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Psychological Effects of Divorce on Children and Co-Parental elations
Today, it is not possible for people to not take into account the considerable outcomes and consequences of divorce. According to social scientists, the ever increasing rates of parents ending their marriages is not only hurting the society but also upsetting and destroying the lives of children. Not only does divorce devastates the family life but also impacts the attainment of education, solidity of job, income potential, physical health, emotional well-being, alcohol and drug addiction and offensive activities (Fagan & ector, 2000).
Millions of children all over the world suffer overwhelmingly when their parents end their marriages. esearch shows that the outcomes of divorce go on with a child into his/her adulthood. Not only the adolescence of the individual is affected but it also crushes the next generation of children also. It is observed that the effects of divorce are mostly…
Arditti, J.A., & Kelly, M. (January 1994). Fathers' Perspectives of Their Co-parental Relationships Postdivorce: Implications for Family Practice and Legal Reform. Family Relations, 43, 61-67.
Baum, N. (Spring 2003). Divorce Process Variables and the Co-parental Relationship and Parental Role Fulfillment of Divorced Parents. Family Process, 42, 117-131.
Fagan, P.F., & Rector, R. (2000, October). The Effects of Divorce on America. World and I, 15. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5002376571
Kelly, J.B. (March 2007). Children's Living Arrangements Following Separation and Divorce: Insights From Empirical And Clinical Research. Family Process,46, 35-52.
Long-Term Effects of Divorce on Children
esearch reveals divorce negatively impacts the divorcing individuals. The effects of divorce the children of divorcing parents experience, however, has not been heavily researched. Consequently, the focus for this qualitative case study examines six studies, to investigate the long-term effects of divorce on children.
"A stable family situation after divorce does not erase the negative effects of a divorce, but children in this situation fare much better than do those who experience chronic instability"
Ohio State University (2008, ¶ 4).
Marks of Divorce
In some "bad" marriages, some spouses contend divorce would likely relieve their stress and proffer the way to a happier life. According to a study of 416 rural Iowa women by researchers from Iowa State University's Institute for Social and Behavioral esearch, however, over a 10-year span, divorce increased chronic stress and produced greater physical illness ("Divorce increases chronic," 2006). What…
After divorce, stable families help minimize long-term harm to children. (2008). Ascribe
Education News Service. AScribe. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from HighBeam Research:
As a result, the child's threshold for withstanding teen relationship challenges is reduced in future.
These personality traits are especially developed during adolescence because this is the period to which the boy would be defining ideologies behind relationships. It is also during this time that the boy's mental faculties would best comprehend attributes that define the relationship between a man and a woman. When the child is in the age group of 10-12/13, the impact might not be so domineering on the child's development as compared to later stages (14-18) in the life of the child (Livaditis, 2002).
Children brought up by narcissistic mothers are more likely to have a low self-esteem than those brought up by caring mothers. Narcissistic mothers make their children feel bad about themselves, thereby making the boy less confident, especially in his young adult life (between the ages of 13-18) (Chen, 2005). It is…
Chen, J. (2005). Cultivating Resilience in Children from Divorced Families. The Family
Journal, 13(4), 452-455.
Fine, M.A. (2003). Divorce, Childhood. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum
In reality, such a parent would have difficulty raising a child on his or her own and the finances that he or she previously invested in providing the child with entertaining activities need to be directed at buying more important resources for the child.
A parent who is no longer in charge of his or her child's life has practically no problems buying a great deal of things for his or her child and thus influences the child in feeling that he or she is not receiving enough attention from the parent holding custody. Children can also be affected by the fact that parents often believe that there is a competition between themselves and their peers concerning who receives the most appreciation from the child.
IV. Children's development
hereas people are well-aware that divorce can be harmful for a large number of children who see their parents getting separated, the…
Amato, Paul R. "The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children," Journal of Marriage and the Family 62.4 (2000)
DeBord, Carmen, "The Effects of Divorce on Children," Retrieved November 11, 2011, from the North Carolina State University Website: http://www.ces.ncsu.edu/depts/fcs/pdfs/fcs471.pdf
Leo, John, "The Sleeper Effect," Human Life Review Fall 2000.
Palosaari, Ulla and Aro, Hillevi, "Effect of Timing of Parental Divorce on the Vulnerability of Children to Depression in Young Adulthood,"Adolescence 29.115 (1994)
Of course, the amount of transitions (the amount of divorce in the family) greatly increases the risk for children to settle in satisfying marriages and divorce themselves when young adults.
Protective factors reducing impact of divorce on children
The research question here is whether there are any factors that may be considered that are empirically proved to be able to mitigate the effect of divorce in children.
Within the last decade, researchers have identified various such factors each having a range of associated variables themselves.
1. Competent custodial parents and parenting: One of the best protective factors is the quality of parenting following divorce and the psychological adjustment of the custodial parents. Effective parental behavior such as warmth, nurturing, emotional support, authoritative discipline, and age appropriate behavior demonstrate the best means for providing emotional support for children as compared to parents who are withdrawn, inattentive and provide coercive discipline (Sandler…
Amato, P. (2010). Research on divorce: Continuing trends and new developments Journal of Marriage and Family, 72, 650-666 .
Bausermann, R. (2002). Child adjustment in joint-custody vs. sole-custody arrangements: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Family Psychology, 16, 91 -- 102.
Kelly, J. (2007). Children's Living Arrangements Following Separation and Divorce: Insights From Empirical and Clinical Research. Fam Proc 46,35 -- 52.
Lansford, J.E. (2009). Parental divorce and children's adjustment Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4 140-152
Teens may be especially resentful of the way this disrupts their schedules and interferes with school, friendships, work, and other usual activities (Wallerstein, 2000). And further, especially in the case of a needy, now single parent, older children and teens in particular may now face a perceived necessity of their becoming the needy parent's new and often only source of emotional support (Wallerstein). At this same time, the older child or teen's own emotional needs begin to go (and often remain) largely or entirely unmet thereafter by one or both divorced parents (Fagan).
When this occurs, the permanently life-altering; long-term damaging psychological result is often that it effectively truncates childhood or adolescence prematurely and thereby causes older children or teens to feel that they must now act like adults themselves, thus suddenly forcing them to become more independent, self-confident, selfless and self-sufficient than they genuinely feel (Wallerstein). Older children and…
Fagan, P.F. (May 14, 2004). The social scientific data on the impact of marriage and divorce on children. The Heritage Foundation. http://www.heritage.org/
Fagan, P.F., & Rector, R. (2007). The effects of divorce on America.
Backgrounder: The Heritage Foundation, No. 1378. http:www.elsevier.com / retrieve/pii/S0194659504000061.html.
This article is of extreme importance in this research study. It adds to the other articles mentioned by discussing the importance of protective factors in detail and urging caution when espousing a correlative relationship between cause and effect in divorce and the reaction of children.
eon, K. (2003). Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental
Divorce: A Review of the Research. Family Relations, 52(3), pp.258-270.
In this article, eon (2003) attempts to address a gap in the research of divorce's affects on children by examining divorce's affects on small children. Citing Amato (2001), eon points out that research has previously shown children to face hardship because of divorce, although they "adjust well" (pg. 258), however, he suggests that these results generally take into account older children. eon (2003) looks primarily at the variable of early childhood development as it is impacted by divorce. Interestingly, eon (2003) found…
Leon, K. (2003). Risk and Protective Factors in Young Children's Adjustment to Parental
Divorce: A Review of the Research. Family Relations, 52(3), pp.258-270.
In this article, Leon (2003) attempts to address a gap in the research of divorce's affects on children by examining divorce's affects on small children. Citing Amato (2001), Leon points out that research has previously shown children to face hardship because of divorce, although they "adjust well" (pg. 258), however, he suggests that these results generally take into account older children. Leon (2003) looks primarily at the variable of early childhood development as it is impacted by divorce. Interestingly, Leon (2003) found results that were remarkably similar to Amato's, noting that children with divorced parents tended to be associated with developmental problems such as being withdrawn or having behavior problems. However, it would be easy to argue that other factors were responsible for these results. In addition, interpreting the results of these tests was made difficult by various factors that might lead to their invalidation, such as the fact that the data was collected from self-report surveys (Leon, 2003). Still Leon (2003) concludes that divorce certainly impacts the lives of young children very greatly and the developmental level of young children should determine how professionals such as psychologists respond to the issue of divorce in the child's home. Further, while parenting skills were important mitigating factors for both older and younger children after divorce, Leon (2003) points out that for younger children, it is most important that parents be warm and loving.
