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Ishtar is enraged and the gods then send the Bull of Heaven as a punishment. Together, Gilgamesh and Enkidu kill the bull. The gods view this as an insult and decide to punish the two men. They make Enkidu ill and he soon dies.
The death of Enkidu has an enormous impact on Gilgamesh. He suffers endless sadness. He mourns and grows afraid of dying himself. A man who was previously inflated with his own ego and grandeur is now face-to-face with mortality and suffering. hen Gilgamesh exclaims "I fear death," the reader fully realizes the extent of his character transformation (Tablet IX). The loss of his best friend leads Gilgamesh on a spiritual quest too. He ventures deep into the wilderness, away from the civilization that once sustained him. Gilgamesh "donned the skin of a lion and roamed the wilderness" (Tablet VIII). On his spiritual quest, Gilgamesh first meets…
Brown, Arthur a. "Storytelling, the Meaning of Life, and the Epic of Gilgamesh." Exploring Ancient World Cultures. Retrieved July 10, 2007 at http://eawc.evansville.edu/essays/brown.htm
The Epic of Gilgamesh. Translated by Maureen Gallery Kovacs. Retrieved online July 13, 2007 at
Gilgamesh and oland
The Epic of Gilgamesh and the Song of oland
Throughout history, women have often played an important, albeit often unseen influence. In fact, much of the history of the human race centers on the actions of men; the kings and warriors who have performed great deeds. And much of literature is also focused on the actions and deeds of men. But hidden within the lines of text in some of the greatest literature in the world lie secret clues to the role of women in their respective cultures. Whether it is ancient literature, or medieval, even though most of the stories will center around men, women characters, who often play a peripheral role, can provide a glimpse into the way women were viewed by that culture. Two such pieces of great literature are The Epic of Gilgamesh and The Song of oland, and while both involve the…
Davis P., G. Harrison, D.M. Johnson, J.F. Crawford. (2009) The Bedford Anthology of World Literature. Boston, NY: Bedford / St. Martins. Print.
Maxwell, Mary. (2002). "The Poet's Dante / The Song of Roland / Purgatorio."
Partisan Review, 69(3), 463-471. Print.
"The Epic of Gilgamesh." Assyrian International News Agency Books Online.
Hi arrival at Uruk tames Gilgamesh who now leaves the new brides to their husbands (Hooker).
Gilgamesh and Enkidu journey to the cedar forest to acquire timber for Uruk's walls (this need for protection indicates both increased prosperity and further urbanization), but before doing so they must defeat Khumbaba, the forest's guardian, a primitive, nature deity. They know fear for the first time, triumphing only with help from the god Shamash's winds. Victorious Gilgamesh now rejects the passion goddess Ishtar, Enkidu ridicules her, and she responds by sending the Bull of Heaven to devastate Gilgamesh's lands. Spurning Ishtar implies rejection of heterosexual passion, obviously wrong for continuing a heroic race of mortals. hen they kill the bull, Gilgamesh and Enkidu also realize their mortality. Enkidu is the first to die, and Gilgamesh first suffers deep depression, and then undertakes a solitary journey to an underworld realm in search of immortality.…
Works Cited & Consulted
Ackerman, S. "Gilgamesh and Enkidu." Ackerman, S. When Heroe's Love. New York: Columbia University Press, 2005. 47-87.
Bittarello, M. "Re-Crafting the Past: The Complex Relationship Between Myth and Ritual." Pomegranate: The International Journal of Pagan Studies 10.2 (2008): 214+.
Campbell, J. The Hero With 1,000 Faces. New York: New World Literature, 2008.
Dalley, S. Myths from Mesopotamia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991.
The great gods at that time decided to secretly destroy all the whole world with the flood. ut one of the creators of the earth, named Ea, went to Utnapishtim's house and revealed the secret. Ea instructed him to build an ark or a great boat to house all living things, gold and silver and to close the door afterwards. The black clouds come with the thunder god Adad and the earth splits like an earthenware pot and light turns to darkness. Light returns after seven days and seven nights. The gods were first enraged at Ea, but he pleaded mercy for the survivors. The gods then considered Utnaphistim and his wife and granted them immortality and made them gods (Kovacs, Wikipedia, Hooker).
After telling his story, Utnapishtim offers him immortality if he can stay awake for six days and seven nights (Kovacs 1989, Wikipedia 2006, Hooker 1989). ut Gilgamesh…
1. Hooker, Richard, trans. (1996). Gilgamesh. World Civilization. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/GILGH.htm
2. Wikipedia. (2006). The Epic of Gilgamesh. Media Wiki. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki.Epic_of_Gilgamesh
3. Hooker, Richard, trans. (1996). Gilgamesh. World Civilization. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESSO/GLG.HTM
Epic of Gilgamesh: A Timeless Tale
"The Epic of Gilgamesh" is fascinating and worthwhile because it allows us to see how ancient civilizations lived. e often think of the earliest societies in a detached way, never stopping to think of how they thought about certain things or why they did what they did. Gilgamesh's story revolves around gods, goddesses, and worldly leaders but it also shares with humanity the notion of friendship, loss, and love. e like to think we are more advanced than civilizations from thousands of centuries ago but the truth remains that we are more like them than we like to admit. From how we think to haw we feel, we are linked to all humanity, ancient or not.
Friendship is a popular theme in the story. Enkidu and Gilgamesh are the best of friends and it is Enkidu that changes Gilgamesh from being an oppressor to…
"The Epic of Gligamesh." The Norton Anthology of World Masterpieces. Expanded ed. New
York W.W. Norton and Company. 1997. Print.
