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As you do this you should distance yourself from career barriers such as apathy, motivation, laziness which we term as personal barriers and those like family pressure such as expectation to run family business, avoidance of career that are below your stature and finally peer pressure.
Now on long-term career planning which involves a window of about five years or more with a wider set of guidelines and of cause preparation. As we all know that thing do change that is right from businesses to career through to workplace and whatever skills you have acquired today may not be of much help in years to come hence in long-term career planning it is a matter of developing core skills that will be always valued by employers (with identifying being your major doing verb).once these is done then your journey goes on, now with exact career examination and recognition that will…
Randell S. Hanson, Developing a strategic vision for your career, 2008
Tony Jacowski, Overcoming your job limitations and enjoy a rewarding career,2008
Wynelle Burn, Will our level of Education Affect out future,2010
According to Stevensen and Wolfers, marriage is far from a static phenomena, and in subsequent research they contend that this specialization is far less likely, that women and men both work outside the home, marry later marriages are formed without the specific purpose of procreation. (Stevensen & Wolfers, 2007, p. 27)
Lastly, this work looked at another issue, associated with marriage and divorce, which looked at the period between 1980 and 2000 and determined that several basic trends are true of marital quality, between 1980 and 2000; marital interaction declined significantly. A decomposition analysis suggested that offsetting trends affected marital quality. Increases in marital heterogamy, premarital cohabitation, wives' extended hours of employment, and wives' job demands were associated with declines in multiple dimensions of marital quality. In contrast, increases in economic resources, decision-making equality, nontraditional attitudes toward gender, and support for the norm of lifelong marriage were associated with improvements…
Amato, P.R., Johnson, D.R., Booth, A., & Rogers, S.J. (2004). Continuity and change in marital quality between 1980 and 2000. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65 (1), 1-22.
Isen, A., & Stevensen, B. (2008, February). Women's education and family behavior: Trends in marriage, divorce and fertitlity. Topics in Demography and the Economy National Bureau of Economic Research, *-22.
Stevensen, B., & Wolfers, J. (2007). Marriage and Divorce: Changes and their driving forces. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21 (2), 27-52.
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…
Baker, M. (2007, November 17). China's Bid for World Domination. Retrieved April 11, 2010,
Mu K, Yang H & Armfield A (n.d.). China's Special Education: A Comparative Analysis.
Retrieved April 11, 2010, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/16/25.pdf
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence.
The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that, due to heredity factors, upbringing, and present circumstantial demands, different students have an inclination to both perceive and process information differently. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…
Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Dewey, J. (1910) How We Think. Boston: Heath.
Dryden, G. And Vos, (1999) Jeannette. The Learning Revolution. Austin, TX: Jalmar
Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
Apex Middle School, part of the wake county public school system in aleigh, NC has implemented a rigorous curriculum for grades 6, 7 and 8. The curriculum for Apex Middle School includes the following: Language Arts, Math, Science, Social Studies, Computer Education, Health and Physical Education (Wake, 2003). The objectives of each of these programs are stated below. The Apex Middle School curriculum and objectives outlined in this paper are similar to the curriculum and objectives for most public middle schools in NC. How does this differ from the middle school curriculum typically seen in New York middle schools?
According to the New York State Education Department, the objective or mission of educators is "That all students will meet or exceed high learning standards at the elementary, middle, secondary and continuing education levels" (NYSED, 2003). Major reform is currently occurring in New York. These reforms will have the potential…
Wake County Public Schools/Middle School Curriculum/Raleigh, NC/
New York State Education
These researchers define poverty based on different thresholds and determine the child poverty rates resulting from these thresholds. The researchers found that in the three years studied, about 5.7 per cent of all Australian children were poor in all three years of the study, and this represented between 28 and 41 per cent of those in poverty in the first year. The study also suggested that there may be differences in the characteristics of families of children in persistent poverty and those in poverty in only one of the three years, with the families in persistent poverty representing the greatest problem to be addressed in any reduction effort.
However, as Bradbury (1999) states, the industrialized nations of the world have been more successful in reducing poverty among the aged, but in many countries the last two decades there has been a re-emergence of child poverty. ates vary widely, but evidence…
Abello, a. & Harding, a., 2004, the Dynamics of Child Poverty in Australia, Discussion Paper no. 60, University of Canberra, http://www.natsem.canberra.edu.au/pubs/dps/dp60/dp60.html .[University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia]
Barrile, S., 2993, May, Managing successfully... managing diversity, Business 11(2), pp. 5-7.
Bradbury, B., 1999, Spring/Summer, Child poverty across the industrialized world, Family Matters 54, pp.65-69.
Connell, R.W. & White, V. (1988). Citation missing.
The United Kingdom (and Northern Ireland) used to provide free higher education to all native Brits, but contemporary economic realities have forced UK and Northern Ireland colleges and universities to charge up to the approximate equivalent of $6,000 annually to offset the enormous cost of education. Unlike Canada, Britain provides higher education at the same price for students from Continental European nations but charges students from other nations more than the maximum allowed to be charged to UK students (Ciccone & Peri, 2006). Unlike in the U.S., there are few opportunities to earn scholarships to UK colleges and universities. Similarly, higher education in Southern Ireland costs only the approximate equivalent of $2,000 in the form of registration and related fees for students from Ireland and the European Union.
France provides (essentially) free education that is paid for by public funds and only imposes a nominal annual enrollment fee that is…
Ciccone, A. And Peri, G. "Identifying human-capital externalities: Theory with applications."
Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 73, No. 2; (2006): 381-412.
Dur, R. And Glazer, A. "Subsidizing enjoyable education" Labour Economics, Vol 15, No.
5; (2008): 1023-1039.
It is important to recognize the many different areas within adult education, and what type of students these areas attract. Ultimately, for the adult education department to be successful, it must attract a wide variety of students, and keep at least some of those students coming back to continue their education in order to be successful. Adult education serves a vital role in the upper education system, and it serves a diverse amount of people, but in most institutions it also has to support itself if not turn a profit, and that is an important aspect to take into consideration. Therefore, classes must be viable to the institution, but to the student, as well, to keep attracting a wide variety of students into the program.
In addition, diverse students could form a major foundation of the program, and so, it pays to understand these diverse learners so administrators and teaching…
Education for Economy Theory as it elates to Adult Education
In an economy motivated by improvement and information, in marketplaces betrothed in powerful opposition and steady regeneration, in a world of incredible chances and risks, in a culture facing multifaceted business, political, scientific, technological, health and environmental challenges, and in diverse workplaces and neighborhoods that center on mutual associations and social networking, the cleverness, nimbleness and skills of the American people are vital to U.S. competitiveness (21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness, 2008).