One such area is how divorce affects the children of divorce once they are married and have children of their own. Do they have difficulty committing? Are they more likely to delay marriage? Answers to these types of questions may prove beneficial to examining further the long-term effects of divorce on children.
esources in Palm Spring California include family and individual counseling services throughout the city. Some of these resources include The Counseling Center located at 1111 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way in Palm Springs, CA 92262. The phone number for the counseling center is (760) [HIDDEN] In addition, there is the Smoketree Counseling Services located at 2825 E. Tahquitz Canyon Way in Palm Springs, CA 92262. The phone number for smoketree is (760) [HIDDEN] Additionally there are other counselors in the area specializing in therapy as it relates to divorce. One such therapist is Nancy Ackerman. She has more…
Jeynes, W.H. (2001). The Effects of Recent Parental Divorce on Their Children's Consumption of Alcohol. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(3), 305. Retrieved February 23, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Lengua, L.J.,Wolchik S.A., Sandler I.N., West S.G.(2000) The Additive and Interactive effects of Parenting and Temperament in Predicting Adjustment Problems in Children of Divorce. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology. 29 (2), p.232.
Love, K.M. And Murdock T. (2004) Attachment to Parents and Psychological well being: An Examination of young Adult College Student in intact Families and Step Families Journal of Family Psychology. 18 (4)
Nielsen, L. (1999). College Aged Students with Divorced Parents: Facts and Fiction. College Student Journal, 33(4), 543.
Among the factors which this article elucidates are necessary to be considered, Hetherington et al. indicate that "the long-term effects are related more to the child's developmental status, sex, and temperament; the qualities of the home and parenting environments; and to the resources and support systems available to the parents and child than they are to divorce or remarriage per se." (Hetherington et al., 303)
From a clinical treatment perspective, the article by Konstam (2009) is particularly useful. This presents the view that for those verging on adulthood who experience the divorce of parents, there is a more sophisticated and thus more complex sense of loss which is difficult to interpret. This is experienced differently than the dissolution of a marriage for young children who may lack the wherewithal to have observed clear warning signs. Here, Konstam suggests that clinical assistance can be a valuable resource for contending with issues…
Amato, P. (2000). The Consequences of Divorce for Adults and Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 11-26.
Amato, P. & Cheadle, J.(2008). Parental divorce, marital conflict and children's behavior problems: A comparison of adopted and biological children. Social Forces, 83
Baker, a. (2005). The Long-term effects of parental alienation on adult children:
Few people would say that divorce helps children except in cases of abuse. Divorce can create tremendous confusion in children of any age. One of the keys to preventing psychological, behavioral, or social problems is honesty. A non-profit group called Health Guide offers advice for parents going through a divorce. The organization recommends honesty and communication as keys to helping children cope and preventing mental or behavioral health problems. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry also recommends age-appropriate honesty and openness. The Health Guide also points out that many children "go through their parents' divorce with relatively few problems or permanent negative effects." Those children who experience acute stress require special care and attention.
Depression, anxiety, social withdrawal, and a lack of interest in those things that used to give the child pleasure are some of the psychological symptoms of childhood stress. A divorce could add to existing…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. "Children and Divorce." May 2008. Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_divorce
Cherlin, Andrew J. "Generation Ex." The Nation. Nov 27, 2000. Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20001211/cherlin
Gallagher, Maggie. "The Divorce Thing." National Review Online. Aug 13, 2003. Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/comment-gallagher081303.asp
Help Guide.org. "Coping with Divorce." Retrieved Oct 14, 2008 at http://www.helpguide.org/mental/children_divorce.htm
Data will be collected using a survey instrument. The instrument will be designed by researchers for the purposes of this particular study and will feature two sections. The first section will ask for some brief familial and biographical information. First and foremost, the survey will ask the life and marital status of the respondents' parents, accounting for single mothers, single fathers, legal non-biological guardians, divorced parents, remarried parents and married parents. This section will also ask for information regarding siblings and other particulars of the family living situation. Surveys will not ask for names or other individual identifiers, insuring anonymity and privacy for all respondents.
In the second section of the survey, aata will be collected using a Fixed Alternatives Likert Scale survey. Here, 20 statements will be presented to the respondent. The respondent will be asked to circle one of five numbered responses:
-2. Strongly Disagree
Ananat & Michaels (2008) concur with the emphasis on income being the deciding factor upon the divorced child's success. They found that divorce significantly "increases women's odds of having very high or very low income. In other words, while some women successfully compensate for lost spousal earnings through child support, welfare, combining households, and increasing labor supply, others are markedly unsuccessful. e conclude that by raising both poverty and inequality, divorce has important welfare consequences" (Ananat & Michaels 2008). Some women use divorce as a vehicle of self-empowerment, for other women who are unable to compensate, poverty becomes more severe in a single-income household. Another interesting finding of Ananat & Michael's research is that "having a female first-born child significantly increases the probability that a woman's first marriage breaks up," and this may account for the lower incomes of children with divorce, if women still tend to earn less than…
Ananat, E., & G. Michaels. (2008). The effect of marital breakup on the income distribution of women with children. The Journal of Human Resources, 43(3), 611. Retrieved August
9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1521034461).
Steele, F., W. Sigle-Rushton, & Y. Kravdal. (2009). Consequences of family disruption on children's educational outcomes in Norway. Demography, 46(3), 553-574. Retrieved
August 9, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 1799973811).
Impacts of Divorce on Children
a. While divorce can be the lesser of two evils, divorce nonetheless can affect any involved children in many ways.
II. Positive Effects
a. Children feel a sense of relief
b. They are happier if the parents thrive after splitting up
c. Happier but split parents mean happier kids
d. Shared custody can be much better than a volatile household
e. Modeling that leaving a dysfunctional relationship is a good thing
III. Negative Effects
a. Children might act out at school
b. Single parent families can be cash-strapped
c. The effects of the divorce can extend into the child’s adult life
d. The take offense to one parent verbally assaulting the other
e. Stress of some sort is normal and expected
a. Parents should work things out if possible, but some marriages should end if certain lines are cross or attempts…
0%), cohabiting parents (61.8%), cohabiting stepparents (71.0%), and married stepparents (65.2-16%).
Recall that when we consider all children, we find that the food insecurity rates are significantly lower for children living with married stepparents than for children with cohabiting parents or single-mother families.
Finally, food insecurity rates are significantly lower for lower-income children living with their married biological/adoptive parents (46.8%) than for all other groups considered.
The share of lower-income children who are food-insecure declined by 4.0 percentage points between 1997 and 2002.
Food insecurity rates fell for lower-income children living with married parents, married stepparents, and single mothers but went up for children with cohabiting parents, although none of these changes are statistically significant.
According to Sari Friedman, attorney, children still need both parents even after the divorce and the parents should both continue involvement in the child health education and welfare taking an active role. In December 1,…
Divorce as an experience is never easy for anyone, not the adults and especially not the children, on which the effects of divorce can take a serious toll. However, there are some factors that play a significant role in determining the impact of that experience for the child. Age, the way the entire procedure of divorce is handled, how mature parents have behaved throughout it, how the environment of the home remained pre and post divorce all are instrumental in effecting the psychological well-being of the child, whose mind is still young enough to develop imprints that can last a lifetime (University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension, n.d).
The effects of the breaking up of a family can be very consequential for the growing up child, and can even result in effects like having sex before the age of 16, getting pregnant at a young age like 20, including the…
Alastair McPhee, F.C. (2009). Disruptive Behaviour within the classroom: an ecosystemic view of pupil behaviour. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from University of Glasgow: https://dspace.gla.ac.uk/bitstream/1905/805/3/McPhee_Craig.pdf
Ceridian Corporation. (n.d). Helping Children deal with Change. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from Georgia 4-H: http://georgia4h.org/omk/edresources/KidsAndChange.pdf
Pow, H. (2011, May 8th). Divorce's toll borne by Children. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from The Sunday Telegraph: http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/divorces-toll-borne-by-children/story-fn6e0s1g-1226051650069
University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension. (n.d). The Effects of Divorce on Children. Retrieved Sept 4th, 2011, from UNH: http://extension.unh.edu/Family/Documents/divorce.pdf
Therefore, extra attention should be given to keeping promises and basic daily routines.
inslow, Emily B.; olchik, Sharlene a.; Sander, Irwin. "Preventive Interventions for Children of Divorce." Psychiatric Times; 2/1/2004; Pp.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
Sirica, Jack. "The Children of Divorce." Newsday; 5/19/1994; Pp.
Pruett, Marsha Kline. "Only God Decides: Young Children's Perceptions of Divorce and the Legal System." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 12/1/1999; Pp.
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Effects of divorce on children." Talk of the Nation:
National Public Radio; 1/31/2002; Pp.
Neuman, Gary M. Helping Your Kids Cope ith Divorce the Sandcastles ay.