Epic of Gilgamesh, is about the king Gilgamesh, one of the most powerful of his time, who was two-thirds of god and one-third man. It takes us on the journey of his reign and his succession, with the help of his friend Enkidu, to achieve more strength. hile Bhagavad-Gita, spoken by the great Lord Krishna, talks more in terms of spiritual and conscious powers of Krsna and his friend, Arjuna. Hence showing Arjuna's constant confusion during his journey to do every bid by the orders of Krsna and gaining power to understand his own conscious.
Compare and Contrast
Between Bhagavad-Gita and Gilgamesh
The eastern and western scholars have described Bhagavad-gita to be the greatest spiritual books in the world. In the book Lord Krishna describes the science of self-realization and an exact through which human beings can establish their eternal relationship with God. "It is approachable from the sanctified realms…
Gilgamesh, Available at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/GILG.htm
Srimad Bhagavad-Gita, Available at http://www.bhagavad-gita.org/
Bhagavad Gita, As It Is,
Also Available at http://www.asitis.com/
Leed (1991) notes another commonality Gilgamesh shares with contemporary society, and that is the habit of travel. In contemporary society for example, millions of people travel far from their homeland each and every day, whether for work, in the pursuit of knowledge, to reclaim new lands or to vacation. Gilgamesh engages in his pursuits in frequent travel, as noted by the questions often queried of him regarding his appearance, "...why is despair in your heart and your face like the face of one who has made a long journey;... why do you come here wandering... In search of the wind" (Sanders, 103).
Universal truths associated with Gilgamesh's travels center around "fatigue, hardship and danger" and suggests journey or travel has the ability to change individuals and create "shepherds" of peace from "predators," often with characters like Gilgamesh and even Odysseus traveling in search of immortality, which they are not to…
Kovacs, G. Maureen. The Epic of Gilgamesh, Stanford: Stanford University, 1989.
Leed, Eric J. The Mind of the Traveler: From Gilgamesh to global tourism. New York:
Basic Books, 1991.
Sanders, Nancy K. The Epic of Gilgamesh, New York: Penguin Books, 1975.
The fear of death and pain of grief continue to intrigue present readers because these are reoccurring issues in our daily lives, which calls for further speculation and deciphering through present, future, and past writings. As previously stated, if we can understand our history better, we may be able to understand life better. and, that is where the reading of Gilgamesh comes into play for people of today.
hile my thesis is based on Gilgamesh's journey working as a representation for finding the meaning of life, I am not implying that the epic poem is the actual answer to the meaning of life. My thesis is merely how I interpret the message of the author's story of Gilgamesh. Finding acceptance with his mortality is all that Gilgamesh needed to finally be happy with his life. No man can actually attain immortality, which is why plenty of people continue to speculate…
De Villiers, Gerda. "Understanding Gilgamesh: his world and his history." Scientific Commons.
2005. < http://en.scientificcommons.org/45543276>.
Held, George F. "Parallels Between the Gilgamesh Epic and Plato's Symposium." the
University of Chicago Press. 1983. < http://www.jstor.org/pss/544172 >.
ancient culture had its own views of right and wrong, of what made individuals weak or strong, their own views of religion and politics, what role women should play, and ideas regarding courage, wisdom and death. Reading Antigone, Beowulf and Gilgamesh demonstrates that reading epic stories from ancient cultures can tell us a great deal about their societal norms.
Antigone demonstrates views of right and wrong as the king, Creon, grapples with how to punish Antigone for defying his order not to provide a burial for her brother Polynices. The struggle between strength and weakness is shown in Creon's actions; he needs to appear strong in front of his people, but if he allows Antigone to defy his edict, he will appear weak. He believes that the strength of the city-state depends on whether he remains strong or not. The conflict involves the Greek religious belief that without a proper…
He is a full grown hero who only needs a goal to set him on his journey. Gilgamesh is young and inexperienced, and he needs help to grow and mature throughout his journey, which he obtains from his dear friend Enkidu. Gilgamesh has many lessons to learn, and Odysseus learns too, but he is farther on the road to maturity, and so his journey leads him somewhere he already knows and is comfortable with, while Gilgamesh's journey takes him on uncharted territory, and he learns more about himself and the people around him on his journey.
In conclusion, these men are both heroic, but they show it in different ways and they have different heroic ideals. They are real heroes to be sure, but they are also real men, with the faults that only real men seem to have. Gilgamesh can be a violent boor with little regard for women…
The Epic of Gilgamesh. Trans. Kovacs, Maureen Gallery. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1989.
Homer. Odyssey. Trans. Lombardo, Stanley. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 2000.
Leed, Eric J. The Mind of the Traveler: From Gilgamesh to Global Tourism. New York: Basic Books, 1991.
Oinas, Felix J., ed. An Introduction to the World's Great Folk Epics. Bloomington, in: Indiana University Press, 1978.
However, neither is invincible. Beowulf meets a heroic demise when he fights the final dragon at the end of the epic. His death in no way diminishes the grandeur of his heroism. Another feature of the classic hero is their tendency to embark on lengthy journeys and quests to prove their merits, and Beowulf is no exception.
Similarly, Gilgamesh does not completely succeed in his quest for immortality. Gilgamesh does help kill beasts with the help of Enkidu. Enkidu also fits the archetype of the male hero: he is a powerful, seemingly super-human beast who dies before the epic is over. Yet his death does not spell his failure any more than Gilgamesh's mortality minimizes his great successes. Gilgamesh proves his heroism also by demonstrating the lessons he learned through the course of his adventures: coming to terms with mortality and finding love in his heart. Through loving Enkidu, Gilgamesh…
Dante, Sophocles, Gilgamesh REVISED
The Epic of Gilgamesh, Dante's Inferno and Sophocles Oedipus the King are all classic and foundational estern texts which depict, en passant, the importance of humankind's demand to know, to explore and penetrate the unknown, to arrive at ultimate truths about existence and its mysteries, and to find meaning or value therein. I hope to demonstrate with reference to specific episodes -- that of Utnapishtim in Gilgamesh, of the episode of Ulysses in Dante's Inferno, and in the great address to the protagonist hymned by the chorus of Sophocles' tragedy of Oedipus -- this complicated depiction of human intellectual overreach.