Education economics is the study of economic matters as they relate to education, comprising the demand for education and the funding and condition of education. The leading model of the demand for education is founded on human capital theory. The main idea is that undertaking education is an investment in the attainment of skills and information which will augment earnings, or offer long-range benefits such as an…
21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.p21.org/documents/21st_century_skills_education_and_competitiveness_gui
Bouchard, P. (n.d.). Human Capital and the Knowledge Economy. Retreived from http://doe.concordia.ca/Downloads/PDF/Colloquium_PBouchard.pdf
Checchi, Daniele. (2006). The Economics of Education: Human Capital, Family Background
est Virginia's State education department has established English Language Proficiency ELP standards. A student is classified as an English Language Learner if their English proficiency is limited. In est Virginia a limited English proficient (LEP) is classified as such in accordance with the federal government definition as established by section Public Law 107-110, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
In addition once a student has been identified as an English Language Learner, they are assessed each year using the est Virginia Test for English Language Learners (ESTELL). These assessment measures the progress that the student has made during the school year. Students who score high enough can be identified as English Language Proficient (ELP). ESTELL is the tool that schools in est Virginia use to monitor ELL over time.
How are teachers informed of ELLs language proficiency status? hat accommodations do teachers make in daily assessments to ensure…
Assessment. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from; http://wvconnections.k12.wv.us/assessment.html
e-learning for educators. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from; http://wvde.state.wv.us/pd/elearning/docs/eLearning_Course_Catalog.pdf
Programs of Study for Limited English Proficient Students. Retrieved September 17, 2009 from; http://wvconnections.k12.wv.us/elpstandards.html
Even if a student has low grades, if they want to attend college, they should have the opportunity. Many students do better in college because they are more interested in their courses and in learning, and so, even if they had lower grades in high school they should have the opportunity to attend college.
Higher education prepares the students for the "real" world of work and family, but it can make a true difference in a person's life, as well. Just two examples of many that exist are Oprah Winfrey and Barack Obama. Winfrey grew up poor, was shuttled between relatives, and was molested by members of her family when she was young. She managed to attend college, and it prepared her for her career in broadcasting, which began when she was 17. "She attended Tennessee State University, where she majored in Speech Communications and Performing Arts" (Editors). She began…
Archibald, Robert B., and David H. Feldman. "Explaining Increases in Higher Education Costs." Journal of Higher Education 79.3 (2008): 268+.
Clausen, Christopher. "The New Ivory Tower: America's Higher Education Complex Is a Behemoth of Mass Production. But What, Exactly, Is Coming off the Assembly Line? A Veteran Professor and Administrator Looks Inside the New Ivory Tower." The Wilson Quarterly Autumn 2006: 31+.
Editors. "Oprah Winfrey Biography." Academy of Achievement. 2009. 9 March 2009. http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/win0bio-1 .
S. is a worthwhile goal, but the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 is a poorly conceived approach whose deficiencies may actually do more to undermine many aspects of education than any meaningful improvement inspired by its programs.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. etrieved September 8, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. etrieved September 8, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169.
Forgary, . (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Hendrie, C. (2002) Taking a Chance on Choice; Education Week, Oct 23, 2002. etrieved September 8, 2008, from www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=08choice.h22
Murray, C. (2006) Acid Tests: No Child Left Behind…
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169.
The therapist will read the passage aloud to Jonathan, and ask him comprehension questions orally. This process will be repeated during Week 3. Week 3 will also feature a passage and comprehension questions. This time, however, Jonathan will be asked to read the passage aloud to the therapist and answer the subsequent comprehension questions. This week will include a writing exercise, with fairly simple instructions that relate to Jonathan's passion for athletics.
During Week 4, the complexity level of the reading will be increased to Level 2, with writing instruction still remaining fairly simple. Jonathan will also be asked to learn a number of similar word pairs for a brief spelling test. For Week 5, both reading and writing will be presented at a Level 2 complexity level. This will continue up to Week 8, when the sessions will finish. During the subsequent week, the post-tests will be administered to…
With Kim's help, I saw that I had a knack for helping people. I was able not just to be supportive of others, but I could really connect with people and help them. I also had a great knowledge of course planning for almost every major at UConn, because I liked to read through the course booklet and see what kinds of classes were out there and see the different majors and what the requisites were for each. Also, I realized that I often helped my friends with their course selections and major planning before they went to their own advisors. Therefore, I decided to major in Human Services, where my concentration was in academic advising.
Thus, in my own way, I was able to travel through each of the seven vectors identified by Chickering and elucidated by eisser, ultimately arriving at the final point: the development of purpose in…
Chickering, a.W. Education and Identity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1969.
Straub, C. And Roberts, R.F. "An Exploration of Chickering's Theory and Women's
Development." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1986, 27, pp. 216-224.
Reisser, L. "Revisiting the Seven Vectors." Journal of College Student Personnel, 1995, 36, pp.
" (Chan, East, Ali and Neophytou, 2002; p.6)
III. POST-WWII ENGLAND SCHOOLS
The work entitled: "Doing Comparative Education: Three Decades of Collaboration" relates the fact that the post-World War II world in England "left a series of emergencies for which immediate answers had to be found. There were shortages of staff, equipment and building..." (Eckstein, 1960) Eckstein additionally states: "Post-war legislation has generally been characterized by radical thinking and optimism. However, the euphoria brought by the end of a war is so often soon dissipated in the exhausting battle of the peace. At such a time, the ambitiously optimistic spirit of reconstruction may also be lessened. A more cautious planned expansion replaces the scheme for extensive reconstruction, ideas of reform have once again to vie with practices which are entrenched in the typical ways of thinking of a people. The educational legislation of the last five years or so has…
Chan, Sui-Mee; East, Pat, Ali, Sabia; and Neophytou, Maria (2002) Primary and Secondary Education in England and Wales: From 1944 to the Present Day - 8th Edition. August 2002.
Lopez-Muniz, Jose Luis Martinez; De Groof, Jan; and Lauwers, Gracienne (2006) Religious Education and Collective Worship in State Schools: England and Wales" published in the Religious Education in Public Schools: Study of Comparative Law - Yearbook of the Association for Education and Policy (2006)
M.A. Eckstein, "Present Trends in Public Secondary Education in Western Europe," the High School Journal, 44 (October, 1960): 8-19. Reprinted by permission of the University of North Carolina Press.
Riddell S. & Salisbury J., (2000) ' Introductions: educational reforms and equal opportunities programmes', in Salisbury J & Riddell S., (eds.) Gender, Policy & Educational Change: shifting agendas in the UK and Europe, London, Routledge
Whatever biases remain in public education can be removed, because the belief in equal opportunity has prevailed.
Standardized testing offers the only known way to ensure admissions to universities are based more on merit than on social class. In spite of their limitations, standardized tests do offer the only means to assess scholastic aptitude. A merit-based admissions procedure contributes to the betterment of society by offering educational opportunities to citizens who would be otherwise denied them. Upward social mobility and the ability to participate fully in the political process are possible outcomes of a merit-based educational system.
Effective educators understand the cultural contexts in which they work. In "Culture of Youth and How it Affects Learning," we saw how educators need to work hard to understand youth culture. To relate to their students, teachers must find common ground. Learning the language and values their students use out of the classroom…
Dr. Frank Pajares, writing in Reading and riting Quarterly (Pajares 2003), points out that in his view of Bandura's social learning theory, individuals are believed to possess "self-beliefs that enable them to exercise a measure of control over their thoughts, feelings, and actions."
