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Many have agued about the contributing factors to the differences that fathers and mothers have. Some have associated the differences with gender socialization while others have linked it to be biological. Of course, these two have contributed but we cannot run from the key contributor, biological. Our bodies and characters are manifested through the biological process that takes place in our bodies.
Fathers are always different to mothers in terms of their voices where most of the fathers tend to have deep voices contrary to women who have high pitched voices. Emotionally fathers are strong where crying or showing fear is not much evidenced in them like the way mothers tend to be weak emotionally; they cry easily and have a lot of fear. Fathers can also be described as impassive while mothers are passive, fathers are rational in terms of their decision while women are irrational, fathers…
John Stossel, (1998) "Boys & Girls Are Different: Men, Women, and the Sex Difference," ABC News Special, The Electric Library.
Leslie Feinberg, (1996) Transgender Warriors, Beacon Press: Boston, Massachusetts.
The educational setting I have selected in my community to deconstruct within this document is called Thriving Minds (formerly Muskal Assessment and Learning Clinic). I was able to contact two long-term staff members of this organizations for a fairly candid interview revolving around their educational philosophy as specifically applied to parental involvement. Since this particular learning clinic exists outside of the formal constructs of any public or private school educational system, parental involvement is integral to the relationship fostered between clinicians, parents and students since it is usually the parents who decided to enroll their children. As such, the degree of parental involvement actuated at Thriving Minds is perhaps considerably more than that at traditional educational institutions such as schools or learning academies.
Parental involvement is defined at Thriving Minds in a variety of ways, all of which relate to the basic concept of keeping parents informed about…
In this regard, there is a clear sociological agenda which initiates with the expectation that boys will be attracted to certain features in their toys and that girls will be attracted to certain other, divergent features.
Ultimately, this denotes that it will fall upon the shopping parent to determine which type of toy is more valuable to his or her child. To my perspective, those toys which lack an apparent sociocultural agenda do so because they are inherently flexible to the innumerable needs and ambitions of the developing child.
Paper Clips (2004) is a compelling documentary in which the children of an elementary school in hitwell, Tennessee have been engaged in a project designed to better conceptualize and put into perspective the enormity and horrors of the Holocaust. The class would center on teaching the students tolerance, and would prove directly well-suited to the adolescent stage experienced by most…
Crain, W.C. (1985). Theories of Development. Prentice-Hall.
Harder, A.F. (2002). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online.
Norm-referenced vs. criterion-referenced test
A norm-referenced test is an assessment that usually brings out an estimate of the position of the person who is being tested in a population that is predefined with the focus being the trait that is being measured. The estimate is normally obtained from analyzing the test scores as well as other data which is got from the population and is relevant .in this type of assessment there is identification of whether the person who is taking the test is better or worse than the other people who are also taking the test. However this assessment is not used to determine whether the person who is taking the test knows more or less than the requirement. Criterion referenced test is an assessment involves translating test scores into statements regarding the expected behavior of an individual who has attained a particular score or how they…
Dannielle.(2008). Norm-Referenced vs. Criterion-Referenced Testing.Retrieved Novemeber 10,2013 from http://www.altalang.com/beyond-words/2008/05/22/norm-referenced-vs.-criterion-referenced-language-tests/
Robert, C.(2013). Differences Between Standardized & Non-Standardized Assessments. Retrieved Novemeber 10,2013 from http://classroom.synonym.com/differences-between-standardized-nonstandardized-assessments-4442.html
Klotz, M.B & Canter, A.(2013). Response to Intervention (RTI): A Primer for Parents. Retrieved Novemeber 10,2013 from http://www.readingrockets.org/article/15857/
Early Childhood Activities
My Creative Activities Portfolio
CE230 Creative Activities for Young Children Final Project
Creating a Leaf Character
Ehlert, L. (2003). Leaf man. New York: Harcourt Children's Books.
wks-1 yr ages 2-4
ages 5 -- 7
ages 8 -- 10
After completing this activity, students will be able to sort leaves by attributes (shape, color, size) and assemble them to create an original art project which they can then use as a story prompt for a subsequent writing lesson.
Brown paper lunch bags, assorted autumn leaves, collected outdoors by students, 9X12 sheets of construction paper, white school glue, plastic "google" eyes
Highlight (all) elated Developmental Area(s):
Procedure: Explain in detailed narrative form using complete sentences how this activity is accomplished. Include the…
"Responsive Classroom morning meeting activities." (2008). Northeast Foundation for Children. Retrieved April 15, 2013 from http://www.responsiveclassroom.org/sites/default/files
Findings from several research studies show that when computer software and classroom manipulatives were compared, "the computer software was found to be the more effective means of skill building in young children" (Hitchcock and Noonan, 2000). The key, it appears, is the judicious use of technology and the timeframe in which computers are used. Computer software can be used as a learning tool, but disguised as a game. Further research found that computers are motivating and promote teacher-student interaction, which allows the teacher to encourage, prompt, and point to display items. While more research is clearly needed, the computer can be programmed to meet individual learning needs and to adapt regular curriculum issues in a more robust manner (Spencer and Baskin, 1997).
Part 4 -- The literature shows us that there are five major ways in which computers enhance learning in early childhood education:
Enhancing Learning -- There is a…
Cesarone, B. (2000). Computers in Elementary and Early Childhood Education. Childhood Education. 77 (1): 54-63.
Department of Education. (2003). Benefits of Technology use. Retrieved from:
Hitchcock, C. And Noonan, M.J. (2000). Computer-Assisted Instruction of Early Academic
Porch (2002) points out that research unequivocally shows that early childhood education paves the way for later educational success.
As of now, few states offer fully funded early childhood education programs. As of 2002, only three states offered fully-funded pre-kindergarten programs (Porch 2002). The fundamental purpose of the Early Childhood Development Initiative was to increase awareness of the importance of early childhood education. Yet more work needs to be done to ensure government support of early childhood development programs and not just lip service.
Kagan (2004) suggests some possible solutions to the lack of comprehensive funding for early childhood education programs for every American. Urban areas should be the number one recipient for federal and state funding, given that most of the nation's disadvantaged students live in urban centers and attend urban schools. Furthermore, wise investments into appropriate early childhood education programs will ensure that the taxpayer funds are spent…
Early Childhood Cognitive Development." The White House. Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/firstlady/initiatives/education/readingprograms.html
Kagan, S.L. (2004). Improving Urban Student Achievement Through Early Childhood Reform: What State Policymakers Can Do. Early Childhood Reform. Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://www.ecs.org/clearinghouse/50/07/5007.htm
Porch, S. (2002). Early Childhood Education Issues. Educational Research Service. Spring 2002. Retrieved May 15, 2008 at http://www.ers.org/spectrum/spg02a.htm
Early Childhood (Ages 3 to 7)
Early childhood (3-7)
Development of prefrontal cortex
By early childhood, areas such as sensory areas of the brain are already myelianated and after that the motor areas begin myelination. During childhood, myelination of the prefrontal cortex takes place and the pattern of development goes on until adolescence. The prefrontal cortex is at the front of the brain that is involved in complex and cognitive regulatory behaviors. This rate of development and myelination differs from one child to another hence the differences in their skills and abilities. This part of the brain is evidently one that has the most prolonged development period as its development occurs throughout childhood and into adolescence.
This section of the brain plays a role in different types of functions; goal setting and the planning of a sequence of actions, inhibiting inappropriate reposes and working memory meaning that it keeps information…
Tsujimoto1, S.(2009).The Prefrontal Cortex: Functional Neural Development During Early Childhood. Retrieved February 15, 2014 from http://nro.sagepub.com/content/14/4/345.abstract
Bergen, D.(2002). The Role of Pretend Play in Children's Cognitive Development. Retrieved February 15,2014 from http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v4n1/bergen.html
When data collection is reliant on teacher reporting and therefore the "...perception and rating of the Kindergarten teacher" (uhn, uderman, & Zumbo, 2007, p. 456), how would you suggest best controlling for or adjusting for perception bias?