Dante provides us with the basic topos of this kind of overreach as a sort of failed heroism, or heroism that breaks forth the bounds of Aristotelian temperance (or sophrosyne) and becomes, paradoxically, a vice. (The Aristotelian definition of sin is central to Dante, since his…
Alighieri, Dante. The Divine Comedy: Inferno. Translated with an introduction by John Ciardi. New York: Modern Library, 1996.
Kovacs, Maureen Gallery [Translator]. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Electronic edition by Wolf Carnahan, 1998. Accessed 3 March 2011 at: http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/mesopotamian/gilgamesh/
Sophocles. The Three Theban Plays. Translated with an introduction by Robert Fagles. New York: Penguin, 2000.
No longer certain of his greatness, now that he knows he can die, he embarks upon a quest that does not yield him the answer he is seeking, but brings him wisdom and understanding. Gilgamesh's heroic struggle for knowledge is a classic depiction of the heroic quest of death and rebirth ("Heroic quest cycle," 2005). The underworld, as it is portrayed in Gilgamesh, is a dark and terrible place, a place from which all individuals shy away from -- but Gilgamesh finds it within himself to accept what Enkidu and eventually he will become after death. Radical acceptance of the cyclical processes of life, rather than resistance is the only answer. Befriending Enkidu leads Gilgamesh on a path to true knowledge, in a way that is far more profound than winning a physical contest.
Kirk, G.S. Myth: its meaning and functions in ancient and other cultures. CUP Archive,…
Kirk, G.S. Myth: its meaning and functions in ancient and other cultures. CUP Archive, 1970
"Heroic quest cycle." 2005. November 9, 2009. http://www.questcycles.com/hqcycle.html
"Mesopotamian underworld." Nyboria. November 9, 2009.
3. What are some of the themes you notice in the "Love Songs"?
The Egyptian love songs use the terms "brother" and "sister" as generic references to male and female lovers and suggest intimacy as well as the taboo of incest. Brother-sister unions were already written into Egyptian mythology by the time the love songs were penned. Also, the love songs reveal an emerging theme of romantic love, which almost seems out of place in ancient literature.
4. Did the erotic or explicit nature of some of the love songs surprise you? Explain.
The eroticism in the love songs is not wholly surprising, given that many ancient cultures addressed human sexuality frankly and even using graphic depictions. The Egyptians also employed some sexual imagery into their art, as did the ancient Indians and Chinese.
1. In what ways is the Hebrew view of God different from the Sumerian…
It is his own acknowledgment of his glory and honor that allows him to stand as an example to future generations. Folk epics are not meant only to recall historical details, but also to inspire modern heroes; the world of Beowulf and the world for which it was written both required strong heroes who knew the honor and righteousness of their actions.
Beowulf is more than the story of a hero's life, journey and adventures, and death. It is the story of a type of person and a people that the author and original readers of Beowulf felt an intimate longing for. As a folk epic, the tale of Beowulf is meant to draw people together in a common history, and to inspire them to the same types of glory that the heroes of the past achieved. Its purpose is to achieve solidarity in the admiration of a common hero,…
Beowulf. Accessed 26 May 2009. http://www.humanities.mcmaster.ca/~beowulf/main.html
Basic organizational plan: Introduce concept f epic, then folk epic, then explain enerally how Beowulf fits the description. The main body of the essay will explicate some brief apssags, explaining how this fits into the general framework.
Westopia: An Epic Narrative Describing the History of the West post-Reformation and the Rise of New Peoples and Places in Conflict with the Old
In anno domini 1650, the God of the West -- of the World -- was banned in Maryland. The Pure had come, had been given land, had found shelter under the Toleration Act -- yet acted with intolerance towards those who went to God with hearts much different from their own. The Pure were proud and firm -- like the Chosen People of the Old Testament -- the children of Abraham.
Millennia had passed and the children were grown -- enveloping within them some sense of the God of the West -- Christ Who redeemed them -- yet their sense was separate from that of the past: their doctrine was steeped in the predestinated forms of the Protestors -- of Luther and Zwingli and Knox and…
Since Gilgamesh, who hails from estern civilization, has only one life to live, and presumably that one life is very precious to him, he is far more likely to have his companions fight his battle(s) for him, far more likely to place them in immediate danger, and far more likely to think first of saving his own skin than does that of Monkey. Monkey, hailing from the Eastern tradition, loves to jump into the fray, bravely fighting his adversaries and leading his companions into the midst of challenges that Gilgamesh seems totally afraid to confront.
hile Monkey is maniacally fighting the demons, monsters and gods placed before him (usually taking on the role of instigator), Gilgamesh is hiding from Humbaba the Terrible in the Cedar Forest. He does not actually fight the guardian of the forest until his traveling companion exhorts him to be brave.
Though each hero approaches his…
Hooker, R. (1999) Mesopotamia: Gilgamesh, http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/MESO/GILG.HTM , Accessed November 14, 2007
Study Guide to Monkey, http://www.nvcc.edu/home/dashkenas/MONKEY.htm , Accessed November 14, 2007
Epic of Gilgamesh
In a time when natural disasters were the whims of the Gods, when hunger, disease, and death stalked ones life as surely as the wild beasts of the land, the epic poem of Gilgamesh found its way across the ancient landscape. It was unearthed as part of a library collected thousands of years before our time, yet "reflects an ancient range of human experience and emotion not so far removed from our own" (Jackson, xi). In a cultural context of nomadic life and city-states, ancient Iraqis worshipped numerous gods. Every aspect of their life depended upon the favor their gods bestowed. The Epic of Gilgamesh illustrates an understanding of the human spirit unbent by fickle gods and powerful kings. This is a story of human growth and acceptance for a difficult life and violent time in human history.