As has been mentioned earlier in this paper, but put a slightly different way by Pajares ("Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Motivation, and Achievement in riting: A Review of the Literature") based on Bandura, behaviorists can better predict what individuals are capable of based on "their beliefs about their capabilities" than by what they are actually capable of accomplishing.
This aspect of self-efficacy carries over into a student's writing abilities; and a writer with a "strong sense of confidence" may excel while writing an essay because there will be less apprehension over the quality of what the writer is trying to express. The writer may have some doubts about whether…
Brandon, Thomas H.; Herzog, Thaddeus a.; Irvin, Jennifer E.; & Gwaltney, Chad J. (2004).
Cognitive and social learning models of drug dependence; implications for the assessment of Tobacco dependence in adolescents. Addiction, 99(1), 51-77.
Center on English Learning and Achievement. (2002). Scaffolding Student Performance of New and Difficult Tasks. Retrieved March 10, 2007, at http://cela.albany.edu/newslet/fall02/scaffolding.htm.
Demant, Meagan S, & Yates, Gregory C.R. (2003). Primary Teachers' Attitudes Toward the Direct Instruction Construct. Educational Psychology, 23(5), 483-489.
The ease of use of email systems for example generally tend to relate to high satisfaction levels. According to the study, students find it extremely convenient to be able to contact instructors at any time according to their convenience and available time frame. This does away with the inconvenience of specific office hours or telephone availability. This satisfaction is however also related to the ability of the instructor to respond to email in a speedy fashion. In Enockson's study, for example, the instructor made an effort to consistently respond within 24 hours. Students also experienced the online system as particularly convenient, as physical barriers to communication were eliminated, and students were able to set their own hours for instruction and communication. The time and costs of commuting are also eliminated by the use of such a system. This is the basic advantage of a generally online system of instruction as…
Education in the Community
A major issue currently effecting culture, population, and demographics is that of wealth inequality. As the global economic downturn continues throughout the world, wealth disparity is increasing rapidly. This affects culture, population, and overall demographics in a litany of ways. First, due primarily to lower wages, families are postponing child birth. The uncertainty surrounding the future creates an atmosphere of fear. Families are now waiting until the economic climate becomes more certain before they have their children. Furthermore, the median income for middle class families has plummeted within the last 3 years. The median income for the average American household was roughly $51,000 in 2008. Now the median income is roughly $48,000. This creates problems as families are less apt to spend money are discretionary activities that form the basis of their culture. Holiday spending, for example has yet to reach its 2007 heights. Families are…
1) "Employment Situation Summary." U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Web. 14 July 2011. .
2) Rice Culture of China." China.org.cn - China News, Weather, Business, Travel & Language Courses. Web. 14 July 2011. .
3) "History of American Agriculture - Farm Machinery and Technology." Inventors. Web. 14 July 2011. .
4) Breaden, M.C. (2008, Feb 6), "Teacher-Quality Gap Examined Worldwide," Education Week, Feb. 6, 2008. Education Trust,
Education for a New Humanity
In recent years, educators and policymakers have expressed concern regarding, not only the low ratings of our educational institutions on a global scale, but also the dearth of purpose and a holistic view of life in curricula. ccording to the website, Pedagogia 3000, "If we take the new ways of learning and of being of [today's] children as reference, as well as the new paradigms of the third millennium, we [discover] the subtle, holistic processes of learning and growth…pulling all of humanity to a level of superior consciousness." (www.pedagooogia3000.info. Paymal, Naomi).
The new education will be centered upon the flourishing of being and of becoming. The pyramidal approach of parent to child and teacher to child will be transformed into a more horizontal graphic wherein parent and teacher become "companions" to the process of the enrichment of humanity. This is not a new concept; it…
At the level of higher education, a blatant challenge was presented recently by the publication of Hacker and Dreifus' Higher Education? How Colleges Are Wasting our Money and Failing our Kids and What We Can Do about it. The challenge was picked up almost immediately by the publication of Palmer and Zajonc's The Heart of Higher Education, A Call to Renewal -- Transforming the Academy through Collegial Conversations. The latter book urges the re-introduction of contemplation to the academy. The authors remind us that we evolve slowly into a new paradigm.
They suggest that "By lovingly holding the questions themselves, contemplating them well, we gradually, without noticing it, develop faculties of insight that allow us to see and to live the answers" (p. 105). A sense of connectivity will be vital to the new paradigm -- connecting with the diversity that is our world today and connecting with the great thinkers of all time and applying their musings to high-tech living. The benefaction of givers like Bill and Melinda Gates, whose latest venture (The New York Times, December 5, 2010) proposes the videotaping of teachers in their interaction with students as a means to better determine their suitability to this becoming process, will empower its realization.
One is reminded of the "French Quarter" in the early years of education -- teachers and students living together, mentoring one another, and discovering the world anew. The prospect excites this writer -- the unrelenting flux of recent years may have ushered in a resilient residue of renewed purpose.
Education of Abbasid
Today, the majority of high school students hope to finish college one day. This is a realistic dream for many, as there is an established education system that gives students a choice of career paths and training. The modern world if full of universities and training centers. However, the world was not always like this. Many centuries ago, education was limited to the privileged and even the privileged did not have many opportunities in learning. Today's existing modern educational system has been influenced by traditions of the past, particularly by the great advances that occurred during the Abbasid Dynasty in the Muslim world.
One of the achievements of Muslim culture during the Abbasid Dynasty was the widespread spread of literacy. Elementary education was almost universal, especially in the cities. Emphasis on the value of reading and writing stems from the very first revelations of the Qur'an, which…
Education of the Heart, Soul, And Mind
This paper explores the personal meaning of an education of the heart, mind, and soul.
An Education of the Heart, Mind, and Soul: Personal Meaning true education is so much more than simply learning certain facts and figures. While such rote information is useful and has its place, a true education is enriching for the entire person. All five senses are engaged and enlivened, the mind is opened up to a universe of ideas and possibilities, and the emotions are touched in many subtle, magic ways. A true education is not one of merely learning, but one of enrichment for the heart, mind, and soul. When an educational experience engages and uplifts the heart, mind, and soul, it affects the whole person in ways limited only by the imagination.
Music, art, and drama need to be included in this type of whole-person education.…
Education - Classroom Management
Relationship etween the Use of ehavior Contracts and Student's Ability to Stay on Task
An Introduction to ehavioral Contracting
In dealing with children, there are cases when a teacher encounters a child who does not behave in a normal way as other children do. For instance, a child may show constant inattentiveness to learning, or may demonstrate irresponsiveness to discipline. A child with such disruptive behaviors oftentimes requires special attention and monitoring as part of a process of modifying an unpleasant behavior into an appropriate one. One strategy used to deal behavioral difficulties of a child is ehavioral Contracting. From Family Education Network (online), the following is a definition of behavioral contracting.