Teacher reporting is understandably used in studies like that of uhn, uderman & Zumbo (2007). In the uhn, ederman & Zumbo (2007) study, the Kindergarten teachers rated their own students on the EDI. It is difficult to conceptualize other means by which the students could be evaluated. Researchers could use third-party observers, such as Kindergarten teachers from other schools. This might reduce perception bias in that teachers are somewhat likely to develop personal likes or dislikes during the course of instructing their students. A teacher from another school who has not been in contact with the students might have less personal bias toward the population being measured, but would be lacking in…
Guhn, Guderman and Zumbo (2007), Oliveri, Ercikan and Zumbo (2013), and readings from the text all illuminate some of the ways diverse classrooms function. Early childhood educators face a multitude of issues during the course of their work. One of the greatest challenges to early childhood educators is assessment, and finding the most appropriate, least biased, and least invasive methods of assessing students from diverse populations. Assessments should certainly be comprehensive and refer to the whole child, as Guhn, Guderman and Zumbo (2007), Oliveri, Ercikan and Zumbo (2013), and readings from the text all show. Behavioral issues need to be taken into account, as to issues related to social learning and emotional maturity. Yet concrete learning tasks, ranging from language development to specific knowledge, also need to be measured in ways that are sensitive to different learning styles. One way to ensure a fair assessment is simply to use multiple methods of assessment for each child, and to assess for as many factors as possible to avoid overlooking key areas of strength or weakness. Moreover, administrators or coworkers can monitor assessments or perform independent ones to correct for and address potential biases related to gender or ethnicity. Ideally, observing children in a naturalistic setting over a long period of time would help provide a comprehensive picture of their development. Video recordings might also come in handy for review purposes.
3. Does the prospect and understanding of differential item functioning (DIF) change your perception of reported scores and rankings on tests such as the PISA? Explain how DIF may have changed your perception or did not and why?
Measurement biases like differential item functioning (DIF) has changed my perception of reported scores and rankings on tests like the PISA. The plethora of learning that takes place at home and in communities can often supplant or enhance the learning that takes place in the classroom. Social learning in diverse communities also complicates matters related to DIF. Understanding DIF enhances my personal appreciation for early childhood education methods. Many tests do take place in settings that might enhance DIF, whereas more naturalistic assessments might minimize DIF. Specific methods of controlling for DIF can also be used in more complex data analyses. While I understand the need for assessments, I do believe that standardized systems like PISA can be seriously flawed in their design and interpretation. Learning more about DIF has helped me envision how to design more appropriate assessment methods while still recognizing the role that specific learning plays in education. Assessments that acknowledge cultural bias, allowing more nuance and greater reliance on holistic teacher observations, will be preferable in early childhood education. In many cases, multiple assessment methods can be combined to provide a complete picture of a child's development.
Children constantly grow and evolve with time, and relevant communication, emotional, social, and cognitive changes are experienced. Social and emotional changes are how children start perceiving things around them and respond accordingly. These perceptions can build from the closest relations, like parents and friends. This paper analyzes three developmental domains, cognitive, social, and emotional, of the selected developmental period in my life in relevance to the theories. The practical applications would help gain a deep understanding of the identified stage and theories in the real world.
I interviewed my mother for this paper to get an in-depth analysis of my early childhood stage. She told me that I was kind and empathetic from the beginning, which formed the basis of my upbringing. I was a quick friend-maker during early childhood since I liked to be around people. Making friends gave me confidence that I could adjust to any type of…
Cherry, K. (2019, August 2). Support and criticism of Piaget\\'s stage theory. Very Well Mind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/support-and-criticism-of-piagets-stage-theory-2795460
Alternative Methods in eading Assessment for Young Learners
eading is one of the arduous tasks to teach in the early childhood subject. At the same time, it is also a very interesting process. As mostly believed, the beginning of the language learning process always involves enthusiasm and the joy of the subject going through trial and error, recognizing the closest parts of their life. It goes through that way - until one day the process becomes a real and conscious workshop.
As children start getting their formal education, they need to go through the development process with a series of goals, which mostly are carefully set up for them, in order to obtain an addressed achievement in a given time schedule. As the result, they may look a little bit nervous and reluctant to show their real competence, as the process of assessment considered threatening.
This issue has been a…
Beck, J.W. (1999). How to Raise a Brighter Child: The Case for Early Learning. Pocket Books. 352
Katz, L.G. (1997). A Developmental Approach to Assessment of Young Children. Retrieved November 6, 2002 from ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Urbana IL. Web site: http://ericps.ed.uiuc.edu/eece/pubs/digests/1997/katz97.pdf.
Latha, R.H. (1999). A Reading Programme for Elementary Schools. The English Teaching Forum. Vol. 37. No. 4. pp. 12-15.
Meisels, S.J. (1995). Performance Assessment in Early Childhood Education: The Work Sampling System. Retrieved November 6, 2002 from ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education Urbana IL. Web site: http://www.ed.gov/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed382407.html .
Another important strategy is that of exploring spatial relations. In such activities, children gain a better visual and practical sense of the spatial relations within mathematics. Scholastic's article portrays two girls discussing the appropriate spatial placement of a couch in a dollhouse. Such thinking methods can be influenced utilizing activities asking the children to map their house, their school, or their neighborhood in proportions. This will help open the child's mind to a more organized way of approaching spatial relations.
Using such strategies help lay the foundations of mathematics essential for later higher levels of learning. It is important to introduce elementary topics and concepts as early as possible, without boring young children to loose their interest. Early math lessons should include engaging activities which help keep the child moving and the learning environment active.
Orientation will be held in a similar way, with parents exposed to Hahn's philosophy and rationale of the school curriculum, introduced to each of the teachers and invited to participate in joining in the various activities. Monthly reports will summarize the monthly events. Yearly reports will summarize the institution's annual achievement.
Description of assessment process used to document children's progress.
The Work Sampling System will be used which is a comprehensive assessment system for children in preschool though third grade. This consists of:
1. A modified Developmental checklist, arranged by 4 of the customary 7 domains: social development, language, art and music, and physical development.
2. Portfolios of children's work collected three or more times and year
3. Summary reports, written by teachers three times a year based upon their observations and ongoing records (Valeska Hinton early childhood educational center, Peoria, Illinois).
6 declines of modern youth; Kurt Hahn.…
6 declines of modern youth; Kurt Hahn. Wilderdom www.wilderdom.com/sixdeclinesofmodernyouth.html
Esquith. R. (2009) Lighting their fires: raising extraordinary kids in a mixed-up, muddled-up, shook-up world. New York: Viking
Four antidotes to the declines of modern youth -- Kurt Hahn Wilderdom www.wilderdom.com/fourantidotes.html
Dr. Kurt Hahn www.wilderdom.com/KurtHahn.html
Education in Early Childhood
Early childhood programs are the first source of information and knowledge for the young minds that have just started to explore the world. It is high time when the child's brain and thoughts would be steered in any direction as they are raw and hungry for knowledge. The future development is based on the foundations set in this age as a strong base would help in lifelong learning and social and cognitive development.
