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It is estimated that over one million children in the United States are victims of parental divorce each year, and half of all children born in wedlock this year will see their parents divorce before they reach their eighteenth birthday (Rector pp). Robert Rector points out that divorce generally reduces the income of the child's primary household, and for families that were not poor before the divorce, the drop in income can be as much as 50% (Rector pp). According to reported 1994 data by Mary Corcoran, professor of political science at the University of Michigan, "During the years children lived with two parents, their family incomes averaged $43,600, and when these same children lived with one parent, their family incomes averaged $25,300" (Rector pp).
Angela DeCuzzi reported in the December 01, 2004 issue of College Student Journal, the findings of a study designed to assess the effect of…
Allison, Sheila. "Effects of divorce not insurmountable." Youth Studies Australia.
December 01, 2004. Retrieved October 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
Aro, Hillevi. "Effect of timing of parental divorce on the vulnerability of children to depression in young adulthood." Adolescence. September 22, 1994. Retrieved October 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
DeCuzzi, Angela. "The effect of parental divorce on relationships with parents and romantic partners of college students." College Student Journal. December 01, 2004. Retrieved October 30, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site.
As a result, the child's threshold for withstanding teen relationship challenges is reduced in future.
These personality traits are especially developed during adolescence because this is the period to which the boy would be defining ideologies behind relationships. It is also during this time that the boy's mental faculties would best comprehend attributes that define the relationship between a man and a woman. When the child is in the age group of 10-12/13, the impact might not be so domineering on the child's development as compared to later stages (14-18) in the life of the child (Livaditis, 2002).
Children brought up by narcissistic mothers are more likely to have a low self-esteem than those brought up by caring mothers. Narcissistic mothers make their children feel bad about themselves, thereby making the boy less confident, especially in his young adult life (between the ages of 13-18) (Chen, 2005). It is…
Chen, J. (2005). Cultivating Resilience in Children from Divorced Families. The Family
Journal, 13(4), 452-455.
Fine, M.A. (2003). Divorce, Childhood. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum
Data will be collected using a survey instrument. The instrument will be designed by researchers for the purposes of this particular study and will feature two sections. The first section will ask for some brief familial and biographical information. First and foremost, the survey will ask the life and marital status of the respondents' parents, accounting for single mothers, single fathers, legal non-biological guardians, divorced parents, remarried parents and married parents. This section will also ask for information regarding siblings and other particulars of the family living situation. Surveys will not ask for names or other individual identifiers, insuring anonymity and privacy for all respondents.
In the second section of the survey, aata will be collected using a Fixed Alternatives Likert Scale survey. Here, 20 statements will be presented to the respondent. The respondent will be asked to circle one of five numbered responses:
-2. Strongly Disagree
One such area is how divorce affects the children of divorce once they are married and have children of their own. Do they have difficulty committing? Are they more likely to delay marriage? Answers to these types of questions may prove beneficial to examining further the long-term effects of divorce on children.
esources in Palm Spring California include family and individual counseling services throughout the city. Some of these resources include The Counseling Center located at 1111 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way in Palm Springs, CA 92262. The phone number for the counseling center is (760) [HIDDEN] In addition, there is the Smoketree Counseling Services located at 2825 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way in Palm Springs, CA 92262. The phone number for smoketree is (760) [HIDDEN] Additionally there are other counselors in the area specializing in therapy as it relates to divorce. One such therapist is Nancy Ackerman. She has more…
Jeynes, W.H. (2001). The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children's Consumption of Alcohol. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(3), 305. Retrieved February 23, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Lengua, L.J.,Wolchik S.A., Sandler I.N., West S.G.(2000) The Additive and Interactive effects of Parenting and Temperament in Predicting Adjustment Problems in Children of Divorce. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 29 (2), p.232.
Love, K.M. And Murdock T. (2004) Attachment to Parents and Psychological well being: An Examination of young Adult College Student in intact Families and Step Families Journal of Family Psychology. 18 (4)
Nielsen, L. (1999). College Aged Students with Divorced Parents: Facts and Fiction. College Student Journal, 33(4), 543.
Among the factors which this article elucidates are necessary to be considered, Hetherington et al. indicate that "the long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se." (Hetherington et al., 303)
From a clinical treatment perspective, the article by Konstam (2009) is particularly useful. This presents the view that for those verging on adulthood who experience the divorce of parents, there is a more sophisticated and thus more complex sense of loss which is difficult to interpret. This is experienced differently than the dissolution of a marriage for young children who may lack the wherewithal to have observed clear warning signs. Here, Konstam suggests that clinical assistance can be a valuable resource for contending with issues…
Amato, P. (2000). The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 11-26.
Amato, P. & Cheadle, J.(2008). Parental divorce, marital conflict and children's behavior problems: A comparison of adopted and biological children. Social Forces, 83
Baker, a. (2005). The Long-term effects of parental alienation on adult children:
A good number of studies over the years have linked deviant behaviors such as juvenile delinquency and anti-social behavior to children living in broken homes (Bandura & Walters in Demo & Acock, 1988, p.636). Dornbusch et al.'s (in ibid.) nationwide study among 12-17 male and female children of divorced families found that adolescents living in household with only their mothers performing the sole parent role are more likely to engage in deviant acts while the presence of an additional adult lessens the likelihood of committing deviant acts.
Long have we known about the negative effects of divorce, I believe it is high time to look at the under-acknowledged domain of the divorce literature, i.e. The positive effects of divorce. According to Hetherington & Kelly in Lyons (2002, p.1), three-fourths of the children from divorced families have actually grown to be resilient and lead lives with healthy…
Cooney, T.M. et al. (1995). Surviving the Break-Up? Predictors of Parent-Adult Child Relations After Parental Divorce. Family Relations, 44, 153-161.
Demo, DH & Acock, a.C. (1988). The Impact of Divorce on Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 619-648.
Henning, J.S. & Oldham, J.T. (1977). Children of Divorce: Legal and Psychological Crises. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 55-58.
Lyons, L. (2002). Gallup Tuesday Briefing. Kids and Divorce 1, 1-3.
Few people would say that divorce helps children except in cases of abuse. Divorce can create tremendous confusion in children of any age. One of the keys to preventing psychological, behavioral, or social problems is honesty. A non-profit group called Health Guide offers advice for parents going through a divorce. The organization recommends honesty and communication as keys to helping children cope and preventing mental or behavioral health problems. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry also recommends age-appropriate honesty and openness. The Health Guide also points out that many children "go through their parents' divorce with relatively few problems or permanent negative effects." Those children who experience acute stress require special care and attention.
Depression, anxiety, social withdrawal, and a lack of interest in those things that used to give the child pleasure are some of the psychological symptoms of childhood stress. A divorce could add to existing…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. "Children and Divorce." May 2008. Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_divorce
Cherlin, Andrew J. "Generation Ex." The Nation. Nov 27, 2000. Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20001211/cherlin
Gallagher, Maggie. "The Divorce Thing." National Review Online. Aug 13, 2003. Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/comment-gallagher081303.asp
Help Guide.org. "Coping with Divorce." Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.helpguide.org/mental/children_divorce.htm
(Coleman et al., 2006) there are more significant differences between race and ethnic groups in beliefs about intergenerational assistance than are expected by chance the differences are not large. As expected, White European-Americans perceive that less help should be given to older adults than is true of African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Unexpectedly, European-Americans and Latinos rarely differ in their beliefs about intergenerational assistance. When differences exist among the three minority groups, it is typically because African-Americans and Asian-Americans perceive that more help should be given to older family members than Latinos. The family plays a unique role in forming and sustaining intimate relationships; however, there have been notable changes in the family in the past 50 years. As marriages are being delayed, birth rates are decreasing, and maternal employment, divorce, cohabitation, and births to single mothers are increasing, the course of intimate relationships is becoming more diverse and less stable and…
Bean, R.A., Crane, D.R., & Lewis, T.L. (2002). Basic research and implications for practice in family science: A content analysis and status report for U.S. ethnic groups. Family Relations, 51, 15-21.
Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001). First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage: United Stales (Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics No. 323). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Chadiha, L.A., Veroff, J., & Leber, D. (1998). Newlywed's narrative themes: Meaning in the first year of marriage for African-American and White couples. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29, 115-130.
Coleman, M., Ganong, L.H., & Rothrauff, T.C. (2006, December). Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults After Divorce and Remarriage. Family Relations, 55(5), pp. 576-587.