A behavioral contract is a written contract that specifies the child's behavioral obligations in meeting the terms of the contract and the teacher's (or parent's) obligations once the child has met his or her…
Watson, Christopher. Behavior Modification, A Proactive Intervention for the Classroom.
2003. University of Minnesota. 28 November 2003. http://ici2.umn.edu/preschoolbehavior/tip_sheets/behmod.htm
Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood & Adolescence. 28 November 2003. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/g2602/0000/2602000079/p1/article.jhtml
The definition of an educated person has no doubt altered over time. Certainly, many people have tried to formulate the ultimate definition of what an educated person is, and what achieving that state might entail. In my earliest thoughts about the subject, I probably thought an educated person was probably my grandmother; she seemed so wise, and certainly, I never asked her anything for which she didn't have an answer, and a good one at that. I hasten to add that I didn't necessarily think so at the time. hen an adolescent love affair of mine had gone awry and I was miserable and mopey, she would advise me that the way to get out of the pits was to work at something, really hard. I wanted to wallow in misery. It took a few years more of life before I understood that, and even now, she was better…
Drucker, Peter F. "The rise of the knowledge society." The Wilson Quarterly; 3/22/1993.
Glickman, Carl D. "Dichotomizing Education: Why no one wins and America loses." Phi Delta Kappan; 10/1/2001.
Parker, Lynette. "The Cultural Production of the Educated Person: Critical Ethnographies of Schooling and Local Practice." (book reviews) Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute; 12/1/1997.
As the educational system continues to come unde inceasing amounts of scutiny, the teache is ultimately at the fulcum of pessue. They ae equied to digest new educational theoy and sot out the wheat fom the chaff. They ae asked to manage inceasing levels of divesity in the classoom, and students who come to class acoss a widening spectum of pepaedness. At the same time, they ae expected to be a students fiend, motivato, and at times suogate paent. Technological advances in the maketplace have made it necessay fo teaches to adapt to inceasing amounts of technology in the classoom. All of these issues ae coming at a time when fedeal mandates in the No Child Left Behind act ae demanding impoved pefomance, in some cased damatically impoved pefomance.
In light of the inceased levels of demands placed on teaches and the continuing decline of academic pefomance, it is…
references for ways and means of communicating and sharing information
The pedagogy takes into account the e-learning styles of different students, 4) Learners have no option other than to "hack" their way through a lesson, picking up tips and tricks as they stumble across them The pedagogy encourages the development of team communication skills, in order to reduce information overload, and leverage team learning and improve group practices and performance.
Adapted from C. Willet (2002) "eRoom for Power Users, http://www.akgroup.com/solutions/eRoom_powerusers.pdf
Part Seven: Miscellaneous.
The final section of this book contain a collection of essays that address larger cultural issues in the framework of the classroom. Equality in races, between black, white, Hispanic, and others is still a hotly debated topic. Some want to measure equality by equality of outcome. However, in an increasing diverse culture, this measuring stick often does not contain the correct units to make a valid evaluation. Schools cannot guarantee equality of outcome between students, because the outcome is a function of the input the student applies. The equality of opportunity is the cry which must be heard in educational institutions. Whether a student is male of female, white or colored, upper middle class or urban poor, schools need to provide equal access, and equal opportunity. The results, ultimately, are up to the child to take advantage of the opportunity, and become an educated person.
Education and Equality of Opportunity
The issue of equality in access to education has been a long running argument and each time legislations are passed and initiatives invented towards trying to make education actually equal and accessible, there are gaping gaps that still make these efforts run short of their target goal. There are several terms that are used in the education department that need to be well understood since most have been misused and hence leading to either a stereotype view of education, or a skewed perspective that only helps to make the situation worse than it already is.
The achievement gap; this is often referred to as the disparity or difference in the performance of students in various groups. From the surface of it, it looks justifiable definition, however, these groupings that are use to measure the academic performance are quite stereotyped and the academic achievements have nothing…
Reardon S.F., (2011). The Widening Academic Achievement Gap Between the Rich and the Poor: New Evidence and Possible Explanations. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from http://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/reardon%20whither%20opportunity%20-%20chapter%205.pdf
Teachers College Columbia University, (2005). The Academic Achievement Gap: Facts and Figures. Retrieved February 26, 2014 from http://www.tc.columbia.edu/news.htm?articleID=5183
This helps the institution become more successful and viable, and it creates a more diversified and content student body. It is the responsibility of students to demand this type of diversity if it does not already exist, as well. Students have the right to expect the best educational experience they can imagine at their institutions, and institutions have the responsibility to continually upgrade their delivery and content to meet the needs of a changing student body. Diversity brings greater awareness and understanding, and it brings new opportunities to learn from a more diverse population. An institution that remains stagnant when it comes to diversity will find itself behind the times and losing enrollment to more progressive schools, and so, it is the responsibility of the institution to keep current and foster diversity.
Diversity is the wave of the future, and an institution has to prepare its students for the future,…
Cain, M.L. Theorizing the Effects of Class, Gender, and Race on Adult Learning in Nonformal and Informal Settings.
The empirical design and its results, not age, should determine the validity and relevance of a given educational theory. Too often, educational policy makers and the professional support system skip from level one research (theory and conjecture based on correlations) to policy. A shared knowledge base might be created from theory alone and as Grossen (nd) points out, it often is. "Most of the educational practices that become widely disseminated in our university teacher-training programs and across the nation do not even have level two research support, nevermind level three," (Grossen nd).
Greater gatekeeping is necessary to restore the integrity of the educational policy system and the professional networks that support it. Current gatekeepers do not draw their policies from science but from opinion. Almost all of the most popular educational theories touted today have little to no empirical support. Grossen lists a litany of common teaching methods and theories…
Grossen, B. (nd). What does it mean to be a research-based profession? Retrieved July 10, 2007 at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~bgrossen/pubs/resprf.htm
" Having said man's very nature to associate himself with other people all the more gives but rational explanation to why it is very important for the children, even during their elementary years in school, to develop their interpersonal skills. In different settings, excellent interpersonal skills have always led to excellent dyadic relationships and team dynamics, and therefore generating excellent outputs. As Hogan (2004) also articulated, our personalities determine how we can be leaders in our own right within the teams we belong to.
The elementary students - because of their young minds and fresh ideas - may need to be instructed how to deal with their personal needs as well as the needs of the people around them. they must learn how to interact people in a positive way. They must learn to understand the value of giving and sharing in the same way that they should learn how…
Aristotle. 2006. http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-arist.html
Barry, David. (1991). Managing the Bossless Team: Lessons in Distributed Leadership. http://www.geocities.com/drdavidbarry/DistributedLeadership.doc
Butler, Timothy and James Waldroop. (2004). Leveraging Your Team's Interpersonal Skills. http://hbswk.hbs.edu/archive/4187.html
Dewey, J. (1897). My pedagogic creed. The School Journal (65), 3.
