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Policy assessments must be based on the most appropriate data sets. Qualitative data is the most appropriate data set in educational research.
Interactions abound in education. Those interactions create a complex matrix of issues affecting education effectiveness: class, gender, and learning style all impact learning but those variables also interact with classroom environment and peer group issues. Education is a process of communication, communication between the learner and his or her environment. The teacher is only one part of that student's environment. Qualitative research allows the ubiquity of interactions to be examined in a scientific framework.
As the accepted processes of educational science change, educational policy will too. The next generation of educators need to pressure their coworkers and community activists to lobby for wholesale changes in the government. Parents must also begin expressing their discontent with No Child Left Behind more vehemently. Until then, scholars of education need to…
" Their article entitled "The ole of Phonemic Awareness in Learning to ead" describes phonemes as the smallest units of spoken language that are used to create words. The English language has between 41 and 44 phonemes. The concept of phonemes can be confusing for children because there are not always the same numbers of phonemes as there are letters in a word. Phonemic awareness is important because the English language uses an alphabetic writing system, and all aspects of learning to read and write incorporate PA on some level.
In the April 2009 article "Using Scaffolding to Teach Phonemic Awareness in Preschool and Kindergarten," McGee and Ukrainetz note that many children enter school without the ability to recognize the individual sounds within words. Moreover, their teachers find it difficult to teach phonemic awareness and that there is little in the teaching curricula that can help teachers understand how…
Farstrup, A. And Samuels, S. (2002). What research has to say about reading instruction. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.
Hoover, W. (2002, December). The importance of phonemic awareness in learning to read. SEDL. Retrieved April 19, 2010 from http://www.sedl.org/pubs/sedl-letter/v14n03/3.html
Langland, C. (2004, December 23). Working with sounds: educators trying to boost reading skills with phonemic awareness. Beaver Country Times. Retrieved April 19, 2010 from http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=kLciAAAAIBAJ&sjid=H7UFAAAAIBAJ&pg=3342,6119937&dq=phonemic+awareness&hl=en
McGee, L. And Ukrainetz, T. (2009, April). Using scaffolding to teach phonemic awareness in preschool and kindergarten. The Reading Teacher, 62(7), 599-603.
The plan serves as evidence that the teacher implemented instruction. As we clearly saw in this study, systematic instructional planning was not the format used the teachers in the sample. As a matter a fact most of the teachers surveyed used alternative method of instruction planning. The results of this study makes light of two important factors based on the sample, some teachers are not documenting their learning plan which could present a problem later on if a parent was to challenge. If a student moves to the next level and performs poorly and if the conclusion is that the student was not prepared. The instructional plan serve as proof that instruction did occur because the instructional plan documents teaching. The results also denotes that although pre-service teacher training emphasize importance, provides prophyte teachers with adequate training and the necessity to use this format in knowledge delivery their no guarantee…
Salkind, N (1998). Exploring Research. Sixth edition. Prentice Hall
Young, a., Reiser, & Dick, W (1998). "Do superior teachers employ systematic instructional planning procedures? A descriptive study," Educational Technology, Research and Development, 46 2, 65
After this has been done, the researcher comes to the actual writing of the literature review, which should be relatively easy if the researcher has done the researcher properly.
Identification of Sources
Identifying sources that are high-quality and appropriate can be very difficult for the inexperienced researcher, but there are ways to help individuals determine whether a source is a good one or not. Generally, 'standard' (.com) websites have questionable reliability unless they belong to a specific and recognized source such as CNN news or Time magazine, for example. Websites that end in.gov or.org are better choices for legitimate information. There are also sites such as Questia or Highbeam where books, magazines, journal articles, and newspapers can be read online. Sources in the library are usually legitimate but researchers must be careful that books and journals are not fictionalized accounts of periods of history or other issues. Paying attention to…
Fink, a. (1998). Conducting research literature reviews. New York: Sage Publications.
Cooper, H.M. (1984). The integrative research review - a systematic approach. New York: Sage Publications.
Reed, L.E. (1998). Performing a literature review. Retrieved at http://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie98/papers/1298.pdf.
ICK HOUSE'S BOOK COUNSELING AND EDUCATIONAL ESEACH
ick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational esearch"
ick Houser's book "Counseling and Educational esearch"
Why is it important to acquire necessary skills in research for a counselor?
Clinical counselors are doctoral-level providers of health services skilled in counseling clients while evaluating and treating emotional and mental disorders utilizing scientific theories and methods. Adequate interpersonal correspondence skills are imperative. A clinical counselor must have the ability to listen eagerly and understand what customers communicate with them, and have the capacity to talk clearly with customers about sensitive issues. This occupation also requires basic thinking skills, as clinical therapists must have the capacity to utilize logic and reason to solve and interpret complex issues. Houser writes: "… but I believe acquiring the skill to evaluate how knowledge was generated is a key skill in functioning as a professional and dissociates those with advanced graduate degrees…
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
The person should also be familiar with the various cultures being included in the study, to ensure that no unnecessary discomfort is experienced as a result of culturally sensitive utterances.
The role of ethics in educational research is therefore to make the participant experience as comfortable and indeed as enjoyable as possible. Research participants are offering their time and knowledge to the study, and should be treated accordingly. Ethical principles should be followed at all times. The research should therefore be as honest as possible while maintaining the integrity of the study.
If complete honesty cannot be maintain for the duration of the study, participants should have prior knowledge of this element, and have the opportunity to terminate their participation whenever they feel uncomfortable or harmed in any way. The risks of the study should be fully disclosed before accepting participation by any representatives of the population of focus.
McMillan, J.H. And Schumacher, S. (2006) Research in Education: Evidence-Based Inquiry, Sixth Edition, by Allyn & Bacon
Over the decades, there has been significant advancement and progression in education. With such progression comes the incessantly mounting necessities for education to guarantee student and teacher engagement and provide learning prospects for the present-day students. This paper examined the prevailing issues faced by education in the 21st Century. Specifically, the paper will extensively examine issues about the use of technology, the role of teacher educators, student needs and abilities, the interrelations between learning and teaching, in addition to how different internal and external factors have an impact on the learning of the present-day K-12 students.
Students' Need to Belong
One of the most major changes necessitated in education is transforming schools into better communities that not only care but also support the students. The term community is employed to imply a sense of belonging for the students, trust in other students, and also safety. The shortcomings in the…
Blatchford, P., Goldstein, H., & Mortimore, P. (1998). Research on class size effects: A critique of methods and a way forward. International Journal of Educational Research, 29(8), 691-710.
Chatterji, M. (2002). Models and methods for examining standards-based reforms and accountability initiatives: Have the tools of inquiry answered pressing questions on improving schools?. Review of Educational Research, 72(3), 345-386.
Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st-century teacher education. Journal of teacher education, 57(3), 300-314.
Flores, M. A. (2018). Tensions and possibilities in teacher educators\\' roles and professional development. European Journal of Teacher Education, 41(1): 1, 1-3. DOI: 10.1080/02619768.2018.1402984
Liston, D., Borko, H., & Whitcomb, J. (2008). The teacher educator\\'s role in enhancing teacher quality. Journal of Teacher Education 59 (2): 111 – 116.
Osterman, K. F. (2000). Students\\' need for belonging in the school community. Review of educational research, 70(3), 323-367.
Penuel, W. R., Boscardin, C. K., Masyn, K., & Crawford, V. M. (2007). Teaching with student response systems in elementary and secondary education settings: A survey study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 55(4), 315-346.
Um, S. J. (2019). A Teacher\\'s Dilemma in Creating a Democratic and Socially Just Classroom. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(5), 429-435.
Descriptive statistics were employed to describe the participants' responses and constant comparative analysis was used to quantify the survey data.
According to the survey results, ninety-two percent of the school superintendents confirmed the validity of the twenty-one factors identified in the prior literature. However, fewer than eight percent reported having any methodology for applying those criteria to the school principal hiring process. Given the obvious correlation between the quality of school principals in relation to those factors, it is clear that school superintendents must develop practices and methods for using those criteria during the school principal hiring process.
