online,
Retrieved July 9, 2011, from http://www.learningplaceonline.com .
Amato, P.R. (2005). The impact of family formation change on the cognitive, social, and emotional well-being of the next generation. arriage and Child Wellbeing, 15(2), 75-96. The author addressed two questions related to child development in single-parent households: (1) cognitive, social, and emotional consequences, and (2) etiology of outcome differences. This review of the research literature was up-to-date 2005. Overall, the author concluded that children of single-parent households will do more poorly throughout their life, but only modestly so. Protective variables included remarriage and cohabitation, in that order. The author pays careful attention to inconsistent and mixed findings within and between studies, thereby rendering the review credible.
Shook, S.E., Jones, D.J., Forehand, R., Dorsey, S., & Brody, G. (2010). The mother-coparent relationship and youth adjustment: A study of African-American single-mother families. Journal of Family Psychology, 24(3), 243-51. This study examined the impact of coparent relationship quality on child development outcomes…
McMahon, T.J., & Luthar, S.S. (2007). Defining characteristics and potential consequences of caretaking burden among children living in urban poverty. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77(2), 267-81. This study examined the impact of caretaker burden imposed on children between the ages of 8 and 17, living in inner-city households with mothers abusing drugs or suffering from psychiatric problems. Doing household chores, caring for siblings, and/or caring for mother were significant predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and social competence. The authors mentioned continued controversy about how to measure caretaker burden in children, which could represent a significant limitation of this study.
Sagrestano, L.M., Paikoff, R.L., Holmbeck, G.N., & Fendrich, M. (2003). A longitudinal examination of familial risk factors for depression among inner-city African-American adolescents. Journal of Family Psychology, 17(1), 108-20. This longitudinal study followed children of inner-city, African-American single-parent household to better understand how family factors influenced the incidence of depression and anxiety among children and parents. Increased family conflict and reduced parental monitoring were both significant predictors of child depression, while increased positive parenting was protective. Interestingly, parental depression was increased by peer interactions with the child and decreased by positive parenting. The data was based on self-reports from child and mother and revealed significant differences in perceptions, which the authors attributed in part to the immaturity of the child.
Florsheim, P., Tolan, P., & Gorman-Smith, D. (1998). Family relationships, parenting practices, the availability of male family members, and the behavior of inner-city boys in single-mother and two-parent families. Child Development, 69(5), 1437-47. African-American and Latino families, with boys between 10- and 15-years of age and living in inner-city Chicago neighborhoods, were recruited to participate in a study examining possible predictors of externalizing behaviors. Externalizing behaviors by the boys in the study were reduced significantly by feelings of family cohesion, structure, discipline, affiliation, and the presence of a positive male influence. Although child self-reports were the source for much of this data, the externalizing data was based on child, parent, and teacher reports.
S. woman." (288).
In response to this negative impact of Barbie not being found in the 7 1/2 to 8-1/2-year-old girls, the researchers admit that the finding was unanticipated and assert that, "For these older girls, if they have already internalized the thinness ideal, then the depiction of a full body could represent a possible, but feared, future self." (290)
The study is weak in several areas. The research sample is small, predominately white and middle class and comes from the same geographic region, causing one to wonder how much socio-economic factors play a role in the results of this study. it's not clear if the use of picture books rather than just dolls introduced bias into the study. Clearly, the researchers tried to emulate similar scenes for Barbie and Emme, but there are differences such as there as the use of an image of Barbie in the supermarket and…
Dittmar, H., Halliwell, E., & Ive, S. (2006). Does Barbie Make Girls want to Be thin? The Effect of Experimental exposure to Images of Dolls on the Body Image of 5- to 8-year-old Girls. Developmental Psychology, 42, 283-292.
