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(e) MacArthur was a control freak and he hated the press; to the suggestion that he was implementing a socialist economy in Japan, he was outraged (Buhite, 2008).
(f) hen reporters did not write what he wanted while he was in Japan, he had them thrown out and not allowed back in; any negative reporting might hurt his chances to win the Republican nomination for the presidency (Buhite, 2008).
Thesis THREE: MacArthur, now in charge of the American & UN forces in Korea, showed his militant independence as to how to conduct the war, and presented some outrageously controversial plans as to how to win the war along with alienating American allies.
i) the Joint Chiefs of Staff demanded that MacArthur avoid attacking the Yalu bridges because he would have to fly over Manchurian territory and though MacArthur's airmen tried heroically to isolate Korea" the way islands were isolated in…… [Read More]
His flexiility in this regard as an expert communicator is amply demonstrated y the wide range of high-level leadership positions over the course of his lengthy military career. According to Grandstaff (2007), "Army General Douglas MacArthur is a prime candidate for the study of leadership. The son of Army General Arthur MacArthur, he spent more than 70 years serving in a variety of leadership positions, including Superintendent of West Point, Chief of Staff of the Army, Field Marshall of the Philippines, Supreme Allied Commander of the Pacific during World War II, Military Governor of Japan during its occupation, and as a presidential hopeful as well as pulic administrator and usinessman" (p. 128). While MacArthur has een criticized for his lack of communication with the Joint Chiefs of Staff prior to and during his prosecution of the Inchon landing and thereafter, the man's prestige and ego went a long way in…… [Read More]
In spite of the setbacks of Operation Blueheart, MacArthur was admirable in his courageous "promptitude to act," in the words of Winston Churchill (cited by Starling 1998, p. 298). After Blueheart's execution proved inconceivable, MacArthur immediately proceeded to draft the plans for the similar Operation Chromite. Operation Chromite, like Operation Blueheart, would rally the support of various branches of the military in a sweeping amphibious counteroffensive. MacArthur hoped to achieve the primary objective of American and United Nations presence in the Korean Peninsula: to stymie the communists.
If nothing else, MacArthur wanted to revitalize the spirits of troops stationed throughout East Asia and especially those trapped behind the Pusan Perimeter. On a reconnaissance mission on June 29, 1950 General MacArthur observed lackluster troops and was quoted saying Nobody is fighting," (Ballard 2001, p. 32). The seasoned CINCFE pointed out during the reconnaissance mission that among American and allied South Korean…… [Read More]
Post-orld ar II Japan: A Nation in Transition
Devastated by the Allies in orld ar II, Japan has emerged as one of the world's most economically and technologically advanced societies today. Some observers have suggested that the "Japanese miracle" was the result of a collusion between the government and industry to prosecute economic growth through a series of subsidies and favorable business climates, while others maintain this explosive growth was due to the industrious and business-savvy Japanese people themselves. In order to determine which is correct, this paper will provide a review of Japan from the time of the signing of the peace treaty bringing an end to orld ar II and the years that followed. A review of the peace treaty and what was demanded of Japan to bring an end to the war after the bombing of Nagasaki will be followed by an examination of the role of…… [Read More]
On page 138 Halberstam explains that the initial American units "…thrown into battle were poorly armed, in terrible shape physically, and, more often than not, poorly led" (Halberstam, 2007, 138). The U.S. was trying to get by "…on the cheap," Halberstam explains, and it Korea "it showed immediately"; Truman wanted to keep taxes low, he wanted to try and pay off the debt from the enormous expenditures in II, and as was referenced earlier, Truman really wanted to keep military expenditures down.
But what that austerity program meant was that the first troops that were being trained at Fort Lewis (prior to their orders to fight in Korea) were asked to "…use only two sheets of toilet paper each time they visited the latrine" (Halberstam, 138). Moreover, the lackluster performance by the initial troops sent into harm's way in Korea was reported back in the states and caused serious concerns.…… [Read More]
Released in 2016 in South Korea, John H. Lee Jae-Han’s film Operation Chromite is about the historic Battle of Inchon, one of the central battles in the Korean War. The film is in most ways a typical war drama with requisite sub-plots involving espionage, politics, and military strategy. Similarly, the film serves to reinforce the prevailing narrative about the Korean War, depicting the North Koreans as being summarily evil and one-dimensional while holding the South Koreans, Americans, and other allies as being more complex as well as morally righteous. Although harshly criticized from a filmmaking perspective, Operation Chromite does remain true to the historical events that took place during the Battle of Inchon. The bold invasion did indeed serve as a critical victory in the conflict, even though it still did not lead to a decisive victory for the South.