Recommendations, Conclusion, and Implications
Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that public school superintendents develop specific assessment procedures and tools to enable them to better evaluate prospective candidates for school principals. Specifically, those methods and tools must relate to the factors about which there is a strong…
Nearing the end of the 1960s, the analytic or language philosophy became the central focus point which led to the isolation of the classroom setting and the problems that came with it (Greene, 2000).
Most of the educational philosophers of the time were inclined towards restricting themselves to the official aspects and problems like the sovereignty of the system without any influence from the society and the surrounding environment and the assessment of the calls and school structure conducted for its growth or for the progression of the epistemology that it embodied (Greene, 2000).
All those setups that seemed to be coming across as invasive or seemed to add a personalized bias where it didn't belong were quickly identified and removed. This was one of the reasons that led to the obsession of the possible consequences that could exist due to the practicality of the philosophical theories. Inflexibility was adeptly…
Aleman, a.M. (1999). Que Culpa Tengo Yo? Performing Identity and College Teaching. Educational Theory 49, no. 1: 37-52;
Arons, S. (1984). Playing Ball with the Rodriguez Court: Three Strikes and You're Out. Educational Theory 34, no. 1: 23-27.
Brameld, T. et al., (1952). Existentialism and Education. Educational Theory 2, no. 2.
Buchmann, M. (1987). Impractical Philosophizing about Teachers' Arguments. Educational Theory 37, no. 4: 361-411.
Educational Planning and Economics: How the needs of looked after children can be addressed through non-formal and formal education.
There are current trends in non-formal educational processes that allows for interesting, unique and relevant work within the educational environment that could likely lead to enhanced short-term educational opportunities for impoverished and/or at-risk students. Additional long-term benefits including; increased levels of societal education, higher incomes, better living conditions, a less impoverished lifestyle and a society that benefits with the input of the individuals who receive the education are also realistic results from a study such as the one being proposed.
A recent study determined that young orphan girls receiving psycho-social support helped in keeping the intervention group in school (n= 184) and that the girls comprising the intervention group were less likely to drop out of school (5%), had higher educational aspirations, higher expectations concerning the future, a more equitable attitude…
Holfors, D.D.; Rusakaniko, S.; Hyusan, C.; Mapfumo, J.; (2011) Supporting adolescent orphan girls to stay in school as HIV risk prevention: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in Zimbabwe, American Journal of Public Health (in press)
Mhaka-Mutepfa, M. (2010) Types of services for children infected and affected by HIV and AIDS: Results and implications of a Zimbabwean study, International Journal of Psychology and Counseling, Vol. 2, Issue 6, pp. 100-106
Mualuko, N.J. (2008) Empowering out of school youth through non-formal education in Kenya, Educational Research and Review, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp. 56-60
There are varying educational backgrounds and levels in distance education and the delivery method must be in a way that is interactive using visuals, charts, graphs and other stimulating realia.
In conclusion, the Dick & Carey Model of Instructional Design and the Jerrold Kemp Model of Instructional design are both excellent models for developing both traditional and distance learning materials. However, the differences among the types of ISD Comparison 6 learners must be clearly identified and defined in order for either of these models to be successful. With technology changing the face of education, instructional design models will also need to change in order to best educate and meet the needs of the different types of learners.
Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.
Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers,…
Dick, Walter, & Carey, Lou. (1985) The Systematic Design of Instruction (2nd ed.) Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company.
Kemp, Jerrold E. (1977). Instructional Design. (2nd Ed.) Belmont, CA: Fearon Publishers, Inc.
Brown, Frederick G. (1981). Measuring Classroom Achievement. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Dalton, William. Assessing Student Learning: It can be more than a survey. Retrieved May 25, 2006 at http://fie.engrng.pitt.edu/fie95/2c1/2c14/2c14.htm
This view is reflected in increasing calls for financial equity among schools, desegregation, mainstreaming, and standardized testing for teachers and students alike; it has been maintained that by providing the same education to all students, schools can equalize social opportunity (Bowman, 1994).
This latter position is typically followed up with the use of a particular curriculum designed to support the approach. In this regard, Bowman suggests that, "Knowledge is thought to exist in the collected wisdom of a canon, and education is the transferral of established wisdom to the learner" (p. 218). Unfortunately, when educators attempt to impose a "one-size-fits-all" curriculum on a diverse study body, there are bound to be problems -- particularly for those students who are already marginalized through language and other socioeconomic constraints.
Furthermore, in many ways, the public schools are unique in that they have been assigned the responsibility of communicating what American society regards…
Artiles, A.J., Higareda, I., Rueda, R., & Salazar, J.J. (2005). Within-group diversity in minority disproportionate representation: English language learners in urban school districts. Exceptional Children, 71(3), 283.
Banks, J.A. (1994). An introduction to multicultural education. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Bowman, B.T. (1994). The challenge of diversity. Phi Delta Kappan, 76(3), 218.
Breitborde, M.L. (1993). Multicultural education in the classroom. Childhood Education,
Boys, Kosciolek, Spicuzza & Ysseldyke (2003) points out that during the third International Mathematics and Science Study students in the United States scored below "the international average in mathematics," with 20 countries scoring significantly higher than U.S. subjects (p. 163). They suggest that principles of learning can be adopted and utilized in the United States to improve student outcomes. The study does not compare U.S. liberal arts education with European education.
Trends in Education
Sarason (1998) proposes that the U.S. educational system has "all of the features of a non-learning system" (p.1). He clarifies by proposing that students are incapable of learning because the educational system as it stands at present is a system of parts that are uncoordinated, rather than a structured system where agreement exists with regard to schooling, goals an achievement. His examination suggests that the trends currently occurring with the United States are resulting in negative…
Assenova, M. (2003 - Jan). "Educating the European way." World and I, 18(1): 62
Boys, C., Kosciolek, S., Spicuzz, R. & Ysseldyke, J. (2003). "Effects of a learning information system on mathematics achievement and classroom structure." The Journal of Educational Research, 96(3): 163
Cetron, M.J. & Gayle, M.E. (1990 - Sept-Oct). "Educational renaissance: 43 trends for U.S. schools." The Futurist, 24(5): 33
Darlington, Y. & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative research in practice: Stories from the field. Crows Nest, N.S.W, Allen & Unwin
This course fulfills its promise to help students understand research methods in education and educational administration specifically. Concepts of research have been covered clearly, to allow students better insight into how they might construct their own research from the proposal stage through the analysis and interpretation of results. Through encounters with original research like the Porter, Polikoff, Goldring, et al. (2010) study, students in this course also become more familiar with how researchers develop and implement assessments to evaluate the efficacy of different school leadership models.
Moreover, this course empowers students to adopt a professional mindset to evaluate the research of others, consider gaps in the literature, and contribute to the growing body of evidence on educational administration. The course has also covered theoretical orientations in educational research, encouraging students to consider their own points of view and the directions their research and their careers will take them. Ultimately, students…
Ndunda (2004) defines research as the systematic use of several techniques to generate credible information regarding problems. This process helps in providing reliable and verifiable information rather than assumptions regarding the issue or problem being examined. Based on this definition, the research process can be defined as collecting and analyzing information regarding a specific issue to generate reliable information that leads to accurate conclusions. In most cases, the research process helps in generating information that can be utilized in effective decision making regarding a specific issue or problem. In the field of education, the research process involves the use of different techniques/methods to analyze an issue and provide reliable information about it.