unctions of Emotions
Though the text does go into some detail about the practical functions that emotions serve on page 336 in chapter 10, it is rather brief and perfunctory when addressing these practical functions. Though this issue is not particularly confusing, it is also not very well explained in the textbook, and so a website was found that provides more information on the subject. At the URL http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content= a713751220~frm=titlelink, the abstract of an in-depth research article can be found that details the wide array of literature documenting the evolutionary functions served by emotions, and that also notes the relative lack of information concerning emotions' developmental functions. This could possibly explain why there is not a great deal of depth in the textbook regarding these functions; the text is more concerned with developmental issues than with evolutionary phenomena, and the developmental functions of emotions have not been as thoroughly researched…
Functions of Emotions
Though the text does go into some detail about the practical functions that emotions serve on page 336 in chapter 10, it is rather brief and perfunctory when addressing these practical functions. Though this issue is not particularly confusing, it is also not very well explained in the textbook, and so a website was found that provides more information on the subject. At the URL http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~db=all~content= a713751220~frm=titlelink, the abstract of an in-depth research article can be found that details the wide array of literature documenting the evolutionary functions served by emotions, and that also notes the relative lack of information concerning emotions' developmental functions. This could possibly explain why there is not a great deal of depth in the textbook regarding these functions; the text is more concerned with developmental issues than with evolutionary phenomena, and the developmental functions of emotions have not been as thoroughly researched (informaworld.com 2010). This site provides more information than is given in the text, yet is still somewhat brief due to the lack of research on the subject.
The developmental functions of emotions are seen to be primarily related to social cognitive attainments throughout the periods of human life, enabling more efficient interactions and interpersonal decisions (informaworld.com 2010). As many major developmental milestones involve abilities to function in social groups, emotional access and development are seen to be essential in overall mental and psychological development (informaworld.com 2010).
282). Furthermore, research supports that an audience is more likely to be persuaded when the persuasion technique matches their attitude functions. Thus, people in the advertising industry are far more likely to be successful persuaders when they carefully consider the predominant attitude type of their audience and tailor their advertisements to that specific group.
A final example of the contributions of psychology to advertising is a highly significant one. In 1957, Vance Packard wrote a book titled The Hidden Persuasion, which discussed the psychoanalytical techniques used by many advertising companies (Nelson, 2008). The book sold millions of copies, was translated into 12 languages, and remained on the U.S. bestseller list for a year. Nevertheless, it was highly criticized by many academics and people in the advertising industry who wrongfully assumed that it was focused mainly on subliminal messages. However, Packard never actually used the term "subliminal" and focused very little…
Gresko, J., Kennedy, L. & Lesniak, J. (1996). Social psychological factors underlying the impact of advertising. Retrieved from Miami University Website:
Kardes, F.R. (2005). The psychology of advertising. In Brock, T.C. & Green, M.C. (Eds.),
Persuasion: psychological insights and perspectives (p. 281-303). Thousand Oaks,
Of great importance is the position of respondents.
On the basis of the questionnaire an experimental design can be drawn, using two groups of subjects: one group consisting of high level positions, maybe people working in Human esource Management, and the other group being composed of university students or people holding different positions, non-managerial. The hypothesis would be aimed at testing gender stereotypes for higher position and lower position employees. A second hypothesis that will be tested is refers to the possibility that Human esources Management employees to be more prejudiced (more affected by) in what concerns gender roles.
Any research study should be very careful in establishing the relationships of cause and effect and should avoid ethical problems (dilemmas). The study suggested should take into consideration cultural differences and individual differences in the respondents in terms of personal beliefs regarding gender roles, but in such way as to be…
Agars, M. (2004), Reconsidering the Impact of Gender Stereotypes on the Advancement of Women in Organizations Psychology of Women Quarterly, Volume 28, P. 103
Cann a., William D.S. (1990), Gender stereotypes and dimensions of effective leader behavior, Journal of Sex Roles, http://www.springerlink.com/content/j64h77642025/" Volume 23, Numbers 7-8 / October,
Campbell a., Shirley L., Candy J. (2004): A longitudinal study of gender-related cognition and behaviour, Journal of Developmental Science, Volume 7 P. 1
Allen, B., (1995), Sex Roles, a Journal of Research, http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n9-10_v32/ai_17589713
It seems like the more a person goes to church, the more they accept the idea of torture (Thistlethwaite, 2009).When looking at the Savior, Jesus, this is a religious figure demonstrating the virtue of forgiveness. Jesus did not condone violence even when Peter was arrested. Yet, how does the church allow such violence in approving of torture? Remmel’s “Personality and Politics” describes personality as involving “the investigation of individual differences, both differences across individuals and the manifestation of those differences within individuals. Certainly, such an approach holds a great deal of interest for political scientists studying the beliefs and behaviors of individuals” (Remmel, 2016). When looking at the politics of torture, it means that certain efforts must be made to acquire something important, like information.