Random House Inc. 1999; pp.4, 6.
Lansky, Vicki. Vicki Lansky's Divorce Book for Parents: Helping Your Children
Cope ith Divorce and Its Aftermath. Book Peddlers.1996; Pp. 2.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
inslow, Emily B.; olchik, Sharlene…
Winslow, Emily B.; Wolchik, Sharlene a.; Sander, Irwin. "Preventive Interventions for Children of Divorce." Psychiatric Times; 2/1/2004; Pp.
Meckler, Laura. "U.S. Compiles Divorce Statistics." AP Online; 7/24/2002; Pp.
Sirica, Jack. "The Children of Divorce." Newsday; 5/19/1994; Pp.
Pruett, Marsha Kline. "Only God Decides: Young Children's Perceptions of Divorce and the Legal System." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry; 12/1/1999; Pp.
Others, however, have argued that children do not become familiar with the new spouse, seeing him or her as a stranger, which might suggest that stress is furthered rather than reduced in these children. According to Jeynes (1998), tension between biological parents can seriously impact the child, as can the fact that new, unstable marriages are likely to end in divorce (p. 25). Because of this tension and stress Jeynes (1998) points out that children can become angry, aggressive, and unhappy (p. 26). Thus, the body of literature regarding the effects of remarriage on children varies widely. One fact, however, remains. Divorce and remarriage causes stress in children, and this stress can explain many of the negative affects that they receive after remarriage. emarriage, in some cases, however, also brings stability, which can explain the positive affects, such as increased academic achievement, that these children exemplified.
Jeynes, William H.…
Jeynes, William H. (1998). A Historical Overview on the Research on the effects of Remarriage Following Divorce on the Academic Achievement of Children. The School Community Journal. 8(1), 23-30.
More of them end up in mental health clinics and hospital settings. There is earlier sexual activity, more children born out of wedlock, less marriage, and more divorce. Numerous studies show that adult children of divorce have more psychological problems than those raised in intact marriages." (Kupelian, 2005) it is reported in the work entitled: "Reflections on Distressed Couples Contemplating Divorce One Study of the Structured Separation Process" that the high divorce rate has caused family therapists to search for ways for families to make necessary transitions during divorce in what is termed a structural marriage separation. While this cannot assure happiness for couples or their children this method is clearly preferable to the chaos that often ensues when a couple separates. (Mize, Nelson, Sutter, and Mize, 2005)
Summary & Analysis
The factual evidence provided in this case which is under analysis was provided in a brief sketch only which…
Kupelian, D. (2005) How America Can End Its Divorce Epidemic. World Net Daily 7 April 2005. http://www.stolenvows.com/epidemic.htm
Waite, L.J.; Browning, D.; Doherty, W.J.; Gallagher, M.; Luo, Ye; and Stanley, S.(2002) Does Divorce Make People Happy? Findings from a Study of Unhappy Marriages. Institute for American Values. 2002, New York, NY http://www.americanvalues.org/UnhappyMarriages.pd
Mize, L.K.; Nelson, K.; Sutter, E.; and Mize, M.J. (2005) Reflections on Distressed Couples Contemplating Divorce One Study of the Structured Separation Process.
Wallerstein, Judith S.; and Lewis, Julia M. (2004) the Unexpected Legacy of Divorce: Report of a 25-Year Study. Psychoanalytic Psychology 21:353-370. 2004.
A good number of studies over the years have linked deviant behaviors such as juvenile delinquency and anti-social behavior to children living in broken homes (Bandura & Walters in Demo & Acock, 1988, p.636). Dornbusch et al.'s (in ibid.) nationwide study among 12-17 male and female children of divorced families found that adolescents living in household with only their mothers performing the sole parent role are more likely to engage in deviant acts while the presence of an additional adult lessens the likelihood of committing deviant acts.
Long have we known about the negative effects of divorce, I believe it is high time to look at the under-acknowledged domain of the divorce literature, i.e. The positive effects of divorce. According to Hetherington & Kelly in Lyons (2002, p.1), three-fourths of the children from divorced families have actually grown to be resilient and lead lives with healthy…
Cooney, T.M. et al. (1995). Surviving the Break-Up? Predictors of Parent-Adult Child Relations After Parental Divorce. Family Relations, 44, 153-161.
Demo, DH & Acock, a.C. (1988). The Impact of Divorce on Children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 619-648.
Henning, J.S. & Oldham, J.T. (1977). Children of Divorce: Legal and Psychological Crises. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 1, 55-58.
Lyons, L. (2002). Gallup Tuesday Briefing. Kids and Divorce 1, 1-3.
The second includes verbal and emotional assaults including persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, and other nonphysical, but clearly hostile or rejecting behaviors, such as repeated threats of beatings, sexual assault, and abandonment. The third, residual, category includes other forms of emotional abuse such as attempted sexual or physical assaults; throwing something at a child but missing; withholding shelter, sleep, or other necessities as punishment, and economic exploitation (p.11).
According to ighthand, Kerr, and Drach (2003), psychological abuse can be technically defined as:
1. Verbal or emotional assault, exemplified by persistent patterns of belittling, denigrating, scapegoating, or other nonphysical but rejecting, hostile, and degrading behaviors.
2. Terrorizing the child, exemplified by threatening to physically hurt, kill, or abandon the child, or by exposing the child to chronic or extreme partner abuse or other forms of violent behaviors.
3. Exploiting or corrupting the child, exemplified by modeling criminal or antisocial behavior;…
Barnett, D., Manly, J.T., and Cicchetti, D. (1994). Defining child maltreatment: the interface between policy and research. Child abuse, child development, and social policy: advances in applied developmental psychology, 8,7-73. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation.
Calam, R. & Franchi, C. (1987). Child abuse and its consequences. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Grapes, B.J. (2001). Child abuse. California: Greenhaven Press.
Parton, N. (1979). The natural history of child abuse: a study in social problem definition. British Journal of Social Work, 9, 427-51.
(Coleman et al., 2006) there are more significant differences between race and ethnic groups in beliefs about intergenerational assistance than are expected by chance the differences are not large. As expected, White European-Americans perceive that less help should be given to older adults than is true of African-Americans and Asian-Americans. Unexpectedly, European-Americans and Latinos rarely differ in their beliefs about intergenerational assistance. When differences exist among the three minority groups, it is typically because African-Americans and Asian-Americans perceive that more help should be given to older family members than Latinos. The family plays a unique role in forming and sustaining intimate relationships; however, there have been notable changes in the family in the past 50 years. As marriages are being delayed, birth rates are decreasing, and maternal employment, divorce, cohabitation, and births to single mothers are increasing, the course of intimate relationships is becoming more diverse and less stable and…
Bean, R.A., Crane, D.R., & Lewis, T.L. (2002). Basic research and implications for practice in family science: A content analysis and status report for U.S. ethnic groups. Family Relations, 51, 15-21.
Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001). First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage: United Stales (Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics No. 323). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
Chadiha, L.A., Veroff, J., & Leber, D. (1998). Newlywed's narrative themes: Meaning in the first year of marriage for African-American and White couples. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 29, 115-130.
Coleman, M., Ganong, L.H., & Rothrauff, T.C. (2006, December). Racial and Ethnic Similarities and Differences in Beliefs about Intergenerational Assistance to Older Adults After Divorce and Remarriage. Family Relations, 55(5), pp. 576-587.
Homosexual Marriage and the Impacts on Parenting
Homosexual marriage refers to legal matrimony between two individuals of the same gender and it is a phenomenon which has come under a great deal of scrutiny and debate during the last few years. As of the time of this writing nine states have legalized gay marriage, and 31 states have constitutional amendments which ban gay marriage to some extent -- a fact alone which showcases this nation's level of homophobia and a reluctance to deliver fundamental rights, like the right to pursue happiness. However, the topic of this paper is to examine the impacts of gay marriage on parenting and the kids that grow up having two moms or two dads. Even the most conservative, right-winged, and religiously literal people will admit, that if there's one thing that this nation needs; for example, the following conservative remarked: "Many studies show that single…
Balling, R. (2012, Septemver 28). Why same-sex marriage affects my marriage. Retrieved from Star tribune: http://www.startribune.com/opinion/commentaries/171613511.html?refer=y
Carey, B. (2012, June 11). Debate on a Study Examining Gay Parents. Retrieved from NYTimes: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/12/health/study-examines-effect-of-having-a-gay-parent.html?_r=0
Chrisler, J. (2010, June 24). Why gay parents are good parents. Retrieved from Cnn.com: http://articles.cnn.com/2010-06-24/opinion/chrisler.gay.parents_1_adoptions-by-gay-people-anti-gay-gay-pride?_s=PM:OPINION
Narth.com. (n.d.). Gay Parenting Does Affect Children Differently, Study Finds. Retrieved from Narth.com: http://www.narth.com/docs/does.html
Couples might do everything that they are required to do and follow all the rules. They will never work if one's personal standpoint with regards to marriage is defective. They need to work on solving their marital issue because they believe in and want to cherish its value. It will never produce the same effect if a couple is seeking out ways to make it seem valuable. A majority of therapists who work on the problems of others might have been divorced themselves and are in the business just for the money. They are just professionals who are certified as a therapist based on their education. They are far from being perfect and can even induce couples to actually go through with divorce when they find themselves hopelessly ineffective in a particular situation. A lot of couples still go for marital therapy even though they are aware of such occurrences.…
Ambert, A.M (2009). Divorce: Facts, Causes & Consequences Contemporary Family Trends, 17 -- 25.