In light of the definition of the research process, there are several steps involved with conducting research in order to generate reliable information. The first step in conducting research is identifying the issue or topic, which needs…
Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. (n/s). Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Research. Retrieved from University of South Alabama website: http://www.southalabama.edu/coe/bset/johnson/lectures/lec2.htm
Ndunda M. (2004). Introduction to Educational Research. Retrieved from College of Charleston website: http://www.cofc.edu/~ndundam/NOTESSPRING2001/635chapt1.htm
Shuttleworth, M. (n.d.). Different Research Methods. Retrieved February 11, 2017, from https://explorable.com/different-research-methods
The Challenges of Dual Credit: A Research Proposal
Dual credit or dual enrollment programs “are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education,” (United States Department of Education, 2017, p. 1). With this lofty goal set, it should seem that dual credit programs would be reducing the educational achievement gap. After all, dual credit programs by definition allow all students the opportunity to potentially shorten the amount of time they spend in college, thereby reducing their tuition fees that enable the completion of a degree program. Yet recent research shows that college enrollment and completion gaps may be getting wider, based both on ethnicity and on socioeconomic class (Gewertz, 2017). The results of the RAND study reported by Gewertz (2017) may not be applicable specifically to the state of Hawaii, and yet educational attainment disparities do continue to exist and…
Quantitative vs. Qualitative Research
According to Lopez-Alvarado (2017) and Muijs (n.d.), research design decisions are linked to ontology and epistemology. Ontology refers to the researcher’s beliefs about whether reality is absolute or contextual, universal or relative. Whether the researcher is a realist or a relativist determines research questions and designs, with an increased tendency for relativists to focus on phenomenological and qualitative methods and a realist to use quantitative methods. Muijs (n.d.) describes quantitative research as using numerical data and mathematical methods, showing how a realist will use these types of methods to seek for an objective truth. Likewise, epistemology refers to how the researcher acquires knowledge, or what sources of knowledge are deemed valid. A researcher who believes in absolutism and realism will veer towards quantitative methods, which yield absolute and generalizable results. On the other hand, a researcher who values subjectivity would take a phenomenological and qualitative approach.…
esearch instruments fall into two broad categories: those compiled by the researcher him or herself in the form of recorded observations, logs, and rating scales and those completed by the interview subject him or herself in the form of questionnaires and interviews. egardless of the instruments used, research studies should be guided by acceptable standards of validity and reliability. "Validity is the extent to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure and performs as it is designed to perform" ("Instrument, validity, reliability" 2014). Statistical tests are usually used to establish the external validity of an instrument. "External validity is the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized from a sample to a population" ("Instrument, validity, reliability" 2014). In contrast, internal validity is the extent to which the instrument is internally valid based upon the results obtained within the sample. An instrument may be…
Instrument, validity, reliability. (2014). Research Rundowns. Retrieved:
Korb, K. (2012). Select sampling technique. Conducting Educational Research.
Retrieved from: http://korbedpsych.com/R06Sample.html
Educational Theories Guiding Educational Experience
Description of an education event experienced
I am a dentist, and I have started a course on teaching dentistry. My experience with education was never a particularly encouraging one as my teacher was always absent. When I was at school, the teachers went on strike, and that left us with no attention from them. We had to do much of the studying alone, and all required research lay squarely on our shoulders in the absence of teachers for as long as they were striking. Whenever the teachers came around school, they applied a work to rule strategy and that was extremely devastating. Lecturers were never available for any extra consultation, and we had to take our learning as individual responsibilities instead of waiting for support or guidance from lecturers. Any difficulties, which we may have faced during the study never, had a chance in the…
Annand, D. (2011). Social presence within the community of inquiry framework. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 12(5), 40-56. Aristotle.
(2002). Aristotle nicomachean ethics. (J. Sachs, Trans.). Newburyport, MA: Focus
Publishing/R. Pullins Co.
Baker, C. (2010). The impact of instructor immediacy and presence for online student affective learning, cognition, and motivation. The Journal of Educators online, 7(1), 1-30.
Saudi Aramco's training department was underdeveloped, and therefore the potential of their employees was being squandered. Once armed with an advanced degree I will stand poised to help organizations like Saudi Aramco to improve their training departments. Ultimately I will be able to perform consulting work in numerous private, non-profit, and government sectors to expand my range of expertise and offer the best guidance I possibly can to my clients.
Having worked as a translator as well as a professional training director, I have developed solid communications and leadership skills that can easily be imparted to my clients. I also have proven experience in developing and implementing training programs for professionals. What I need now is a leap forward, to hone my ability to design optimal training programs that meet the needs of both individuals and organizations. The higher education doctoral program at the University of Massachusetts offers
In my personal studies, I have proven my ability to solve difficult math problems, as well as understand economic trends and international and domestic economic reports. In 2006, I entered the United States in order to study business at community college. After adjusting to life in the United States and learning of the opportunities available to me, I set my sights on the best -- the University of Michigan.
I am convinced that the opportunity to study economics at the University of Michigan will give me the best preparation for a career in financial analysis. The University of Michigan is highly regarded for its tradition in teaching economics and business to students around the world. I hope to nurture my economic and financial interests and abilities at your school in order to become a greater asset to…
While other children watched cartoons and read picture books, I was consumed by the world of finance and economic development. Spending hours watching documentaries about national competitiveness, in addition to the influence of my father, who worked in the financial world for many years, primed me for a career as a financial analyst. I know that only the University of Michigan is the institution that can prepare me for such a career, as its reputation as a school with excellent business, finance, and economic departments is well-known. As a motivated, goal-oriented individual, I believe I can contribute to the academic discussions on this campus through my prior knowledge, unique background, and willingness to learn.
A native of Korea, I made myself a pledge as a child to become a reputable professional in a respectable field. Choosing to undertake a course of study in financial analysis was no easy task, but an examination of my talents and abilities convinced me that it was the best choice for me. As the field of economic analysis requires professionals to have a vast understanding of economics, mathematics, and international relations, my experience in business and economics will aid me in completing my goal to become a financial analyst. In my personal studies, I have proven my ability to solve difficult math problems, as well as understand economic trends and international and domestic economic reports. In 2006, I entered the United States in order to study business at community college. After adjusting to life in the United States and learning of the opportunities available to me, I set my sights on the best -- the University of Michigan.
I am convinced that the opportunity to study economics at the University of Michigan will give me the best preparation for a career in financial analysis. The University of Michigan is highly regarded for its tradition in teaching economics and business to students around the world. I hope to nurture my economic and financial interests and abilities at your school in order to become a greater asset to society.
Private schools are just as vulnerable to the issues that public schools are facing today.
Each one of us carries a responsibility for trying to improve the situation. Parents and familial groups have a huge responsibility to augment educational strategies. In the environment where most school systems employ strategies to make students part of the masses, without individual attention or nurturing, it is important for the family to step up and educate children about independence and autonomy. According to the research, "schools train children to be employees and consumers; teach your own to be leaders and adventurers. Schools train children to obey reflexively; teach your own to think critically and independently" (Gatto 155). Encouraging them to engage in learning material that goes beyond the simple curriculum offered at most public schools. Education should not be purely the responsibility of the institutions overwhelmed with responsibility, but should be extended to include…
Gatto, John Taylor. "Against School." Learning Power.
Moore, Michael. "Idiot Nation." Learning Power.
Lopez, Steve. "Looking Out of State for What California Once Offered." Los Angeles Times.
98). The need for ongoing research to identify optimal solutions in a given setting is also made clear by the reliance on experimental methods to measure options. The efficacy of the scientific method is well established, of course, and it is not surprising that many educators are drawn to this super-philosophy as a way of formulating effective solutions to convoluted problems. For instance, Glickman and his colleagues add that, "The use of trial and error in a laboratory setting is the key to evaluating the outcome of action. Therefore, experimentalists do not view knowledge as absolute or external to human capabilities. ather, knowledge is a result of the interaction between the scientific person and the environment" (p. 97).
The research showed that educational supervisors are faced with a complex set of challenges in their day-to-day work that demands a viable educational super-philosophy. For this purpose, the research also showed…
Brubacher, J.S. (1939). Modern philosophies of education. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ediger, M. (1995, Spring). Demonstration teaching in the schools. Education, 115(3), 371-375.
Garubo, R.C. & Rothstein, S.W. (1998). Supportive supervision in schools. Westport, CT:
They will in turn pass on that legacy to their own children. Since that is the general rule and principle, why does it affect persons of color more fiercely?