Ananat & Michaels (2008) concur with the emphasis on income being the deciding factor upon the divorced child's success. They found that divorce significantly "increases women's odds of having very high or very low income. In other words, while some women successfully compensate for lost spousal earnings through child support, welfare, combining households, and increasing labor supply, others are markedly unsuccessful. e conclude that by raising both poverty and inequality, divorce has important welfare consequences" (Ananat & Michaels 2008). Some women use divorce as a vehicle of self-empowerment, for other women who are unable to compensate, poverty becomes more severe in a single-income household. Another interesting finding of Ananat & Michael's research is that "having a female first-born child significantly increases the probability that a woman's first marriage breaks up," and this may account for the lower incomes of children with divorce, if women still tend to earn less than…
Ananat, E., & G. Michaels. (2008). The effect of marital breakup on the income distribution of women with children. The Journal of Human Resources, 43(3), 611. Retrieved August
9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1521034461).
Steele, F., W. Sigle-Rushton, & Y. Kravdal. (2009). Consequences of family disruption on children's educational outcomes in Norway. Demography, 46(3), 553-574. Retrieved
August 9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1799973811).
Divorce is one of the bitter truths of life and is taking place in innumerable families worldwide. It can prove to be an upsetting experience for the parents. However, both the parties should think of their children before taking any decision as divorce affects the lives of the children in a real bad way.
These days, it is totally impossible for people to ignore the substantial and extensive consequences of divorce. The social scientists believe that the ever increasing rate of parents separating or ending their marriages is not only bad for the society but is also an upsetting and destructive experience for the children. The divorce not only has the tendency to devastate a whole household or family life but it also affects the education acquirement process, job reliability, income likely, physical health, and emotional well-being of the family members. Children of divorced parents involve themselves in alcohol and…
Fagan, P.F., and Robert R. "The Effects of Divorce on America." World and I Oct. Questia. Web. 31 May 2012. .
Kelly, J.B., and R.E. Emery . "Children's Adjustment Following Divorce: Risk and Resilience Perspectives." Family Relations. (2003): 352-362. Print.
Koplewicz, H.S., and A. Gurian. "Divorce and Children." Child Study Center. September/October 2001: n. page. Web. 31 May. 2012. .
McCoy, J. "Divorce Matters." Family Life. 3. (1996): n. page. Web. 31 May. 2012. .
5). While divorce can lead to safety for children and adults caught in violent and abusive relationships, it can also lead to increased violence down the line. Studies indicate that children who grow up in abusive situations often tend to become abusive themselves as adults, and this means that abuse and violence could continue to grow in our culture as these children grow up and continue the ongoing cycle of abuse and violence.
Another bedrock of American culture is religion, and divorce goes against many religious teachings. The freedom to worship any religion we please is a foundation of the country and our culture, and religious worship tends to go down in divorced families. Fagan and ector continue, "eligious worship, which has been linked to health and happiness as well as longer marriages and better family life, is less prevalent in divorced families" (Fagan, and ector). This means that…
Butler, Ian, et al. Divorcing Children: Children's Experience of Their Parents' Divorce. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2003.
Cozort, Larry a. "Is the Tax Court Becoming a Divorce Court? The Answer Could Change How the Innocent Spouse Rules Are Interpreted." Journal of Accountancy 195.2 (2003): 35+.
Doherty, William J., et al. "Why Marriage Matters: Twenty-One Conclusions from the Social Sciences." New York: Institute for American Values, 2002.
Editors. "Divorce Statistics." Divorce Magazine. 2005. 5 Nov. 2008. http://www.divorcemag.com/statistics/statsUS.shtml
Divorce as an experience is never easy for anyone, not the adults and especially not the children, on which the effects of divorce can take a serious toll. However, there are some factors that play a significant role in determining the impact of that experience for the child. Age, the way the entire procedure of divorce is handled, how mature parents have behaved throughout it, how the environment of the home remained pre and post divorce all are instrumental in effecting the psychological well-being of the child, whose mind is still young enough to develop imprints that can last a lifetime (University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension, n.d).
The effects of the breaking up of a family can be very consequential for the growing up child, and can even result in effects like having sex before the age of 16, getting pregnant at a young age like 20, including the…
Alastair McPhee, F.C. (2009). Disruptive Behaviour within the classroom: an ecosystemic view of pupil behaviour. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from University of Glasgow: https://dspace.gla.ac.uk/bitstream/1905/805/3/McPhee_Craig.pdf
Ceridian Corporation. (n.d). Helping Children deal with Change. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from Georgia 4-H: http://georgia4h.org/omk/edresources/KidsAndChange.pdf
Pow, H. (2011, May 8th). Divorce's toll borne by Children. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from The Sunday Telegraph: http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/divorces-toll-borne-by-children/story-fn6e0s1g-1226051650069
University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension. (n.d). The Effects of Divorce on Children. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from UNH: http://extension.unh.edu/Family/Documents/divorce.pdf
divorce, which by definition is the final termination of matrimonial union flanked by two parties and the legal process has to be followed, The research aims at bringing out the causes and the impact or effects of divorce by so doing the paper will highlight some causes and effects about the topic and then arguments supporting the ideas will be spell based on supporting references.
Divorce is the final termination of matrimonial union flanked by two parties, many at times the approval of court of law and in some cases other legal authorities are needed to authenticate this process. This process features many issues like spousal support, where children are involved we have child support and custody and finally we have distribution of property.
Subsequently to the refinement, marriage came to be well thought-out as a common bond that is among the non-Catholic expanses based on this ground civil authorities…
Blackstone (1984), "Commentaries on the Laws of England" p. 435 (Legal Classics Library spec. ed.
Pamela J. Smock, (1993) "The Economic Costs of Marital Disruption for Young Women over the Past Two Decades." Demography 30: 353-371.
Robert Coombs (1991), "Marital Status and Personal Well-Being" A Literature Review," Family Relations 40:97-102; I.M. Joung, et al.
Rowd, Alisha (2011), "Common Causes of Divorce." 3 Jan. 2008 EzineArticles.com. 8 Feb.
They can go one of two ways, if they have social and emotional problems brought on by the divorce. They can spend their teenage years being wild and out-of-control, or they can spend them as a virtual recluse, rarely leaving their rooms except to go to mandatory functions such as school. Neither one of these options is very good, and both can lead to more problems later on in life.
When children become wild and hard to control, parents are often at a loss as to how to help them. It is difficult enough to control a wild, unruly teenager when there are two parents in the house, but much more difficult when there is only one parent. To compound the problem, that single parent often works two jobs or long hours to provide food, clothing, and shelter for himself or herself and the children. This absence from the house…
Ahrons, C.R. & Tanner, J.L. (2003) Adult children and their fathers: Relationship changes 20 years after parental divorce. Family Relations, 52: 340-351.
Amato, P. & DeBoer, D. (2001). The transmission of marital stability across generations: Relationship skills or commitment to marriage? Journal of Marriage and Family, 63: 1038-1051.
Biblarz, T.J., & Gottainer, G. (2000) Family Structure and Children's Success: A Comparison of Widowed and Divorced Single-Mother Families. Journal of Marriage and Family. 62: 533-548.
Hetherington, E.M. (2003) Intimate pathways: changing patterns in close personal relationships across time. Family Relations, 52: 318-331.
Of course, the amount of transitions (the amount of divorce in the family) greatly increases the risk for children to settle in satisfying marriages and divorce themselves when young adults.
Protective factors reducing impact of divorce on children
The research question here is whether there are any factors that may be considered that are empirically proved to be able to mitigate the effect of divorce in children.
Within the last decade, researchers have identified various such factors each having a range of associated variables themselves.
1. Competent custodial parents and parenting: One of the best protective factors is the quality of parenting following divorce and the psychological adjustment of the custodial parents. Effective parental behavior such as warmth, nurturing, emotional support, authoritative discipline, and age appropriate behavior demonstrate the best means for providing emotional support for children as compared to parents who are withdrawn, inattentive and provide coercive discipline (Sandler…
Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
Bausermann, R. (2002). Child adjustment in joint-custody vs. sole-custody arrangements: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 91 -- 102.
Kelly, J. (2007). Children's Living Arrangements Following Separation and Divorce: Insights From Empirical and Clinical Research. Fam Proc 46,35 -- 52.