Gardner, J. & Oswald, A.J.(2005) Do Divorcing Couples become happier by breaking up ? Journal of the Royal Statistical Soceity
Waters, T.(2003) Premarital Counseling in the Church. Retrieved from http://www.tiu.edu/cmx/seniors03/waters.pdf
Erlangsen, A. & Andersson, G.(2001) The impact of children on divorce risks in the first and later marriages.
Divorce is one of the bitter truths of life and is taking place in innumerable families worldwide. It can prove to be an upsetting experience for the parents. However, both the parties should think of their children before taking any decision as divorce affects the lives of the children in a real bad way.
These days, it is totally impossible for people to ignore the substantial and extensive consequences of divorce. The social scientists believe that the ever increasing rate of parents separating or ending their marriages is not only bad for the society but is also an upsetting and destructive experience for the children. The divorce not only has the tendency to devastate a whole household or family life but it also affects the education acquirement process, job reliability, income likely, physical health, and emotional well-being of the family members. Children of divorced parents involve themselves in alcohol and…
Fagan, P.F., and Robert R. "The Effects of Divorce on America." World and I Oct. Questia. Web. 31 May 2012. .
Kelly, J.B., and R.E. Emery . "Children's Adjustment Following Divorce: Risk and Resilience Perspectives." Family Relations. (2003): 352-362. Print.
Koplewicz, H.S., and A. Gurian. "Divorce and Children." Child Study Center. September/October 2001: n. page. Web. 31 May. 2012. .
McCoy, J. "Divorce Matters." Family Life. 3. (1996): n. page. Web. 31 May. 2012. .
They can go one of two ways, if they have social and emotional problems brought on by the divorce. They can spend their teenage years being wild and out-of-control, or they can spend them as a virtual recluse, rarely leaving their rooms except to go to mandatory functions such as school. Neither one of these options is very good, and both can lead to more problems later on in life.
When children become wild and hard to control, parents are often at a loss as to how to help them. It is difficult enough to control a wild, unruly teenager when there are two parents in the house, but much more difficult when there is only one parent. To compound the problem, that single parent often works two jobs or long hours to provide food, clothing, and shelter for himself or herself and the children. This absence from the house…
Ahrons, C.R. & Tanner, J.L. (2003) Adult children and their fathers: Relationship changes 20 years after parental divorce. Family Relations, 52: 340-351.
Amato, P. & DeBoer, D. (2001). The transmission of marital stability across generations: Relationship skills or commitment to marriage? Journal of Marriage and Family, 63: 1038-1051.
Biblarz, T.J., & Gottainer, G. (2000) Family Structure and Children's Success: A Comparison of Widowed and Divorced Single-Mother Families. Journal of Marriage and Family. 62: 533-548.
Hetherington, E.M. (2003) Intimate pathways: changing patterns in close personal relationships across time. Family Relations, 52: 318-331.
oth death and divorce are extreme experiences in a child's life and both can have a wide range of native psychological and developmental repercussions. Divorce is seen by many experts to be a potentially extremely traumatic experience in the life of the child. This of course does not mean to say that the impact of death is not equally traumatic. However, while the very young child may not be aware enough to be impacted by the death of parent, the effects of divorce are often felt over a longer long period and can be extremely traumatic for the child's sense of identify and self-worth. As an expert states, " divorce undermines this nurturing atmosphere. Children are very much affected by the disruption and absence of a unified two-parent home environment." (Dueck)
In essence this means that any traumatic event, whether it be death or divorce, that destroys or…
Generation At Risk. Nov. 11, 2006. http://www.rainbows.org/statistics.html
Dueck, Ami. DIVORCE AND THE BEST INTERESTS OF THE CHILD. 2004. http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:fjUsSic3ZV8J:www.fotf.ca/tfn/family/PDF/Divorce_impact.pdf+%22contact+with+a+non-custodial+parent+should+not+be+taken+lightly%22%22&hl=en&gl=za&ct=clnk&cd=1&lr=lang_en
SELF TYPES & THEIR DIFFERENCES ACROSS GENERATIONS
AND THE LIFE-CYCLE. Nov. 11, 2006. http://www.trinity.edu/mkearl/socpsy-6.html
Divorce on Children
Children of divorce can be negatively impacted by the separation of parents and the concomitant stress associated with the parents' relationship. These negative effects can range from mild cases to extreme, and can differ according to gender and age (i.e., development level of the child). External factors also play a part in the degree of the effect of the divorce, such as socioeconomic conditions of the family, integration in the community/society, the social behavior of the child, interaction with siblings/peers, and the level of continued involvement of the parents in the life of the child. Children of divorce can be assisted through various types of therapy, such as Art Therapy and Play Therapy, both of which help to facilitate cognitive and emotional skills within the child, as the two sides of the child's brain develop (the logical and the emotional side). Narratives are particularly helpful in that…
Most abuse is committed by parents, but stepparents also commit abuse, and this is another social factor that can lead to child abuse. Many sociologists believe that stepparents have less of a bond with stepchildren than their own children, and they may be led to abuse their stepchildren while they do not abuse their own children (Wilson & Daly, 1987, p. 217-220).
The eligious Theory
The religious theory of social cause cites control as a large cause of child abuse. From a very young age, the child is controlled by both the parents and the religious order. One sociological expert notes, "Believing parents do not merely indoctrinate their children on the virtues of their own religion. They warn their young against embracing other religions, against following their customs and beliefs" (Innaiah, 2003). Thus, children attend church from a very young age, and are controlled by their parents to attend church,…
Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.). (1987). Child abuse and neglect: Biosocial dimensions. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
Innaiah, N. (2003, Summer). Child abuse by religions: Children must be rescued from religion and restored to humanity. Free Inquiry, 23, 47+.
Morales, a. (1998, September). Seeking a cure for child abuse. USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 127, 34+.
Newberger, C.M. (1987). Chapter 10 Time, place, and parental awareness: a cognitive-developmental perspective on family adaptation and parental care. In Child Abuse and Neglect Biosocial Dimensions, Gelles, R.J. & Lancaster, J.B. (Eds.) (pp. 233-251). New York: Aldine De Gruyter.
5). While divorce can lead to safety for children and adults caught in violent and abusive relationships, it can also lead to increased violence down the line. Studies indicate that children who grow up in abusive situations often tend to become abusive themselves as adults, and this means that abuse and violence could continue to grow in our culture as these children grow up and continue the ongoing cycle of abuse and violence.
Another bedrock of American culture is religion, and divorce goes against many religious teachings. The freedom to worship any religion we please is a foundation of the country and our culture, and religious worship tends to go down in divorced families. Fagan and ector continue, "eligious worship, which has been linked to health and happiness as well as longer marriages and better family life, is less prevalent in divorced families" (Fagan, and ector). This means that…
Butler, Ian, et al. Divorcing Children: Children's Experience of Their Parents' Divorce. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2003.
Cozort, Larry a. "Is the Tax Court Becoming a Divorce Court? The Answer Could Change How the Innocent Spouse Rules Are Interpreted." Journal of Accountancy 195.2 (2003): 35+.
Doherty, William J., et al. "Why Marriage Matters: Twenty-One Conclusions from the Social Sciences." New York: Institute for American Values, 2002.
Editors. "Divorce Statistics." Divorce Magazine. 2005. 5 Nov. 2008. http://www.divorcemag.com/statistics/statsUS.shtml
divorce, which by definition is the final termination of matrimonial union flanked by two parties and the legal process has to be followed, The research aims at bringing out the causes and the impact or effects of divorce by so doing the paper will highlight some causes and effects about the topic and then arguments supporting the ideas will be spell based on supporting references.
Divorce is the final termination of matrimonial union flanked by two parties, many at times the approval of court of law and in some cases other legal authorities are needed to authenticate this process. This process features many issues like spousal support, where children are involved we have child support and custody and finally we have distribution of property.