One key trend that is transforming early childhood programs is the increased use of technology, which has proved useful in current pandemic times. Children of today are already living in a digital age since the previous generation thought television was the newest form of technology (National Association for the Education of Young Children, 2012). Now, children are well-aware of mobiles, laptops, and tablets that have been increasingly used in schools for better knowledge…
Blackwell, C.K., Lauricella, A.R. & Wartella, E. (2014). Factors influencing digital technology use in early childhood education. Computers and Education, 77, 82-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2014.04.013
Cassidy, J., Jones, J.D. & Shaver, P.R. (2014). Contributions of attachment theory and research: A framework for future research, translation, and policy. Development and Psychopathology, 25(4 Pt 2), 1415-1434. DOI: 10.1017/S0954579413000692
Cherry, K. (2020, March 31). The 4 stages of cognitive development. Very Well Mind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/piagets-stages-of-cognitive-development-2795457
Delgado, P. (2019, October 22). The importance of parental involvement in teaching. Observatory. Retrieved from https://observatory.tec.mx/edu-news/the-importance-of-parental-involvement-in-teaching
Edarabia. (n.a.). 7 domains of early childhood development. Retrieved from https://www.edarabia.com/7-domains-of-early-childhood-development/
Horsburgh, J. & Ippolito, K. (2018). A skill to be worked at: Using social learning theory to explore the process of learning from role models in clinical settings. BMC Medical Education, 18(156). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-018-1251-x
Kelly. (2016, January 13). Childcare qualifications needed to work in childcare. Early Years Careers. Retrieved from https://www.earlyyearscareers.com/eyc/qualifications-and-training/childcare-qualifications-needed-to-work-in-childcare/
Kharrazi, S.K. & Delgoshaee, Y. (2010). Cognitive approach towards education and its impact on social responsibility of pre-school children. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 2174-2177. DOI:10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.07.432
Language Development in Young Children
Early Childhood and Literacy
Language is a physical link of a child to his outside world. Language acquisition is essential for a child's social, physical and cognitive development. It plays a vital role in developing an individual who would be able to express himself adequately to his family, friends and the world around him. A vast majority of the children can develop linguistic skills effortlessly, whereas some have difficulty in developing these essential skills. They are slow to learn a language and eventually struggle with academic and literacy skills throughout their educational career. The first few years of a child's life are important and critical for their performance.
This project examines the issues related to language development in first two years of a child's life. It also discusses the importance of the language and the role linguistics play in preparing a child for his academic…
Byrne, M. (1978). Appraisal of child language acquisition. Diagnostic methods in speech pathology, 102-177.
Clark, B.A. (1991). First- and Second-Language Acquisition in childhood. Retrieved from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/pubs/katzsym/clark-b.pdf
CLLRNet. (2007, June). Early Childhood Learning. Retrieved from http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/ECLKC/bulletin/ECLKCBulletinLanguage.pdf
fund, O. o. (2007). The Language of Babies, Toddlers and preschoolers. . Retrieved from http://www.ounceofprevention.org/research/pdfs/LanguageofBabies.pdf
[I also had my students write how they would say it out loud when naming it. Example: "Line AB or line segment AB is perpendicular to line segment CD."] Below is information on how students should label rays, lines, etc.
1. ay - the endpoint letter first, then a second point with a line ending in an arrow over the two letters, pointing to the right.
2. Point - a dot and then the point's letter.
3. Line - Two points on the line with a line with arrows in both directions above the letters.
4. Segment - the two endpoint letters of the segment with a line, no arrows, above the two letters
5. Intersecting - (AB x BC) the AB and BC would have a line or a line with arrows above them to show what figures they were. The x stands for intersects.
6. Parallel - (AB…
Baiker, K. And J. Robinson. (2004). Origami Math: Easy-to-Make Reproducible Activities that
Build Concepts, Skills, and Vocabulary in Geometry, Fractions, measurement, and More.
Minneapolis: Scholastic Books.
Bedford, M. (2007). Memorization: The Neglected Key to Learning. Efficacy Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.efficacy.org/Resources/TheEIPointofView / tabid/233/ctl/ArticleView / mid/678/articleId/84/Memorization-the-Neglected-Key-to-Learning.aspx
seminar was revolving more around why childhood education is important and the various credentials that support increased effort in this arena. Even though there were many related topics covered in this seminar, the major objective and goal is the relevance of early childhood education. It has been stated that early childhood development is a time when the child not only develops physically but socially, emotionally and cognitively as well. The infants enter into this world with a certain group of abilities and talents. They have many potentials that need to be worked on and brought out by the parents.
When looking into this subject through the perspective of a psychologist, many different theories can be used For instance; Sigmund Freud talked about the three essays sexuality and the different stages that a child must pass through in the right way. If a child does not successfully finish a stage, he…
Bornstein, D. (2013). Protecting Children from Toxic Stress. New York Times.
Felitti, M., Vincent, J., Anda, M., Robert, F., Nordenberg, M., & Williamson, M. et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 14(4), 245 -- 258.
Lazar, I., Darlington, R., Murray, H., Royce, J., Snipper, A., & Ramey, C. (1982). Lasting effects of early education: A report from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies. Monographs Of The Society For Research In Child Development, --151.
Zigler, E., Taussig, C., & Black, K. (1992). Early childhood intervention: a promising preventative for juvenile delinquency. American Psychologist, 47(8), 997.
What contribution to the understanding of early childhood development did this theorist make?
Jean Piaget has been one of the most influential early childhood and developmental psychologists. Focusing primarily on childhood cognitive development, Piaget hypothesized that children used different logical schemas than adults, and also that children progress through stages of cognitive development as they acquire new knowledge from the world around them and incorporate that information into their mental constructs (McLeod, 2018). The four stages of cognitive development Piaget proposed include the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. Piaget contributed tremendous understanding to how children adapt to new stimuli and changes in their environment, through the assimilation of new concepts into their schemas, the accommodation for potentially conflicting ideas or objects within those same schemas, and through the achievement of cognitive equilibrium as each individual progresses through the various stages of…
Early Childhood Special Education Curriculum, Instruction and Methods Projects
This beginning chapter delineates education to the young children with special needs. In particular, early childhood special education mirrors impact and acclaimed practices resultant from the special education and early childhood fields. In the present, emphasis that is laid on early childhood does not encompass whether these young children can be provided with special needs service in typical settings but focus is rather on how the design of these inclusive programs can be most efficacious. Therefore, taking this into consideration, it is necessary to have early intervention for children with disabilities. However, an important element that is delineated in the chapter is that in as much as these children have special needs, they ought not to be treated in a dissimilar manner. The programs of early intervention for kids and preschoolers with special needs have to be centered on the similar…
Blackwell, W. H., & Rossetti, Z. S. (2014). The Development of Individualized Education Programs. Sage Open, 4(2), 2158244014530411.
Center on the Developing Child at Harvard University. (2011). Inbrief: The Science of Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from: http://developingchild.harvard.edu/index.php/resources/multimedia/videos/inbrief_series/inbrief_science_of_ecd/
Cook, R. E., Klein, M. D., Chen, D. (2012). Adapting Early Childhood Curricula for Children with Special Needs, 8th Edition. New York: Prentice Hall.
Edutopia. (2007). Smart Hearts: Social and Emotional Learning Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/social-emotional-learning-overview-video
Early childhood education is instrumental in a child’s life because it facilitates the developmental process. Children learn to develop relationships outside their immediate family; they acquire language, reading, mathematics and science skills even if on only a rudimentary fundamental level; and they begin the process of self-actualization, even at this young age. Early childhood education impacts the child be providing a safe and stable environment in which the child can explore, learn, interact with teachers and peers and observe model behavior that can shape the child’s psychological and behavioral development. Early childhood education impacts society by providing a foundation for life-long learning at an early age that can carry over throughout the years as the child grows.
Families benefit from early childhood education by being given educational support and training that can ease them of the burden of providing lessons for their children and leave it in the hands of…
Standards for Early Childhood Professionals
There have been a great number of advances, strides, and changes in the field of Early Childhood or Early Childhood Development. Perhaps one of the most overt changes in this field is the nomenclature and jargon. This field was not always called Early Childhood. The field of Child Development is fairly recent as well. Expansion in perspectives on education and human development sparked the invention and subdivisions of stages of development. The stage dedicated to infants, toddlers, and children that have not yet reach the age for formal education is called Early Childhood. Since the existence of Early Childhood, there have become a number of degree and certification programs for Early Childhood. Early Childhood was not always available as a major or degree concentration. Some of the changes and increased formality in Early Childhood have changed the way Early Childhood professionals are educated…
Ackerman, D.J. (2004). What do teachers need? Practitioners' perspectives on early childhood professional development. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 24(4), 291 -- 301.