Persons of color are disproportionately represented in the low strata of the SE ladder. Amongst the poor persons of color have higher percentages and are more likely to exist in extreme poverty. Since SES determines where you live to a large extent, and where you live will determine the schools to which your children can attend. Then SES becomes a limiting factor because person whose household income is low will live in government housing and may be on some government support program. These persons will also have their children attend schools within these communities' schools where there is high teacher absenteeism, poor results on standardized testing and generally poor conditions (Lee, 2002). Again, in this regard persons of color are over…
Achievement gap (2002) National conference for community and justice. Retrieved from http://www.kccjky.org/summaries/full_achieve.htm
Anderson M.L. & Taylor H.F. (2010) Sociology the essentials. NY, New York: Wadsworth
Brunner, B., & Haney, E. (2007). Civil Rights Timeline Milestones in the modern civil rights movement. Retrieved from http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html#axzz0wJNCuRjZ
The UNC Health Care System runs a teaching hospital that publishes its mission statement, statement of core values, and nursing philosophy on the organization's Web site at < http://www.unchealthcare.org/site/Nursing/nurseleadership/visionvalues >. The mission is stated briefly as: "to be a leader in providing compassionate, quality care focusing on the unique needs of patients and their families." Key words in the mission statement include "compassionate," "quality care" and "unique needs." The core values of the UNC Health Care System's nurses include five main elements. Those elements include "My patient," "My team," "My Hospital," "My Community," and "My Profession." Phrasing these five main values in terms of "my" helps the nurse to feel like an integral part of the organization.
Furthermore, the nursing philosophy of the UNC Health Care System is outlined as being a reflection of the vision and values of the organization as a whole. The main principles of…
East Carolina University College of Nursing (2012). Philosophy of the college of nursing. Retrieved online: http://www.nursing.ecu.edu/philosophy.htm
UNC Health Care System (2007). Nursing mission, core values, philosophy. Retrieved online: http://www.unchealthcare.org/site/Nursing/nurseleadership/visionvalues
Chapter 3 stresses the importance both fundamentally and ethically of representing information truthfully and honestly through visual and experiential means that are meaningful to the learner and respect the fact that the individual mind is rather limited and therefore needs human centered externals to help it learn and retain information. Chapter 4 stresses the importance of individuality in the development of technologies that teach and interact with people. The overall work is important as it stresses the fact that technologies, as a creation of man must be developed and manipulated to reflect the humanity of their purpose. The fallibility of the mind is stressed as is its limitations and the possibility of the development of greater tools to impart knowledge is the most important factor in the development of learning tools.
Norman, D. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday/Currency. [chapters 1, 2, 3, 4]
In this work…
Wittrock, M.C. (1992). Generative learning processes of the brain. Educational Psychologist, 27(4), 531-541.
Wittrock present a functional model of learning that pays close attention to four processes of learning; attention, motivation, knowledge or preconceptions and generation. The author's point-of-view is clearly one of biological i.e. neurological brain function and develops a schema in which knowledge or learning takes place, as interactive and fluid in the mind. Understanding each of these four aspects can give the educational developer an idea of the need to bring learners all the way in to a learning environment through attention, motivation and base knowledge to elicit generative principles of cognition, i.e. The assimilation of novel material, that will add to their base knowledge of understanding. Wittrock's model in fact stresses that in creation of interactive or even static instruction if one key aspect is lacking, the whole of the system is resistant to learning. This is important in that it makes clear that development of technologies that instruct must produce attention and elicit motivation as well as build from some existing knowledge base to be effective for any user to generate a set of new knowledge. Even the most simple instructions often build on a set of base knowledge, that is frequently taken for granted and many instructional environments lack the sort of stimulation that garners attention and motivates the learner.
Total 17 papers including 3 books. I'll send you the articles in PDF files except three books Saffer, D. (2007). Designing for Interaction. Berkeley: New Riders. Norman, D. (1988). The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday/Currency. Norman, D. (1993). Things that make us smart. New York: Doubleday/Currency. I think you can find these easiliy in libraries.
Datcher-Loury researched a set of black children belonging to low income families from three regions to find out whether variations in educational performance were due to variation in behavior and attitudes within the families. Focused on the outcomes of the student's achievement on reading and math exams and also on the interviews with and examination of the mothers of the children; Datcher-Loury arrived at the decision that variations in family behavior and attitudes of course had huge and vital long-term impacts on the educational performance of children. From these outcomes, Datcher-Loury recommends that the programs concentrated at changing parental attitudes might be helpful in assisting to surmount the impact of economic shortcoming on the academic achievement on children. (Renchler, 1993) research undertaken by Judith Anderson and others demonstrated the association between poverty at public school and achievement of students among eighth graders, concentrating on the most poor schools…
Many of these activities commonly focus on happy and positive feelings and thoughts, at the expense of allowing an examination of more painful issues. This is especially problematic for disenfranchised and failing students, who, through this type of structure, receive direct and indirect messages from the group structure to not deal with the depths of their pain, anger, frustration, sadness, hurt, anxiety, or fear." (Bemak, 2005, p.1)
The need for a culturally diverse approach must not be lost, either in the approach of education of counselors and educators, despite the need to build teams and effective groups. Controversially, Bemak entertains the suggestion that an ethnic and gender match between students and guidance counselors might be a needed additional support for students from at-risk groups, although he finally rejects the idea as impractical. (Bemak, 2005, p.5) the article is provoking and challenging to accepted norms, suggesting that the need to build…
Included in life skills are such as the ability to manage personal finances, the ability to manage a household, the ability to care for personal needs, and awareness of safety as well as many other life skills including citizenship and leisure activities.
Findings & Conclusion
In the United States and the United Kingdom, governmental assistance to special needs students in education is seen as the answer to making appropriate educational provisions for these students with disabilities. The view of the World Health Organization to developing countries is quite different however; this may be based on the cultural barriers to education for special needs students in the developing countries.
Recommendations arising from this brief study and proposal for research include a recommendation that research be conducted for the purpose of determining what governmental aids and supports can be made for special needs students in education to provide them with the…
Brolin, D.E. (1989). Life Centered Career Education: A Competency Based Approach (3rd ed.). Reston, VA: The Council for Exceptional Children.
Edgar. G. (1988). Employment as an outcome for mildly handicapped students: Current status and future direction. Focus on Exceptional Children 21(1), 1-8 (EJ380199).
Goodship, Joan M. (1990) Life Skills Mastery for Students with Special Needs. ERIC Digest #E469.
Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education (2002) National Research Council U.S. Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education. National Academies Press 2002.
Educational Needs of Office Professionals
A better trained and educated workforce has been directly associated with increased productivity, improved morale and higher earnings for workers (Gentry & Springer, 2002).
There has been slow progress in developing comprehensive and responsive secondary education across states and school districts nationwide. Furthermore, the need for challenging curricula in U.S. schools is widely recognized (Archambault et al., 1993). The current level of educational achievement for the typical office professional in this state, though, is largely unknown.
In order to develop appropriate curricula for secondary students intending to pursue careers in administration, it is important to determine what classes and content should be offered. To this end, as the chair of the State Education Department, this researcher conducted a study examining the educational needs of office professionals by developing a quantitative and qualitative questionnaire and conducting a randomized state study of professional office workers.
Archambault, F.X., Westberg, K., Brown, S.B., Hallmark, B.W., Emmons, C.L., & Zhang, W.
(1993). Regular classroom practices with gifted students: Results of a national survey of classroom teachers (RM 93102). Storrs: The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, University of Connecticut.
Gentry, M. & Springer, P.M. (2002). Secondary Student Perceptions of Their Class Activities
regarding Meaningfulness, Challenge, Choice, and Appeal: An Initial Validation Study.
Name four practices that commonly require written administrative procedures.
Memorandums that include school policy changes or important information for the staff are commonly distributed in writing so that the information is accurately conveyed and properly received and documented. Many staff communications to the administration, such as requests for new classroom supplies or for personal leaves of absence, are also communicated in writing. If disciplinary action of any kind is taken against a student, it is commonly recorded in writing in the student's permanent file, and a copy of this information may be sent home to parents. Finally, the recording of daily vital information, such as student attendance and test scores, are done in writing.