Subsequently to the refinement, marriage came to be well thought-out as a common bond that is among the non-Catholic expanses based on this ground civil authorities…
Blackstone (1984), "Commentaries on the Laws of England" p. 435 (Legal Classics Library spec. ed.
Pamela J. Smock, (1993) "The Economic Costs of Marital Disruption for Young Women over the Past Two Decades." Demography 30: 353-371.
Robert Coombs (1991), "Marital Status and Personal Well-Being" A Literature Review," Family Relations 40:97-102; I.M. Joung, et al.
Rowd, Alisha (2011), "Common Causes of Divorce." 3 Jan. 2008 EzineArticles.com. 8 Feb.
The break-up of a marriage involving children in the middle childhood stage is an increasingly frequent occurrence in modern society. Children experience these divorces in a variety of ways, depending on the quality of the relationship between the parents and children. Either way, the effect upon self-esteem could be significant. Children learn behavior patterns from parents. When parents face self-esteem issues from being unable to make their relationship work, this will undoubtedly affect children as well. Children might also blame themselves for the break-up of the marriage, and thus carry this often unnamed burden with them until adulthood. A divorce could therefore be a devastating thing for children, and careful attention should be paid to possible therapy options.
Parents that stay together regardless of endless conflict could be equally damaging for the development of self-esteem in middle childhood. Constant hostility and tension between parents could badly affect the growth…
Kim, Lauren S. (April, 1997). "Locus of control as a stress moderator and mediator in children of divorce." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.
Lengua, Liliana J. (December, 1996). "Self-regulation as a moderator of the relation between coping and symptomatology in children of divorce." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.
Wolchik, Sharlene A. (August, 2002). "Fear of abandonment as a mediator of the relations between divorce stressors and mother-child relationship quality and children's adjustment problems." In Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, Plenum Publishing Corporation. From online database Findarticles.com.
Divorce and Communication
In the past few decades, divorces have become much more common than they traditionally were. Lack of communication has been identified by psychologists, marriage counselors, and clergy members as the main reason why families end in divorce. The last-reported U.S. divorce rate for a calendar year, available as of May, 2005, was .38% divorces per capita per year (National Center for Health Statistics, 2005). Since every divorce involves two people, the percentage becomes somewhat more meaningful if you double it; for example, .74% of the entire population gets divorced every year (National Center for Health Statistics, 2005). This paper will first analyze the divorce statistics in the United States, along with a discussion of the issue of communication as it relates to the reasons behind divorce, family breakups, conflict in marriage caused by different cultures, lack of friendship in a marriage, and what can be done to…
Boland, J.P. & Follingstad, D.R. (1987). The relationship between communication and marital satisfaction: a review. J Sex Marital Ther. 13(4), 286-313.
Dreyfus, Edward. (2002). Making your Marriage Work. Retrieved June 28, 2005 from http://www.planetpsych.com/psychology101/relationships/making_marriage_work.htm .
National Center for Health Statistics. (2005). Divorce Rates in the United States. Retrieved June 26, 2005 from http://www.divorce.rates.reform.com
Segrin, Chris; Taylor, Melissa; Altman, Julie. (2005). Social cognitive mediators and relational outcomes associated with parental divorce. Journal of Social and Personal
Director Martin Teicher of the Developmental iophsychiatry Research Program at McLean said that maltreatment in childhood can effect changes in brain function and structure. A child's brain continues to develop throughout childhood and adolescence. His interactions with the environment create effects, which stabilize in puberty and adulthood. These experiences determine how the child will be wired. The four types of cranial abnormalities, which are permanent, are limbic irritability, arrested development of the left hemisphere, deficient integration between the left and the right hemispheres, and increased vermal activity.
The McLean researchers investigated 253 adults in an outpatient mental health clinic. More than half of them reported a history of physical or sexual abuse in childhood. The researchers found that those who were abused as children scored higher in the Limbic System Checklist. The finding provided evidence that abuse in childhood caused electrical impulses when limbic cells communicate. This results in seizures,…
Business Wire (2000). McLean Researchers document brain damage linked to child abuse and neglect. Business Wire: Gale, Cengage Learning. Retrieved on April 16,
2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOEIN/is_2000_Dec_14/ai_68013850/?tag=content;col1
Lapp, K.G.; Bosworth, H.B.; Strauss, J.L.; Stechuchak, K.M., et al. (2005). Lifetime
sexual and physical victimization among male veterans with combat-related Post-
deduce the effects of parenting on the process of coping for a child, as parents take divorces or get separated. The data sample includes children aged between 9 to 12 years. These effects are being reviewed by studying the changes induced by intervention in a mother-child relationship quality and discipline (Ve'lez, Wolchik, Tein, & Sandler, 2011).
The article explains that children are more prone to the risk of getting mental health problems if they suffer from psychosocial stressors. In the presence of these stressors, such mental health problems can be avoided if the coping efforts are more active and engaging. Coping efficacy or the belief in one's self of being able to positively negotiate with the effects of emotional traumas and situations also plays a positive part in keeping at bay the development of mental health problems. It is mentioned that several factors can aid in developing an effective coping…
Ve'lez, C.E., Wolchik, S.A., Tein, J.-Y., & Sandler, I. (2011). Protecting Children From the Consequences of Divorce: A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Parenting on Children's Coping Processes. Child Development, January/February, Volume 82, Number 1., Pages 244 -- 257.
Divorce Affects Children and Teenagers
This paper presents a discussion about how divorce affects children and teenagers. The writer takes a sociological path in exploring the long-term affects on the individuals and then how that related to society. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
During the last four decades the divorce rate began to climb not only in America but also across the globe. As families began to live in separate houses researchers took on the task of studying the affects of the divorce on children and teenagers (Dunn, 1999). Now, four decades later the results are in and the experts agree divorce has an undeniable negative impact on children and teenagers. This is not to say the negative impact cannot be counterbalanced but it must be recognized as a given for groups of people affected by divorce if the world wants to correct the affects from…
Karen Thomas, On the Adolescent Hot Line: The sensitive issues Parents' divorce can compound the tough teen years., USA Today, 10-12-1998, pp 04D.
Ross Dunn (VOA-Jerusalem), Study: Children Affected by Divorce., Israel Faxx, 02-11-1999.
Author not available, CHILDREN DO SUFFER MOST FROM A DIVORCE., USA Today, 01-22-1996.
Wheaton, Blair. 1990. "Life Transitions, Role Histories, and Mental Health." American Sociological Review 55:209-23.
Rising Divorce Rates
The Need for and Purpose of the Project
Impact of Divorce on Children
Chapter 5-Conclusions, Summary and Recommendations,
The Need for and the Purpose of the Project
Divorce has become popular throughout the many years it has existed and divorce rates continue to increase. More than a million people a year get a divorce (Tucker-Ladd 35). Young couples are more commonly known to get a divorce, than those who have been married for two or three years (35). Forty percent of men and fifty percent of women are divorced before that age of thirty (35). About fifteen to twenty percent of people ages 35 to 55 are now currently divorced (35). About twenty percent of marriages last less than fifteen years (35). Recent statistics say that sixty-five to seventy percent of new marriages will fail (35).
There is one thing in…
Berry, Dawn Bradley. "The divorce recovery sourcebook." Los Angeles: Lowell
House, c 1998
Bienenfeld, Florence Ph. D, M.F.C.C. "Do It Yourslef Conflict Resolution for Couples." Franklin Lakes, NJ: The Career Press, 2000.
Cavin, Shelly Smith. "Personality Types and Interpersonal Communication."
Kung San Trial Marriages and U.S. Divorce Rates.
The!Kung San are a hunter-gatherer people that inhabit the Kalahari desert in Africa. They are the ushmen who have managed to live a contented, self-governed life while the rest of the world has sprung up around them in a mass of technology and dysfunction. They live a community life where the economy is based on sharing and "among the first words a child learns are na ("give it to me") and ihn ("take this")" (Shostak 2000:44) giving outsiders the impression of a quaint carefree nomadic life.
Nevertheless there are many similarities shared between Americans and the!Kung San, some of which are as simple as equal love for their children, to the interesting arrangements of a 'trial marriage'. A!Kung trial marriage could be acquainted with people living together before getting married, or cohabiting as part of a condition before marriage, depending on religious…
Family, Marriage and De Facto Unions
Pontifical Council for the Family, Vatican November 2000
Online copy: www.catholicculture.org/docs/doc_view.cfm?recnum=3242&CFID=488458&CFTOKEN=13604336
US Divorce Rates
Homosexual Parents on Children
Conversations around the appropriateness of homosexual parents adopting, having or even raising children pose the argument of the effects on the children. However, research of the effects is rare, as well as limited in the direct topic. To follow is a review of key pieces of literature discussing the concepts of diverse family environments and the effects the environments.