Lansford, J.E. (2009). Parental divorce and children's adjustment Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4 140-152
More of them end up in mental health clinics and hospital settings. There is earlier sexual activity, more children born out of wedlock, less marriage, and more divorce. Numerous studies show that adult children of divorce have more psychological problems than those raised in intact marriages." (Kupelian, 2005) it is reported in the work entitled: "Reflections on Distressed Couples Contemplating Divorce One Study of the Structured Separation Process" that the high divorce rate has caused family therapists to search for ways for families to make necessary transitions during divorce in what is termed a structural marriage separation. While this cannot assure happiness for couples or their children this method is clearly preferable to the chaos that often ensues when a couple separates. (Mize, Nelson, Sutter, and Mize, 2005)
Summary & Analysis
The factual evidence provided in this case which is under analysis was provided in a brief sketch only which…
Kupelian, D. (2005) How America Can End Its Divorce Epidemic. World Net Daily 7 April 2005. http://www.stolenvows.com/epidemic.htm
Waite, L.J.; Browning, D.; Doherty, W.J.; Gallagher, M.; Luo, Ye; and Stanley, S.(2002) Does Divorce Make People Happy? Findings from a Study of Unhappy Marriages. Institute for American Values. 2002, New York, NY http://www.americanvalues.org/UnhappyMarriages.pd
Mize, L.K.; Nelson, K.; Sutter, E.; and Mize, M.J. (2005) Reflections on Distressed Couples Contemplating Divorce One Study of the Structured Separation Process.
Wallerstein, Judith S.; and Lewis, Julia M. (2004) the Unexpected Legacy of Divorce: Report of a 25-Year Study. Psychoanalytic Psychology 21:353-370. 2004.
This article is of extreme importance in this research study. It adds to the other articles mentioned by discussing the importance of protective factors in detail and urging caution when espousing a correlative relationship between cause and effect in divorce and the reaction of children.
eon, K. (2003). Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental
Divorce: A Review of the Research. Family Relations, 52(3), pp.258-270.
In this article, eon (2003) attempts to address a gap in the research of divorce's affects on children by examining divorce's affects on small children. Citing Amato (2001), eon points out that research has previously shown children to face hardship because of divorce, although they "adjust well" (pg. 258), however, he suggests that these results generally take into account older children. eon (2003) looks primarily at the variable of early childhood development as it is impacted by divorce. Interestingly, eon (2003) found…
Leon, K. (2003). Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental
Divorce: A Review of the Research. Family Relations, 52(3), pp.258-270.
In this article, Leon (2003) attempts to address a gap in the research of divorce's affects on children by examining divorce's affects on small children. Citing Amato (2001), Leon points out that research has previously shown children to face hardship because of divorce, although they "adjust well" (pg. 258), however, he suggests that these results generally take into account older children. Leon (2003) looks primarily at the variable of early childhood development as it is impacted by divorce. Interestingly, Leon (2003) found results that were remarkably similar to Amato's, noting that children with divorced parents tended to be associated with developmental problems such as being withdrawn or having behavior problems. However, it would be easy to argue that other factors were responsible for these results. In addition, interpreting the results of these tests was made difficult by various factors that might lead to their invalidation, such as the fact that the data was collected from self-report surveys (Leon, 2003). Still Leon (2003) concludes that divorce certainly impacts the lives of young children very greatly and the developmental level of young children should determine how professionals such as psychologists respond to the issue of divorce in the child's home. Further, while parenting skills were important mitigating factors for both older and younger children after divorce, Leon (2003) points out that for younger children, it is most important that parents be warm and loving.
Case Study of “Julie”: The Effects of Divorce on a Teenager
1. Identifying information
The client, “Julie,” is a white, 14-year-old female 9th grade student with no siblings and a single mother, “Anne.” She presents for this first counseling session well groomed, appropriately dressed, and reports being in a relationship with a 17-year-old boyfriend who is a senior at her school.
2. Initial Impression
The client is intelligent and articulate, but she is also shy and reluctant to make eye contact. Despite her apparent shyness, Julie was responsive to questions and gesticulated a great deal, including the use of “air quotes” and swinging her legs when speaking.
3. Presenting Issues and Concerns
When she was 2 years old, Julie’s father died in an automobile accident. Her mother, who is employed full-time as an accountant, subsequently remarried when Julie was 12 years old. Three months previously, Anne…
In reality, such a parent would have difficulty raising a child on his or her own and the finances that he or she previously invested in providing the child with entertaining activities need to be directed at buying more important resources for the child.
A parent who is no longer in charge of his or her child's life has practically no problems buying a great deal of things for his or her child and thus influences the child in feeling that he or she is not receiving enough attention from the parent holding custody. Children can also be affected by the fact that parents often believe that there is a competition between themselves and their peers concerning who receives the most appreciation from the child.
IV. Children's development
hereas people are well-aware that divorce can be harmful for a large number of children who see their parents getting separated, the…
Amato, Paul R. "The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family 62.4 (2000)
DeBord, Carmen, "The Effects of Divorce on Children," Retrieved November 11, 2011, from the North Carolina State University Website: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pdfs/fcs471.pdf
Leo, John, "The Sleeper Effect," Human Life Review Fall 2000.
Palosaari, Ulla and Aro, Hillevi, "Effect of Timing of Parental Divorce on the Vulnerability of Children to Depression in Young Adulthood,"Adolescence 29.115 (1994)
Teens may be especially resentful of the way this disrupts their schedules and interferes with school, friendships, work, and other usual activities (Wallerstein, 2000). And further, especially in the case of a needy, now single parent, older children and teens in particular may now face a perceived necessity of their becoming the needy parent's new and often only source of emotional support (Wallerstein). At this same time, the older child or teen's own emotional needs begin to go (and often remain) largely or entirely unmet thereafter by one or both divorced parents (Fagan).
When this occurs, the permanently life-altering; long-term damaging psychological result is often that it effectively truncates childhood or adolescence prematurely and thereby causes older children or teens to feel that they must now act like adults themselves, thus suddenly forcing them to become more independent, self-confident, selfless and self-sufficient than they genuinely feel (Wallerstein). Older children and…
Fagan, P.F. (May 14, 2004). The social scientific data on the impact of marriage and divorce on children. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/
Fagan, P.F., & Rector, R. (2007). The effects of divorce on America.
Backgrounder: The Heritage Foundation, No. 1378. http:www.elsevier.com / retrieve/pii/S0194659504000061.html.
Therefore, extra attention should be given to keeping promises and basic daily routines.
inslow, Emily B.; olchik, Sharlene a.; Sander, Irwin. "Preventive Interventions for Children of Divorce." Psychiatric Times; 2/1/2004; Pp.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
Sirica, Jack. "The Children of Divorce." Newsday; 5/19/1994; Pp.
Pruett, Marsha Kline. "Only God Decides: Young Children's Perceptions of Divorce and the Legal System." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 12/1/1999; Pp.
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Effects of divorce on children." Talk of the Nation:
National Public Radio; 1/31/2002; Pp.
Neuman, Gary M. Helping Your Kids Cope ith Divorce the Sandcastles ay.
Random House Inc. 1999; pp.4, 6.
Lansky, Vicki. Vicki Lansky's Divorce Book for Parents: Helping Your Children
Cope ith Divorce and Its Aftermath. Book Peddlers.1996; Pp. 2.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
inslow, Emily B.; olchik, Sharlene…
Winslow, Emily B.; Wolchik, Sharlene a.; Sander, Irwin. "Preventive Interventions for Children of Divorce." Psychiatric Times; 2/1/2004; Pp.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
Sirica, Jack. "The Children of Divorce." Newsday; 5/19/1994; Pp.
Pruett, Marsha Kline. "Only God Decides: Young Children's Perceptions of Divorce and the Legal System." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 12/1/1999; Pp.
Divorce and Communication
In the past few decades, divorces have become much more common than they traditionally were. Lack of communication has been identified by psychologists, marriage counselors, and clergy members as the main reason why families end in divorce. The last-reported U.S. divorce rate for a calendar year, available as of May, 2005, was .38% divorces per capita per year (National Center for Health Statistics, 2005). Since every divorce involves two people, the percentage becomes somewhat more meaningful if you double it; for example, .74% of the entire population gets divorced every year (National Center for Health Statistics, 2005). This paper will first analyze the divorce statistics in the United States, along with a discussion of the issue of communication as it relates to the reasons behind divorce, family breakups, conflict in marriage caused by different cultures, lack of friendship in a marriage, and what can be done to…
Boland, J.P. & Follingstad, D.R. (1987). The relationship between communication and marital satisfaction: a review. J Sex Marital Ther. 13(4), 286-313.