Sheridan, S.M., Edwards, C.P., Marvin, C.A., & Knoche, L.L. (2009). Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs. Early Education Development, 20(3), 377 -- 401.
infancy early childhood. Include: Explain families affect
Early Childhood and Adulthood
There are a number of key facets and processes that occur during infancy and early childhood that profoundly affect an individual's growth and development. Some of these factors include early childhood education, a variety of parenting styles, as well as familial involvement in cognitive and physical development. All of these factors indicate that parents and surrounding family members play a highly important role in the development of infants and young children.
One of the most eminent ways in which families produce a direct influence on their children is through the establishment and implementation of rituals or routines. The repetitive nature of these daily constructs provides a valuable structuring for activities that has been linked to cognitive and emotional processes in children and infants -- most discernibly when there is a break or a shifting in a particular ritual that…
Spagnola, M., Fiese, B.H. (2007). "Family routines and rituals: a context for development in the lives of young children." Infants and Young Children. 20 (4): 284-299.
SPECIAL EDUCATION & EALY CHILDHOOD
Tasks in Special Education and Early Childhood
Defining Intellectual Disability and Degrees Thereof
Language is a powerful tool or a powerful weapon. The language used to described non-normative populations is often accompanied by a vigorous and often difficult discussion regarding what kinds of words are academically, professionally, and medically describing abnormal populations. One such term with an interesting history is the term "mental retardation." Within the recent years of the 21st century, there has been a shift away from the term mental retardation and more toward the phrase intellectual disability. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) has been an influential party with respect to this linguistic, conceptual, and social shift. Dunlap (2009) elaborates upon the definition of mental retardation that the AAIDD proposes, stating that it is "a disability characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive…
Dunlap, L.L. (2009). An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. NJ: Pearson.
Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2007). The Renaming of Mental Retardation: Understanding the Change to the Term Intellectual Disability. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(2), 116 -- 124.
Schalock, R.L., Luckasson, R.A., Shogren, K.A., Borthwick-Duffy, S., Bradley, V., Buntinx, W.H.E., Coulter, D.L., Craig, E.M., Gomex, S.C., Lachapelle, Y., Reeve, A., Snell, M.E., Spreat, S., Tasse, M.J., Thompson, J.R., Verdugo, M.A., Wehmeyer, M.L., & Yeager, M.H. (2008). The Intellectual Disability Construct and Its relation to Human Functioning. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 46(4), 311 -- 318.
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
Conversely, where the exhibit is actively incorporated into a lesson on the moral basis for sensitivity to animals, the existing educational environment contributes to the formation of a moral conscience even where direction of that kind is lacking at home.
In very much the same way, the preschool and primary grade school environment is conducive to teaching other important moral values that are often postponed until much later, despite the fact that early introduction to those concepts is much more likely to result in their absorption than later introduction. acism, sexism, and other forms of bias that are no longer condoned in American society are also capable of being addressed in the preschool years so that those important lessons take root before contradictory messages are received from the external environment.
Informal Assessment of Social and Emotional Well-being in Children:
All too often, educators and other caregivers perform their professional responsibilities…
Bimonte, R. (2005) "If your class were optional, would anyone attend?" Momentum, 36(4), 6.
Byerly, S. (2001). "Linking classroom teaching to the real world through experiential instruction." Phi Delta Kappan, 82(9), 697.
Cookson, P. (2005). "The enriched classroom." Education Module, 35(4), 10.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
City, ST ZIP Code]
Early Childhood Intervention
Developmentally appropriate activities
Play school using pictures, such as animals, numbers, alphabet, helps in recognition and identification of the things in the world. For example, a picture of an apple to relate to the letter A.
Reading stories from picture books.
Playing with age appropriate puzzles.
Sing-a-longs with well-known, easy to understand children's songs.
Keeping the child busy to occupy the mind with positive things.
Characteristics of effective strategies include:
Reading stories to help language, literacy, and communication.
Moving objects in sequence helps physical development and health.
Recognizing objects by sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell starts learning about science.
Counting with fingers or objects starts learning in Math.
Organizations that Offer Services
Children's Medical Services www.cms-kids.com
The Florida Center for Early Childhood
Space Coast Early Intervention Center
3790 Dairy Rd
How Children are…
Community Outreach. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Florida Center of Early Childhood: http://www.thefloridacenter.org/Community-outreach-esperanza.php
Florida's Early Step System. (2012, Aug 30). Retrieved from Children's Medical Services: http://www.doh.state.fl.us/AlternativeSteps/CMS-Kid/families/early_steps.html
Who We Are. (n.d.). Retrieved from Space Early Intervention Center: http://www.sceic.com
Generally, it works by either giving a reward for an encouraged behavior, or taking something away for an undesirable behavior. y doing this, the patient often increases the good behaviors and uses the bad behaviors less often, although this conditioning may take awhile if the rewards and removals are not sufficient to entice the patient into doing better.
Existentialism is important to discuss here as well, and is often seen to be a very drastic way to examine human behavior. There are two types of existentialism. One is Atheistic Existentialism, and the other is Theistic Existentialism.
Atheistic existentialism has its basis in the statement that the entire cosmos is composed only of matter, and human beings see reality in two forms. Those forms are subjective and objective. People who believe in Atheistic Existentialism do not believe that anyone or anything specific made the world. They do not know whether it…
Adams, M.J., Treiman, R., & Pressley, M. (1998). Reading, writing, and literacy. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Child psychology in practice, 4, 275-355. New York: Wiley.
Albertson, L., & Kagan, D. (1988). Dispositional stress, family environment, and class climate among college teachers. Journal of Research and Development in Education, 21(2), 55-61.
Amidon, E. (1980). Personal Teaching Style Questionnaire. Philadelphia: Temple University, College of Education.
Allison, Anne. (1996). Producing mothers. In Anne E. Imamura (Ed.), Re-imaging Japanese women (pp. 135-155). Berkeley: University of California Press.
35). Information can also be added that relates to families, parents, and others whose primary culture and language are not in the mainstream.
Using children's literature to teach diversity: It is not a new idea for teachers to use literature to educate young children. But because Gillian Potter and colleagues assert that teachers are being challenged "as never before" to create experiences that are culturally meaningful to all children -- literature has come under a new and vitally important focus. And for those purposes, children's literature is a "powerful resource" to aid children in the knowledge of their known world, and literature allows them to travel to other worlds and "explore the unfamiliar" (Potter, 2009, p. 108).
For children of diverse cultures literature enhances their development of language, it fosters intellectual development and supports the growth of the child's personality and moral development as well, Potter goes on (p. 2).…
Biles, Barbara. (2008). Activities that Promote Racial and Cultural Awareness. KCET. Retrieved
January 26, 2011, from http://www.pbs.org/ .
Corso, Robert M., Santos, Rosa Milagros, and Roof, Virginia. (2002). Honoring Diversity in Early Childhood Education Materials. Teaching Exceptional Children.
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet, and Pulido-Tobiassen, Dora. (1999). Teaching "Diversity": A Place to Begin. Early Childhood Today. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from http://www2.scholartic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3499&print=1.
Male Teacher etention in Early Childhood Programs: Why They Stay.
quick glance into any elementary, preschool or child care center quickly reveals that very few men work with young children. This cursory observation is solidly supported by the fact that fewer than five percent of all early childhood teachers in the United States are male (U.S. Department of Education, 1994).