Education is a basic need and a fundamental right of every human being regardless of what background or class he belongs to. An important nurturing ground for any child is his primary educational institute. This is a place where a child is groomed and prepared into a confident human being in order to face the world practically in future. However, for many young children this very place becomes a source of damaging their confidence and esteem and pushing them towards isolation by subjecting them towards constant physical and/or verbal abuse. This paper highlights such forms of bullying that is prevalent in schools not only in Canada, but in many parts around the world. The paper evaluates the actions that could and that could not be classified as an act of bullying. Furthermore, the paper also evaluates the causes and effects of bullying. Finally, the paper discusses the ways in which…
Education, and that too, a quality education is a right of every human being regardless of gender, race, cast, color, creed or socio economic background. Education plays an important role in the grooming, upbringing, nurturing and mental nourishment of a person. Good education does not only guarantee good living, but also builds one's confidence and esteem. Unfortunately, the double standards and inequality in the provision of education has led to a lot of social problems. These inequalities lead to serious social gaps, and in many cases, the ones who are not among the privileged lot, face social discrimination and are treated as inferiors. There are various forms of inequality in the education system that exists. These include inequality in terms of class and economical background, racial and religious discrimination and discrimination on account of one's mental or physical abilities. The victims of these double standards usually fail to get into the same institution as their superior and privileged counter parts. However, even if they somehow manage to make into those superior institutions, they many a times are subjected to severe discrimination, both intentional, and unintentional, which makes them feel alienated and leads to their isolation. These issues, in turn have serious psychological impact on the victim (Pivik, McComas & Laflamme, 2002). Many a times, this discrimination takes an extreme form and as a result, offends and abuses the victim. This is referred to as bullying.
Bullying is one of the most common, and at the same time,
Because spelling is such an important concern to me, my first step would be to appoint a person who is concerned with this area as I am. My first strategy would therefore to create a job advertisement in which the wording would indicate the importance of this concern for me. I would also emphasize the need for excellent research skills, so that the existing policy can be modified according to the latest information on the importance of teaching spelling, as well as strategies on how to do this. During the interview phase, I would ensure that all candidates are questioned on their devotion to teaching spelling, as well as whether they have any ideas on how to implement a policy regarding this across the curriculum. The candidate will also need considerable leadership qualities to handle not only the English department at the school, but also to help implement the…
Regardless of grade level, teacher-centered and student-centered instructional strategies incorporate similar situations and practices. The teacher-centered approach usually involves little student participation in class discussions, few opportunities for group activities, and little in the way of interactive or multimedia projects. Students are expected to be passive learners, their brains like sponges to soak up the learning material imparted by the instructor. In a teacher-centered approach, the teacher also demands a certain amount of attention and maintains an aura of authority. Students are expected to be obedient and generally deferential toward the teacher, even when the teacher is kind or has a good sense of humor. Lectures and note-taking can be an important part of the teacher-centered approach, as is a reliance on examinations and formal classroom activities that can be easily and straightforwardly graded. In a student-centered situation, on the other hand, the teacher acts more as a guide…
While popularly associated with the advent of web-based technologies, DE is not a new phenomenon (agusa et al. 2009, 679)." The author asserts that during the nineteenth century many universities had correspondence programs. These programs remained popular for many years because they were different from more conventional learning environments. At the current time, distance education is driven by the pace of technological change and such changes are occurring globally in a manner that is rapid and complex. There are currently more than 130 countries in which institutions of higher learning provide students with distance courses (agusa et al. 2009). These courses often have as a foundation new information and communication technologies. The author also explains that
"In Australia, DE has particularly been embraced, at institutional and policy levels, as a means of extending higher education to rural, isolated, and often structurally disadvantaged learners (little or no access to a reliable…
Bradley. Review of Australian Higher Education. Retrieved online from: http://www.deewr.gov.au/HigherEducation/Review/Documents/PDF/Higher%20Education%20Review_one%20document_02.pdf
Filan, G.L., & Seagren, A.T. (2003). Six critical issues for midlevel leadership in post-secondary settings. New Directions for Higher Education, (124), 21 -- 31.
Gray K. & RadloffA. (2010). Higher Education Research & Development
Vol. 29, No. 3, 291 -- 305
According to both testimonials and statistics, educated people report higher levels of personal happiness and job satisfaction. In her book, Nickel and Dimed, comfortably wealthy author Barbara Ehrenreich reports being taken out for a "$30 lunch and some understated French country-style place" and discussing "future articles I might write for [the editor of Harpoer's] magazine" (1). It is lunching with this editor from Harpers that she decides to take on a monumental task: leaving her posh environment and working in a blue collar job in order to prove, or not prove, that such one can get by making so little.
It is not only her work, but also her ability to take on such a task that proves the importance of education in both personal happiness and job satisfaction. Here, in the first few lines of the introduction, Ehrenreich alludes to her education and the choices it has allowed her…
Ehrenreich, Barbara. Nickel and Dimed. New York: Holt Paperbacks, 2002.
Gamoran, Adam. Standards-Based Reform and the Poverty Gap. Washington D.C.:
Brookings Institute Press, 2007.
In this report on the No Child Left Behind Act, author Adam Gamoran looks
A group that is, by its very nature, mentally defective, will also easily be viewed as incapable of supporting itself without help - a strain on the larger society. In terms of modern day American society, this could be seen as declaring that African-Americans, and other similarly impoverished and marginalized groups, are likely to remain forever within the care of the social welfare system. Believers in such ideas might easily raise the question - why bother with caring for these people at all? More to the point; however, is the question of whether there is really anything wrong with most of these individuals at all? Clearly, a large part of their "mental disabilities" derive from internal and external assumptions about what it means to be African-American, or a member of some similarly tagged minority group. A multicultural approach to the educational process helps to guarantee that all individuals are ranked…
Allen, J., & Hermann-Wilmarth, J. (2004). Cultural Construction Zones. Journal of Teacher Education, 55(3), 214+.
Block, P., Balcazar, F., & Keys, C. (2001). From Pathology to Power: Rethinking Race, Poverty and Disability. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 12(1), 18.
People need look no further than their own homes to see the interdependence of world trade; no further than their neighborhoods to see the results of international migration and multiculturalism; no further than the news to see the causes and effects of global economics, ecology and ethnic conflicts. "While domestic debate continues over the nature of these connections, few can doubt their existence. As these connections increase, educators, utilizing a global model, can provide a context that allows students to analyze and understand the impact of world events" (Baker, 1999).
Multiculturalism and globalism are obviously not unique to the United States. The majority of Western societies are racially, ethnically, and culturally diverse. Ethnic revival movements have come up in a lot of countries including quite a few Western European nations (Banks & Lynch, 1986). This type of revival movement occurs when an ethnic group organizes efforts to attain equality inside…
Baker, F.J. (1999). Multicultural vs. global education: Why not two sides of the same coin? Retrieved from http://www.csupomona.edu/~jis/1999/baker.pdf
Cooper, G. (1995). Freire and theology. Studies in the Education of Adults, 27(1), 66.