Dreyfus, Edward. (2002). Making your Marriage Work. Retrieved June 28, 2005 from http://www.planetpsych.com/psychology101/relationships/making_marriage_work.htm .
National Center for Health Statistics. (2005). Divorce Rates in the United States. Retrieved June 26, 2005 from http://www.divorce.rates.reform.com
Segrin, Chris; Taylor, Melissa; Altman, Julie. (2005). Social cognitive mediators and relational outcomes associated with parental divorce. Journal of Social and Personal
The break-up of a marriage involving children in the middle childhood stage is an increasingly frequent occurrence in modern society. Children experience these divorces in a variety of ways, depending on the quality of the relationship between the parents and children. Either way, the effect upon self-esteem could be significant. Children learn behavior patterns from parents. When parents face self-esteem issues from being unable to make their relationship work, this will undoubtedly affect children as well. Children might also blame themselves for the break-up of the marriage, and thus carry this often unnamed burden with them until adulthood. A divorce could therefore be a devastating thing for children, and careful attention should be paid to possible therapy options.
Parents that stay together regardless of endless conflict could be equally damaging for the development of self-esteem in middle childhood. Constant hostility and tension between parents could badly affect the growth…
Kim, Lauren S. (April, 1997). "Locus of control as a stress moderator and mediator in children of divorce." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.
Lengua, Liliana J. (December, 1996). "Self-regulation as a moderator of the relation between coping and symptomatology in children of divorce." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.
Wolchik, Sharlene A. (August, 2002). "Fear of abandonment as a mediator of the relations between divorce stressors and mother-child relationship quality and children's adjustment problems." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.
Divorce on Children
Children of divorce can be negatively impacted by the separation of parents and the concomitant stress associated with the parents' relationship. These negative effects can range from mild cases to extreme, and can differ according to gender and age (i.e., development level of the child). External factors also play a part in the degree of the effect of the divorce, such as socioeconomic conditions of the family, integration in the community/society, the social behavior of the child, interaction with siblings/peers, and the level of continued involvement of the parents in the life of the child. Children of divorce can be assisted through various types of therapy, such as Art Therapy and Play Therapy, both of which help to facilitate cognitive and emotional skills within the child, as the two sides of the child's brain develop (the logical and the emotional side). Narratives are particularly helpful in that…
0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).
Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.
Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.
The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.
Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.
According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…
Rising Divorce Rates
The Need for and Purpose of the Project
Impact of Divorce on Children
Chapter 5-Conclusions, Summary and Recommendations,
The Need for and the Purpose of the Project
Divorce has become popular throughout the many years it has existed and divorce rates continue to increase. More than a million people a year get a divorce (Tucker-Ladd 35). Young couples are more commonly known to get a divorce, than those who have been married for two or three years (35). Forty percent of men and fifty percent of women are divorced before that age of thirty (35). About fifteen to twenty percent of people ages 35 to 55 are now currently divorced (35). About twenty percent of marriages last less than fifteen years (35). Recent statistics say that sixty-five to seventy percent of new marriages will fail (35).
There is one thing in…
Berry, Dawn Bradley. "The divorce recovery sourcebook." Los Angeles: Lowell
House, c 1998
Bienenfeld, Florence Ph. D, M.F.C.C. "Do It Yourslef Conflict Resolution for Couples." Franklin Lakes, NJ: The Career Press, 2000.
Cavin, Shelly Smith. "Personality Types and Interpersonal Communication."
Kung San Trial Marriages and U.S. Divorce Rates.
The!Kung San are a hunter-gatherer people that inhabit the Kalahari desert in Africa. They are the ushmen who have managed to live a contented, self-governed life while the rest of the world has sprung up around them in a mass of technology and dysfunction. They live a community life where the economy is based on sharing and "among the first words a child learns are na ("give it to me") and ihn ("take this")" (Shostak 2000:44) giving outsiders the impression of a quaint carefree nomadic life.
Nevertheless there are many similarities shared between Americans and the!Kung San, some of which are as simple as equal love for their children, to the interesting arrangements of a 'trial marriage'. A!Kung trial marriage could be acquainted with people living together before getting married, or cohabiting as part of a condition before marriage, depending on religious…
Family, Marriage and De Facto Unions
Pontifical Council for the Family, Vatican November 2000
Online copy: www.catholicculture.org/docs/doc_view.cfm?recnum=3242&CFID=488458&CFTOKEN=13604336
US Divorce Rates
Homosexual Marriage and the Impacts on Parenting
Homosexual marriage refers to legal matrimony between two individuals of the same gender and it is a phenomenon which has come under a great deal of scrutiny and debate during the last few years. As of the time of this writing nine states have legalized gay marriage, and 31 states have constitutional amendments which ban gay marriage to some extent -- a fact alone which showcases this nation's level of homophobia and a reluctance to deliver fundamental rights, like the right to pursue happiness. However, the topic of this paper is to examine the impacts of gay marriage on parenting and the kids that grow up having two moms or two dads. Even the most conservative, right-winged, and religiously literal people will admit, that if there's one thing that this nation needs; for example, the following conservative remarked: "Many studies show that single…
Balling, R. (2012, Septemver 28). Why same-sex marriage affects my marriage. Retrieved from Star tribune: http://www.startribune.com/opinion/commentaries/171613511.html?refer=y
Carey, B. (2012, June 11). Debate on a Study Examining Gay Parents. Retrieved from NYTimes: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/12/health/study-examines-effect-of-having-a-gay-parent.html?_r=0
Chrisler, J. (2010, June 24). Why gay parents are good parents. Retrieved from Cnn.com: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-06-24/opinion/chrisler.gay.parents_1_adoptions-by-gay-people-anti-gay-gay-pride?_s=PM:OPINION
Narth.com. (n.d.). Gay Parenting Does Affect Children Differently, Study Finds. Retrieved from Narth.com: http://www.narth.com/docs/does.html
Are Social Networking and Sites Increasing the Rate of Divorce?
The first element of this hypothesis is: are divorce rates really increasing? Generalized references to divorce seem to consistently say "the divorce rate is increasing" and "50% of all U.S. marriages end in divorce." However, if 50% of all U.S. marriages ended in divorce in 1980, and the same percentage in 1990 and the same in 2000 and the same in 2010, then at least in that respect, the rate of divorce is not increasing. According to "Divorce Rates," the per capita rate of divorce in the U.S. was: "1991, 0.47%; 1992, 0.48%; 1993, 0.46%; 1994, 0.46%; 1995, 0.46%; 1995, 0.43%; 1997, 0.43%; 1998, 0.42%; 1999, 0.41%; 2000, 0.41%; 2001, 0.40%; 2002, 0.38%; 2005, 0.36%" (Americans for Divorce Reform, 2006), and according to the "Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog," the divorce rate in 2010 was 0.36% (Divorce Statistics…
Americans for Divorce Reform. (2006). Divorce Rates - Divorce Statistics. Retrieved from divorcereform.org: http://www.divorcereform.org/rates.html
Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog. (2011, July 1). Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog. Retrieved from familylaw.typepad.com: http://familylaw.typepad.com/stats/
Kendall, T.D. (2010). The Relationship Between Internet Access and Divorce Rate. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Volume 32, Number 3, 449-460.
Live Science Staff. (2010, January 26). College-Educated Women More Likely to Stay Married. Retrieved from livescience.com: http://www.livescience.com/8049-college-educated-women-stay-married.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Livesciencecom+ (LiveScience.com+Science+Headline+Feed)
Homosexual Parents on Children
Conversations around the appropriateness of homosexual parents adopting, having or even raising children pose the argument of the effects on the children. However, research of the effects is rare, as well as limited in the direct topic. To follow is a review of key pieces of literature discussing the concepts of diverse family environments and the effects the environments.
Evidence supports the knowledge that children do not learn how to be homosexual by interacting and upbringing by homosexual parents. In fact, more research leads to the belief that children of homosexual families have a broader understanding of sexuality and awareness, and most information points to a heterosexual environment in the learning process (Gabb, 2004). Suggesting that learning environments need more diversity, yet there is the stigmatic thought that "social codes of decency" (Gabb, 2004) are "universal truths and normality's" (Gabb, 2004) of what would be deemed…
(1978). Children of gays: Sexually 'normal'. Science News, 113(24), 389.