The ancient Iraqi society was "mostly illiterate," passing on…
However, because of Gilgamesh's thought that he may be invincible, he is actually putting his friend's life at risk by going on his adventure. In his attempt to prove that he is brave and that he would rather die for a cause, he actually indirectly causes the death of Enkidu, who shows that he was the stronger of the two.
5) Defining Honor
Honor is a characteristic that few individuals posses. It is a special type of distinguishing factor, that although many attempt to have, very few actually embrace it to its full meaning. Honor entails pride and personal excellence. It is fully believing in an action or an entity that represents something very important to the self and to those around. To me, honor is being able to stand up for your beliefs despite the opinion of others.
Honor in society can actually be viewed in two ways, depending…
In works of fiction, the hero's journey will always be fraught with danger. He will not only have to overcome his own shortcomings, but will also encounter individuals who hope to impede his journey and prevent him from accomplishing his goals or individuals who will help them overcome their obstacles and succeed. Literature throughout history and literature that transcends cultures exhibit this same proclivity. Each component of the hero's journey, beginning with his quest, his initiation into the situation which will lead to his development, his separation from his origin, and finally his transformation at the end of the story is heavily dictated by the attention and communication he receives from the other male character. The stories "Young Goodman Brown," The Epic of Gilgamesh, Beowulf, and "The Legend of King Arthur" all show pairings of male characters, the protagonist and another male figure who either acts as an…
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. "Young Goodman Brown." 1854.
Hinds, Gareth. Beowulf. Cambridge, MA: Candlewick, 2007. Print.
"King Arthur, and the Legend of the Knights of the Round Table." N.p., n.d.
Sanders, N.K. The Epic of Gilgamesh: an English Version with an Introduction. New York, NY:
Literary Characters in Exile
Exile can be the self-imposed banishment from one's home or given as a form of punishment. The end result of exile is solitude. Exile affords those in it for infinite reflection of themselves, their choices, and their lives in general. Three prominent literary characters experience exile as part of the overall narrative and in that, reveal a great deal about themselves to themselves as well as to the readers. The three narratives in questions are "The Epic of Gilgamesh," "The Tempest," and "Things Fall Apart." All of the main characters of these narratives experience exile as a result of actions taken by the protagonists at earlier points in the story. The protagonist in each respective story are exiled because of their choices and the exile forces each character to face consequences that ultimately bring their inner character to the surface in a more direct manner…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: First Anchor Books Edition, 1994.
Mason, Herbert. Gilgamesh A Verse Narrative. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.
Shakespeare, William. "The Tempest." Ed. Barbara A. Mowat & Paul Werstine. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 1994.
Sutton, Brian. "Virtue Rather Than Vengeance": Genesis and Shakespeare's The Tempest." Explicator, Vol. 66, No. 4, 224-229.
Agamemnon claims that he loves Chryseis more than his own wife, but agrees to give her up as long as he gets another prize. hen he demands Briseis from Achilles, it is clear that one sexual being can simply be traded for another in Agamemnon's eyes. Indeed, when Achilles refuses to fight because of Agamemnon's demand, it is not because Achilles deeply loves Briseis, but because he is insulted with Agamemnon's demand. The only redeeming treatment of women in the epic is the Chryses' love for his daughter, determination in getting her back again, and excitement when his request is fulfilled.
hen compared to the Epic of Gilgamesh, the Iliad often seems muted in references to women's sexuality, but it can be argued that the contents of this epic poem show women in a far worse place in society than women in Gilgamesh's epic. hile Gilgamesh's epic presents women as…
"Greek Mythology: Aphrodite (Venus)." About.com: Atheism. 2009. 20 June 2009.
Ramayana. Valmiki Ramayana. N.d. 20 June 2009.
"Ramayana: Summary." Myth Home: Mythology Site. n.d. 20 June 2009.
Your answer should be at least five sentences long.
The Legend of Arthur
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 9 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7A: Honor and Loyalty
1. Consider how Arthur's actions and personality agree with or challenge your definition of honor. Write a few sentences comparing your definition (from Journal 1.6A) with Arthur's actions and personality.
2. Write a brief paragraph explaining the importance or unimportance of loyalty in being honorable.
Lesson 1 Journal Entry # 10 of 16
Journal Exercise 1.7B: Combining Sentences
Complete the Practice Activity on page 202 of your text. After completing this activity, read over your Essay Assessment or another journal activity you've completed.
* Identify three passages that could be improved by combining two or more sentences with coordinating or subordinating conjunctions. Below the practice activity in your journal, write the original passages and the revised sentences you've created.
* Be sure to…
Those with issues to overcome are always more heroic. Hector also becomes a hero when, after at first running from Achilles, he eventually stands up to him and dies a heroic death.
The Iliad is primarily a war epic. In your opinion, is the Iliad condemnation of the it could easily be argued that the Illiad glorifies war, as much of the poem is spent portraying the warriors as brave and courageous, even as they go on killing rampages. Warriors are describes as "masters of the battle cry" and "warlike" in glowing epithets. When Achilles originally refused to fight, he is roundly condemned for it by all of the other Greek characters. Even the weapons of war, such as Achilles impenetrable shield, are glorified. But homer is more complicated than simple -- war also brings death, which he describes in great detail. Hector's death is perhaps the most graphic of…
The fact that Lysistrata's "came to power" by virtue of her own leadership abilities which were recognized and celebrated by their peers rather than having them thrust upon her from above is pointed out by Ober (1989), who reports, "The Athenians' demonstrated concern with native intelligence, their distrust of elite education, and their respect for the authority of the elders are parodied by Aristophanes, who mimics rhetorical topoi in the speech of Lysistrata, the female demagogue:
Listen to my words
I am a woman, but I'm smart enough
Indeed, my mind's not bad at all.