How would you know if you are complying with EQ policies and procedures?
A a) If I were not complying with EQ policies, I would receive notification or a warning of some kind from…
Graves, Bonnie & Michael. "Scaffolding Reading Experiences to Promote Success: A Flexible Approach to Fostering Comprehension." University of Minnesota. http://education.umn.edu/carei/Reports/Rpractice/Winter95/comprehension.htm
Education Queensland. Queensland Government. http://education.qld.gov.au
Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9317873
Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html
Moser, .D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104
Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: eframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=19705742
Neil, J. (2005, January). John Dewey: Philosophy of education. Experimental learning. Wilderdom.com. etrieved January 17, 2011, from http://wilderdom.com/experiential/JohnDeweyPhilosophyEducation.html
Sternberg, J., & Zhang, L. (2005, Summer). Styles of thinking as a basis of differntiated instruction. Theory into practice, 44(3), 245-253. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. etrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&hid=111&sid=4dc68d17-580a=4983=af18=762283ca50ef%40sessionmgr114
Ackerman, D.B. (2003, March). Synthesize traditional and progressive education for today's students. Education digest. Vol. 68, Issue 7, 4-8. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=9317873
Cohen, L.M. & Gelbrich, J. (1999). Philosophical perspectives in education. Oregon State University, School of Education. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/ed416/PP2.html
Moser, R.D. (1951, July). The educational philopophy of William T. Harris. Peabody Journal of education. Vol. 29, No. 1, 14-33 Retrieved January 17, 2011, from http://www. Jstor, org/stable/1489104
Nehring, J.H. (2006, February 1). Progressive vs. traditional: Reframing an old debate. Education week. Vol. 25, Issue 21, 32-33. Retrieved January 17, 2011, from: http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?hid=12&sid=90682ec6-64e1-4958-adc2-32dc1555fcc4%40sessionmgr13&vid=4&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=19705742
Enforcing a balance is necessary by limiting the amount of purely online learning a student can embark upon over the course of his or her career. Enforcing rules about the method of access (for example, insisting that online courses have 'real time' meetings), setting guidelines about the types of technology used, and creating online courses that are only one part of a more comprehensive educational degree's requirements is essential.
Completing some course requirements through online class work may be acceptable, provided it is of a demanding quality, and uses Blackboards and chat rooms to mimic the interactive environment of the classroom. But a purely online degree has questionable value, even when conferred by a legitimate institution. Certain types of subjects, such as the life sciences, require an intensive laboratory component to be truly effective. And learning 'hands on' has value in most of the disciplines even beyond the sciences.
7 things you should know about cloud computing (2009). Educause Website.
Retrieved August 21, 2009 at http://www.educause.edu/Resources/7ThingsYouShouldKnowAboutCloud/176856
Assuring quality in distance learning: A preliminary review. (2009). Institute for Higher
Education. Retrieved August 21, 2009 at http://www.ihep.org/
Educational Vouchers: Multiple Issues and Contradictory esults
The Merriman-Webster online dictionary offers three definitions for "voucher": "...a documentary record of a business transaction; a written affidavit or authorization; a form or check indicating a credit against future purchases or expenditures." None of the three even approaches the emotionally charged version of the term "voucher" when it comes to the current debate swirling around public vs. private schools. This paper digs into the "vouchers" - or "scholarships," or "subsidies," if you prefer - provided to families in several cities and states, to move their children from less desirable, academically troubled public schools to more desirable, for-profit private, mainly religious schools.
Long before there was any discussion about vouchers, Horace Mann of Massachusetts - the "Father of American public school education" - was in the vanguard of the movement (1837) to solidify support for quality public education, excellence in teacher training, and…
ABC News (June 27, 2002). [Online] "Divided Court: Voucher Program Victory http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/scotus_vouchers020627.html .
American Federation of Teachers (2002). [Online] "Report Reveals Right-Wing Backers of BAEO" "Milwaukee Vouchers Cost Twice the Tuition Amount Charged Non-Voucher Students http://www.aft.org/research/vouchers/ .
Friedman Foundation (2002). [Online] "School Choice Works http://www.friedmanfoundation.org/schoolchoiceworks/schoolchoiceresearch.html.
Greene, Jay P. (2002). [Online] "Vouchers in Charlotte" Education Next Magazine http://www.educationnext.org/20012/46greene.html .
Educational Levels of Hospital Nurses and Surgical Patient Mortality
Whether there is sufficient nursing staff in a hospital has often been thought to have an effect on the well-being of the patients, the quality of care that they receive, and the rate at which they pass away. However, very little is actually known about whether the educational level of the nurses to work at these hospitals has anything to do with the mortality rate of these patients and quality of care that they receive. The basic purpose of this research was to indicate whether the educational level held by a hospital nurse had any reflection upon the mortality rates as surgical patients that they attended.
Specifically, the study examined whether baccalaureate degrees or higher had any reflection upon the ability of hospital offense to rescue and assist surgical patients who were facing serious complications. If these individuals died at the…
Formative assessment gives teachers the opportunity to provide students with feedback in time to improve learning. Fluckiger, Vigil, Pasco & Danielson (2010) describe several techniques to provide formative feedback to students more frequently and to involve them more fully in the process. Although their techniques were developed specifically to enhance the learning experiences of postsecondary students across a variety of disciplines, teachers of students at all levels can adapt the ideas to their classrooms. Their goals are to "give feedback in time for revisions to occur, provide scaffolding for learners, inform instruction, and most importantly, involve students as partners in assessment" (Fluckiger et al., p. 140). The researchers believe their techniques result in improved instruction, enhanced student learning and better student products. Helping to build a productive classroom climate in which the emphasis is on learning, not grades achieved. Instructors can improve assessments by incorporating both formative and summative assessments…
Study Island. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.studyisland.com/
Tasdemir, M. (2010). The effects of REAP reading comprehension technique on students'
success. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal 38 (4), 553-560.
Conservatives, on the other hand, have many passions and one of them is a color-blind government. Most of them believe that all policies of discrimination should be discarded. They view these policies as unwise, immoral and unconstitutional. Three conservative organizations submitted a collective brief to the Supreme Court on the Michigan cases. These organizations were the Center for Equal Opportunity, the Independent Women's Forum and the American Civil Rights Institute. Their brief succinctly stated that racial preferences were incompatible with the 14th Amendment. The 14th Amendment, according to them, clearly states that no person within its jurisdiction would be denied the equal protection of the laws. The silence of the justices to this statement was perceived to indicate insufficient interest in the original understanding than in their own case law. In 1865 and 1866, radical Republicans proposed a constitutional amendment that no State could set distinctions in civil rights and…
Katznelson, I. (2006). When is affirmative action fair? 19 pages. Social Research: New School for Social Research
National Review (1995). Courting trouble. 2 pages. National Review, Inc.: Gale Group
O'Sullivan, J. (2003). Affirmative action forever? 5 pages. National Review: National Review, Inc.
Paul, P. (2003). The legacy of affirmative action. 2 pages. Media Central, Inc.: PRIMEDIA Company
This might also have an energizing effect upon the teachers as well.
Part 4 -- egarding mathematics, what can be done in the learning community to address the school's need? The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, an international organization of teachers who are focused on improving the math curriculum globally, presented new standards in 2000 designed to improve curricula, teaching and assessment. Within their rubric, six principles were established to address themes that were valid regardless of the school culture:
Equity -- There must be high expectations and support for excellence in math education from all levels; teachers, administrators, school boards, and parents.
Curriculum -- More than a collection of problems or activities, a math curriculum should be focused, well-articulated, and flow from grade to grade.
Teaching -- Appropriate and effective math teaching requires not only an understanding of math principles but of what students need to understand, and…
Mastropieri, M. (1994). Text vs. Hands-On Math Curriculum. Remedial and Special Education, 15(2), 72-85.
McKee, J. a. (2005). Integrating Instruction - Literacy and Math. London: Guilford Press.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (2009). Overview: Principles for School
Mathematics. Retrieved from:
436-437). In other words, official commitment to multiculturalism is just a smoke screen for many Canadian officials who believe that the Euro-Canadian way of doing things is the norm.