Global education. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.glob-edu.net/en/global-education/
Global education guidelines. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/ge/GE-Guidelines/GEguidelines-web.pdf
It is no longer necessary to attend a class in person, but instead attendance is online at the student's convenience, and that means it is much more possible for students to get an education and support an institution at the same time. Thus, technology has revolutionized education, and has made it much more possible for everyone to attend a university or other school, and that is certainly something to celebrate, rather than grumble about.
It is certainly true that every culture must deal with technology in their own way. Americans have embraced technology, and it makes sense that it would spread to education. Today's young people are a familiar with technological devices as they are with their own families, and this makes them ideal candidates for more distance education in the future. They are already whizzes at texting, camera photography, and video games, so developing additional methods of delivery and…
A two-year degree can offer an affordable foundation towards a Bachelor's degree through a community college, however, it is important to have students take courses that can easily transfer to a university when the time comes. Educators and administrators should be mindful of the importance of guiding students to choose courses wisely with a focus on transferring.
What it all Means
The changes are here to stay. Students with Bachelor's degrees are more economically successful than those who do not attain them. esearch concludes that the disparity between incomes of those who are educated and those who are not, is only going to get wider until there is serious class distinction between the two lifestyles.
Educators nationwide can work to bridge that gap at every level of education. Those charged with educating grades kindergarten through high school, need to focus on learning styles, and the importance of teaching students how…
Becker, Christine (2004) Panel examines link between jobs, education.
Nation's Cities Weekly "
Bernake, Harold (2007) RPT - Bernanke: Education Will Cut Income Gap
This deadens the educational experience and the whole idea of learning, and indeed, and Freire notes, it dehumanizes the process, too.
Society and culture play an important position in these roles students and teachers play. In our society, as Freire notes, teachers are supposed to know everything, while students know nothing. In addition, teachers are looked up to as role models by many students (and parents), and they are expected to impart knowledge and make it last. They have a difficult role to live up to, and many teachers simply do not have the talent and ability to thrive in these roles, but they are expected to anyway. In addition, they are expected to keep order in the classroom, maintain control, and see to the welfare of their students. These are all important societal roles, and they are difficult to maintain excellence in all areas.
Perhaps the most interesting and…
Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum Books, 1993.
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408
Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2
Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
Education of omen in Renaissance
Several methods relating to the education of women in Renaissance changed the world. However, these methods of Humanists and the queries of religious reformers had no impact on the lives of early modern European omen. Education, changing drastically between the 15th and 17th centuries was certainly kept from women although the rich and powerful were able to receive some education: it was not always used. Opportunities arose for the daughters of the rich and wealthy. However, the eventuality of all their efforts in education narrowed down to the typical role of a woman: a housewife. They still faced choices and challenges unique to their gender. hile some women did receive this education alongside men, the options of what to do with that education were cut severely. It is evident from the study that women did not have a Renaissance because of lack of education and…
Bell, Susan G. Women: from the Greeks to the French Revolution. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1973. Print 181-209
Rice, Eugene F., and Anthony Grafton. The foundations of early modern Europe, 1460-1559. 2nd ed. New York: W.W. Norton, 1994. Print. 77-109
I hope to see my students gain confidence over intellectual challenges, and in so doing, form strength inside of themselves that will make them resilient over the challenges they will face professionally in the future. Ultimately I see my role as enabler of positive change in their lives, equipping them to be able to grow intellectually over their lives, but also to compete confidently both from an intellectual and professional standpoint as well. Measuring results as an educator has more to do with what your students accomplish over the long-term, and less to do with just their grade point averages or immediate academic gains. It is my contention that growth and progression, and the attainment of increasingly higher levels of intellectual curiosity on the part of students are even more important than immediate academic achievement. As an educator I would first focus on assisting my students to begin this journey…
Students who have low self-efficacy will be likely to give up easily, avoid challenging tasks, focus on their failings, and quickly lose confidence at the first sign of criticism (Cherry, 2013). Bandura's social cognitive theory and the concept of self-efficacy can be applied to this classroom with regard to the differences between genders. Clearly, boys had a high sense of self-efficacy vs. The girls, and the teacher did not recognize this fact. Again, refraining from offering feedback immediately after a verbal presentation might help the students with low self-efficacy address challenges in a safe way. As they build self-efficacy, learn to enjoy the art of failing gracefully, and see difficult tasks through to the end, the girls may increase their self-efficacy. The teacher can achieve this through gentle encouragement.
Self-regulated learning is related to social learning, motivation, and self-efficacy. In this classroom, the teacher already incorporates activities that will encourage…
Cherry, K. (2013). What is self-efficacy? Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/a/self_efficacy.htm
What works for one child is not necessarily going to work for the next. So how can one promote the use of standardized tests as the only way to measure educational learning and success? The premise of the No Child Left Behind Act is very honorable. Each child should be taught by the best teachers that there are and each school should be held accountable for making sure that this occurs. But the measuring device that this act relies on is faulty. It places so much emphasis on the scores of the tests that all of the other educational ideas are being lost among the numbers.
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
eview. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
egarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
Derthick, Martha and Dunn, Joshua M.…
Beveridge, Tina. (2010). No Child Left Behind and Fine Arts Classes. Arts Education Policy
Review. 111(1), p4-7.
Caillier, James. (2010). Paying Teachers According to Student Achievement: Questions
Regarding Pay-for-Performance Models in Public Education. Clearing House. 83(2),
While both gender and race are positionalities that are difficult to hide (not that one should need or want to, anyway), sexual orientation is not necessarily something that is known about a person, and its affects on the learning process can be very different. The very fact that sexual orientation can be hidden can create a situation where the learner closes off, hiding not only their sexuality but demurring away from other opportunities of expression and engagement as well. Conversely, if an individual with an alternative sexuality was open about this fact, it could very well cause discomfort in other adult learners who have a marked generational bias against many alternative sexualities and lifestyles (Cain). Both situations could provide useful grounds for personal growth in self-acceptance and self-security, for the learner of a minority sexual orientation and for the other learners in the class, respectively (Cain).
Situated Cognition v. Experiential…
Cain, M. "Theorizing the effects of class, gender, and race on adult learning in nonformal and informal settings."
Cranton, P. (2002). "Teaching for transformation." New directions for adult and continuing education 93, pp. 63-71.
Hansman, C. (2001). "Context-based adult learning." New directions for adult and continuing education 89, pp. 63-71.
Isopahkala-Bouret, U. 92008). "Transformative learning in managerial role transitions." Studies in continuing education 30(1), pp. 69-84.
According to a British Study conducted on all students born in the first week of March 1958, and following them through adolescence and on until the age of twenty-three:
There were no average differences between grouped and ungrouped schools because within the grouped schools, high-group students performed better than similar students in ungrouped schools, but low-group students did worse. Students in remedial classes performed especially poorly compared to ungrouped students with similar family backgrounds and initial achievement. With low-group losses offsetting high-group gains, the effects on productivity were about zero, but the impact on inequality was substantial." (Gamoran 1992)
As Gamoran points out, grouping or "tracking" tended to accentuate a student's skills or lack thereof. High-ability students benefited from segregation, but low-ability students did even worse than before. And while low-ability pupils received no benefit whatsoever from the tracking system, neither did their schools. The net gain in performance among…
Barth, R.S. (2001). Teacher Leader. Phi Delta Kappan, 82(6), 443.