Depictions of the Korean War in film and…… [Read More]
Command and Control Structure and Organization: Operation Toenails
Operation Toenails, also called Operation A and the New Georgia Campaign, was part of Operation Cartwheel, in turn a series of offensives by the Allied forces against the Japanese in the South Pacific during World War II (Miller 1970). This campaign was undertaken in the New Georgia group of islands at the central Solomon Islands from June 20 to August 25, 1943. Its purpose was to isolate Rabaul, a critical Japanese base, to protect Australia and to pave the way for succeeding initiatives (Miller).
The Question of Command
The Army and the Navy were in heated disagreement over a unified leadership in the entire Pacific (Miller 1970). The initial sentiment was for a joint leadership and mutual cooperation between General Douglas MacArthur and Admiral William Halsey. This idea was, however, rejected . The Joint Chiefs came out with a directive on July…… [Read More]
Clausewitz's Paired Concepts
Clausewitz's contribution to the art of warfare is well established. In this treatise, On War (Clausewitz,1989), he set forth his various views on how modern warfare should be conducted. Although the treatise is not always easy to read or understand, the concepts contained therein remain applicable today. The criticisms of Clausewitz's approach are numerable and his views have been debated vigorously since they were first published. Yet, Clausewitz's theories retain their validity nearly two centuries after they were first proposed.
Before examining the validity of Clausewitz's theories it must be remembered that the era in which his theories were formalized is significantly different than the era in which the Korean War occurred. For example, Clausewitz never envisioned a weapon as powerful as an atomic bomb. The atomic bomb created methods of warfare radically different from those considered by Clausewitz and any analysis of his theories must be…… [Read More]
It was plainly obstruction of justice, and Al Haig knew it immediately.
It must also be noted, however, that, as the president tried to cover his tracks, Al Haig was given orders by Nixon to help him do it. In that capacity, for instance, Haig helped arrange the wiretaps of government officials and reporters (Gearan).
He played a key role in attempting to persuade Nixon to resign. Most believe it was Haig who first suggested to Gerald Ford that he pardon Nixon for his crimes while in office. It was this advice and Ford's acceptance of it that is believed to have cost Ford the presidency in 1976.
In "Nixon: An Oral history of His Presidency," (Strober & Strober, 2003), Haig says this:
"It is totally untrue that I raised the question of pardon with Ford...a series of options was given to him, including pardons...There were five options written by…… [Read More]
And it cannot be denied that there is evidence to support that concern in many respects. But for women, it would help to open certain pathways to personal advancement. According to Mackie, "the women's liberation movement developed out of a critique of modern Japanese capitalism, a dissatisfaction with the sexism of the New Left, and the need of women in Japan to theorise their place in East Asia." (p. 4)
Among the forces that would significantly aid in their ability to establish any such identity would be the new set of doors opened by the shift in Japan's educational principles. The goals of modernization and capitalist advancement -- which would ultimately call for more opportunities for women to make contributions -- would demand an emphasis on education in the evolving state of Japan. So would this be demonstrated by the policies on this front which passed into law concurrent with…… [Read More]
ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics
The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period.
There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…… [Read More]
It can be argued that the Americans won and lost the Korean War. When the war broke out in 1950, the U.S. entered the war to curb the spread of communism in Asia. North Korean Army had attacked the South to an extent of taking over Seoul from the South. The U.S.-led army was able to protect South Korea and drive North Korean army to the North. This meant that the U.S. was able to prevent the spread of communism to the South. General Douglas MacArthur had succeeded in pushing the Korean army out of Seoul and to the other side of the 38th Parallel[footnoteRef:1]. [1: James Callanan, Covert Action in the Cold War U.S. Policy, Intelligence, and CIA Operations (London: I.. Tauris, 2010)]
However, when the American troops crossed the border and reached the border between North Korea and China, China was provoked that their…… [Read More]
Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).
Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.
Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…… [Read More]
Over 1,000 Chinese witnesses came forth to testify in the trials which lasted until February of 1947 after the Chinese government posted notices in Nanking regarding the need for credible witnesses, (Chang 1997:170). Unlike the Nuremburg Trials, however, much of the case against the Japanese fell apart thanks to faulty prosecution and a lack of true concern for justice in the region.
The events which conspired in Nanking during the Japanese occupation broke several established international laws for the protection of civilians, prisoners of war, and unarmed Chinese soldiers. According to the International Military Tribunal of the Far East, three classifications of war criminals were established based on the intent and nature of their crimes. This tribunal followed the model set in Europe by the coinciding tribunal the International Military Tribunal of Nuremburg and followed the same charter with the definition of war crimes as "violations of the laws and…… [Read More]
" Change must therefore be accomplished by the institution of a strong leadership of just a single individual (Kotter,1996,p.25) .In this case, the person was Ghosn. Change however requires a special team of leaders as well as managers who have a common goal that is communicated succinctly by the team leader. Ghosn therefore "walked the talk" since his leadership style which was transformational, brought real change to the organization.
It is important to note that for any organization to succeed, a balance must be struck between leadership and the management. This is because there can never be any form of transformation without a true leader. All successful organizational transformations are only achieved via the right mix of leadership and management.
Baggaley, B. 2006. Using strategic performance measurements to accelerate lean performance. Cost Management (January/February): 36-44
Cloud, C (2010). Epilogue: Change leadership and leadership development. New Directions for Community…… [Read More]
World War II was carried out on the home front, how it was presented to the American people and conducted in America. World War II never really touched American shored, but it certainly made a difference in American lives.
On December 8, 1941, President Franklin D. oosevelt addressed congress and asked them to declare war on Japan after their unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7. He called December 7 "a date which will live in infamy," and it brought Americans directly into the war, and their lives changed. As soon as oosevelt declared war, thousands of patriotic and emotional Americans hurried to enlist and help fight the war. These young people were angry about the Japanese attacks, and they wanted to defend their country. Young men enlisted in the Armed Forces, and young women signed up as nurses, and even pilots, helping to ferry airplanes from one…… [Read More]
It would construct a credible, but false, situation to deceive or lead the target to act in a manner, which would accomplish the commander's goal. When the target accepted the deception, the commander determined the means or methods needed to present the events. The manual demonstrated the mechanism of "Conditioning an Adversary" through the case of the Egyptian crossing the Suez in 1973. It consisted that deceptive measures and a broad range of centrally-directed and controlled deception events, involving political and military activities. Whether the objective was to control the public and elite view of a conflict or for purposes of military deception, the U.S. military had keen interest in media's perception of events in the battlefield. If the media was present and undermined the political strategy, it needed to be controlled. ut if it were non-neutral, there was greater need to control it. Whether it behaved impartially or not,…… [Read More]
As we will see in the case studies, leadership is a decisive factor in the process of diagnosing and in the implementation of changes in the operation of a corporate organisation. IT, HR and corporate work ethics may be excellent. However, without secure and decisive leadership, the best organisational makeovers can fail miserably.
In this part of the essay, this author will illustrate three models and techniques in the change management professional literature for diagnosing organisations. ith regard to this, we will compare and contrast three different diagnostic models/techniques, including the main strengths and weaknesses of each. In this discussion, we will also examine the relationship between each diagnostic model/technique and the organisational development and political approaches to organisational change.
In the first we will consider, a great person and a great organisational management team leads change and the charge, focusing in on areas that needs to be changed.…… [Read More]
World War II -- Economic Means of War
re-War America was ill-prepared for the logistics of War. Upon entering the War, the United States was faced with a complex situation in which it had to coordinate the logistics of global war among its own forces and in conjunction with Allied forces. Through the efforts of notable military leaders, the United States capably mastered logistics for success in both the European and acific Theaters.