The article on torture notes that white evangelical Protestants are the most likely to accept torture for the overall ‘good’. They believe…
Childhood Development of Sexual Minorities
One might originally think it odd to approach a question about the experienced childhood development of minorities by opening a discussion of the children who will grow to be sexual and gender-identity minorities. Unlike most other minorities, these children are not generally being raised in a minority culture and family, and do not have the immediate support of their own race or culture about them to help prepare them for life as a minority. So in some ways, this is actually the ideal place to start such a discussion, because in this area one has unmitigated access to the experience of being a minority on the child's development, without the sheltering environment that surrounds other minorities. These children will, a majority of the time, emerge from the crucible of childhood as homosexual or possibly bisexual adults. A few more will go on to actually have…
ACPM. "Report XX of the Council on Scientific Affairs." American College of Preventive Medicine. http://www.acpm.org/pol_compNOTPOLICYbullying.htm
GENDER IDENTITY DISORDER IN YOUNG PEOPLE. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment (2000), vol.6,pp. 458-466, http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/gidyp.html
Mermaids. "Newspaper Archive http://www.mermaids.freeuk.com/newarch.html
Divorce on the Lives of Children
In today's society, half of all marriages end in divorce. Many of those marriages involve children. Parents who are involved in a divorce are often concerned about the effect of the divorce on their children. During the time of a divorce the parents may be preoccupied with their problems but still hold their roles as the most important people in their children's lives.
While a divorce may be devastating or relieving to a couple, children are frightened and confused by the terrible threat to their security. However, if a child feels secure and loved throughout the divorce, he or she may not be harmed by the divorce at all. Reflecting on these concerns, this paper aims to determine the effects of divorce on the lives of children.
etween the years 1950 to 1983, divorce broke up more families than parental death did in the…
Amato, P.R. (1993). Children's adjustment to divorce: Theories, hypotheses, and empirical support. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 23-38.
Brown, Alec. Young, Ellie. Allen, Melissa. The Effects of Divorce on Children (November, 2003). NASP Communique, Vol. 32, #3.
Hyatt, K. (November, 1999) Children's Adjustment to Divorce Largely in Hands of Parents, with One Exception: Dad's Departure Depresses Boys. Journal of Marriage and the Family: 44.
Newberger, C. (December, 1986). The American Family in Crisis: Implications for Children. Current Problems in Pediatrics. Vol. 16: 686-688, 713.
Business and Management Journal
There is much controversy with regard to developmental job experience (DJE) and the degree to which it plays a significant role in a person's behavior and success in the workplace. "NO PAIN, NO GAIN: AN AFFECT-BASED MODEL OF DEVELOPMENTAL JOB EXPERIENCE AND THE BUFFERING EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE" addresses this topic thoroughly and attempts to determine whether or not can actually have a positive effect on an individual in the context of his or her experience in the work environment. The article is meant to provide readers with a more complex understanding of the concept and of the attitudes one should employ with regard to it.
In order to be able to get actively involved in a DJE process, a person would have to be willing to go through great efforts and to show a significant amount of determination in achieving his or her goals in…
Axelrod, W., & Coyle, J. "Make Talent Your Business: How Exceptional Managers Develop People While Getting Results," (Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 6 Jun 2011)
Bilimoria, D. "Handbook on Women in Business and Management," (Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007)
Dong, Y, Seo, M., & Bartol, K.M., "NO PAIN, NO GAIN: AN AFFECT-BASED MODEL OF DEVELOPMENTAL JOB EXPERIENCE AND THE BUFFERING EFFECTS OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE," Academy of Management Journal 2014, Vol. 57, No. 4, 1056 -- 1077. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/amj.2011.0687
Jex, S.M., & Britt, T.W., "Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach," (John Wiley & Sons, 2 Jun 2008)
If the identity crisis is caused by a lack of self-certainty, one must work to become consistent in their self-image as it pertains to the image one presents to others. A role experimentation identity crisis is resolved by trying out new roles in order to find the role that feels most comfortable to use. An anticipation of achievement identity crisis can be resolved by evaluating one's actual chances of success in their role and adapting their role, or their expectations, accordingly in order to create more achievement and success.
An identity crisis can also be caused by a sexual identity crisis. A sex identity crisis is often best resolved by personally evaluating one's persona, asking whether he or she is comfortable with being male or female and in dealing with others of the other sexes.
When leadership polarization occurs, an identity crisis can follow. This type of identity crisis occurs…
Erikson, Erik. (1980): Identity and the Life Cycle. New York.