The limits of multiculturalism in practice are also visible in the treatment of Canadian citizens and immigrants who have dark skin color. According to Kelly (1998), African Canadians are routinely "racialized" and "othered" (that is, they are put outside of the dominant group). The manner in which African Canadians are unable to become fully-fledged Canadians even if they are born in Canada was succinctly explained by Marlene Nourbese Philip, an African Canadian essayist: "Being born elsewhere, having been fashioned in a different culture, some of us may always feel 'othered,' but then there are those -- our children, nephews, nieces, grandchildren -- born here, who are as Canadian as snow and ice, and yet, merely because of their darker skins, are…
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010a) Chapter 10, Multiculturalism in Canada: "Living together with differences." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p283-308).
Fieras. A & Elliot. J (2010b) Chapter 11, "Institutional Inclusiveness: Putting Multiculturalism to work." In Unequal relations: An introduction to race, ethnic, and Aboriginal dynamics in Canada (6th ed) (p309-343; 362-374).
Kelly, J. (1998) Under the Gaze: Learning to be Black in White Society. Fernwood publishing, Blackpoint Nova Scotia.
Millar. J. (1996a) Chapter 13, "Our greatest need today is proper education": Winding down the system. In Shingwauk's vision: A history of Native residential schools (p377-405; 526-535) Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
chool districts across the country are experiencing shrinking budgets. One way to increase the funds available for education is to apply for educational grants. They can take many forms, including those requiring rigorous research designs as well as others that might provide funds for equipment or the money to implement promising but unproven programs.
Two organizations that provide educational grant money are the Beaumont Foundation of America and the Institute of Education ciences.
The Institute of Educational ervices (IE) requires an extensive application and applies rigorous scientific research principles when considering which applications to fund. Their specific focus is to increase the body of knowledge regarding best practices in education. Their goal is to fund research being done in the "practice community" -- that is, schools and school districts (IE, 2005). They have a preference for rigorously controlled studies that involve students from multiple schools who are randomly…
Beaumont Foundation of America (BFA). "2005 Education Grant Guidelines." Accessed via the Internet 8/15/05.
Institute of Education Sciences (IES). "Grant Application Submissions for 2005." Accessed via the Internet 8/15/05.
Future History Journal
Challenging middle school students to develop a greater sense of civic pride is one of the most foundational goals of the period in both education and in social and personal development. Middle school is an extremely personal, social, emotional period in the development of the individual. The personal events surrounding often-rapid changes in the physical body of the adolescent and in the social boundaries of their independent lives often dictate the ability or willingness of a student to concentrate on issues of a broader nature. For this reason civic responsibility and world or local events can sometimes occur without the awareness of some members of this age group. For this reason an activity which focuses on the impact of current events on the future is age appropriate and a journal format is very personal. Melding the personal and the global into a single project, lasting…
Educational assessment in the future seems to be moving towards teacher-oriented and performance-based assessments. Societal forces are driving this move, spurred by the increasing amounts of knowledge, and the demand for individuals capable of manipulating large amounts of information. As standardized tests slowly lose importance, the special needs environment will likely benefit from teacher-oriented assessments that allow instructors to focus curriculum on a child's individual needs and capabilities.
Stiggins (1991) argues that educational assessment in American schools is currently undergoing a rapid change that represents "the end of a six-decade assessment era and the beginning of a whole new era" (p. 263). The past 60 years have been dominated by assessments based upon standardized versions of objective tests. In this system, teachers "would teach.. And assessors would assess" (Stiggins, 264), thus clearly separating teaching and assessment.
This method of assessment began to come under fire, argues Stiggins, as society began…
Professional Development Support Program: Teacher Centers, Aminda Gentile, Director. Assessment: Glossary of Terms.
Stiggins, R.J. 1991. Facing the challenges of a new era of educational assessment. Applied Measurement in Education, 4(4), 263-273.
Taylor, R.L., Tindal, G., Fuchs, L., and Bryant, B.R. 1993. Assessment in the nineties: A possible glance into the future. Diagnostique, 18 (2), 113-122.
Della-Piana's 2008 article "Enduring issues in educational assessment" the "key recommendations" in the report Nation at Risk called for standardized tests to measure "minimum competency" "at major transition points" to "certify the student's credentials; identify the need for remedial intervention, and identify the opportunity for advanced or accelerated work" (Della-Piana 2008). However, even for this early report, construct validity -- namely the question if the tests that 'raised the alarm' regarding student underperformance were valid -- was an issue. Tests that measure outcomes alone may not fully test necessary learning skills, like the ability to reason mathematically. But open-ended questions can be highly subjective in terms of grading. These were some of the problems critics had with the tests used in the report Nation at Risk and continue to plague many NCLB tests in states all over the union.
For example, an essay written by a student can be eloquent,…
All three articles examine NCLB and its current implications -- even Della-Piana's article, which is a historical overview of the report A Nation at Risk, as it mobilized support for greater use of standardized assessment amongst liberals and conservatives alike. Holland's review of current literature and data regarding current use of NCLB stands in striking contrast to Della-Piana's more focused examination of validity issues in standardized testing that have existed since A Nation at Risk. Hughes' book review, through which she examines how non-standardized testing can elevate performance in a specific context, provides a refreshing anecdotal approach to the generalizations of the other authors. All three authors grapple with the degree to which the loss of individualized curriculums helps or harms overall student learning, as well as with questions of validity regarding test results.
Points of agreement and disagreement
While all authors agree that the nation's schools are failing some of our children, the question remains how to address and improve this. Is a stress-ridden environment where some teachers even feel pressured to 'cheat' to save their jobs and schools really the answer, especially given questions of the validity and even the competent construction of such texts, as discussed in Holland and Piana? Hughes alone takes the brave stance that standardized assessment may not be useful or wise: "in an effort to leave no child behind, the United States is leaving many children behind," she writes (Hughes 2009). "Society must look beyond test scores and consider the impact of
Today, that teacher might be warned to stick to what will be on the test.
f. How will these changes impact you personally?
These two factors -- the ever-increasing presence of technology and the increased dominance of standardized testing on curriculum -- will affect my teaching in important ways. I expect to feel I will be pulled in two directions. As a teacher I can't imagine just ignoring the fact of an eclipse if it would be appropriate developmentally for my students -- and flashlight experiments could be done with kindergartners. ut at the same time, whether we like it or not, standardize testing has been given increased emphasis.
In some school districts they have begun holding Saturday "cram sessions" to help students score higher on achievement tests (Ducharme & Ducharme, 1999). These districts are paying teachers to conduct these sessions, and parents are sending their children to them. That…
Ducharme, Edward R., and Ducharme, Mary K. 1999. "Reflections on some Current Situations." Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 50.
Lindquist, Joni. 2004. "The Future of Anytime, Anywhere Education." THE Journal, Vol. 32.
Moses, Lisa. 2001. "Rethinking Standardized High-Stakes Testing." Childhood Education, Vol. 78.
Posner, Dave. 2002. "Education for the 21st Century. Phi Delta Cappan, Vol. 84.
The result was that even in an online scaffolding environment, the students were still able to gain knowledge through problem-solving with group members (Doering and Veletsianos, 2007).
Scaffolding software is fairly new, but is becoming increasingly popular in the classroom setting. Artemis is a scaffolding software program which gives students access to a digital library to search and sort science information related to project-based investigations. Students are able to not only organize folders containing information on the information they are seeking, but they are also able to share this information with other classmates. This web sharing feature not only supports collaboration between students, but teachers are also able to collaborate. Studies have shown that there is a direct relationship between scaffolding software and student motivation as well as conceptual understanding (Butler and Lumpe, 2008).
Based on the research on scaffolding, it is determined that it is evidence-based learning. This type…
Butler, K.A. And Lumpe, a. (2008). Student use of scaffolding software: Relationships with motivation and conceptual understanding. Journal of Science and Educational
Technology, 17(5), 427-436.