There are a wide variety of reasons why so few men remain in the field of early childhood education. These reasons include suspicion, subtle discrimination, social isolation, pressure to move into administrative position away from children, and a double standard for behavior and performance (Sargent, 2001).
Importantly, the recent upsurge of reports of sexual and physical abuse in schools has made many male teachers feel vulnerable to unfounded charges of sexual or physical abuse against children in their care. Certainly, our societal tendency to see males as perpetrations of violent…
Kennedy, N.M. 1991. Policy issues in teacher education. Phi Delta Kappan, 72: 658-665.
Neugebauer, R. 1994. Recruiting and training men in your center. Child Care Information Exchange, May: 8-11.
Robinson, B. Vanishing Breed: Men in Child Care Programs, Young Children, Sept 1988.
Sargent, P. 2001. Real men or real teachers: Contradictions in the lives of men elementary school teachers. Harriman, TN: Men's Studies Press.
Disrupting by Imagining: ethinking Early Childhood esearch
Early Childhood esearch
This research highlights four teachers who work in early childhood classrooms who have chosen to implement the use of video-observations of their teaching in conjunction with the reflective process. Each teacher profile will include discussions and interviews about their teaching and change implementation. The ideas for change will be based upon their own knowledge, skills, and dispositions along with evidence from the recorded and observed videotapes. After viewing their own instruction, practitioners began the process of implementing change for individual students as well as for their class overall. Teachers shared this experience with others in their school and provided information regarding their results based on the following three areas: 1) Analysis: individuals and/or groups in the process of reflection (grade level teams); 2) Strategies: offers other teachers and/or programs ways to introduce concepts to a group of teachers and/or school;…
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. New York: Freedom.
Brophy, J.E. (2004). Using video in teacher education. San Diego, CA: Elsivier.
Copa, A., Lucinski L., Olsen, E, & Wollenburg, K. (1999). Promoting professional and organizational development: A reflective practice model. Zero to Three, 20(1), 3-9.
Cross, N. (2011). Coaching: Seven reasons to go to the tape. ASCD Express, 7(1).
Early Childhood: Play Years
Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.
Biology and Language
Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…
Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 193-483.
Block, C. (2003). Literacy difficulties: diagnosis and instruction for reading specialists and classroom teachers. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
Church, E. (n.d.) The importance of pretend play. Scholastic Parents. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10175
Slavin, R. (2009). Education psychology: theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson.
Curriculum Early Childhood Education
Literacy is considered to be a fundamental human right and is considered to be "essential to social and human development," used for exchanging knowledge and ideas" (UNESCO, 2015).
The development of literacy is critical to learning, in particular the development of communication skills, critical thinking and fostering the ability to analyse and comprehend material (Australian Curriculum, n.d.). While basic reading and writing skills are the foundation of literacy, the concept of multiliteracies reflects that there are many different purposes for which students must become literate. Literacy is not simply about learning the mechanics of a language, but about being able to function in a society. Multiliteracies recognizes this, in particular that language is used for business, for social purposes, and for the performance of everyday tasks. The concept has emerged in light of the realization that simply being able to read and write is insufficient for…
Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (n.d.). English: Rationale. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Rationale
Australian Institute or Teaching and School Leadership [AITSL]. (2012). Multiple literacy outcomes [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/illustrations-of-practice/detail?id=IOP00179
Meiers, M. & Department of Education and Training, Victoria. (2006). A Chronological Review of Literacy Policies and Programs of the Western Australia Department of Education & Training, Victoria, 1980-2005. Retrieved from https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/Literacy_Chronology_Paper_9-rpt-v1.01-20060830.pdf
Connor, J. (2011). Foundation for Learning: Relationships between early years learning framework and the Australian curriculum [An ECA-Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority paper]. Early Childhood Australia: Canberra.
Gap: Early Childhood Intervention and the Development of the Disabled Child
Children with special needs include those who have disabilities, developmental delays, are gifted/talented, and are at risk of future developmental problems. Early intervention consists of the provision of services for such children and their families for the purpose of lessening the effects of their condition. Early intervention may focus on the child alone or on the child and the family together. Early intervention programs may be center-based, home-based, hospital-based, or a combination. Early intervention may begin at any time between birth and school age; however, there are many reasons for it to begin as early as possible. Early Intervention is the key to achieving the most positive outcome in aiding the disabled child to develop as normally as possible.
There are three primary reasons for intervening early with an exceptional child: to enhance the child's development, to provide support…
Bayley, N. (1970) "Development of mental abilities." In P.H. Mussen (ed) Carmichael's manual of child psychology, 1, New York: Wiley.
Bayley, N. (1955) "On the growth of intelligence," American Psychologist, 10, 805, Dec.
Burts, Diane C.; Hart, Craig H.; Charlesworth, Rosalind; DeWolf, D. Michele; Ray, Jeanette; Manuel, Karen; & Fleege, Pamela O. (1993). "Developmental appropriateness of kindergarten programs and academic outcomes in first grade." Journal Of Research In Childhood Education, 8 (1), 23-31. EJ 493-673.
Cooper, J.H. An Early Childhood Special Education Primer. Chapel Hill, NC: Technical Assistance Development System (TADS), 1981.
This paper explores two fundamental theories that are considered to be worthy guides and reference points in different discourses of early childhood cognitive development and education. Scientists and scholars world over hold the principles established in the two theories in high esteem. However, the theories, though explicably analyzed the behaviors and learning abilities at each developmental stage of early childhood, but have divergent opinions on how those behaviors early are formed. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) theory basically attributed a child development and learning process to self-discovery and natural abilities. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) on the other hand, believed a child’s learning abilities and mental development are facilitated by his immediate socio-cultural environment. This paper focuses more on early childhood as presented in the preoperational stage of Piaget's theory’s, and the information processing, language development and individual differences in mental development as established in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.
Keywords: early childhood, cognitive development…
II. DEVELOPMENT TIMING VARIED AMONG INDIVIDUALS
It is necessary that the teacher of early childhood individuals understand that different individuals develop at different rates and that this is due to "differing physiological factors and differing experiences." (Growth Stages 1: Infancy and Early Childhood, nd) in a 2005 news report of the National Academies Education & Research entitled: "Timeout for Child Policy" relates that the United States "has not made the most of scientific knowledge about children's development between birth and age 5 - a period that sets the stage for their intellectual and emotional growth. y and large, what currently exists for America's children is a mixed bag of policies and practices...." (National Academies, 2005)
III. RESULT WHEN TEACHERS DOES NOT UNDERSTAND
In the case where a teacher does not understand the stages of development of children and where the teacher fails to understand that children develop at different rates…
Growth Stages: Infancy and Early Childhood - Science for All Americans (nd) online available at http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/pdfs/growth1_teachsheet.pdf
What Early Language Teachers Need to Know About Language (2000) Center for Applied Linguistics? November 2000. online available at http://www.cal.org/resources/digest/0007bredekamp.html
Timeout for Child Policy (2005) NewsReport Online. The National Academies. Online available at http://nationalacademies.org/onpi/newsrpt/fal00edr.htm
EC Assessment & Intervention
Background Information elated to Diagnostic Test
Diagnostic Test -- Developmental Area of Concern
At the Playground.
Developmentally Appropriate Instructional Goals
Cognitive Instructional Goal
Motor Instructional Goal
Physical Instructional Goal
Language Instructional Goal
The purpose of early childhood assessment is to document the present status of the child with regard to developmental milestones and to identify any developmental areas that require follow-up assessment or follow-along. Assessment of very young children needs to be integral to their daily activities. Children change very rapidly and it is too easy to assume that they have reached developmental milestones in all areas: marked development in one area can distract caregivers and therapists from a deficit or an area in which development is occurring at a slower rate than typical. ecording the developmental progress of children is not an onerous task if it is…
____. (2010, May). Developmental Checklists Birth to Five, The Early Childhood Direction Center. ASQ-SE-Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co. Retrieved http://ecdc.syr.edu/wpcontent/uploads/2013/01/Developmental_checklists_Updated2012.pdf
____. (2014). The HighScope Difference. HighScope. Retreived http://www.highscope.org/
Vygotsky, L.S. (1987). Thinking and speech. In R.W. Rieber & A.S. Carton (Eds.), The collected works of L.S. Vygotsky, Volume 1: Problems of general psychology (pp. 39 -- 285). New York: Plenum Press. (Original work published 1934.) Retreived http://www.simplypsychology.org/vygotsky.html
ising Poverty in the Nation's Young Families
My goal is to make a positive change in the lives of young children, families, and the early childhood field by targeting childhood poverty.