Chan, R., Brooks, R., Raboy, B., & Patterson, C. (1998). Division of labor among lesbian and heterosexual parents: Associations with children's adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(3), 402-419. doi:10.1037/0893-3126.96.36.1992.
Cramer, D. (1986). Gay Parents and Their Children: A Review of Research and Practical Implications. Journal of Counseling & Development, 64(8), 504.
Gabb, J. (2004). Sexuality education: how children of lesbian mothers 'learn' about sex/uality. Sex Education, 4(1), 19-34.
Domestic Violence on Children
Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…
Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.
Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.
Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
military deployment affects military families. The writer explores the many differences between deployed and non-deployed families and examines some of the things being done to ease the stress and problems that deployment presents. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
Americans are waiting with anxious anticipation as the federal government attempts to convince the United Nations that a war with Iraq is in order. President Bush as well as Colin Powell have spent days addressing the issue and presenting evidence of the need to forcibly disarm Iraq. As the world watches the events unfold, nations are lining up on one side or the other of the issue. France, Germany and ussia are asking the United States to hold off on an attack and see if a more peaceful solution can be hammered out. Britain, Canada and several others have pledged if a war erupts, they will send troops…
Peterson, Karen S.(2001).Peterson, Long deployments stress military families., USA Today, pp 08D.
2001). INDSTRY GROUP 91, AIR FORCE SPOUSE ADDRESSES QUALITY-OF-LIFE ISSUES BEFORE CONGRESS FEDERAL DOCUMENT CLEARING HOUSE, INC.., Regulatory Intelligence Data.
Author not available (2001). U.S. REPRESENTATIVE DAVID HOBSON (R-OH) CHAIRMAN U.S. REPRESENTATIVE DAVID HOBSON (R-OH) HOLDS HEARING ON MILITARY QUALITY OF LIFE., Washington Transcript Service.
____(1999). INDSTRY GROUP 91, DOD STUDIES MISSION, FAMILY NEEDS., Regulatory Intelligence Data.
political themes of early American politics, the major players, and issues that arose in the political arena of the time; with specific reference to Samuel Adams: adical Puritan, by William Fowler, and Founding Brothers: The evolutionary Generation, by Joseph Ellis. It has 4 sources.
The first part of this essay analyzes ideological, historical, personal and administrative features of the first American government, and uses these to explain the 'contradiction' existent in American national identity ever since.
The chief contributors to the 'contradiction' or 'argument' mentioned above were the ideas about government and public life that Samuel Adams gained from his Puritan heritage and then from his experiences during the revolutionary period; the major causes of the American evolution; the "Spirit of 76" or the Whig principles; the republican ideology stated in the Declaration of Independence; the changes in the organization of government from the Articles of Confederation to the U.S.…
Garraty and Barnes, (2000). A Short History of the American Nation, Vol. 1, 8th Ed. 2000, Chapter 4. pp. 107-117.
Fowler, W.M. (1997). Samuel Adams: Radical Puritan. Knopf.
Ellis, J.J. (2000). Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation. Knopf.
Boston Gazette, April 4, 1768
Divorce and Marriage
Divorce and remarriage
Divorce and Marriage is Permissible
In the current modern society, a breakup of the traditional marriage is the most significant challenge. Prior research on this matter suggests that 43% of first marriages end separation and possible within 15 years. Although these results are disputable, it is undisputable that the divorce is on the rise across the globe. The increase in divorce is the main cause of societal problems such as early pregnancies (teen pregnancies), suicide, alcohol, and substance abuse, and the hesitation of young people to engage in marriage. Therefore, divorce has resulted into many societal problems, and children have to pay the price. Disturbingly, a comparison between the Christians and non-Christians show that Christians are more prone to divorce (Paechter, 2013).
Therefore, it is clear that the divorce is a church problem. Considering that, Christianity teaches that lasting faithful marriages are part of…
Clark, A. (2004). Parallel Classic Commentary on the New Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG
Clark, K.D., & Rakestraw, V.R. (1995). Readings in Christian ethics: Issues and applications.
Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Academic Publishers.
Eldredge, R. (2002). Can Divorced Christians Remarry? Camarillo, CA: Choice.
Divorce Affects Children and Teenagers
This paper presents a discussion about how divorce affects children and teenagers. The writer takes a sociological path in exploring the long-term affects on the individuals and then how that related to society. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
During the last four decades the divorce rate began to climb not only in America but also across the globe. As families began to live in separate houses researchers took on the task of studying the affects of the divorce on children and teenagers (Dunn, 1999). Now, four decades later the results are in and the experts agree divorce has an undeniable negative impact on children and teenagers. This is not to say the negative impact cannot be counterbalanced but it must be recognized as a given for groups of people affected by divorce if the world wants to correct the affects from…
Karen Thomas, On the Adolescent Hot Line: The sensitive issues Parents' divorce can compound the tough teen years., USA Today, 10-12-1998, pp 04D.
Ross Dunn (VOA-Jerusalem), Study: Children Affected by Divorce., Israel Faxx, 02-11-1999.
Author not available, CHILDREN DO SUFFER MOST FROM A DIVORCE., USA Today, 01-22-1996.
Wheaton, Blair. 1990. "Life Transitions, Role Histories, and Mental Health." American Sociological Review 55:209-23.
divorce affects the personality of Latino children
Family normally indicates to a group of persons directly associated with kinship, wherein the adult members are liable for the care of their children. The kinship involves genetic ties or ties coming out of marriage. Marriage is considered to be a sexual union between two adults, socially recognized and approved. Marriage and therefore the family in western societies are related to monogamy. A major change has emerged in the common structure of family life during the post-war periods. A high proportion of women participated in the paid labor force, which has a direct impact on growth of divorce and considerable numbers of children are forced to reside either in single parent households or with stepfamilies. Cohabitation has progressively become normal in many of the industrial nations. Many other forms of social and sexual relationship are about to flourish in the future. Still marriage…
"Chapter 15: the Family and Intimate Relationships" Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/giddens4/chapters/chapter15/welcome.htm
Accessed 8 November, 2005
"Child Psychology Lesson 1. Issues in Child Development" Retrieved from http://www.kuce.org/isc/previews/psyc/psyc333_lesson.html
'Children in the Middle" Retrieved from http://modelprograms.samhsa.gov/print.cfm?pkProgramid=207
Business Plan for a Financial Divorce Software
Business Plan Divorce Software
Business Plan relating to the Sales of a new Financial Divorce Software.
Business Plan relating to the Sales of a new Financial Divorce Software
Keys to Success
Legal Form of Ownership
Location and Facilities
Products and Service
Ps of Marketing
Financial Statements and Projections
evenue and Cost Estimate
Forecasted Profit and Loss Statement
Forecasted Balance Sheet
Financial planning is involved in every aspect of life. Individuals and businesses have to formulate their daily, monthly, and yearly budgets in order to achieve a balance between their incomes and expenditures.…
Association of Divorce Financial Planners, (2012). Divorce Financial Planning. Retrieved on July 7th, 2012, from
Blythe, J. & Megicks, P. (2010). Marketing Planning: Strategy, Environment and Context, 3rd Edition. U.K: Prentice Hall
Cadle, J., Paul, D., & Yeates, D. (2010). Business Analysis, 2nd Edition. Swindon: British Informatics Society
Francis, P. (2010). Creating the Marketing Executive of the Future Using Key Deming Principles, Journal of Executive Education, 9 (1): 127-138
distance relationships are leading to increased divorce statistics.
In the past, when a person married, it was a lifelong commitment. This was partly because the laws regarding divorce were very strict and it was nearly impossible to get a divorce without some very strong cause. omen in particular had difficulty filing for divorce from their husbands, even if he were an adulterer or perhaps physically abusive. This has all changed over time, beginning in the United States with the state of Nevada where a short residency could get you a quick divorce with little regard to reasoning. In the present time, getting a divorce is a regular occurrence. At present more than half of all marriages end in divorce. Three-quarters of people who marry for the first time will likely be divorced. Among the most common of divorce reasons is the citing of virtual abandonment by one or more of…
"Experiencing Difficulties Because of Business Travel" (2011). Retrieved from http://divorce-
Glass, Shirley. (2003). Not 'Just Friends': Rebuilding Trust and Recovering Your Sanity After
Infidelity. Free: New York, NY.
Impacts of Divorce on Children
a. While divorce can be the lesser of two evils, divorce nonetheless can affect any involved children in many ways.