Evidence supports the knowledge that children do not learn how to be homosexual by interacting and upbringing by homosexual parents. In fact, more research leads to the belief that children of homosexual families have a broader understanding of sexuality and awareness, and most information points to a heterosexual environment in the learning process (Gabb, 2004). Suggesting that learning environments need more diversity, yet there is the stigmatic thought that "social codes of decency" (Gabb, 2004) are "universal truths and normality's" (Gabb, 2004) of what would be deemed…
(1978). Children of gays: Sexually 'normal'. Science News, 113(24), 389.
Chan, R., Brooks, R., Raboy, B., & Patterson, C. (1998). Division of labor among lesbian and heterosexual parents: Associations with children's adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 12(3), 402-419. doi:10.1037/0893-322.214.171.1242.
Cramer, D. (1986). Gay Parents and Their Children: A Review of Research and Practical Implications. Journal of Counseling & Development, 64(8), 504.
Gabb, J. (2004). Sexuality education: how children of lesbian mothers 'learn' about sex/uality. Sex Education, 4(1), 19-34.
Domestic Violence on Children
Many people throughout the world have traditionally believed that women's natural roles were as mothers and wives and considered women to be better suited for childbearing and homemaking than for involvement in the public life of business or politics. This popular belief that women were somehow intellectually inferior to men, based in large part on religious authority, has led many societies throughout the world to limit women's education to learning domestic skills and relegating them to a second-class citizen status. By and large, the world has been run by well-educated, upper-class men who controlled most positions of employment and power in these societies and to a large extent continue to do so today. While the status of women today varies dramatically in different countries and, in some cases, among groups within the same country, such as ethnic groups or economic classes, women continue to experience the…
Bagley, C. (1992). Development of an adolescent stress scale for use of school counsellors. School Psychology International 13, 31-49.
Beitchman, J., Zucker, K., Hood, J., DaCosta, G., Ackaman, D. & Cassavia, E. (1992). A review of the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Child Abuse and Neglect, 16, 101-118.
Belsky J. & Vondra J. (1989). Lessons from child abuse: The determinants of parenting. In D. Cicchetti & V. Carlson (Eds.), Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect (pp. 153-202). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Briere, J.N. (1992). Child Abuse Trauma. Theory and Treatment of the Lasting Effects. Newbury Park, CA:Sage.
We are essentially powerless to prevent all dysfunctions - but, the mental health and social support structures within communities have the responsibility to do as much as they possibly can to promote healthy family life for all. This support often involves early identification of dysfunctional families, counseling, disruption of negative patterns. The schools, churches, hospitals and any other institution both public and private have a responsibility to reach out and try to help those who are suffering - and often that suffering must be alleviated at the source, the dysfunctional family.
Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant irthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).
Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).
Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk ehaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning…
Abell, Troy D., et al. "The Effects of Family Functioning on Infant Birthweight." Journal of Family Pratice 32.1 (1991): 37(8).
Hamamci, Zeynep. "Dysfunctional relationship beliefs in parent-late adolescent relationship and conflict resolution behaviors." College Student Journal 41.1 (2007): 122(16).
Hillis, Susan D., et al. "Adverse Childhood Experiences and Sexual Risk Behaviors in Women: A Retrospective Study." Family Planning Perspectivesq 33.5 (2001): 206(5).
Martin, Don and Maggie Martin. "Understanding Dysfunctional and Functional Family Behaviors for the at-Risk Adolescent." Adolescence 35.140 (2000): 785(4).
Are Social Networking and Sites Increasing the Rate of Divorce?
The first element of this hypothesis is: are divorce rates really increasing? Generalized references to divorce seem to consistently say "the divorce rate is increasing" and "50% of all U.S. marriages end in divorce." However, if 50% of all U.S. marriages ended in divorce in 1980, and the same percentage in 1990 and the same in 2000 and the same in 2010, then at least in that respect, the rate of divorce is not increasing. According to "Divorce Rates," the per capita rate of divorce in the U.S. was: "1991, 0.47%; 1992, 0.48%; 1993, 0.46%; 1994, 0.46%; 1995, 0.46%; 1995, 0.43%; 1997, 0.43%; 1998, 0.42%; 1999, 0.41%; 2000, 0.41%; 2001, 0.40%; 2002, 0.38%; 2005, 0.36%" (Americans for Divorce Reform, 2006), and according to the "Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog," the divorce rate in 2010 was 0.36% (Divorce Statistics…
Americans for Divorce Reform. (2006). Divorce Rates - Divorce Statistics. Retrieved from divorcereform.org: http://www.divorcereform.org/rates.html
Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog. (2011, July 1). Divorce Statistics and Studies Blog. Retrieved from familylaw.typepad.com: http://familylaw.typepad.com/stats/
Kendall, T.D. (2010). The Relationship Between Internet Access and Divorce Rate. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Volume 32, Number 3, 449-460.
Live Science Staff. (2010, January 26). College-Educated Women More Likely to Stay Married. Retrieved from livescience.com: http://www.livescience.com/8049-college-educated-women-stay-married.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Livesciencecom+ (LiveScience.com+Science+Headline+Feed)
childhood obesity and its correlation to social-economic background. he researchers argued that attention to childhood obesity focuses on genetic and environmental factors, and there is the increasingly prevalent belief that pediatric obesity may be a combination of both. Environmental factors can limit obesity but what -- the researchers wondered - stimulated the influencing environmental factors
Previous study: What has the previous study found out?
A previous study that the researchers had conducted stipulated three prime factors that were environmentally responsible for obesity. hese were: low weekly levels of moderate physical exercise, high levels of daily television viewing, and routine participation in a school lunch program.
he hypothesis of this study was that certain socio-economic backgrounds were more conducive for introducing these factors than were others in that -- and this was their hypothesis - median household income influenced nutrition and recreational activities.
Investigation of this suggestion was the purpose…
The correlation may be there but it pertains just to Massachusetts and indicates correlation rather than causality.
Eagle, T. et al. (2012). Understanding childhood obesity in America: Linkages between household income, community resources, and children's behaviors. The American Heart Journal, 163, 816-837.
military deployment affects military families. The writer explores the many differences between deployed and non-deployed families and examines some of the things being done to ease the stress and problems that deployment presents. There were 10 sources used to complete this paper.
Americans are waiting with anxious anticipation as the federal government attempts to convince the United Nations that a war with Iraq is in order. President Bush as well as Colin Powell have spent days addressing the issue and presenting evidence of the need to forcibly disarm Iraq. As the world watches the events unfold, nations are lining up on one side or the other of the issue. France, Germany and ussia are asking the United States to hold off on an attack and see if a more peaceful solution can be hammered out. Britain, Canada and several others have pledged if a war erupts, they will send troops…
Peterson, Karen S.(2001).Peterson, Long deployments stress military families., USA Today, pp 08D.
2001). INDSTRY GROUP 91, AIR FORCE SPOUSE ADDRESSES QUALITY-OF-LIFE ISSUES BEFORE CONGRESS FEDERAL DOCUMENT CLEARING HOUSE, INC.., Regulatory Intelligence Data.
Author not available (2001). U.S. REPRESENTATIVE DAVID HOBSON (R-OH) CHAIRMAN U.S. REPRESENTATIVE DAVID HOBSON (R-OH) HOLDS HEARING ON MILITARY QUALITY OF LIFE., Washington Transcript Service.
____(1999). INDSTRY GROUP 91, DOD STUDIES MISSION, FAMILY NEEDS., Regulatory Intelligence Data.
Economic factors as Mclanahan et al. demonstrates or other variables such as mother's separation from community or maternal depression may also effect children causing the impact that the researchers saw rather than the divorce / separation factor being the determining variable.
In effect, what the authors demonstrate is that both gender are negatively influenced by divorce and separation, although they had been negatively affected by adverse conditions before divorce / separation had occurred.
To Amato et al. (1995), the situation is not so simple. Reviewing cross-sectional studies between children who remain in conflict-ridden two-parent homes and products of divorced parents who experienced conflict prior to divorce, he discovers that all children are adversely impacted by parental conflict, but that children who remain in the conflict-ridden environment are apt to suffer more than those whose parents are divorced. Much also, however, depended on the intensity of the conflict. In other words,…
Amato, P. et al. (1995). Parental divorce, marital conflict, and offspring well-being.. Social Forces, 73, 895-915
Cherlin, A. et al. (2007) Longitudinal studies of effects of divorce in children in Great Britain and the U.S.A. Science, 252
McLanahan, Sara S., and Gary Sandefur. Growing Up with a Single Parent.