Friedman, Lawrence J. (1999): Identity's Architect: A Biography of Erik H. Erikson. Oxford.
Hoare, Carol Hren. (2002): Erikson on Development in Adulthood: New Insights from the Unpublished Papers. New York.
Marcia, J.E. (1966): "Development and Validation of Ego Identity Status." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2, pp. 551-58.
The father only sees Tom's limitations, but Tom knows the horse has been trained to follow voice commands. "Put me in his ear," he says, and he guides the horse through the woods successfully. ecause of this, evil men notice Tom and offer to buy him from the father. The father refuses, but Tom talks him into it, and tricks the men by escaping. In this scene we see Tom acting immorally, as he actively plans to cheat the men. Through this, ettelheim would probably argue that the reader has the fact that children sometimes act badly validated, making the reader less of a monster: his parents may expect him to always act well, but he has an example to demonstrate that other children besides him sometimes make mistakes or even deliberately do something they shouldn't do, and remain loveable. The reader learns that a child does not have to…
Bettelheim, Bruno. The Uses of Enchantment. New York: Alfred a Knopf, 1976.
The Brothers Grimm. "Tom Thumb." Translated by Edgar Taylor and Marian Edwardes. Accessed via the Internet 2/8/05. http://www.rickwalton.com/folktale/grimm24.htm
riginality, Applicability, and Relevance; Interdisciplinarity; Literature Review;)
It is the typically the norm for many offender programs follow the long-standing conventions that have been developed in the last few generations. However, the traditional route does not seem to consider fully the psychosocial factors that influence individual engagement in intervention settings. While factors related to offending behavior are known throughout the research community, their influence on what causes the behavior or motivational engagement still remains unclear. Brooks & Khan (2015) provided an effort to pursue these gaps in knowledge by creating a study that attempted to examine the precursors to behavior and engagement by interviewing and monitoring 109 juvenile offenders. The sample existed within a non-custodial community intervention and the researchers explored the antisocial behavior, influence of aggression, and disruptive and problematic behavior during school hours. They also monitored and explored self-esteem and parental bonding as possible moderators and reported on…
Other research efforts also suggest that the positive role evidence-based practice has a positive influence on juvenile offender rehabilitation. Another study found that "the intervention had a beneficial impact on antisocial influence potential of adolescents' friendship networks, with p < .05 for both of the primary composite measures. Current evidence-based preventive interventions can alter adolescents' friendship networks in ways that reduce the potential for peer influence toward antisocial behavior" (Osgood et al., 2013, p. 174). Furthermore, diversion programs and preventative programs can also benefit from evidence-based practices (Schwalbe, Gearing, MacKenzie, Brewer & Ibrahim, 2012, p. 28). The value in such models is based on the premise that the research examines reasons why juveniles offend, or could offend, and take into consideration various psycho-social factors and influences that lead to juvenile crime (Sim, 2014).
More insights into effective rehabilitation are provided by a 2014 study which identified the juvenile offenders' need for stimulation, which represents a common behavioral predisposition. "Results showed that need for stimulation, "irresponsibility," and callous & unemotional were sensitive to changes in respondents' varying psychopathy levels, whereas lack of realistic, long-term goals; superficial charm; and revocation of conditional release were less so" (Tsang, Piquero & Cauffman, 2014, p. 1333). By studying factors such as the lack motivation, long-term goals, and other behavioral characteristics commonly associated with offenders provide insights on the complex nature of the criminal offenses. Rehabilitation of criminal offenders, especially juvenile offenders, must clearly involve the study of individual motivations and behaviors to be effective (Ward, 2012). Traditional methods of offender rehabilitation have yet to apply such considerations despite substantial amounts of evidence that suggests that treatment psychosocial factors are more effective in preventing negative outcomes such as juvenile re-offense among others.
In a 2013 study, researchers sought to investigate the usefulness of two main methods for interpreting research into evidence-based practice within the juvenile justice setting. These methods were introduced in the form of brand-name programs, which are recognized via lists of several expert groups, and also come with quality guarantee packages presented by the program's developers. From an investigation that included large-scale meta-analyses, researchers have presented a number of universal approaches that may be applied for the purpose of refining existing programs. For example, the results of the study suggest that brand-name programs have a big benefit in the form of application success when compared to universal programs. In fact, they found brand-name programs had the top expected values offering conclusions that support statements such as that both "brand-name programs and meta-analyses represent two rigorous and transparent approaches for advancing evidence-based practice in juvenile justice. State governments should consider the merits of both approaches through a decision-tree model" (Welsh, Rocque & Greenwood, 2013, p. 207). Such studies can help to clarify salient factors that would otherwise be overlooked in a vague intervention model, and have the potential to significantly refine and strengthen rehabilitation and prevention programs in the future.