Brown Center on Education Policy, the Brookings Institution. (2000). "Part 2: A Closer Look at Mathematics Achievement." How Well are American Students Learning? Brown Center Report on American Education: 2000.
Need for Study
Roles and Responsibilities of Assistant Principals
Historical Perspective of Assistant Principal Roles
Prior and Current Research Studies of Assistant Principal Roles
Assistant Principals and Use of Instructional Leadership
Transforming Assistant Principals into Instructional Leaders: Key Obstacles
General consensus indicates that the role of the assistant principals should move beyond its traditional clerical and disciplinary heritage to evolve to instructional leaders that deal with curriculum development, teacher and instructional effectiveness, clinical supervision, staff development and teacher evaluation. Yet, historical and current research shows that there has been little change in the assistant principal occupation since its origin in 1920. This paper uncovers research that tries to reconcile why the role change that practically everyone seems to want to happen hasn't been that quick to occur. As these reasons are better identified and understood, perhaps the twenty first century will see a positive transformation in the role of…
Anderson, L., & Pigford, A. (1987). Removing administrative impediments to instructional improvement efforts. Theory Into Practice, 26(1), 67-71.
Calabrese, Raymond (1987). A comparative analysis of alienation among secondary school administrators. Planning and Changing, 18(2), 90-97.
Chell, J. (1994) Introducing principals to the role of instructional leadership. SSTA Research Centre Report 95(14), 1-73.
Fullan, M. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York: Teachers College Press.
John Gatto is one of the few teachers who are speaking out against the current educational culture who knows what he is talking about. After teaching the state of New York, which has one of the highest per student budgets in the nation, uses many progressive teaching theories, and still produces some of the lowest test scores in the nation, his frustration comes from a wealth of experience. Teachers who start their careers with a sincere desire to educate students have their hands are tied by multi-cultural disconnectedness and a socialist teaching culture which discourages individual accomplishment. The frustration expressed by Mr. Gatto (Berlau, 2003) is likely only the tip of the iceberg representing the depth of the nationwide problem. From Atlanta to Minneapolis, news papers are filled with stories of failing students, failing schools, and school systems which are confused as to the source of the problem. Maybe…
Pink, Daniel H. 'I'm a Saboteur.'., Fast Company, 11-01-2000, pp 242.
Asghar, I. (1995) Constructivism as Substitute for Memorization in Learning: Meaning Is Created by Learner. Education, Vol. 116
Berlau, J. (2003, Sept 30) Teachers Discard the Union Label; as the National Education Association Pursues a Liberal Agenda, Many of Its Rank and File Refuse to Toe the Line and Have Formed Their Own Teacher-Advocacy Groups. Insight on the News.
HAINES, ERRIN. EDUCATION NOTEBOOK. (02-07-2002) The Atlanta Journal and Constitution, pp J3.
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/education-for-sustainable-development/cultural-diversity / (UNESCO)
This is information about cultural diversity in education, particularly in education for sustainable development found on UNESCO's website. UNESCO is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and I found the information about education on their website particularly interesting because it addresses education in a global, multicultural environment.
The first important aspect on their website is the institutional framework in which the educational segment operates at UNESCO, which particularly reflects cultural diversity. This is the Johannesburg Declaration, from 2002, which stipulates that "Our rich diversity . . . is our collective strength." Moving from this declaration, it proposes three general principles that link ESD to cultural diversity. These include the fact that the educational process (ESD, as UNESCO refers to it) has to be "locally relevant and culturally appropriate," but also that ESD requires "intercultural understanding."
According to UNESCO, the educational process has…
We must move from knowledge that lives in books to knowledge that lives in students.
3. Identify at least two areas of weakness in the Erickson text. Provide a rationale for selecting each area of weakness identified.
It is difficult for me to identify any weaknesses in the Erickson text. Her arguments and opinions are all supported by research. Neither her analysis nor presentation was lacking. Upon reflection - perhaps her greatest weakness is failing to truly recognize that an adaptation of curricular delivery of this magnitude requires a herculean commitment as well as an acceptance that an authentic shift to concept-based teaching is still decades away. To affect sustained change this viewpoint needs to be accepted by the general academic population and taught at the college level in education courses.
A second weakness of the text is there are not enough completed examples of units from which teachers could…
Most of the time research results are often used as the basis for a lot of other research. If a particular piece of research is done in an unethical way or has a hidden agenda to it then the ramifications of this could be very widespread.
Research must be designed and carried out so that it is as accurate as possible. Many times there are important things in people's lives that hinder on how a particular research study turns out. Another big implication is that particularly with educational research, there is usually a major university or institution that is sponsoring the research. If research is done poorly or with any major flaws then this ends up reflecting upon whoever sponsored it. This is one thing that these institutions and universities do not want to happen as it ends up doing damage to their reputations. A school with a bad reputation…
Therefore, instead of requiring non-science majors to enroll in general studies science courses such as biology, chemistry, or "physics for non-majors," the only mandatory science instruction should be courses that relate more directly to useful information. For example, obesity is a virtual epidemic in American society; therefore, a science class in practical nutrition makes mush more sense than the traditional focus of science courses for non-majors. Similarly, computer use classes would be more useful, as would classes emphasizing the logical scientific method rather than substantive science subject matter. Perhaps if mandatory scientific courses related more directly to useful information and to beneficial intellectual processes, American presidential election politics would not feature potential candidates with college (and advanced academic) degrees who still believe that Creationism or "Intelligent Design" are more plausible explanations for the existence of human life than Darwinian evolutionary theory.
As pertains to the study of foreign languages, it…
Carter, J. (2001) an Hour Before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood. New York: Touchstone.
Gardner, H. (1991) the Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
While it is so that more experience tends to correlate with better experience, this only holds for about three years of experience, after which the correlation becomes more level with less teaching experience. One possible reason for this, according to Darling-Hammond (2000), is that teachers who have been in the profession for a long time may become tired of their jobs, or stagnate because of a lack of opportunity to further their own education. On the other hand, more experienced teachers who do focus on improving themselves constantly, yield consistently improving results in student performance. Darling-Hammond also emphasizes that well-prepared teachers with less experience also yield favorable results. In general, it therefore appears that more experience tends to yield better student performance.