Poverty is increasing most rapidly in families with young children. While poverty only rose by 1.3% in the childless 30-64 age bracket, it rose by nearly 8% in families with a head under 30 years old with one or more children in the home (Sum, 2011). In fact, young families with children are more than six times as likely to be impoverished as older families (Sum, 2011). This marks a shift in communities at-risk for poverty, from the elderly to children (Sum, 2011). In addition, this wealth disparity is not only visible among the impoverished. "By 2010, slightly more than one-third of the nation's young families were poor or near poor, up by nearly 10 percentage points from…
American Psychological Association. (2013). Effects of poverty, hunger, and homelessness on children and youth. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from: http://www.apa.org/pi/families/poverty.aspx
Engle, P. & Black, M. (2008). The effect of poverty on child development and educational outcomes. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1136, 243-256. Retrieved October 2, 2013 from Digital Commons website: http://digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1002&context=psycd_fac
Salopek, J. (2010). Homelessness: Creating a welcoming classroom for homeless students.
Association for Staff and Curriculum Development, 52(6).
The author of this brief report has been asked to answer a number of questions relating to child psychology and the development thereof as a child ages and grows. The primary source of answers that shall be used for the answers shall be the tenth chapter of the Berger book. However, the text itself offers other sources and there is a wealth of information on the topics to be discussed in the scholarly sphere. While every child is different and thus develops in their own way, there are tried and true patterns and standards that most children are held to based on the development and progress of millions of prior children.
Emotional development is indeed something that is very strong and in motion when it comes to the early childhood time. As a young child grows, this is when their emotional regulation comes into focus and this in…
Berger, K. (2012). The developing person through childhood. New York: Worth Publishers.
Enright, T. (2015). Encouraging Your Child's Socio-Dramatic Play. Child Development Institute. Retrieved 23 October 2016, from https://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-activities/encouraging-your-childs-socio-dramatic-play/
McLeod, S. (2016). Psychosexual Stages - Simply Psychology. Simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 23 October 2016, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychosexual.html
Snow, K. (2016). Bullying in Early Childhood - National Association for the Education of Young Children - NAEYC. Naeyc.org. Retrieved 23 October 2016, from http://www.naeyc.org/blogs/bullying-early-childhood
esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…
Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html
This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.
Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html
This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
Childhood Obesity and prevention: Action by parents and children.
Obesity, also known as overweight is defined by WHO (2018:1) as the excessive accumulation of fats that can cause harm to the health of an individuals. Obesity or overweight metrics are measured through the use of internationally accepted formula Body Mass Index (BMI). This involves the juxtaposition of body weight in kilograms against the body height in Meters. Simply put dividing the weight of an individual in KGs by the Square of the Height in Meters. Once the result is obtained, the individual can be classified as either normal weight, overweight or obese. For instance, an adult whose BMI is between 25 and 29.9 is said to be overweight, but when it goes beyond that then he is considered obese as observed by the WHO.
The audience of immediate interest in this case is the parents and the children both of…
Mr. Cardot is doing a great job using extrinsic motivation, but what would really help his students to grasp the concept of setting in stories would be to increase the use of intrinsic motivation. Increasing intrinsic motivation requires Mr. Cardot to connect with this second grade class, understanding their needs and creating lessons that are responsive to their needs to be "competent, connected, and in control," (Chapter 12, p. 451). Being competent, connected, and in control simply means that the students need to be challenged just enough. As Woolfolk puts it, "Moderate difficulty provides a challenge, but not an unreasonable one," (p. 452). Lessons that are too difficult might end up creating long-term problems in the classroom including learned helplessness and frustration.
Perhaps the lessons on setting have been over their heads, offering concepts or vocabulary that they are unfamiliar with and so are not responding. It is also possible…
life are in many ways the most exciting, as the newborn develops rapidly into a toddler. Changes in sensorimotor skills, in sheer physical growth, in behavior and brain development, language acquisition, and spiritual formation all comprise some of the key components of life during the first two years. Some of these changes are more noticeable than others. The ones to be most aware of include the following:
Body Changes (Biosocial Development)
Motor Skills Changes (Biosocial Development)
Sensorimotor Changes (Cognitive Development)
Language and Communications Changes (Cognitive Development)
Emotional Changes (Psychosocial Development)
These five are the most crucial areas in the baby's first two years of life because of how these changes will impact biological, psychological, and social development later in life. Many of these changes are plainly visible to the parents. For example, the physical size and body of the child will rapidly change over the two years. Likewise, the baby's…
Berger, K.S. (2009). Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence. 8th Edition. NY: Worth.
Children's Hospital of Richmond at VCU (2015). Fine motor skills: Birth to 2 years. Retrieved online: http://www.chrichmond.org/Resource-Library/Fine-Motor-Skills-Birth-to-2-years.htm
Early Child Learning
What is the basic meaning of the term data-supported (or data driven) instruction?
The basic meaning of the term data-supported instruction is that individuals should utilize practices that are supported by data as the foundation for their teaching methods to use with students. There are a number of different teaching methodologies that one can employ that are either corroborated or unsubstantiated by quantifiable data. Data-driven instruction is largely based on analytics and various forms of analyzing data. Many of these different forms are based on statistics. However, the point of these analytics is that instructors can actually determine -- in advance to using them in their own classrooms -- best practices for teaching that are demonstrable due to findings that are rooted in data. As such, there is less need to rely on instinct and it is becoming mor readily available to utilize data to influence any…
" (p. 420).
A study conducted by ekert et al. (2007) examined the following variables for 234 college students:
both mother and father care and overprotection, participant gender, family environment variables including conflict and control, adult attachment variables, attributional style and control-related cognitive variables, and symptoms of anxiety and depression.
The results of the study confirmed other studies' results regarding the impact of overprotection. As was found with the other studies, overprotection resulted in anxiety and depression among college students.
This paper has shown the detrimental effects of overprotective parenting. Overprotective parenting results from a desire from parents trying to maintain psychological control their children. This may be a result of the parents own anxieties which creates worrisome parenting. Parents attempt to protect their children from experiencing stress. However, in this attempt parents are actually creating many harmful effects. These effects may begin prior to birth and be exhibited…
Chorpita, B.F., & Barlow, DH (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124(1), 3-21. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.124.1.3
Coplan, R.J., Arbeau, K.A., & Armer, M. (2008). Don't fret, be supportive! maternal characteristics linking child shyness to psychosocial and school adjustment in kindergarten Springer Science & Business Media. doi:10.1007/s10802-007-9183-7
Giotakos, O. (2002). Parenting received in childhood and early separation anxiety in male conscripts with adjustment disorder Association of Military Surgeons of the United States. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/217062069?accountid=27965
Hortrum, P., (1994). The age of anxiety (1994). Psychology Today. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214441790?accountid=27965
children whose parents are alcoholics shows those children are at risk for many problems, and that is of great interest to me. It is a very worthy bit of research because it has to do with alcohol abuse and how that condition impacts the ability of children to lead normal healthy lives.
a) The article references the issues children experience when their parents are alcoholics including "…socioemotional" and "behavioral" problems (Edwards, et al., 2006, 409).
b) Edwards, P.E., Eiden, R.D., Colder, C., and Leonard, K.E. (2006). The Development of Aggression in 18 to 48-Month-old Children of Alcoholic Parents. Journal of Abnormal
Child Psychology, 54(3), 409-423.