Developmental Stage/Age Group: Infancy and toddlerhood (0 - 3 years)
Erickson maintains that the first human developmental stage involves an individual’s interactions with his/her surroundings, normally the baby’s immediate social and physical environment, which is made up of home and family (Levinson, 1986). Especially important at this point (i.e. infancy) is the mother- baby relationship – the very first social bond one forms. Receptive mothers sensitive to the distinctive requirements of their baby will help cultivate a sound sense of self- worth within the baby, facilitating the development of a sound, all- round physical, emotional and psychological constitution, which happens between 0 and 18 months (Thomas et.al 2000).
Babies experience a feeling of uncertainty/insecurity when it comes to the world they are born into. For resolving this insecurity, they rely on their mother (primary caregiver) to acquire stable, consistent care. Hope arises from success at this point. The…
Psychology of Marriage and Family Systems
The literal meaning of the word "psychopathology" is a mind disorder or disease. Psychological diagnosticians, while assuming that the illness is located inside a person, always use the medical model in treating or studying patients with 'mental illnesses'. In comparison with the approach they take, I present two converging and related psychopathology perspectives. The two perspectives give an analysis based on context from the family's viewpoint. The first approach, the "family systems" approach, is a conception that came up in the 1950s as a substitute to the traditional focus of psychopathology on individuals (Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 1996).
The second approach, "family risk factors" has been in existence in psychopathology but not in the foreground. It tries to identify a couple family aspects of the functioning of the family that are significant in the treatment as well as etiology of patients that have tested positive…
Ackerman, N.W. (1958). The psychodynamics of family life. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Ackerman, N.W. (1962), Family Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis: The Implications of Difference. Family Process, 1: 30-43.
Ackerman, N.W. (1962). Family Psychotherapy and Psychoanalysis: The implications of difference. Family Process, 1(1): 30-43.
Ackerman, N.W. (1966). Treating the troubled family. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Looking at a problem from several different angles and viewpoints is the ultimate goal of group work and group decision-making. Having people who are different from one another helps to avoid 'groupthink' and contributes to in-depth discussions and better ideas than could be found in a group where the participants were basically all alike (Chartrand, van aaren, & argh, 2006). How a person reacts to others and to the situation, though, can seriously affect the outcome of the group. Society is made up of many different kinds of people, so a good group will be comprised of the same. This will help to ensure the success of whatever decision that the group comes to, since there will be a greater suggestion that the public will be receptive to it, as based on the opinions of the various group members.
oth internal and external information must be tracked in order to…
Chartrand, TL, van Baaren, RB, & Bargh, JA. (2006). Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: Consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 135(1), 70-77.
Livingston, BA & Judge, TA (2008). Emotional responses to work-family conflict: An examination of gender role orientation among working men and women. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93(1), 207-216.
Molden, DC & Dweck, CS. (2006). Finding "meaning" in psychology: A lay theories approach to self-regulation, social perception, and social development. American Psychologist. 61(3), 192-203.
Supervisory elationship in Psychology
In psychology, supervision is playing an important role in determining how effectively professionals are able to monitor their colleagues and ensure they are following the highest standards. This takes place by meeting with another associate inside the same discipline and field. The basic idea is to review the techniques that are utilized and seek out alternate avenues for enhancing professionalism. This occurs with both people serving as equals to understand how specific techniques and practices could have an impact on quality. During this process, there is an emphasis on engagement, uncertainty and formation. (Watkins, 2011, pg. 58, para. 2)
These models are serving as a foundation in understanding key challenges and the effects they are having on stakeholders. To fully comprehend this role requires examining how supervision is utilized. This will be accomplished by describing the attributes and the process for an optimal relationship. Together, these…
Bennett, S. (2008). The Interface Attachment. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 78 (2), 301 -- 317.
Farber, E. (2010). Introduction to the special section. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 47(1), 1.
Landany, N. (2013). Effective and Ineffective Supervision. The Counseling Psychologist, 41 (1), 28-47.