Clark, R.C. And Mayer, R.E. (2008). Learning by viewing vs. learning by doing: Evidence-based guidelines for principled learning environments. Performance Improvement, 47(9), 5-13.
Doering, a. And Veletsianos, G. (2007). Multi-scaffolding environment: An analysis of scaffolding and its impact on cognitive load and problem-solving ability. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 37(2), 107-129.
Stated to be research questions that should guide the empirical study design are those as follows:
(1) How have quantitative and qualitative elements been related? What type of combined designs have been sued? What is the level of integration between qualitative and quantitative aspects of studies?
(2) Why have the authors chosen to prefer multimethod or mixed design to monomethod approach? Do they offer a rationale for their choice? What is the purpose of the combination of different approaches?;
(3) What are the complications that the use of different combined designs brings about?; and (4) How do design characteristics influence the inferences and conclusion the authors draw? (Niglas, 2004)
ryman (2006) reports that research study conducted for the justification of combination of quantitative and qualitative research finds the following five justifications in the combination of research of both qualitative and quantitative types:
(1) Triangulation -- convergence, corroboration, correspondence…
Bryman, Alan (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How Is It Done? Qualitative Research 2006. SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol. 6(1). Online available at: http://www.socsci.uci.edu/ssarc/pcs/webdocs/W-Readings/IntegratingQualandQuant.pdf
Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Weisner, Thomas S.; Kalil, Ariel and Way, Niobe (2008) Mixing Qualitative and Quanitative Research in Development Science: Uses and Methodological Choices. Developmental Psychology 2008. Vol. 44 No. 3. Online available at: http://prod.baruch.cuny.edu/facultyhandbook/documents/YoshikawaWeisnerKalilWay2008DP.pdf
Niglas, Katrin (2004) The Combined Use of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Educational Research. Tallinn Pedagogical University. Online available at: http://www.tlulib.ee/files/arts/95/nigla32417030233e06e8e5d471ec0aaa32e9.pdf
Weinreich, Nedra Kline (2006) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Methods in Social Marketing Research. Weinreich Communications 2006. Online available at: http://www.social-marketing.com/research.html
Counseling Master Questionnaire
A counseling session with an individual may qualify research as, putting together of information and understandings, followed by determination of validity of the conclusions and activities central on the shared knowledge (McLeod, 2003 p.4). A working definition of research is; an organized course of decisive investigation resulting to legitimate suggestions and conclusions, which are conveyed to other interested people. Based on this definition, there are several concepts that need evaluation. Critical inquiry is the drive whereby human beings are curious to know, learn and offer solutions to problems. As a process, research includes steps or stages, which further relies on observation, reflection and experimentation.
In the case of systematic, this means that research takes place within a theoretical system, and research includes application of principles aiming at achieving valid information. esults of research are propositions meaning that, after a research, there is a…
McLeod. J. (2003). Doing counseling research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crotty, M. (2005). The foundations of social research: Meaning and perspectives in the research process. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Houser. R. (2009). Counseling and educational research: Evaluation and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
acial and demographic factors influence one's point-of-view and 2. Feminism is a significant social construct. A study of the effects of a drug upon depression begins with the presumption that depression is a mental illness in need of treating. There is no purely objective research.
Q3. Lastly, do you think there is one research method or approach that lends itself to being more objective? Why or why not?
While complete objectivity may be impossible, certain forms of research are more blatantly subjective. Qualitative research does not have the rigor of the scientific method in the sense that it lacks a control group and often a method of gathering data that can be statistically analyzed. It is based upon interviews, observations, and the subjective perceptions of the researcher. In some forms of qualitative research, the researcher is actually an active participant in the activities, not simply an observer. This often changes…
Lodico, M. (et al. 2010). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice. Jossey-Bass.
theory-building, applied research is conducted to solve a problem. Action research is conducted to solve an immediate problem experienced by a practitioner; the problems that are addressed through action research exist in the context or environment in which they conduct their professional work. A construct is an abstraction -- an idea that exists in the mind; if an abstraction is based on something concrete or tangible, it is a concept, but if it is based on something hypothetical or inferential, then the abstraction is a construct. The most important difference between qualitative research and quantitative research is that quantitative research is deductive in relation to the hypothesis, which is determined before the research has actually begun. Quantitative research uses a deductive approach that moves from the general case to the specific. In this manner, the deductive approach considers the potential cause of some phenomenon and explores whether its effect can…
Lodico, M., Spaulding, D., & Voegtle, K. (2010). Methods in educational research: From theory to practice (2nd ed.) San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
contacting 6 middle schools in Winchester, VA, where English grammar is taught to 6th graders. Three schools will be identified that teach sentence diagramming to students as part of the teaching methods. Three schools will be identified that do not teach sentence diagramming. Students from the 6th grade classes of these 2 sets of three schools will be selected for the study by delivering participation consent forms to the teachers of the classes. The students who complete the consent forms and have parents' signatures will be included in the study. A sample size of 100 students total will be the target. If fewer than 100 students are obtained for the study, it will proceed regardless but the limitation will be noted in the analysis and discussion portion of the study and how its impact on the hypothesis will be addressed (Elwell, 2013).
How Study is Performed
Support from teachers at…
Elwell. (2013). Cheat Sheet Topic: Hypotheses.
Mills, G. E., & Gay, L. R. & Airasian. (2012). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications. Boston, MA: Pearson Publishing.
Ethics comprises of an intricate set of principles, morals and institutional outlines that standardize scientific activity. Educational and social researchers face complex challenges occasionally, when they encounter the conflict of their legal and moral responsibility towards protection of their participants on one hand, and maintaining the standards, criteria of quality and significance of research on the other hand. Although, the research design or findings does not always restrained or deteriorated by ethical principles. At times, ethics are supportive in enhancing the quality of research, while some other times it's not. Additionally, researchers "bear a special responsibility for protecting the interests of vulnerable groups throughout the research process" (Tangen, 2014, p. 678).
At all times, educational practitioners have realized the weighed down value of education and that the quality of education rests on ethical standards. The consciousness of educational researchers regarding the ethical dimensions of their research is increasing day by…
Abed, M. G. (2014-2015). A Consideration to Two Main Ethical Issues in Educational Research, And How May These Be Addressed. i-manager's Journal on Educational Psychology, 8(3),1-14.
Comer, S. K. (2009). The Ethics of Conducting Educational Research on Your Own Students. Journal of Nursing Law, 13(4), 100-105. doi: 10.1891/1073-74126.96.36.199
Dooly, D. L. (2013). Academic Achievement in Arkansas High Schools Based on the Implementation Level of a Teacher Advisory Program. Retrieved 1 July 2016 from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.trident.edu:2048/docview/305027410?pq-origsite=summon
ESRC. (2015). ESRC Framework for Research Ethics. Retrieved 1 July 2016 from http://www.esrc.ac.uk/files/funding/guidance-for-applicants/esrc-framework-for-research-ethics-2015/
educational theories in the light of political context. Hence the paper provides a springboard for insight into some essential interconnections between educational approaches and movements, motivational goals of the researchers and the varied opinions of the educationists and experts, through presenting alternative arguments. The orks Cited three sources in MLA format.
The Political Context of Educational Theory: Alternative Arguments
here all believe in the significance of education for the development of personality and for the welfare of the nation, many support the various important and blatant theories and educational movements. However, there is still a decent number that presents alternative arguments in their effort to prove that educational research (and related public funding) world-over is being used not only as a tool to inculcate sense of discipline and responsibility but also to gain political ends.
Following passages of the research paper will present arguments from various educationists and researchers thereby…
Stone J.E. Comment on "An Open Letter to Reid Lyon." Volume 30, October 2001. Pages: 31-32. Available at http://aera.net/pubs/er/index.html (October 20, 2002)
Strauss S.L. "Methodology, Medical Metaphors and Mental Health: A Reply to J.E.
Stone." Volume 30, October 2001. Pages: 32-33. Available at
To ensure that the constructivist approach functions optimally, teachers must therefore ensure that the interactional and social situation within each group is managed effectively as well.