Co-parental relationship with both parents planning together for the future of the children and engaging in corroboration of schedules and activities may prevent many, if not all, of the harmful results detailed by McClanahan and Cherlin et al. (1996). In fact, as Buchanan et al. (2007) illustrate, those deterrents together with timely interventions may help adolescents from divorced homes proceed with their lives and help parents and social workers succeed in their strategies formulated to ease children's adjustment to divorce.
In 1991, Cherlin et al. conducted national longitudinal surveys in both England and the U.S.A. Of the effects of divorce on children. In both boys and girls negative effects of divorce were apparent, particularly when compared to intact families. (This replicated the results of McClanahan's research which showed that children from divorced families also seem to have lower academic scores than children from intact families, but socioeconomic and other variables…
Buchanan, CM et al. (2007). Adolescents after divorce. UK: Harvard Univ. Press.
Cherlin, AJ et al. (1991) Longitudinal Studies of Effects of Divorce on Children in Great Britain and the United States Science, New Series, Vol. 252, No. 5011.
McClanahan Why we care about single parenthood
Popenoe, D. (1993) American family decline, 1960-1990 Journal of marriage, 527-555
Brain and Child Counseling
The effects of divorce on children can be diverse and include various factors that affect the outcome. Family is deemed to be an important variable in positively impacting a child's development (Farrell, Mays, Henry, Schoeny, 2011). However, not all families are the same: some have two parents, some have none, some are of upper income socio-economic status, others are of lower income status; some have religious/deep cultural backgrounds, others do not. Divorce is but one variable in how a child can be impacted; nonetheless, it is an important one (Amato, Bruce, 1991; Sandstorm, Huerta, 2013). This paper will discuss the effects of divorce on children by showing how various studies have indicated correlation between divorce and stress on children and what short-term and long-term effects are likely to occur in children of various backgrounds as a result of divorce. It will assess whether divorce is more…
Amato, P., Bruce, K. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-
analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110(1): 2-46.
Farrell, A., Mays, S., Henry, D., Schoeny, M. (2011). Parents as moderators of the impact of school norms and peer influences on aggression in middle school students. Child Development, 82(1): 146-161.
Sandstrom, H., Huerta, S. (2013). The negative effects of instability on child d evelopment: A research synthesis. Urban Institute.
Effects of child abuse in adulthood
Child neglect and abuse are usually a result of the interactions of several environmental, societal, family and individual factors. Child neglect and abuse are not unavoidable- steady, safe, and nurturing environments and relationships are crucial for prevention. Prevention of child neglect and abuse could also prevent other kinds of violence, given that certain kinds of violence are interconnected and have common protective and risk factors, repercussions, as well as tactic of prevention (CDC, 2019). Child neglect and abuse together with other negative childhood encounters could also have significant influence on an individual’s lifetime health and wider wellbeing if left unattended to. For instance, being exposed to violence in early childhood raises the risks of future perpetration and victimization of violence, injury, delayed development of the brain, sexually transmitted diseases, taking part in sex trafficking, reproductive health issues, restricted employment opportunities, lower academic success,…
Divorce on the Lives of Children
In today's society, half of all marriages end in divorce. Many of those marriages involve children. Parents who are involved in a divorce are often concerned about the effect of the divorce on their children. During the time of a divorce the parents may be preoccupied with their problems but still hold their roles as the most important people in their children's lives.
While a divorce may be devastating or relieving to a couple, children are frightened and confused by the terrible threat to their security. However, if a child feels secure and loved throughout the divorce, he or she may not be harmed by the divorce at all. Reflecting on these concerns, this paper aims to determine the effects of divorce on the lives of children.
etween the years 1950 to 1983, divorce broke up more families than parental death did in the…
Amato, P.R. (1993). Children's adjustment to divorce: Theories, hypotheses, and empirical support. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 23-38.
Brown, Alec. Young, Ellie. Allen, Melissa. The Effects of Divorce on Children (November, 2003). NASP Communique, Vol. 32, #3.
Hyatt, K. (November, 1999) Children's Adjustment to Divorce Largely in Hands of Parents, with One Exception: Dad's Departure Depresses Boys. Journal of Marriage and the Family: 44.
Newberger, C. (December, 1986). The American Family in Crisis: Implications for Children. Current Problems in Pediatrics. Vol. 16: 686-688, 713.
For example, Walker and Hennig add that, "It has frequently been found that children (particularly boys) in divorced, mother-custody families exhibit lower levels of well-being than children in intact families, with more externalizing and internalizing behavior problems and lower levels of cognitive and social competence" (p. 64). My son is also currently at a formative period that has special significance for single-parents families. For instance, Walker and Hennig also point out that, "Single-mother families are often affectively charged, with high instrumental affection combined with high negativity and conflict, particularly in the transition to adolescence" (1997, p. 64).
The "transition to adolescence" can be a rocky period in anyone's life, of course, and it is reasonable to expect my son to experience some problems in general and with me in particular during this transitional period. Fortunately, this challenging developmental period is eased somewhat as children grow into mid-adolescence. As Walker and…
Burns, A. & Scott, C. (1999). Mother-headed families and why they have increased. Hillsdale,
NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Crossman, S.M. & Adams, G.R. (1990). Divorce, single parenting and child development.
Journal of Psychology, 106(2), 205-207.
Divorce and Marriage
Divorce and remarriage
Divorce and Marriage is Permissible
In the current modern society, a breakup of the traditional marriage is the most significant challenge. Prior research on this matter suggests that 43% of first marriages end separation and possible within 15 years. Although these results are disputable, it is undisputable that the divorce is on the rise across the globe. The increase in divorce is the main cause of societal problems such as early pregnancies (teen pregnancies), suicide, alcohol, and substance abuse, and the hesitation of young people to engage in marriage. Therefore, divorce has resulted into many societal problems, and children have to pay the price. Disturbingly, a comparison between the Christians and non-Christians show that Christians are more prone to divorce (Paechter, 2013).
Therefore, it is clear that the divorce is a church problem. Considering that, Christianity teaches that lasting faithful marriages are part of…
Clark, A. (2004). Parallel Classic Commentary on the New Testament. Chattanooga, TN: AMG
Clark, K.D., & Rakestraw, V.R. (1995). Readings in Christian ethics: Issues and applications.
Grand Rapids, Mich: Baker Academic Publishers.
Eldredge, R. (2002). Can Divorced Christians Remarry? Camarillo, CA: Choice.
They experienced things, such as sex and drugs, earlier than others, but their adolescence lasted longer because it was hard to break away from their single parent. Divorce affects these children most of all during adulthood. In romantic relationships, fear of abandonment can make them choose people they feel safe with, even though the partner may be abusive. She found that only 40% of those now in their 30s and 40s are married. The rest live in various kinds of relationships from cohabitation to still dating. More than 50% have chosen to not have children "because they believe they know too little about good parenting" (New 1).
Childhood is not fun for children of divorced families. They talk about logistics surrounding the holidays and the stress from two parents who vie for their love. They have memories of sadness and loneliness surrounding holidays, rather than happy memories. They were not…
Hughes, Robert, Jr. "The Effects of Divorce on Children." Menweb. 2005. http://www.menweb.org/divorcekids.htm .
New Research on Kids of Divorce: The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce." Family Education. 2007. http://life.familyeducation.com/divorce/29600.html .
Strong, Bryan; Cohen, Theodore F. And Devault, Christine. The Marriage and Family Experience. 9th Ed. New York: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 2005.
339), Additionally, there is also a substantial generational component: while overall, children of divorced parents before the year 1994 were more likely to marry young, after that year the chances of younger marriage decreased for children of divorced families. In fact, children from divorced households of all age groups were less, rather than more likely to marry young than their counterparts from intact homes.
Wolfinger's rationale for this fact was the following: today, marriage is less commonly seen as a venue of escape from troubled home circumstances, as individuals have other vocational and educational options that do not require marriage. Additionally, the greater commonality of divorce and the easing of barriers to obtaining a divorce means that there is less pressure to remain in uncomfortable marriages: a higher divorce rate has reduced the social stigma of being a child from a broken home and thus reduced some of the negative…
Both scenarios have plausible reasoning for being valid: children of divorce might be understandably reluctant about entering into wedlock, given the example they witnessed while maturing during their formative years. On the other hand, children of divorce are often from less affluent social backgrounds than children of intact families. As mothers frequently assume the role as primary caregiver and breadwinner in divorced households, their children may have less financial means growing up. Poorer adolescents are more likely to marry young and repeat negative marital patterns once wedded. The desire to escape an uncomfortable home situation is another factor that can give rise to a younger age at one's first marriage, along with greater emotional neediness.