Part TWO -- Article Summary
This research paper zeros in on the problems that children have whose parents are alcoholics. The study involved 226 families. While it comes as no surprise that children whose parents are alcoholics have problems adjusting to life and…
Social Change and Positive Outcomes for Young Children and Families
As an individual who has been involved in learning about and enacting various measures to implement early childhood education, I have entertained several different philosophies and methodologies on this subject. Therefore, I believe that I am more than qualified to identify what the aims of early childhood education are. Prior to denoting what those aims are, I believe it is relevant to discuss some of my experience within this field, which has encompassed working with small and large groups, individuals, and partaking in a number of conferences and conversations with both teachers, administrators and parents, which is a part of "school accountability" (Wong and Wang, 2010, p. 163). What I have learned from my experience within this field is that the principle objectives of this particular discipline are to provide the foundation for children to effectively mold and shape the…
Hardin, B.J., & Hung, H.F. (2011). A cross-cultural comparison of services for young children with disabilities using the ACEI Global Guidelines Assessment (GGA). Early Childhood Education Journal, 39(2), 103-114.
Wong, M.N.C., Wang, X.C., (2010). Accountability and quality in early childhood education: Perspectives from Asia. Early Education and Development, 21(2), 163-166.
World Forum Foundation
Another study conducted by Deblinger, et al. (2001) also investigated the efficacy of CBT based interventions and reported that compared to the participation-based model, repeated MANOVAs indicated that those mothers attending CBT sessions showed better results in context of improvements in intrusive thoughts and negative parenting. This should be however mentioned that sample size of virtually all the intervention programs was limited ranging from 10-80 that makes it difficult to opine whether or not such studies can be implemented successfully at a larger scale.
The empirical knowledge in context of interventions in treating abused adolescents and children is still limited and needs much more research. There is a lack of follow-up programs for each intervention program being presented as both Ahmed, et al. (2007) and others compared the pre-test and post-test results within short span of implementing the program. This indicates that there is an increased need to assess…
Ahmad, A., Larsson, B., & Sundelin-Wahlsten, V. (2007). EMDR treatment for children with PTSD: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Nordic journal of psychiatry, 61(5), 349-354.
Chaffin, M., & Friedrich, B. (2004). Evidence-based treatments in child abuse and neglect. Children and youth services review, 26(11), 1097-1113.
Cohen J.A., Deblinger, E., Mannarino, A.P. & Steer, R.A. (2004), A multisite, randomized controlled trial for children with sexual abuse-related PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(4), 393-402.
Cohen, J.A., & Mannarino, A.P. (1996). A treatment outcome study for sexually abused preschool children: Initial findings. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35(1), 42-50.
Once this occurs, is when their horizons are expanded from taking this kind of focus. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)
Authentic inclusion of children with varying abilities
The educator will take into account the child's abilities and will steer them in a direction that enhances them. This takes place by sparking their interest in a variety of areas. When this happens, the student will have a desire to want to learn more. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)
Building parent / family relationships
Family relationships are built by working with the parents and children to create curriculum which is supporting these objectives. (Harcourt, 2012) (Howes, 2010) (Burger, 2010)
How do you think your findings on this research compare with Global Quality Guidelines?
Why is it important to be critical about the research you read, especially as it relates to the experiences of young children and families who cultures may…
Global Guidelines. (2014). World Forum Foundation. Retrieved from: http://worldforumfoundation.org
Burger, K. (2010). How does Early Childhood Care and education affect cognitive development? An International review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(2), 140-165
Harcourt, D. (2012). Standpoints on quality: Listening to children in Verona, Italy. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 37(2), 19-26
Howes, C. (2010). Culture and Child Development in Early Childhood Programs. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Attachment behaviors and attachment experiences are central to child development, and can have lasting impacts on adult psychology. Attachment refers to a “sustained, developmental...connection,” (Mossler, 2014, 13.1). The attachment process is emotional, but it also serves distinct biological and evolutionary functions in enabling the survival of the species. As Mossler (2014) points out, attachment bonds can be formed between an infant and any adult due to the fact that early humans contended with far greater physical and environmental risks that might leave infants vulnerable should one or both parents perish. Infants experiencing healthy attachments will also evolve a sense of security that is essential for psychological resilience and the reduction of risk for separation anxiety and other attachment-related issues. This paper outlines the different attachment theories provided by Bowlby and Ainsworth, both of which show how attachment experiences are central to the evolution of fundamental social needs, such as trust…
obesity is a growing problem that negatively strikes the health of many children in Canada. From a statistical analysis of childhood obesity in Canada in 1996, reports show that 23% to 36% of Canadian children with age ranging from 7 to 13 are considered overweight and obese (Willms, 2004). This rate of obesity continuously increases every year, thus, resulting to the widespread concern of Canada's national healthcare system to solve the problem of obesity.
This study finds the prevalence of obesity, particularly in the childhood years of Canada's children, a major health dilemma. Obesity is a major disease because it is not only a problem of being unhealthfully overweight, but also a health crisis that leads to other serious health ailments such as heart disease and diabetes. With the alarming increase in rate of obese Canadians, this study finds it important to provide the public with sufficient information about obesity.…
Johnston, J.M. (2004). Eating Disorders and Childhood Obesity: Who are the real gluttons?
Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171, (12).
Willms, J.D. (2004). Early Childhood Obesity: A Call for Early Surveillance and Preventive Measures. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 171, (3).
Tremblay, M.S., Willms, J.D. Is the Canadian Childhood Obesity Epidemic Related to Physical Inactivity? International Journal of Obesity, 27, 1100-1105.
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Christie-Mizell, a., E. Pryor, E. Grossman. (2008). "Child Depressive Symptoms,
Spanking, and Emotional Support: Differences Between African-American and European-American Youth." Family Relations. 57 (3): 335+.
Grogan-Kaylor, a. (2004). "The Effect of Corporal Punishment on Antisocial Behavior
in Children." Social Work Research. 28 (3): 153+.
Interviews with four individuals confirmed my hypothesis that there are a diversity of opinions and responses to disability issues. Of the four people interviewed, two had a close friend of family member who was physically or developmentally disabled. Their attitudes and responses to interview questions ironically did not seem to differ appreciably from the other two interview subjects. Three of the interview subjects did use the phrase "special needs" when describing children with disabilities. When confronted with Snow's (2007) proposition that "special needs is a loaded descriptor that has done nothing to improve perceptions and everything to reinforce negative images," the interview participants seemed surprised. Especially the two without close friends and family members who are disabled stated, "Well isn't that what we are supposed to say?" Or "I thought that was what we were supposed to call them; well, whatever." Language used to speak of disabilities can be…
Snow, K. (2007). The case against "special needs." Retrieved online: http://new.gbgm-umc.org/umcor/media/pdfs%20health/thecaseagainstspecialneeds.pdf
Snow, K. (n.d.). People first language. Retrieved online: http://www.disabilityisnatural.com/images/PDF/pfl09.pdf
Play has an essential role in a person's development, as it enables the individual to gain a more complex understanding of the world around him or her and as it is basically a learning tool that children use with the purpose to overcome challenges, experience pleasure, and become more motivated. Children are in a position where they are obsessed with learning and as they grow up they get actively involved in a struggle to be perceived as intelligent individuals and as equal to everyone else. Play is largely a condition in which children experiment with things they learnt and try to take on attitudes people generally interpret as 'childish', only to actually significantly improve their cognitive skills.
Individuals in the contemporary society have access to information and tools they can effectively use with the purpose of improving the social order as a whole. By acknowledging the important connection between…
Broadhead P., Howard, J., and Wood, E. (2010). "Play and Learning in the Early Years: From Research to Practice." SAGE.