Having listened to my father's discourses
And those of the older men, I'm not ill educated. (Lysistrata 1123-27 quoted in Ober at 182)
Indeed, Lysistrata's leadership qualities were clearly demonstrated in her ability to organize the women of Athens to show the warring men of the city just who in fact had "the power" suggests…
Abusch, T. (2001). "The development and meaning of the epic of Gilgamesh: An interpretive essay." The Journal of the American Oriental Society, 121(4): 614.
Black's Law Dictionary. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co., 1990.
Brodie, Thomas L. Genesis as Dialogue: A Literary, Historical, & Theological Commentary. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
DeLashmutt, Gary. (2007). "Genesis 1:1-2:4 -- the Beginning of Our World." Xenos Christian Fellowship. [Online]. Available: http://www.xenos.org/teachings/ot/genesis/ .
On the other, Ophelia is the opposite of a classic hero. She is a young girl, merely a child, involved by accident in a guerrilla war against one of the greatest evils of modern times; the fascism combined with an authoritative regime. The trickster in this modern fiction does not become her friend, neither does he fight along with her. She has to fight her own battles and he is not even in the position to oversee any of her errors. She is an archetype herself. As soon as she takes her new born brother into her arms she becomes the mother who throws herself into the fire rather than throwing her offspring. It is embedded in her to act this way and the symbolism of her being a princess resides in the true nature of humanity.
Although del Toro's film could be reduced at the representation of the fight…
Their sexual desire is as strong as their male counterparts, revealing much about the way women were viewed in ancient society. Women were not shown as chaste, innocent, or virginal. Prostitutes and single women both play major roles in the Epic of Gilgamesh and in the Odyssey. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, a prostitute transforms Enkidu completely with her sexual prowess. The power of female sexuality is explored in Homer's Odyssey too. The war hero meets and lives with several women on his way home to Penelope. Odysseus seems uniquely able to seduce women and many fall deeply in love with him: especially Calypso and Circe. Calypso and Circe are independent, unmarried women with strong sex drives.
The titular hero of Gilgamesh seems more enraptured with his burly male friend than with the females he encounters. Gilgamesh is not motivated by the love of a woman, and unlike Odysseus is…
Epic of Gilgamesh.
Storni, Alfonsina. "You ant Me hite." The Norton Anthology of orld
Vol. F. Ed. Sarah Lawall and Mayard Mac. New York: Norton, 2002. 2124-2125
The poem titled "You ant Me hite" written by Alfonsina Storni explores the issue of women mistreatment by men. The women complain how men expect them to be virgins when they (men ) are not.
Atwood, Margaret and Martin, Valerie.The Handmaid's Tale . Anchor.1998
In this book the author portrays how women are only valued for their fertility and they are allowed access to education in the patriarch society. This work is important to the research since it shows how women were mistreated by being regarded as sex symbols as well as not being allowed access to education.
Staves, Susan. Married omen's Separate Property Rights in England, 1660(1833. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1990.
This work is a recollection of the actual case studies and examples of various…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Oxford: Heinemann, 1996.
Atwood, Margaret.The Handmaid's Tale . Anchor.1998
Staves, Susan. Married Women's Separate Property Rights in England, 1660(1833. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1990.
Stewart, Maaja A. Domestic Realities and Imperial Fictions: Jane Austen's Novels in Eighteenth-Century Contexts. Athens: U. Of Georgia P, 1993.
Fertile Crescent could be addressed as both a geographical location and as symbolic terminology. Ultimately, both options unite to refer to the region in the Middle East also identified as the cradle of civilization. Stretching in the shape of an arc from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates, the region encompasses an ancient fertile land which is said to have stood at the basis of man's evolution. Nature's contribution to the evolutionary steps of humanity was rendered indefinite which is why ancient rites sought to prevent and otherwise control the unpredictable forces. Personifying natural phenomenon enabled mankind's link to the divine forces. For the Sumerians, fertility was not ensured by one single god or goddess, rather it came about as a cooperative result of all the forces of nature. Fertility rites often encompassed sexual rituals which were sought to bring about fertility of the land. Sexuality thus was religiously…
The Epic of Gilgamesh, translated by Andrew George (London, New York, Victoria, Toronto, New Delhi, Auckland, Johannesburg: Penguin Books, 1999).
It recounts the travails of Antigone, daughter of Oedipus the former king of Thebes, who disobeys King Creon in burying the body of her slain brother. She knows that she faces death for doing this, but insists that she does not care, saying "For whoso lives, as I, in many woes,
/ How can it be but death shall bring him gain? / And so for me to bear this doom of thine / Has nothing painful" (Arrowsmith, lines 508-12). Antigone does not see meaninglessness in death, but rather is willing to face death for the symbolic gesture of burying her brother. This illustrates her own tragic quest for truth; like Gilgamesh (and Creon), she is frustrated by the rules and order imposed by a mortal government, and feels that it pales in comparison to the divine moral laws such as those regarding the treatment of the dead and the…
Arrowsmith, William. Antigone. New York: San Val, 1999.
Mason, Herbert. Gilgamesh. New York: Mariner, 2003.
Shakespeare, William. The Merchant of Venice. Washington D.C.: Folgers, 1997.