World War II - Economic Means of War for the United States
rior to the United States' entry into World War II, the "window to the west" was closed due to American isolationism and economic crisis during the Depression.[footnoteRef:1] There were two competing forces in pre-war America: those who believed America should intervene in the European war vs. The "America First Committee" that believed America's best pre-War interests were served by doing precisely nothing and that Germany's…… [Read More]
Bonus Army Invades Washington
With his stirring yet scholarly account of one of America's defining internal conflicts, the Bonus Army's contentious 1932 march on Washington, historian Edward Robb Ellis manages to capture the shared desperation of both the destitute veterans protesting for proper pay, and the depleted government struggling to balance promises with pragmatism. Ellis' deftly written analytical article entitled The Bonus Army Invades Washington manages to convey with astonishing clarity the unique confluence of historical circumstances which led to the Bonus Expeditionary Force's fateful demonstration at the nation's capitol. Utilizing a narrative tone which is at once casual and cerebral, Ellis leads his reader from the killing fields of World War I to the postwar partisanship that plagued Washington, D.C. In the 1930's, covering the collective concerns of an unsteady nation by delving into the personal experiences of the major figures involved. Throughout the article, Ellis harnesses a subtly…… [Read More]
Image chronicles the history of the United States and the Philippines over several hundred years of modern history. Karnow's main argument about the relationship between the new nation is that the United States had an empire over this far-off but ostensibly independent country that "dare not speak its name." Over the course of the book, Karnow paints a convincing portrait of a nation colonized. Karnow suggests that what was particularly damaging about the de facto (if not de jure) American empire in the Philippines was that America's self-image is that it is a democratic, non-empirical country. By engaging in the sort of relationship America had with the Philippines, America betrayed its most fundamental principles as a nation as well as engaged in exploitation. Because America did not perceive itself as a nation capable of exploiting other nations like its parent country England, it could not even acknowledge the abuses it…… [Read More]
When Herbert Hoover became president in 1929, the foundations of economic stability were already beginning to crumble. The demand for mass produced items had peaked, and new areas of spending that would recover the downturn were leveling off. Investors were not hurrying to build new areas of growth since market creation was troublesome. Hoover, or the Great Engineer as he called himself, had many plans for large studies of social trends and corresponding services for child welfare, housing, recreation, education and public health. In fact, he came into office pledging "a chicken in every pot and a car in every garage" and "a final triumph over poverty." In his view, the marriage of private enterprise with science and technology would end poverty and welcome in a new humane social order. However, it did not take long before Hoover found that his attention would be diverted toward much more…… [Read More]
limited and total war, and the factors leading to either type of wars.
States will escalate a limited war to total warfare only in cases where they do not have certain limitations.
Key discussion areas:
A definition and a discussion of limited and total wars
A discussion of the Koreas war and how major world powers (the Soviet Union and the United States ) were fighting their own proxy wars in the conflict
A discussion of military imperatives such as nuclear weapons and their scale of destructions and why their possession and use is restricted. And how nuclear asymmetry affects modern warfare.
A discussion of the four main factors limiting war and why such factors are important to making defense policy decisions for nations in the modern day world
Summary of main points:
Limited and total war
Military imperatives; nuclear weapons and military factors
Factors limiting war
What are the…… [Read More]
The Reflective Essay
President Harry Truman's decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan during World War II
The United States remains the only country in the world that has ever made use of an atomic weapon against another country during a war. In 1945 the U.S. bombed two Japanese cities – Hiroshima and Nagasaki – in what effectively informed the surrender of Japan during World War II. It is important to note that over time, the use of an atomic bomb by the U.S. against Japan has been debated widely. Was the U.S. justified in the deployment of the atomic bombs? What escalated the wartime circumstances to dangerous levels, and could the massive devastation that came about as a consequence be prevented? These are some of the questions that scholars have grapples with on this front. This text revisits the debate and highlights President Harry Truman's decision to drop…… [Read More]
Howeve, befoe giving the medicine, anesthesiologist caefully examines the condition of the pegnant woman to whom anesthesia is to be given. Epidual anesthesia duing labo and nomal delivey does not cause unconsciousness; thus, patients do not lose thei psychological aletness (Halpen and Douglas 2008).