Featherstone, S., & Cummings, A. (2009). "Role Play in the Early Years: Developing Imagination and Creativity Through Role Play." A&C Black.
Kernan, M. "Play as a context for Early Learning and Development," Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://www.ncca.ie/en/Curriculum_and_Assessment/Early_Childhood_and_Primary_Education/Early_Childhood_Education/How_Aistear_was_developed/Research_Papers/Play_paper.pdf
Whitebread, D. "The importance of play," Retreived February 25, 2014, from http://www.importanceofplay.eu/IMG/pdf/dr_david_whitebread_-_the_importance_of_play.pdf
Major depressive disorder, or MDD, may affect up to twenty percent of the adult population. The recognition of depression as a serious and common mental disorder has been vital in the identification and treatment of depression in adults. Leaps and bounds have been made in the field of depression research. The widespread recognition of the many possible causes of depression, including chemical imbalances with genetic or medical origins as well as traumatic life events, has made it possible for those suffering from depression to openly seek treatment options and discuss their depression without necessarily feeling the same overwhelming shame and isolation that were inevitable in generations past. Depression is more likely to be identified in an affected individual by family members, physicians, or others because of the public information that is available for professionals and the common people. Research is constantly revealing new treatment options, identifying causal factors,…
Fremont, W.P. (2004, April) Childhood reactions to terrorism-induced trauma: a review of the past 10 years. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. v43, i4, 381(12).
Gaughan, D.M., et al. (2004, June) Psychiatric hospitalizations among children and youths with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Pediatrics. v113, i6, 1793(1).
Gazelle, H. & Ladd, G.W. (2003, January-February) Anxious solitude and peer exclusion: a diathesis-stress model of internalizing trajectories in childhood. Child Development. v74, i1, 257(22).
Louters, L.L. (2004, September) Don't overlook childhood depression: an effective approach to childhood depression requires that you maintain a high index of suspicion and understand the disorder's full spectrum of manifestations. JAAPA - Journal of the American Academy of Physicians Assistants. v17, i9, 18(7).
Poets of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and early twentieth century concerned themselves with childhood and its various experiences, but the particular historical and aesthetic contexts within which different poets wrote affected their perspective on the matter greatly. As literature moved from Romanticism to naturalism, the tone poets took when considering children and their place in society changed, because where children previously existed as a kind of emotional or romantic accessory, they soon became subjects in their own right, with their own experiences and perspectives. By examining illiam ordsworth's "Michael," illiam Blake's "The Chimney Sweeper," and .B. Yeats' "A Prayer for my Daughter," one is able to see how the gradual transition from Romanticism to naturalism brought with it a less exploitative consideration of children, one that better reflected their place in the rapidly changing world.
The first poem to examine is illiam ordsworth's "Michael," because it fall squarely in the…
Blake, William. Songs of Innocence and Experience. London: Basil Montagu Pickering, 1866.
Wordsworth, W. Lyrical Ballads. 4th. 2. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, & Orme, 1805.
Yeats, William. The Collected Poems of W.b. Yeats. London: Wordsworth Editions, 2000.
In an experiment, a Caucasian girl named Morgan was shown pictures of two girls - one white and one black.
hen asked who was smarter, Morgan pointed to the white girl. She was then shown a picture of a white and a black boy and was asked who threw garbage on the floor. She then pointed to the black boy (Stern-LaRosa and Bettman 2000).
Morgan is only three years old.
The experiment shows how early prejudice can affect people's perceptions, and the various negative ways in which they are manifested.
Morgan, however, is far from a lost cause. Experts agree that children often look to adults for guidance, and that there are many strategies to help children like Morgan work through their attitudes towards difference.
Definitions of prejudice
Studies of prejudice and discrimination usually center on a group of common ideas. Most experts begin with stereotypes, which are…
Cohen, Warren. 1999. "Sticks and stones." U.S. News and World Report. March 1, 1999, p. 61.
Doyle, Anne B. And Frances Aboud. 1995. "A Longitudinal Study of White Children's Racial Prejudice as a Social-Cognitive Development." Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 4(2): 209-228.
Powlishta, Kimberly et al. 1994. "Gender, Ethnic, and Body Type Biases: The Generality of Prejudice in Childhood." Developmental Psychology, 30(4): 526-536.
Stern-Larosa, Caryl and Ellen Hofheimer Bettmann. 2000. Hate Hurts: How Children Learn and Unlearn Prejudice. New York: Scholastic.
"Try a little," said my mother, hesitating, wondering if I would like it. It was like an explosion of flavor in my mouth. I always thought I didn't like chicken, especially with vegetables, but this was different. It hardly seemed like the same animal, no pun intended, as what I was usually served. Even more wondrous were the little pockets of fried goodness called egg rolls. These were filled with vegetables like shredded cabbage and the spices made the green things delicious, rather than a pain to eat.
We often ordered out as a family during times of great joy and great sadness -- to celebrate, or when things were too hectic for home cooking. Eating Chinese food, even when I ordered the same thing, was never boring. I adored the special equipment needed to consume it -- the chopsticks, the flavor packets of neon yellow mustard and orange sweet…
Because the coffee was still quite hot, I was afraid of burning myself. I left my coffee up on the kitchen counter rather than holding it in my hand, and I again spilled some coffee on the counter, where before I had spilled the grains. Of the already-weak cup of coffee, I lost a great deal of the hard-won beverage to 'spillage' and less than I like ended up in my cup. I felt relieved that I did not spill any coffee on my clothing, as this would have required that I remove a stain from the cloth with a nondominant hand, hardly an easy feat!
The additional 'spillage' factor was an important illustration of why children with special needs who are coping with new tasks that are difficult for them seem clumsy, and can often frustrate adults with the 'mess' they make. The mess is not necessarily the result…
common core state standards are a set of standards that have been adopted for K-12. States have the ability to adopt the federal CCSS. The CCSS intended to provide new expectations for each grade level.
There are a number of different instructional approaches for language. Meaning-based approaches are based on the idea that children learn about literacy mainly through activities, interaction and observation, with little need for formal education. Skills-based approaches are those rooted in five core skills that are related to literacy: phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, comprehension, and fluency. Students learn to read by learning skills related to these elements. The blended approach combines the two, where teachers help the students to build on the base that they acquire via the meaning-based approach.
Meaning-based and skills-based perspectives need to be interwoven to provide effective preschool and elementary school education. There are several traits of effective teachers that go along…
Christie, J., Enz, B., Vukelich, C., & Roskos, K. (2013). Teaching language and literacy: Preschool through the elementary grades, fifth edition. Pearson.
Obesity in young ones is a major public health issue in the U.S. as the figure of overweight teenagers has tripled over the last thirty years such that 17%, that is, 12.5 million of children and teenagers aged between 2 and 19 years are currently categorized as obese on the basis of BMI (body mass index) (Jackson, 2). CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) defines childhood obesity as a body mass index above or at the 95th percentile for kids and teenagers of similar sex and age. This paper reviews childhood obesity, outlining the causes, lifetime consequences to a kid, diagnosis, management strategies, and measures to prevent it.
The main cause of obesity is an imbalance of energy between calories consumed and those burned. orldwide, the rise in energy- laden foodstuffs high in sugar and fat but short of dietary value together with decline in physical…
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Defining Childhood Obesity, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2015. Web.
Glasper, Alan. "Childhood Obesity Plan: The Government Declares War on Sugar." British Journal of Nursing 25.17 (2016): 984-985. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
Jackson, Callum G. Childhood Obesity: Causes, Management and Challenges. New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2013. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost). Web. 24 Nov. 2016.
McHugh, Bronwyn. "The Childhood Obesity Epidemic." Journal of The Australian Traditional-Medicine Society 22.2 (2016): 94-98. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Nov. 2016.