II. Positive Effects
a. Children feel a sense of relief
b. They are happier if the parents thrive after splitting up
c. Happier but split parents mean happier kids
d. Shared custody can be much better than a volatile household
e. Modeling that leaving a dysfunctional relationship is a good thing
III. Negative Effects
a. Children might act out at school
b. Single parent families can be cash-strapped
c. The effects of the divorce can extend into the child’s adult life
d. The take offense to one parent verbally assaulting the other
e. Stress of some sort is normal and expected
a. Parents should work things out if possible, but some marriages should end if certain lines are cross or attempts…
The Effect of the Flappers on Today's Women
The 1920's in the U.S. And UK can be described as a period of great change, both socially and economically. During this period the image of the women completely changed and a "new women" emerged who appears to have impacted social changes occurring in future generations of both men and women. This new symbol of the women was the Flapper. The Flapper was a new type of young woman that was rebellious, fun, bold and outspoken (Zeitz, 2006). This research paper explains the rise and fall of the Flapper in the 1920's, explores its historical and current impact on women in terms of culture, work, gender and social behavior and reflects on its long-term impact of the position of today's women.
Evolution of the Flapper
Flappers, most often characterized as the "New Woman," originally emerged in the 1920s in the…
Allen, F.L. (1957). Only yesterday: An informal history of the nineteen-twenties. New York:
Harper and Row.
Baughm J.S. (1996). American decades: 1920-1929. New York: Manly.
Bliven, B. (1925, September 9).FlapperJane. New Republic, pp. 65-67.
Divorced: Policy to Protect the hildren of Terminated Marriages
While the unity of marriage is largely viewed across-cultures as the transformation of a loving, adult relationship into the spiritually-supported formal organization of family, its institutional roots must be divided into two distinct subgroups of origin, that of the religious and that of the secular. In the hristian faith, marriage is the formal act of announcing monogamy in partnership on the evangelical path of righteousness before God; in the Jewish culture, it is the formal promise to perpetuate the religion of God's chosen people. Islam, Hindu, Native American, and traditional African cultures are among the multitude that claim a moral significance in the social celebration of religious marriage.
While the universal symbolism is undeniable, its legal application is more complicated. Despite the high esteem in which marriage is held through the lens of religion, in the eyes of the law where…
Carlson, Allan. "Between Two Worlds: The Inner Lives of Children of Divorce." National Review. Vol. 7, Iss. 20. New YorkL Nov. 7, 2005. P. 54.
Waite, Linda J. "Does Divorce Make People Happy? Findings from a Study of Unhappy Marriages." The Coalition for Marriage, Family, and Couples Education. July 11, 2002. Available Online: http://www.smartmarriages.com/does.divorce.html
Bipolar disorder, originally called manic depressive disorder, is a severe mood disorder that vacillates between extreme "ups" (mania, hypomania) and "downs" (depression). The effects of having bipolar disorder can be observed across the patients social and occupational functioning. Often the patient is left isolated from work, friends, and family. Medications have become the first-line treatments for bipolar disorder; however, psychotherapy can offer additional benefits in the ongoing treatment of patients with bipolar disorder. This paper discusses the symptoms and treatment of bipolar disorder focusing on cognitive behavioral therapy and emotion focused therapy.
Description and differentiation
According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders -- Fourth Edition -- Text evision (DSM-IV-T) one's mood is an all-encompassing and sustained feeling tone experienced internally by the person and influences the person's behavior and perception of the world. Affect is the external or outward expression of this inner…
Alloy, L.B., Abramson, L.Y., Walshaw, P.D., Keyser, J., & Gerstein, R.K. (2006). A cognitive vulnerability-stress perspective on bipolar spectrum disorders in a normative adolescence brain, cognitive, and emotional development context. Developmental Psychopathology, 18(4), 1057-1103.
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision. Washington, DC: Author.
Beck, J.S. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.
Butler, A.C., Chapman, J.E., Forman, E.M., & Beck, A.T. (2006). The empirical status of cognitive-behavioral therapy: A review of meta-analyses. Clinical Psychology Review, 26, 17-31
Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person (Flitcraft et al., 1992). Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is a significant societal concern. Marital conflict is generally defined as any difference of opinion between martial or domestic partners whether it is minor or major. Marital conflict can assume many different forms including displays of both negative and positive emotions and/or constructive and destructive tactics. Marital aggression is characterized by physical and/or psychological abuse and would fall at the negative extreme on a continuum of marital conflict (Cummings, 1998). Marital psychological/verbal aggression refers to things such as threats, insults, and…
Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E. & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta-
analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review 23(8), 1023-1053.
Carlson, B.E. (1984). Children's observations of interparental violence. In A.R. Roberts (ed.),
Battered women and their families (pp. 147 -- 167). New York: Springer.
When these components were included in bullying intervention programs, Olweus found significant reductions of 50% or more during the 2 years following their introduction in American schools with more than 2,500 students. According to Heinrich (2003), "The bullying prevention program goals are reducing or eliminating existing bullying problems and preventing new problems. The major cost of this program is not in money but in the amount of time and energy required to effect change in attitudes, knowledge, and behavior" (p. 195).
Arora, T., Sharp, S., & Thompson, D. (2002). Bullying: Effective strategies for long-term improvement. London: outledgeFalmer.
Atlas, .S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. The Journal of Educational esearch, 92(2), 86.
Borntrager, C., Davis, J.L., & Hallford, a. (2006). Evaluation of a bullying prevention program. Journal of esearch in Childhood Education, 21(1), 91.
Bullying by the numbers. (2007, January). Curriculum eview, 46(5), 37.
Arora, T., Sharp, S., & Thompson, D. (2002). Bullying: Effective strategies for long-term improvement. London: RoutledgeFalmer.
Atlas, R.S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. The Journal of Educational Research, 92(2), 86.
Borntrager, C., Davis, J.L., & Hallford, a. (2006). Evaluation of a bullying prevention program. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 21(1), 91.
Bullying by the numbers. (2007, January). Curriculum Review, 46(5), 37.
" (Wagner, 2000, p. 6)
As an almost limitless tool for advertisement, though some self censorship has recently occurred as more and more people reduce ad time by restricting adware and popup ads on their computer systems, the internet can ad to the most vile of physical, social and mental health state, especially in the young and impressionable.
For these reasons and more, it makes sense for everyone -- especially for children and young adults -- to consider how advertising can affect four basic types of health. First, it can affect our physical health. We may learn about a healthy practice or vitamin, but may also be prone to engaging in unhealthy activities, lulled by media depictions of glamorous smokers and drinkers, as well as by direct ads for tobacco and alcohol. Second, advertising can affect our emotional health by delivering media-imposed definitions of beauty, sexuality, maturity, and problem-solving. Advertising…
Fox, R.F. (2001, November). Warning Advertising May Be Hazardous to Your Health: Ads Pose a Threat to Physical, Emotional, Social, and Cultural Well-Being. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 130, 62-77.
Gattiker, U.E. (2001). The Internet as a Diverse Community: Cultural, Organizational, and Political Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Harris, L.M. (Ed.). (1995). Health and the New Media: Technologies Transforming Personal and Public Health. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Hatfield, T.H., & Erbeck, G.W. (1997). The Internet: Legitimate Educational Tool or Giant Electronic Sandbox?. Journal of Environmental Health, 59(8), 19-25.
Knowing the difference between normal emotions and emotional disorders is key to therapists' understanding bipolar behaviors
Excess emphasis is placed on pathological emotions rather than healthy ones
SEVEN: Recent developments in emotion and cognition & therapies (Lacewing, 2004).
Lacewing references 5 authors that discuss the development of emotional theories
It is clear there is nothing close to consensus when it comes to comparing emotion with cognition or defining exactly when an emotion results from cognition
EIGH: Cognitive processing in bipolar disorder (BD) using ICS model (Lomax, et al., 2009).
30 bipolar persons and 30 healthy persons were tested (in a euthymic mood state and also in induced positive mood state) to see if they detected discrepancies in the sentences; the results show BD people operate at a "more abstract level"
NINE: Deficits in social cognition & response flexibility in pediatric BD (McClure, et al., 2005)
40 outpatients with pediatric BD…
TEN: Long-term effects of emotion on cognition (Moore, et al., 2002).