Lyne, A. (2007). Empathetic Relational Bonds and Personal Agency is Psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, Theory, Research, Practice and Training, 44 (4), 371-377.
Psychodynamic Model, The Model's Developmental Processes, And Use In Assessment And Treatment Psychodynamic Model
A large proportion of this research relied on historical data. Most of the data originated from institutions that take care of the aged, books, and journal articles. The views of health experts and professionals in mental health also shaped the judgement of this paper. The paper focused on extracting information from the four models under its analysis. Most of the findings originated from the four frameworks. ( The psychodynamic, the cognitive behavior, the stress and coping model, and the family systems model).
Given the demographics of the present age, almost all adult mental shape practice will certainly include older adults. As people grow older, various changes occur, more valuable is the vulnerability to stress and illnesses. The challenges one faces through the years like the death of loved ones, loneliness and others exposes one to the…
ReferencesTop of For
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Blaikie, A. (2009). Ageing And Popular Culture. Cambridge U.A.: Cambridge Univ. Press.
Kerry Kelly, N., & Jack, N. (n.d). A New Model of Techniques for Concurrent Psychodynamic
Work with Parents of Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Patients. Child And
Change: Developmental Levels, Systems, and Diversity
The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of Domestic Abuse related to the change management and diversity. According to Burnett & Brenner (2011) domestic violence is the result of the victimization of a person with whom "the abuser has or has had an intimate, romantic, or spousal relationship." Traditionally it includes a pattern of behaviors that attempt to coerce adults or youths that are ordinarily competent, into behaviors that establish the abuser as the power figure, so that they maintain control over other members of the party in question. Behaviors of patterns that proffer control often build upon each other, setting a stage for "future violence" (Burnett & Brenner, 2011). Psychological abuse, stalking, sexual abuse, physical abuse, and isolation are all forms of domestic abuse resulting in annual economic costs exceeding $8 million dollars according to the CDC (Burnett & Brenner,…
Burnett, Lynn Barkley, MD, EdD, Brenner, Barry E. MD, PhD, et. al. (2011 April) Domestic
Violence. Medscape, Retrieved July 18, 2011: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/805546-overview
Hall, D.T. & Chandler, D.E. (2005). Psychological success: When the career is a calling Journal
of Organizational Behavior, 26, 155-176.
In that regard, the counselor would want to explore any possible connection between the social turmoil that might have been responsible for generating his subsequent social disillusionment. To the extent the counselor determines that the subject's social disenfranchisement is attributable to his involvement or response to those social conflicts he would assist the subject evaluate the objective conclusions and expectations that have shaped his outlook as an older adult in substantially different social circumstances and living in a very different society than the one responsible for his feelings about government representatives and authority figures in general (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
B. Preliminary Hypotheses of Main Apparent Problems
Hypothesis # 1 -- Multiple Causes of Intimacy Issues
First, it is likely that there are multiple concurrent causes of the subject's apparent difficulty establishing and maintaining close intimate relationships and effective communications within his marriage. The psychodynamic perspective teaches that it is…
Adler, a. (1927) Understanding Human Nature. Center City: Hazelden
Frain, M.P., Bishop, M., and Bethel, M. "A Roadmap for Rehabilitation Counseling to Serve Military Veterans with Disabilities." Journal of Rehabilitation, Volume 76,
No. 1; (2010): 13-21.
Gerrig, R, and Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life.. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Biblical Principles in the Field of Psychology
Biblical Principles in Psychology
This question is still a subject of debate in the academia. One of the two definitions of psychology is through the biblical vantage point and thus using religious material to enrich it would be welcome in the broad sense that psychology finds a place in the biblical arena. Outside this consideration, psychology is generally considered as the subject interested in studying human and animal behavior. Nevertheless, the soul is a very important subject in the study of psychology. First off, psychology attempts to address issues such as the nature of human soul, explores the origin of a soul, and attempts to establish the purpose of man's soul and what might be at the final destiny of a soul.
There have been mixed reactions to whether biblical principles should be used in the field of psychology. For…
Cosgrove, M. (1979) "Psychology Gone Awry" Grand Rapids: Zondervan
Wayne, J. (2010) "Modern Psychology and the Bible" Available Online:
The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.
Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…
Abnormal psychology. (2009). a2psychology. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/abnormal.htm
Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Definitions. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 1. University of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture1.html
Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Classifications. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 2. University
of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture2.html