Young (2003) notes that another challenge facing teachers and students is the implementation of technology in the constructivist classroom. The specific challenge here is that, more often than not, computer technology has been subject to the traditionally constructed classroom, where knowledge about and by means of computer technology has been divulged under the assumption of static, learned skills. Young (2003) suggests some important and dynamic changes to implement technology in the classroom.
First, the assumption must be cultivated that computers and knowledge about and by means of computers, just like all other forms of knowledge, are continually in flux. Indeed, this is even more so for information technology than other academic fields. To teach students as if this is not the case is particularly…
Derry, S.J. (1996). Cognitive Schema Theory in the Constructivist Debate. Educational Psychologist, Vol. 31, No. 3/4.
Dubinsky, E. And McDonald, M.A. (2010). APOS: A Constructivist Theory of Learning in Undergraduate Mathematics Education Research. Retrieved from: http://www.math.kent.edu/~edd/ICMIPaper.pdf
Hardy, I., Jonen, a., Moller, K. And Stern, E. (2006). Effects of Instructional Support Within Constructivist Learning Environments for Elementary School Students' Understanding of "Floating and Sinking." Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 98, No. 2
Harris, K.R. And Alexander, P.A. (1998). Integrated, Constructivist Education: Challenge and Reality. Educational Psychology Review, Vol. 10, No. 2.
represented by different methodologies, describing the purpose of every methodology and providing an example of a research problem for every methodology. The ideas that will be discussed in this paper include exemplifying what encompasses a research problem and also making comparisons and contrasts between qualitative research and quantitative research with respect to their strengths and weaknesses.
To enable the researcher manipulate one variable while measuring other variables and therefore making it possible to examine cause and effect of research problems
To measure the relationship or correlation that exists between two variables
To question and interrogate a massive group of people regarding their philosophies and standpoints on a certain phenomenon
To develop a theory or theoretical model where none exists in the literature in relation to the sample
To describe and interpret…
Bryman, A. (2007). The Research Question in Social Research: What is its Role?" International Journal of Social Research Methodology 10: 5-20.
Choy, L. T. (2014). The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 19(4), 99-104.
Creswell, J. W. (2013). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.
Johnson, B., & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Sage.
The Keller/PSI approach to academic and professional training has been documented to improve student performance as measured by course completion rates and subject matter retention among students. On the other hand, there are considerable practical and technical problems implementing the Keller/PSI approach within traditional educational institutions. Meanwhile, there is little if any empirical evidence suggesting precisely how the Keller/PSI model benefits learning outside of the focus on the reduced deadline orientation that is the hallmark of that teaching methodology.
Substantial evidence exists to suggest that the success of the Keller/PSI approach is actually attributable to other changes typically attributable to Keller/PSI, such as the broadening of the range of media of instruction, despite the fact that those changes are natural consequences of the Keller/PSI design rather than deliberately conceived components of the approach. The empirical evidence of the increased success of CAPSI programs further bolsters that argument.
Abdulwahed, M. And Nagy, Z.K. "Applying Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle for Laboratory Education." Journal of Engineering Education. American Society for Engineering Education. 2009. Retrieved January 19, 2010 from HighBeam
Burton, J.K., Moore, D.M., and Magliaro, S.G. (2004). Behaviorism and instructional technology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ.
Dunne, J.D. (1997). Behavior Analysis: No Defense Required. Wright University.
The empirical design and its results, not age, should determine the validity and relevance of a given educational theory. Too often, educational policy makers and the professional support system skip from level one research (theory and conjecture based on correlations) to policy. A shared knowledge base might be created from theory alone and as Grossen (nd) points out, it often is. "Most of the educational practices that become widely disseminated in our university teacher-training programs and across the nation do not even have level two research support, nevermind level three," (Grossen nd).
Greater gatekeeping is necessary to restore the integrity of the educational policy system and the professional networks that support it. Current gatekeepers do not draw their policies from science but from opinion. Almost all of the most popular educational theories touted today have little to no empirical support. Grossen lists a litany of common teaching methods and theories…
Grossen, B. (nd). What does it mean to be a research-based profession? Retrieved July 10, 2007 at http://darkwing.uoregon.edu/~bgrossen/pubs/resprf.htm
Education Research Planning
hat are the critical aspects?
According to the United States Government's "National Directions in Education Research Planning," educational research planning must emphasize focus and selectivity in curriculum design and "concentrate on those areas that the public and profession believe are important as well as those that will become important," to render education practical for student's future lives outside of the classroom. Student learning is the touchstone issue and there must be "a particular but by no means exclusive emphasis on the challenges presented by ever-growing diversity and inequality." (Timpane, 1998)
Additionally, the selection of specific areas of inquiry for teachers, through the use of objective research, must be clear enough to "build strategies consisting of related projects executed over time." The candidates for the "short list of research priorities seemed rather obvious: continued focus on reading and language learning; expanded attention to mathematics; the dynamics of teacher…
Chaskin, Robert. (2005) "Democracy And Bureaucracy in a Community Planning Process." Journal of Planning Education and Research. 24: 408-419.
Timpane, Michael. (November 1998) "National Directions in Education Research Planning." U.S. Government Publications. Retrieved 31 May 2005 at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/nationaldirections/implicat.html
The ethics of research conducted on human subjects has been debated for almost a century. Studies like the Tuskegee syphilis experiment and other gross violations of ethical principles have called attention to the importance of rigorous standards in the social sciences. Education is not always considered a social science, and yet it is—and one with some of the most significant implications for humanity. As Lopez-Alvarado (2017) points out, education is about empowering individuals and enriching society, not just about teaching specific tasks and processes. Educational research therefore has many meaningful effects and should be taken just as seriously as research in any other applied science. While it is understandable researchers become frustrated with bureaucracy, red tape, and daunting regulations that restrict their freedom in research, those rules are in place for good reason. Educational research can be scrutinized in the most streamlined way possible, while still protecting the most fundamental…
It also requires conscious effort at objective because of the inherent of the method applied. Sampling plans narrows its frame to that particular sample, this to shows the group of people who are participating in the study. It samples can be selected through probability and non-probability (Mack & Woodsong, 2005).
In most cases research design is used in the education sector and it takes different meaning depending with how it's applied. it's normally used interchangeable with the term research method. However, according to Berliner (2002) research design should reflect the whole process of research, starting from the conceptualizing main problem to the question of the research, methods and the conclusion. Identifying a study's research design is important because it communicates information about key features of the study, which can differ for qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods. However, one common feature across research designs is that at one or…
Berliner, D. (2002). Educational research: The hardest science of all. Educational Researcher, 31(8), 18 -- 20.
Harwell M, (2000). Research Design in Qualitative/Quantitative/MixedMethods
Morgan B, (2008). PTC 604 - Communication Theory and Research
Fritz K, (2008). Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research MPH Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of International Health
esearch activities, whether clinical trial based, experimentally designed, or product oriented, must exhibit and command interest, enthusiasm, and passionate commitment. To this end the researcher must catch the essential quality of the excitement of discovery that comes from research well done. The first step in the attainment of the desired research goal is to develop a scientific approach toward that which is being investigated. A requirement within the scientific approach best-fit format that is oftentimes misunderstood, and consequently wrongly applied, is that of sampling.
In a rather philosophical approach to sampling Ohlson (1998) states that sampling is " ... But part of the whole. Check to make sure I fairly represent my larger connection " (p. 27). With these words Ohlson is informing the research enthusiast that sampling alone can skew testing results, infuse uncontrollable error into statistical processes, and violate the empirical premise under which the research investigation…
Ferguson, Geroge A. 1966. Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education. New York:
McGraw-Hill Book Company
Ohlson, E.L 1998. Best-Fit Statistical Procedures, ACTS Testing Labs. Chicago Thompson, David M., Kozak, Sharon E. And Sheps, Sam (1999). Insulin adjustment by a diabetes nurse educator improves glucose control in insulin-requiring diabetic patients: A randomized trial. CMAJ, 161(8):959-62
Van Dalen, Debold B. (1966). Understanding educational research. New York: McGraw-Hill