Accoding to (Oebaugh 2011), epidual anesthesia is commonly administeed by injecting the medicine in the lumba egion of the back, specifically in the epidual egion. The detailed pocedue egading the administation of epidual anesthesia has aleady been discussed in the pevious section of the pape. Howeve, the anesthetic dug injected in the epidual space inteupts the passage of neve impulses that oiginate in epoductive ogans and tavel though neves to lowe spine and then to bain. This hindes the feeling of sensation/pain that is poduced in the lowe pats of the body.
The degee of insensitivity induced depends on few factos that include the…… [Read More]
Using Hersey-lanchard leadership theory to analyze LeMay's strengths and weaknesses as a leader
Situational leadership theory and LeMay
The Japanese campaign
The Cold War
Contrasting military and civilian leadership
How first, personal successes influence leadership
Four-star General Curtis LeMay is one of the most controversial figures in the history of the modern U.S. Air Force. LeMay's philosophy can be summed up as follows: it is more advantageous and ultimately more compassionate to use massive levels of force against the enemy. This results in a quicker victory and ultimately preserves more civilian lives. However, LeMay's legacy as a military leader is complex. On one hand, he is credited with speeding the end of World War II, thanks to his superior leadership style, tactical ability and boldness. However, as a political leader and advocate of U.S. interests, his legacy is mixed. "When he retired in 1965, LeMay was widely…… [Read More]
isk management is aimed at determining possible problems beforehand in order to plan and invoke risk-handling activities, as required, across the project's or product's life, for mitigating negative effects on attaining objectives. The process of risk management constitutes a key part of technical and business management systems; it is constant and forward-thinking. isk management must deal with problems that threaten the attainment of key aims. A constant risk management strategy is adopted for successfully predicting and reducing risk elements, which critically affect a venture. A sound risk management plan entails timely and forceful risk identification by way of participation and collaboration of concerned stakeholders. Effective leadership is required across all concerned stakeholders for cultivating an environment conducive to honest and uninhibited discovery and analysis of risk. While technical problems constitute a major concern in the early stages as well as all through the course of the project, risk management has…… [Read More]
Cognitive Aspects of the Aging Process
The purpose of this work is to define cognition and to explain the effects of aging on the brain in relation to memory, attention, metacognition, effects on languaging and the effects of aging on the executive function and finally cognitive function in very old age. This will be inclusive of primary cognitive diseases found in aging adults such as dementia and Alzheimer's.
Medical science continues to discover more about aging with each passing year. Cognitive effects of aging are one element that the aging individual must face as well as something that family and friends of the individual will cope with at some point. Cognition is defined as "the mental process of knowing, thinking, learning, and judging." (Online Medical Dictionary, 2005) Therefore the elderly experienced "cognitive dysfunction" is defined as "disturbance to the mental processes of knowing, thinking, learning and judging." Disturbances or dysfunctions…… [Read More]
S. involvement in World War II.
Is it possible to have a general theory of war?
Perhaps the most well-known "theory" of war is articulated in Matthew 24:6: "You will hear of wars and rumors of wars. . . . Such things must happen" (New International Version 1984). Therefore, although it is possible to have a general theory of war, any such theory will be limited in its ability to explain the why's and how's of its occurrence. According to Gray (1999), in his seminal text, on War, Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz, set forth a modern general theory of war, but Sun Tzu's Art of War also addressed this issue. Clausewitz, though, is cited time and again in the relevant literature as having propounded a general theory of war. For instance, eid (2004) reports that, "In particular, he seeks to explain the methods to establish a general theory of…… [Read More]
Gnostics believed that they belonged to the "true church" of an elect few who were worthy; the orthodox Christians would not be saved because they were blind to the truth.
Part E -- Content - if we then combine the historical outline of the "reason" for John's writings with the overall message, we can conclude that there are at least five major paradigms present that are important in a contextual analysis of John.
John 5:13 - I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life. This seems to point that John saw a clear difference between those who believed in Jesus as the Son of God, but were unsure about eternal life. However, if we look back at other parts of his Gospel, we do find repetition of this theme. In John 1:5-7,…… [Read More]