However, the Gilgamesh myth is not simply about the flood. It also reflects specific values of understanding the impermanence of society and the capricious nature of the gods. As Gilgamesh learns to become a better man and a better leader, specific community values are expressed that may have been the concerns of Mesopotamian society, not simply the human consciousness, such as the need for a strong king and the capricious nature of a world where natural disasters and foreign invasions were common. The continued resonance of the Gilgamesh myth could suggest that the myth has a common, human resonance that transcends its specific and original concerns. But rather than demonstrating the evidence of the collective mythmaking unconscious, it might simply demonstrate the historical need for leadership at times of crisis, and frustrations with common natural disasters. This myth than became reinterpreted in other communities.
There are many stories of floods…
Hooker, Richard. "Summary: The Epic of Gilgamesh." 1996. Updated 1999. [10 Jul 2006]
The use of physical suffering as a symbol for emotional and spiritual suffering is also well-known in the estern tradition. Centuries later, men and women would disappear into the desert in search of God. They would live apart from all human companionship, and deprive themselves of all physical comfort. Gilgamesh does the same. Gilgamesh is also like the lover who pines away for his beloved and wastes away in body, as well as in heart. The message is that the eternal truths of the universe are not easily discovered, and again that these truths are largely hidden from humankind. Humanity's lot is to suffer even in the face of our greatest happiness. Unlike the gods, we cannot know joy eternally. Enkidu was a dear friend, but he could not be by Gilgamesh' side forever. The joy and love that the hero had known were foreordained to be short. Even if…
Either as mothers, sisters, wives, daughters, mistresses, lovers or supernatural creatures, women populate the world of the Odyssey and bring thus an important source of information when it comes to finding parallels between their representations in real life as drawn from the representations they get in the Homeric epic.
Based on the same starting point as the Odyssey, another ancient author, the Roman irgil wrote the epic Aeneid. He lived in the most flourishing times of the Roman empire, in the first century BC, almost seven centuries after the Odyssey and the Iliad had probably been written. The heroes in irgil's epic are still men, but the women gain a new role: that of sounders and rulers. Analyzing the whole range of epics and poems written by ancient Greek and Latin writers, A.M. Keith points out that "classical Greek and Latin epic poetry was composed by men, consumed largely by…
Virgil. Aeneid. Trans. Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis: Hackett, 2005.
Avery, Dorothy. Women in the Iliad. Copyright: D. Avery 2004. Retrieved: May 7, 2009. Available at: http://www.latrobe.edu.au/arts/tradition/tradavery1.html
Keith, A.M. Engendering Rome: Women in Latin Epic. Cambridge University Press, 2000.
A OMPARISON BETWEEN
THE FLOOD MYTHS IN THE EPI OF GILGAMESH
AND THE BOOK OF GENESIS
The Biblical story of the Flood as found in the Book of Genesis contains many similarities to the Mesopotamian myth known as the Epic of Gilgamesh; in fact, it appears that the Biblical account as related by Noah, ca. 1400-1200 B..E., may have been entirely derived from the Epic of Gilgamesh, written some six hundred years earlier in 2000 B..E. when the so-called Flood Myths had their origins.
Among these similarities between the two ancient accounts is that the Gods were very displeased with how their creation, being Man, was behaving on Earth which served as the main impetus for destroying every living thing that breathed, swam or walked. In Genesis, chapter 6, verses 5-7, we find "And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every…
Clough, Brenda W. A Short Discussion on the Influence of the Gilgamesh Epic on the Bible. Internet. July 3, 1999. Accessed March 5, 2003.
Kovacs, Maureen G. The Epic of Gilgamesh. Connecticut: Stanford University Press, 1989.
Magill, Frank N., Ed. Masterplots. Vol. 4. New York: Salem Press, 1964.
Mendelsohn, Isaac. Religions of the Ancient Near East. New York: Library of Religion, 1955: 100-06.
The Holy Bible. Authorized King James Version. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1960.
He stated that, "I mean printed works produced ostensibly to give children spontaneous pleasure and not primarily to teach them, nor solely to make them good, nor to keep them profitably quiet." (Darton 1932/1982:1) So here the quest is for the capture and promotion of children's imagination through stories and fables that please as well as enlighten. There is always the fallout that once a child learns to love to read he or she will read many more things with greater enthusiasm than before.
The children's literature genres developed in Mesopotamia and in Egypt over a roughly 1,500-year period - proverbs, fables, animal stories, debates, myths, instructions (wisdom literature), adventure and magic tales, school stories, hymns and poems - pass down to the Hebrews and the Greeks. The Old Testament owes much to both Mesopotamian and Egyptian literature (Adams 2004:230)
One can see that, as stated previously, children's literature is…
Adams, Gillian. 2004. "16 Ancient and Medieval Children's Texts." pp. 225-238 in International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature, vol. 1, edited by Hunt, Peter. London: Routledge.
Ancient Babylonia - Gilgamesh Tablet. 2009. Bible History. Retrieved 2 August 2010 ( http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/BabyloniaGilgamesh_Tablet.htm .).
Bell, Robert H. 2005. "Inside the Wardrobe: Is 'Narnia' a Christian Allegory?." Commonweal, December 16, pp. 12-15
Bible Maps. 2009. Genisis Files. Retrieved on 6 August 2010 ( http://www.genesisfiles.com/Mtararat.htm )
Pride in Literature
As a universally human characteristic, pride plays an important part in world literary themes. However, pride can be defined and perceived differently, and the term also has many different definitions. For example, pride can refer to a dignified type of satisfaction, as comes from taking pride in one's work. More often in literature, though, pride is depicted in a negative light and is usually featured as a tragic flaw that, if not overcome, brings about the hero's downfall. Moreover, the implications and meaning of pride in literature has changed over the course of time. Pride was portrayed as a necessary but dangerous trait of powerful leaders in the ancient epics of Greece and Mesopotamia like Gilgamesh, the Iliad, and the Odyssey. The trait of pride reached a sort of thematic culmination in the Old English work Beowulf, in which the title character's pride contributes positively to his…
Ever since the time when the Muslims raided the city, it became obvious that Christians would lose their influence in the territory, even with the fact that the latter were given permission to keep most of their churches. During the years in which I stood witnessing the Christian population being assimilated into the more powerful Muslim population, I observed that people belonging to both religions came to the church to worship God. Regardless of their personal convictions, people were united through religion and through their dedication to believing in God.