By analyzing the findings of the 1973-1994 General Social Survey, Wolfinger came to the conclusion that while overall children of divorced families are more apt to marry at a younger age, if the children of divorce remain single past the age of twenty, their chances of marrying decrease below that of their peers from intact families (Wolfinger, 2003, p. 339), Additionally, there is also a substantial generational component: while overall, children of divorced parents before the year 1994 were more likely to marry young, after that year the chances of younger marriage decreased for children of divorced families. In fact, children from divorced households of all age groups were less, rather than more likely to marry young than their counterparts from intact homes.
Wolfinger's rationale for this fact was the following: today, marriage is less commonly seen as a venue of escape from troubled home circumstances, as individuals have other vocational and educational options that do not require marriage. Additionally, the greater commonality of divorce and the easing of barriers to obtaining a divorce means that there is less pressure to remain in uncomfortable marriages: a higher divorce rate has reduced the social stigma of being a child from a broken home and thus reduced some of the negative psychological and economic effects of divorce upon children. Finally, the available option of cohabitating with a partner has reduced the likelihood of divorce amongst the children of so-called broken homes. Cohabitation provides a third option that is more attractive than remaining single, but lacks the personal and emotional baggage of marriage for children of what were once called 'broken homes.'
Family of Origin
The origin of the family describes the family in which one is grown up, inter-family interactions and relations between one's parents', siblings, cousins, aunts, uncles and grandparents. The current study examines the origin of a family and determines the systematic research based on the behavior and relation of members and provides evidence-based practices in order to address the relational gap found among the family members.
Attachment Styles in Family
Early Marriage and Divorce
Evidence-Based esearch and Intervention
The family in which one is grown up with the collaboration of adult's economic contribution and influence from parents, siblings and grandparents collectively describes one's family of origin. The origin of one's family tends to effect the systems that are being followed in the family and describes the degree to which they can be adaptive in nature.…
Bramlett, M.D., & Mosher, W.D. (2001).First marriage dissolution, divorce, and remarriage.In National Center for Health Statistics.
Carr, A. (1999). Evidence-based practice in psychotherapy and counseling. Journal of the Irish Association of Counseling and Therapy, 2(9), 15-34.
Dattilio, F.M. (2005). Introduction to the special section: The role of cognitive -- behavioral interventions in couple and family therapy. Journal of marital and family therapy, 31(1), 7-13.
Engels, F. (1942).The origin of the family.Current Book Distributors.
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…
Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School
Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.
Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.
divorce affects the personality of Latino children
Family normally indicates to a group of persons directly associated with kinship, wherein the adult members are liable for the care of their children. The kinship involves genetic ties or ties coming out of marriage. Marriage is considered to be a sexual union between two adults, socially recognized and approved. Marriage and therefore the family in western societies are related to monogamy. A major change has emerged in the common structure of family life during the post-war periods. A high proportion of women participated in the paid labor force, which has a direct impact on growth of divorce and considerable numbers of children are forced to reside either in single parent households or with stepfamilies. Cohabitation has progressively become normal in many of the industrial nations. Many other forms of social and sexual relationship are about to flourish in the future. Still marriage…
"Chapter 15: the Family and Intimate Relationships" Retrieved from http://www.wwnorton.com/giddens4/chapters/chapter15/welcome.htm
Accessed 8 November, 2005
"Child Psychology Lesson 1. Issues in Child Development" Retrieved from http://www.kuce.org/isc/previews/psyc/psyc333_lesson.html
'Children in the Middle" Retrieved from http://modelprograms.samhsa.gov/print.cfm?pkProgramid=207
Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents Compared with Adult Children of Non-Alcoholic Parents
I Situations Faced by Children of Alcoholic Parent(s)
II ehavior of Children with Alcoholic Parent(s)
II Hypothesis #2
I The Possibility of Developing Alcoholism on ACOA's
II ACOA's have Lower Self-Esteem Compared to Non-ACOA's
Comparing the Differences etween ACOAs and Non-ACOAs in Terms of Social and Intimate Relationships
IV Protective Factors For Resiliency
Children of Alcoholics Screening Test
Are You an Alcoholic?
Intimate ond Measure
Emotional and Social Loneliness Scale
The family is one of the most important institutions in our society today. It is from our family where we are able to develop ourselves and start the journeys we take in life. Usually, the upbringing of each family member depends on the psychological nature of the other members who are able to provide influence or may have cause effects…
Velleman, R. (2002). The Children of Problem Drinking Parents.
Institute of Health & Medicine, University of Bath.
1996). Children of Alcoholics. Alcohol Health.
Common Characteristics of Adult Children of Alcoholic Parents.
Domestic violence is an ongoing experience of physical, psychological, and even sexual abuse in the home that is often a method used by one adult to establish control and power over another person (Flitcraft et al., 1992). Exposure by children to marital aggression is now a recognized public health concern. The investigation of the effects of the exposure to this type of aggression on the functioning of a child is a significant societal concern. Marital conflict is generally defined as any difference of opinion between martial or domestic partners whether it is minor or major. Marital conflict can assume many different forms including displays of both negative and positive emotions and/or constructive and destructive tactics. Marital aggression is characterized by physical and/or psychological abuse and would fall at the negative extreme on a continuum of marital conflict (Cummings, 1998). Marital psychological/verbal aggression refers to things such as threats, insults, and…
Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E. & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterers' treatment work? A meta-
analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review 23(8), 1023-1053.
Carlson, B.E. (1984). Children's observations of interparental violence. In A.R. Roberts (ed.),
Battered women and their families (pp. 147 -- 167). New York: Springer.
Raise Respectful Children
Children are an extension of their parents and they were they are raised affects their personality to a great extent. It is only right that parents should focus on building the right kind of relationship with them so that they grow up to be better human beings and better citizens and carry that upbringing with them as well.
Since it is a stage where human beings can be easily molded into whatever shape you would like them to, you should particularly care for what you say in front of them or do, and what you teach them, because they are impressionable and pick everything, not just the good.
In raising children, one should always keep God in mind, and seek Him out, and look to Him for help at all times. And teach your kids to do the same. And one should remember that no matter how…
Palmer, P.J. (1998/1999). Evoking the spirit in public education. Educational Leadership, 1-7.
Rigby, J. (2006). Raising respectful children in a disrespectful world. New York, NY: Howard Books.
Farber, A. (1995). How to talk so kids can learn at home & in school. New York, NY: Scribner.
Poverty and Inequality Among Children
Studies show that child poverty has been increasing at an alarming rate in the last decade. In 1994, 15.3 million children, or 21.8% of all Americans, were poor (Lichter 1997) and that, although children constituted only 26.7% of the population, 40.1% of all poor persons in the U.S. were children (U.S. ureau of Census 1996 as qtd in Lichter). These rising poverty rates are used by government agencies in determining the criteria for eligibility in social insurance programs and public assistance interventions developed by these government agencies. And, according to these criteria, the economic well-being of American children is on a downtrend, which indicates that tomorrow's adults will be less economically adjusted than adults today and that the future of today's children is materially and psycho-emotionally less promising (Lichter).
In his study, Lichter (1997) pointed to the rapid changes in the most fundamental institutions --…
1. Achs, Gregory and Megan Gallagher. Income Inequality Among America's Children. Urban Institute, 2000. http://www.urban.org/url.cfm?ID=309307
2. Lichter, Daniel T. Poverty and Inequality Among Children. Annual Reviews, vol 23, 1997. http://links.jstor.org/sici=0360-0572%281997%2923%3C121%APAIAC%E2.0.C )%3B2-L
3. Smeeding, Timothy M, et al. U.S. Poor are Among World's Poorest, Luxembourg Income Study. New York Times, Aug 4, 1995. http://pangaea.org/street_children/nameri/poor.htm
4. Van Hook, Jennifer. Poverty Grows Among Children of Immigrants in U.S., Center for Family and Demographic Research. Migration Policy Institute, 2003. http://www.migrationinformation.com/USfocus/display.cfm?ID=188
In this particular case study, the client is a 15-year-old minor. She has suffered neglect and abuse and has lived with toxic parents and guardians for a while. As of today, she has had residence in 8 separate communities. Her problems started when she was ten in 2010. At that young age she was sexually abused by somebody who was a friend of her family. The man who abused her is now in jail serving for his crime. When the client was abused at such a young age, she specified that she did not receive any intervention, psychological support or counselling from anyone let alone the Human Services Agency. In 2012, she was arrested and put in detention. Her crime: the murder of an older male schoolmate in her school’s compound. She was detained in the country’s only jail and she specified in her statements that she ended…