Darling-Hammond, Linda (2000, Jan 1). Teacher quality and tudent Achievement: A Review of tate Policy Evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives, Vol. 1, No. 8. http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n1/
Darling-Hammond, Linda (2000, Jan 1). Teacher quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence. Education Policy Analysis Archives, Vol. 1, No. 8. http://epaa.asu.edu/epaa/v8n1/
Public Policy Institute of California (2003, August). Research Brief: New Insights into School and Classroom Factors Affecting Student Achievement. Issue #76. www.hewlett.org/NR/rdonlyres/985FC747-BAB7-4E08-8133-F763472A37C8/0/ppicsandiegobrief.pdf
Over the last several years, educators have been facing considerable challenges in meeting rising expectations for performance. This is because a host of solutions (such as the No Child Left Behind Act) have not addressed the lack of student achievement. Instead, academic performance has continued to linger and become worse in some areas (i.e. mathematics and science). (Hannah, 2012)
In New Jersey, the Core Content and Common Core Curriculum standards is designed to provide clarity on specific subjects and topics students must learn in order to graduate from high school. To fully understand how this occurring requires examining the way it is related to the concepts from Mary Zimmerman's Metamorphoses and a contemporary issue. This will be accomplished by focusing on the modes of communication, its shape and the way the literature can provoke cultural insights. Together, these elements will highlight how the Core Content and Common Core Curriculum…
Science Standards. (2013). NJ. Retrieved from: http://www.nj.gov/education/cccs/standards/5/
Hannah, D. (2012). 5 Ways No Child Left Behind Act. American Progress. Retrieved from: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/education/news/2013/04/08/59542/5-ways-no-child-left-behind-waivers-help-state-education-reform/
Rich, M. (2012). U.S. Students Still Lag. New York Times. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/11/education/us-students-still-lag-globally-in-math-and-science-tests-show.html?_r=0
Wandberg, R. (2000). Communication. Mankato, MN: Life Matters.
Education is the central component in forming a society that is affluent in every way. Educators make education an obtainable goal. The purpose if this discussion is to explore the personal philosophy of an educator. We will investigate; how the educator believes children learn, how his beliefs are demonstrated through hid teaching and classroom concepts, and how his teaching techniques are based on the philosophies are based on the research of various theorists.
The philosopher John Dewey said the following of education,
Education is the fundamental method of social progress and reform. All reforms which rest simply upon the law, or the threatening of certain penalties, or upon changes in mechanical or outward arrangements, are transitory and futile.... ut through education society can formulate its own purposes, can organize its own means and resources, and thus shape itself with definiteness and economy in the direction in which it wishes to…
The John Dewey Society.. http://cuip.uchicago.edu/jds/links.htm
The Educational Theory of Thomas Jefferson. New Foundations www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Jefferson.html2002
Howard Gardner. http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/gardner.html
The Educational Theory of John Dewey (1859-1952). New Foundations
It appears that the school systems are failing here in America. Every year test score trend downward as a continual new stream of information floods into the public consciousness. More schooling and more intensive schooling efforts have shown little if any progress in recent decades and before any more money or energy is thrown at these problems indiscriminately, a tactical pause to contemplate the situation seems in order.
New problems arise everyday in the schooling system as the complexity of the world increases seemingly exponentially. The purpose of this research is to take a view point that steps back at the situation and looks at general trends and questions the very purposes of compulsory school. To do this properly it is necessary to take an unbiased and objective reexamination of the efficacy of public schooling.
By all measurable standards of decency, it appears American society is in some…
Boli, J., Ramirez, F.O., & Meyer, J.W. (1985). Explaining the origins and expansion of mass education. Comparative education review, 29(2), 145-170.
Casillas, A., Robbins, S., Allen, J., Kuo, Y.L., Hanson, M.A., & Schmeiser, C. (2012). Predicting early academic failure in high school from prior academic achievement, psychosocial characteristics, and behavior. Journal of educational psychology, 104(2), 407.
Rothstein, R. (1993). The myth of public school failure. The American Prospect, 4(13), 20-34.
How are these expectations communicated to your students?
I communicate my expectations to my students in written and verbal form when possible. At the beginning of each lesson, I hand out the overview of the lesson, which outlines the key deliverables and points of assessment. This helps students understand exactly what I will be looking for, and provides them with a focus for their learning experience. I also send students periodic updates when necessary, if my expectations change or if I want to check-in with students.
How would you promote these expectations during instructional time?
During instructional time, I promote my expectations of the students differently depending on the lesson. I try as best I can to provide examples of what I am looking for, so that students are clear about my grading parameters. Moreover, I promote instructional expectations sometimes by showing why the lesson is relevant to the students'…
Education / Unit Plan Review
The goals for the unit incorporate students' understanding about states in the U.S. In terms of multiculturalism. They will demonstrate their knowledge through listening, speaking, reading and writing activities. Students will gain an understanding of different cultures and customs, how they relate to one another, and how the students themselves have a personal identity as members of particular communities. Students conduct research and complete assignments; they will also be encouraged to form their own opinions and empowered to take charge of their own learning with self-monitoring tools.
The teacher can consider the unit successful when students demonstrate engagement in the lessons and produce quality work that results from both interest and understanding. The rubrics and checklists provide students with clear expectations. They know exactly what they are supposed to do and how to do it. If there are many questions about procedures or expected outcomes…
Nearly all failing schools fit this description (Six Secrets of School Success 2000)." If a country is to overcome educational problems, they must take into account the mentality that poverty creates and how that mentality deteriorates the wherewithal to do well in school.
Although poverty is the issue that affects most underachieving schools, the idea of the super head was conceived as the answer to poorly performing schools. According to Marshall (2001), recruiting exceptional headmasters to improve schools was begun with what was once known as the Hammersmith County School (Marshall, 2001). The local authority school was located in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham (Marshall, 2001). The neighboring schools were grant maintained and church schools (Marshall, 2001). The Hammersmith School was being closed because of poor results and OFSTED reports (Marshall, 2001). However, instead of closing the school the administration decided to reopen it and called it the…
Education. 2004. Official Site of the Labor Party. retrieved January 15, 2005 from;
Mixed feelings from 'super heads'. retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/2132516.stm
Superheads' call for £120k a year, (2000). retrieved January 15, 2005 from; http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/914516.stm
In this regard, the instructor's individual characteristics should be secondary to the readiness of the instructor to recognize individual learning strengths and needs in the students.
Diversity is often taken as a term which refers particularly to difference in race, ethnicity, gender, religion or sexual orientation, to name just a few categories of cultural distinction. And indeed, it does refer to this within the context of education. However, there is yet another level to the discussion on diversity which concerns education in particularly, relating to the individual nature of learning styles. It is therefore necessary for the teacher to channel a recognition of learning styles and cultural diversity into a unified approach to the classroom. This tends to reinforce the position taken throughout this research, which is that the successful teacher will, therefore, tend to an educational strategy which diverts from strict academic prerogatives and instead approaches its subjects…
Chang, J.; De Silva, a.D.; Dien, T.T.; Mccarty, T.C.; Nordlander, a & Perez, B. (2004). Sociocultural Contexts of Language and Literacy. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Haselhurst, G. (1997). Aristotle Metaphysics. Space and Motion.com.
Slavin, R.E. (2007). Educational Psychology: Theory and Practice. Prentice Hall.
Steup, M. (2005). Epistemology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.