The finances spent for building such an architectural colossus are surely mind-blowing, taking into account that the structure's magnitude expresses magnificence. However, because the Muslim population thrived during the period, it is not surprising that they were willing to support such a spending, especially given that they too were aware of the consequences such a building would have on their…
1. Flood, F.B. The Great Mosque of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Umayyad Visual Culture (Boston: Brill, 2001).
2. Smith, E.B. Egyptian Architecture as Cultural Expression (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1938).
3. Thackara, W.T.S. "The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Spiritual Biography." Retrieved October 2, 2010, from the Teosophy Northwest Website: http://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/world/mideast/mi-wtst.htm
Science, Krieglestein says, attempts to explain chaos, and to the extent it cannot, it then ignores it (30). However, science is using the language it has in this moment, to explain chaos. Like the philosophers, Descarte and Kant, science relies upon its investigation in much the same was the philosophers rely upon nature and rationalism to convert chaos to order. That it is the nature, if not the universe, of mankind to gravitate towards order. This is man's obsession with chaos, to turn it into order.
One of the most recognized names in the history of philosophy is Plato. Dante Germino, Eric Voegelin (2000) shed some light on Plato's obsession with chaos and order, or philosophy, writing, "The motives that induced the young man of a well-connected family not to pursue his natural career in the politics of Athens but insteadto become a philosopher, the founder of a school, anda…
Barrow, John D., and Joseph Silk. The Left Hand of Creation: The Origin and Evolution of the Expanding Universe. New York: Basic Books, 1983. Questia. 12 Dec. 2007
Indeed, the period now spanning the so-called Modern Era and the Industrial Revolution has been dependent upon humanity taming and turning nature to our own ends. This has led to a process whereby we downplay the natural world and of native peoples in general who live in a more harmonious fashion with their surrounding world. hile this process, especially during the Industrial Age, has led to dehumanization process and it has also led to a cheapening of human life in general as well. One can therefore see in New Age approaches to nature (and religion) that there is a hunger to rediscover an intra-natural balance that was lost in the last few centuries. By studying and internalizing these myths and their moral lessons, we can recapture this lost balance. The author compared these other approaches and built upon what we learned in class, especially by comparing and contrasting and them…
Brightman, Robert Alain. (2002). "there was just animals before." Grateful Prey: Rock
Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.
Ibid. (2002). "they come to be like human." Grateful Prey: Rock
Cree Human-Animal Relationships (pp. 38-76). Regina, Saskatchawan: Canadian Plains Research Center.
The first piece of literature that has endured over the years, the Epic of Gilgamesh, also testifies about the existence and consumption of beer, even attributing it the power to signify the civilization as opposed to the world of the beast that did not have any use of such drink. One of the heroes in the legend, Enkidu, is brought into the civilized world though the contact with a woman, consumption of beer and hygiene: "Enkidu's primitive nature is demonstrated by his lack of familiarity with bread and beer; but once he has consumed them, and then washed himself, he too becomes a human and is then ready to go to Uruk, the city ruled by Gilgamesh" (the History of the World in ix Glasses, p.27). The first recorded literary piece is linked with the largest city in Mesopotamia and the first alcoholic beverage to be used by humans at…
Standage, Tom. A History of the World in Six Glasses. 2005. Walker Publishing Company. New York
Beer Institute. Retrieved: Oct 17, 2009. Available at: http://www.beerinstitute.org/tier.asp?bid=142
A History of Beer. Retrieved: Oct 18, 2009. Available at: http://www.alabev.com/history.htm
Dionysus allows Midas to have his wish knowing that it will soon be the worst thing he could have done as man cannot live by gold alone. For awhile Midas is a "happy man" (Ovid 263), surrounded by all of the gold but soon he begs to be rescued from "this loss / That looks so much like gain!" (263). e also see a tragedy with the story of Narcissus, who is so in love with himself that he falls in love with his own reflection in a pool as punishment for his cruelty. This might not seem like such a bad thing except for the fact that he is compelled to look at the reflection and never leave. In short, he "wanted himself" (70) and died while trying to kiss the image.
e see how the gods can inflict their wrath on individuals in Homer's The Iliad. hen Achilles…
The Epic of Gilgamesh. Arts and Culture: An Introduction to the Humanities. New York: Prentice Hall. 2001.
Ovid. Metamorphosis. Rolfe Humphries, trans. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. 1955.
These Gods subjugated humans in a way that never happened in other primitive river-valley cultures yet seemed to follow a political will as the concept evolved. This finally culminates in the marriage between the God of Above, Nergal, lord of Summer, Growth and Heat; and the Goodness of the Below, Ereshkigal, queen of the underworld, inter, the Cold, and of Death. e now have opposites, attracted, and yet polarized in deed, action, and even interpretation (Messadie, 1996, 90-7).
This conception then seems to flow mythologically out of the Middle East into other cultures; we have the trickster, the shadow, the evil one, and even the unknown. However, considering the geographical location of the Abrahamic religions, it is logical that there would be a cross-over from the archetype that would manifest itself within these religious traditions.
Satan in Judaism -- in traditional Judaic thought, there is no conception of the Devil…
Jews Believe in the Satan, and Not in the Devil. (2003, March). Retrieved November 2010, from What Jews Believe: http://whatjewsbelieve.org/explanation7.html
Anderson, W. (2010). Dante the Maker. Brooklyn, NY: S4N Books.