While researchers have investigated and determined that mood and emotion help determine and modulate human cognition, there is a need to examine how performance on certain tasks changes over time
Events with lots of emotion are more memorable; hence, if mood has an effect on long-term memory, it also may well have an impact on the ability to learn long-term
(Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira, 2007)
The following labeled Figure 1 shows the factors associated with truancy among adolescents in the study conducted and reported in the work of Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira (2007)
Factors associated with truancy among adolescents in Swaziland
Factor or (95% CI)*
Schooling (years) to 8 to 11
Most of the times or always
Number of times bullied or 2
Most students kind and helpful
Most of the times
Parents checked homework
Most of the times
Parents understood problems
Most of the times
Most of the times
or (95%CI)* adjusted for all the factors in the model
Siziya et al. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 2007 1:15 doi:10.1186/1753-2000-1-15
Source: Siziya, Muula, and Rudatsikira (2007)
The work of Stanton et al. (2004) entitled: "Randomized Trial of a Parent Intervention" states that while "numerous interventions have been demonstrated…
Cookston, Jeffrey T. (1999) Parental Supervision and Family Structure: Effects on Adolescent Problem Behaviors. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, Vol. 32(1/2) 1999
Stanton, Bonita et al. (2004) Randomized Trial of a Parent Intervention: Parents Can Make a Difference in Long-Term Adolescent Risk Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 158:947-955. Online available at http://archpedi.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/158/10/947
Redd, Zakia; Brooks, Jennifer; and McGarvey, Ayelish (nd) Background for Community-level Work on Educational Adjustment, Achievement and Attainment in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors. Child Trends.
Carter, Rebecca (2000) Parental Involvement With Adolescents' Education: Do Daughters or Sons Get More Help? Journal of Adolescence, Spring 2000. Online available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_137_35/ai_62958274/print
prohibitively rising cost of housing in Rhode Island has affected both the nuclear and extended family. Rising housing costs may force family members to move to less expensive areas, causing a breakdown in both extended and nuclear family structure. However, this may be balanced by the increased tendency of young adults, who cannot afford the high housing costs in Rhode Island, to live at home.
Certainly, data outlined below indicate that the housing crisis in Rhode Island is very real and immediate. Individuals across Rhode Island society are beginning to feel the constraints of the difficult housing market, and low-income individuals are feeling the greatest strain.
Given that federal and private agencies are unable to keep up with the increasing demand for housing assistance for low-income residents, the housing crisis will only continue to grow. As a result, the pressures of the nuclear and extended family are not expected to…
Arditi, Lynn. House prices in R.I. soar in 2nd quarter. Low mortgage rates and a sluggish stock market promote heavy interest in real estate.
07/30/2002. The Providence Journal (projo.com). 30 October 2002. http://www.projo.com/news/content/projo_20020730_rhouse30.24270.html
Economic Research Service. County-level population data for Rhode Island. 30 October 2002. http://www.ers.usda.gov/Data/Population/PopList.asp?ST=RI&LongName=Rhode%20Island
Economic Research Service. Rhode Island State Fact Sheet from USDA/ERS. 30 October 2002. http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/RI.htm
This point also emphasizes a cardinal aspect in the recent literature. There has been an increasing research focus on a more discursive and holistic approach which should be adopted in dealing with PTSD and related areas of psychological concern. At present the research into the field is an ongoing process which must be continually updated. The literature also leaves little doubt that PTSD and other related psychological problems as result of the Iraq war can no longer be ignored.
Casualties of war. April 21, 2007. http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/casualties-of-war/2005/10/26/1130302840559.html?page=3
Hare M. 2007. Army psychologist using new ways to treat
Stress. April 20, 2007. http://www.democratandchronicle.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070422/NES0201/704220321/-1/COLUMNS
Finer J. 2006. Frontline Care for 'At Risk' Soldiers: Army Effort Treats
Psychological Trauma at Source. April 20, 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/06/07/AR2006060702390_pf.html
Friedman M.J. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: An Overview. Retrieved April 20, 2007, at http://www.vac-acc.gc.ca/clients/sub.cfm?source=mhealth/factsheets/overview
Foa, E., & Meadows, E. (1997). Psychosocial Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Critical…
Casualties of war. April 21, 2007. http://www.theage.com.au/news/world/casualties-of-war/2005/10/26/1130302840559.html?page=3
Hare M. 2007. Army psychologist using new ways to treat
Stress. April 20, 2007. http://www.democratandchronicle.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070422/NEWS0201/704220321/-1/COLUMNS
Finer J. 2006. Frontline Care for 'At Risk' Soldiers: Army Effort Treats
Heroin Affect a Caucasian Family?
Cicero, T., Ellis, M., Surratt, H., Kurtz, S. (2014). The changing face of heroin use in the United States. JAMA Psychiatry, 71(7): 821-826. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.366.
The study is from a scholarly, peer-reviewed, academic journal: it shows that heroin use has changed over the past 50 years in terms of demographic affected. While it use to be a problem that largely impacted inner-city minorities, now it is being used primarily by "white men and women in their late 20s living outside of large urban areas" (p. 821). The consequence of this shift is that more Caucasian families are impacted by heroin use than ever before. The study hypothecates that a reason for the shift in demographic is the cheapness and availability of the drug; however, there is some social acceptance, as one subject notes, "All of my friends use heroin and I know multiple people who will…
According to Stevensen and Wolfers, marriage is far from a static phenomena, and in subsequent research they contend that this specialization is far less likely, that women and men both work outside the home, marry later marriages are formed without the specific purpose of procreation. (Stevensen & Wolfers, 2007, p. 27)
Lastly, this work looked at another issue, associated with marriage and divorce, which looked at the period between 1980 and 2000 and determined that several basic trends are true of marital quality, between 1980 and 2000; marital interaction declined significantly. A decomposition analysis suggested that offsetting trends affected marital quality. Increases in marital heterogamy, premarital cohabitation, wives' extended hours of employment, and wives' job demands were associated with declines in multiple dimensions of marital quality. In contrast, increases in economic resources, decision-making equality, nontraditional attitudes toward gender, and support for the norm of lifelong marriage were associated with improvements…
Amato, P.R., Johnson, D.R., Booth, A., & Rogers, S.J. (2004). Continuity and change in marital quality between 1980 and 2000. Journal of Marriage and Family, 65 (1), 1-22.
Isen, A., & Stevensen, B. (2008, February). Women's education and family behavior: Trends in marriage, divorce and fertitlity. Topics in Demography and the Economy National Bureau of Economic Research, *-22.
Stevensen, B., & Wolfers, J. (2007). Marriage and Divorce: Changes and their driving forces. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21 (2), 27-52.
Divorce on the Lives of Children
In today's society, half of all marriages end in divorce. Many of those marriages involve children. Parents who are involved in a divorce are often concerned about the effect of the divorce on their children. During the time of a divorce the parents may be preoccupied with their problems but still hold their roles as the most important people in their children's lives.
While a divorce may be devastating or relieving to a couple, children are frightened and confused by the terrible threat to their security. However, if a child feels secure and loved throughout the divorce, he or she may not be harmed by the divorce at all. Reflecting on these concerns, this paper aims to determine the effects of divorce on the lives of children.
etween the years 1950 to 1983, divorce broke up more families than parental death did in the…
Amato, P.R. (1993). Children's adjustment to divorce: Theories, hypotheses, and empirical support. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 23-38.
Brown, Alec. Young, Ellie. Allen, Melissa. The Effects of Divorce on Children (November, 2003). NASP Communique, Vol. 32, #3.
Hyatt, K. (November, 1999) Children's Adjustment to Divorce Largely in Hands of Parents, with One Exception: Dad's Departure Depresses Boys. Journal of Marriage and the Family: 44.
Newberger, C. (December, 1986). The American Family in Crisis: Implications for Children. Current Problems in Pediatrics. Vol. 16: 686-688, 713.
Economic factors as Mclanahan et al. demonstrates or other variables such as mother's separation from community or maternal depression may also effect children causing the impact that the researchers saw rather than the divorce / separation factor being the determining variable.
In effect, what the authors demonstrate is that both gender are negatively influenced by divorce and separation, although they had been negatively affected by adverse conditions before divorce / separation had occurred.
To Amato et al. (1995), the situation is not so simple. Reviewing cross-sectional studies between children who remain in conflict-ridden two-parent homes and products of divorced parents who experienced conflict prior to divorce, he discovers that all children are adversely impacted by parental conflict, but that children who remain in the conflict-ridden environment are apt to suffer more than those whose parents are divorced. Much also, however, depended on the intensity of the conflict. In other words,…
Amato, P. et al. (1995). Parental divorce, marital conflict, and offspring well-being.. Social Forces, 73, 895-915
Cherlin, A. et al. (2007) Longitudinal studies of effects of divorce in children in Great Britain and the U.S.A. Science, 252
McLanahan, Sara S., and Gary Sandefur. Growing Up with a Single Parent.
divorce rate in the United States is rising at an alarming rate. Just after the Civil War, approximately 5% of marriages in the United States ended in divorce. The divorce rate increased to approximately 10% by the 1920s and approximately 35% by the mid-1960's. y 1990, the divorce rate in the United States had risen to 50%. In a span of 125 years, the divorce rate in the United States increased by 900%. These rising divorce rates have undoubtedly had a profound effect on children. In 1988, 15% of all chil-dren lived with a divorced or separated parent. Presently, more than one mil-lion children per year experience a parental divorce. In the 1960's, almost 90% of children lived in homes with two biological parents. y 1995, approximately 18.9 million children under the age of 18 lived with one. With the rising divorce rate it is important to look at how…
Ham, B. (2003). The Effects of Divorce on the Academic Achievement of High School Seniors. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 38(3/4), 167-185.
Jeynes, W.H. (1999). The Effects of Children of Divorce Living with Neither Parent on the Academic Acheivement of Those Children. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 30(3/4), 103-120.
Jeynes, W.H. (2002a). Does Parental Involvement Eliminate the Effects of Parental Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents? Journal of ivorce and Remarriage, 37(1/2), 101-115.
Jeynes, W.H. (2002b). Examining the Effects of Parental Absence on the Academic Achievement of Adolescents: The Challenge of Controlling for Family Income. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 23(2), 189-210.
oth death and divorce are extreme experiences in a child's life and both can have a wide range of native psychological and developmental repercussions. Divorce is seen by many experts to be a potentially extremely traumatic experience in the life of the child. This of course does not mean to say that the impact of death is not equally traumatic. However, while the very young child may not be aware enough to be impacted by the death of parent, the effects of divorce are often felt over a longer long period and can be extremely traumatic for the child's sense of identify and self-worth. As an expert states, " divorce undermines this nurturing atmosphere. Children are very much affected by the disruption and absence of a unified two-parent home environment." (Dueck)
In essence this means that any traumatic event, whether it be death or divorce, that destroys or…
Generation At Risk. Nov. 11, 2006. http://www.rainbows.org/statistics.html
Dueck, Ami. DIVORCE AND THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE CHILD. 2004. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:fjUsSic3ZV8J:www.fotf.ca/tfn/family/PDF/Divorce_impact.pdf+%22contact+with+a+non-custodial+parent+should+not+be+taken+lightly%22%22&hl=en&gl=za&ct=clnk&cd=1&lr=lang_en
SELF TYPES & THEIR DIFFERENCES ACROSS GENERATIONS
AND THE LIFE-CYCLE. Nov. 11, 2006. http://www.trinity.edu/mkearl/socpsy-6.html
Couples might do everything that they are required to do and follow all the rules. They will never work if one's personal standpoint with regards to marriage is defective. They need to work on solving their marital issue because they believe in and want to cherish its value. It will never produce the same effect if a couple is seeking out ways to make it seem valuable. A majority of therapists who work on the problems of others might have been divorced themselves and are in the business just for the money. They are just professionals who are certified as a therapist based on their education. They are far from being perfect and can even induce couples to actually go through with divorce when they find themselves hopelessly ineffective in a particular situation. A lot of couples still go for marital therapy even though they are aware of such occurrences.…
Ambert, A.M (2009). Divorce: Facts, Causes & Consequences Contemporary Family Trends, 17 -- 25.
Gardner, J. & Oswald, A.J.(2005) Do Divorcing Couples become happier by breaking up ? Journal of the Royal Statistical Soceity
Waters, T.(2003) Premarital Counseling in the Church. Retrieved from http://www.tiu.edu/cmx/seniors03/waters.pdf
Erlangsen, A. & Andersson, G.(2001) The impact of children on divorce risks in the first and later marriages.
It is interesting to note that business and financial planners as well as insurance programs are beginning to address the financial problems the individual faces following a divorce of the death of their spouse. These are factors that any individual should receive truthful and candid counseling on from those in the position to relate this information such as attorneys, bankers, insurance agents, and other business and financial professionals in today's society.
With some good advice and proper planning it is very possible for many, if not all women who go through a divorce or who lose their spouse to death to make plans for their retirement and their lives following divorce to mitigate some of the difficulties presently being experienced by these individuals and ultimately to lay a firm financial foundation for their future and thereby avoiding a descent into a life of poverty.
lock, Sandra (2000) Golden Years…
Block, Sandra (2000) Golden Years Bleak for Divorcees. MONEY Magazine. Cover Story -- Smart Marriages. 8 Aug 2000. Online available at: http://lists101.his.com/pipermail/smartmarriages/2000-August/000277.html
Collie, Jan (1999) D.I.V.O.R.C.E? I.N.S.U.R.E! The Independent. 2 Oct 1999. Online available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/money/insurance/divorce-insure-743371.html
Gadalla, Tahany M. (2008) Gender Differences in Poverty Rates After Marital Dissolution: A Longitudinal Study. Sept 2008.
Cheal, David J. (1996) New Poverty: Families in Postmodern Society. Greenwood Publishing Group 1996.
Co-parental relationship with both parents planning together for the future of the children and engaging in corroboration of schedules and activities may prevent many, if not all, of the harmful results detailed by McClanahan and Cherlin et al. (1996). In fact, as Buchanan et al. (2007) illustrate, those deterrents together with timely interventions may help adolescents from divorced homes proceed with their lives and help parents and social workers succeed in their strategies formulated to ease children's adjustment to divorce.
In 1991, Cherlin et al. conducted national longitudinal surveys in both England and the U.S.A. Of the effects of divorce on children. In both boys and girls negative effects of divorce were apparent, particularly when compared to intact families. (This replicated the results of McClanahan's research which showed that children from divorced families also seem to have lower academic scores than children from intact families, but socioeconomic and other variables…
Buchanan, CM et al. (2007). Adolescents after divorce. UK: Harvard Univ. Press.
Cherlin, AJ et al. (1991) Longitudinal Studies of Effects of Divorce on Children in Great Britain and the United States Science, New Series, Vol. 252, No. 5011.
McClanahan Why we care about single parenthood
Popenoe, D. (1993) American family decline, 1960-1990 Journal of marriage, 527-555
Toulmin Argument on American Families
Up to 30 years ago, divorces were difficult to obtain and were very rare in American society. However, in 1969, the advent of no-fault divorce laws caused a spike in divorce rates. Qualifier follows- This paper argues that if the United States wants to preserve the traditional ideals of the American family, (claim follows) -- the no fault divorce laws must be repealed.
Support #1 follows -- The no-fault divorce laws have caused an alarming spike in the divorce rate. In a statistical study, researchers found an estimated.8 point average increase in the divorce rate after the no fault divorce laws were enacted. The 1970s saw a "divorce boom," when the divorce rate more than doubled. In fact, the divorce rates in the states that have adopted no fault divorce laws were much lower than their no-fault counterparts (Nakonezny, Shull, and Rodgers).
The ease of…
Connelly, Erin. "Like a stone is tossed in water, there's a ripple effect." The Atlanta Journal Constitution. October 29, 2000. Proquest Database.
Goldberg, David. "Haunted by divorce." The Atlanta Journal Constitution. October 15, 2000. Proquest Database.
Miller, Toby. "30-year-old still feels 7-year-old's anguish." The Atlanta Journal Constitution. October 29, 2000. Proquest Database.
Nakonezny, P.A., Shull, R.D., & Rodgers, J.L. "The effect of no-fault divorce law on the divorce rate across the 50 states and its relation to income, education, and religiosity." Journal of Marriage and the Family, 1995: 57. Proquest Database.
Maike Luhmann and Michael Eid. What will follow in this report is an analysis of the statistical methodology, the results, and the overall quality of the study in terms of finding and conclusions drawn.
As the title lets on, the study is a review of life satisfaction perceptions following life events that are repetitious in nature. The study starts off with a salient point when it states that certain events in life occur quite often such as jobs being started or lost, marriages starting or ending and so forth. The question is posed as to how this affects the personal satisfaction of the individual that has or is experiencing these events and how they generally react over the long-term to the same.
The study does look at previous research on the topic and it offers their own analysis as to how relevant and high-quality those studies were. For example, on…