Bowker, J. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Catchpool, D. (2002). The Koran vs. Genesis. Creation, 24(2), 46-51.
Creation Myth Analysis
Case Study of the History of iblical Creation Narratives
What Is Myth?
What Is History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 Myth?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 History?
Is Genesis 1:1-2:4 oth Myth and History?
An Analysis of the iblical Creation Narrative of Genesis 1:1-25 and Egypt's Possible Influence on the Historical Record
God created the world in just six days, and rested on the seventh, but scholars have not rested at all over the millennia in their investigation of its account in the historical record, particularly Genesis 1:1-25. Given its importance to humankind, it is little wonder that so much attention has been devoted to how the universe was created and what place humanity has in this immense cosmos. Indeed, the creation of the universe and the origin of mankind are the subject of numerous myths around the world, with many sharing some distinct commonalities. According to S.G.F.…
Aldred, Cyril. The Egyptians. London: Thames & Hudson, 1961.
Andrews, E.A.. What Is History? Five Lectures on the Modern Science of History. New York:
Macmillan Co., 1905.
Austin, Michael. "Saul and the Social Contract: Constructions of 1 Samuel 8-11 in Cowley's 'Davideis' and Defoe's 'Jure Divino,' Papers on Language & Literature 32, 4 (1996),
perceived superiority of modern Western civilization is unfounded. There is little evidence to suggest that our cultures are any more advanced than the ancient cultures of the Fertile Crescent, Greece, or Rome. The argument for a linear progression or an evolution of civilization can be countered by evidence to the contrary in areas as diverse as science, politics, philosophy, art, and architecture. Although definite improvements have been made in women's rights, forced labor, and governmental systems, for instance, the accomplishments of ancient cultures rival our own. They may not have possessed microchips or jet engines in ancient Athens, but they did create the structures upon which we base our society today. We are still reaping the rewards that ancient civilizations sowed millennia ago. In fact, Mesopotamia, Sumeria, Babylon, Egypt, Assyria, Israel, Greece, and Rome comprise the beginnings of Western civilization.
Ancient civilizations possessed a remarkable understanding of nature and the…
So, who was right? Well, it seems that history has taught us again and again that in certain conditions, humans do express their evil and competitive natures (e.g. fascism, genocide, etc.); but that in other situations, the species can be incredibly giving and benevolent (think of Mother Theresa, people helping people). The complexity is that humans are not all one type or another, but a combination. Most sociologists believe that it is culture and society that form the basis for behavior. For example, the Kung! Bushmen of South Africa have no crime, very little disagreement, and understand they must cooperate for the good of the tribe. owever, if we look at the Epic of Gilgamesh or the Code of ammurabi, we find that the earliest civilizations had to provide structure and that evil nature was as much a part of humanity as goodness. The debate remains -- is the cup…
Hobbes looked around, and saw a sewer of urban life; poor people struggling, disease, trash, pestilence and believed that without control mankind was nothing more than animalistic. Locke thought otherwise, that humans, given a chance to actualize, would cooperate, work towards a common good, and provide a generalized and goal-oriented society. So, who was right? Well, it seems that history has taught us again and again that in certain conditions, humans do express their evil and competitive natures (e.g. fascism, genocide, etc.); but that in other situations, the species can be incredibly giving and benevolent (think of Mother Theresa, people helping people). The complexity is that humans are not all one type or another, but a combination. Most sociologists believe that it is culture and society that form the basis for behavior. For example, the Kung! Bushmen of South Africa have no crime, very little disagreement, and understand they must cooperate for the good of the tribe. However, if we look at the Epic of Gilgamesh or the Code of Hammurabi, we find that the earliest civilizations had to provide structure and that evil nature was as much a part of humanity as goodness. The debate remains -- is the cup 1/2 empty or 1/2 full -- or is it both?
The Federalist movement surrounding the writing and eventual ratification of the U.S. Constitution focused on one basic premise: how much power and authority should the national, versus State, government control. Certainly, once can view that if the Articles of Confederation were deemed to be too weak and inappropriate for the new Republic, then the Federalist faction won. Rhode Island and North Carolina especially opposed the Federalist view, but eventually the Bill of Rights seemed to satisfy most of the delegates who realized that the alternative would be suicide. This did not stop individual States from wanting to secede long before the Civil War, and indeed, the actual finality of the issue of State's rights was not really solved until the mid-20th century, when the Supreme Court issued several decisions requiring that the tenets of the Bill of Rights be established in all 50 States.
If one considers the political issues of the Jeffersonian Era up to the War Between the States, then one might say that although the Constitution provided a legal means for a strong centralized government, that was on paper and States tended to act and react in their own ways to a point. There was consternation during the 1812 issues with the British, when new States entered the Union there were issues on whether they would be Slave or Free States. Thus, the Federalists really only had the appearance of victory after the Constitutional Convention, not the buy in and acceptance of the policy for decades afterwards.
limate change, income disparity, terminal illnesses and continued wars all plague our world. The means by which we typically understand such phenomenon is through science. We have created vast canons of academic texts in fields like psychology, sociology, and other social sciences. Even politics is now "political science." Anything that cannot be codified or empirically researched is not deemed worthy of discussion. It is this over-emphasis on science that creates a boom in fantasy literature.
Fantasy writing is also a "special skill," according to hadbourn (2008). "Being able to see beyond the boundaries of the world around us" requires a different approach to writing than other genres (hadbourn 2008). Many reluctant readers find that fantasy liberates them from the tyranny of science. As the new religion of the world, science demystifies. Many readers find reading mundane because it too closely resembles the predictable world of science.
Of course, not all…
Chadbourn is absolutely correct about the role fantasy plays in the modern world. The reason why fantasy has surpassed all other genres, including science fiction, in sales is partly related to the nature of the world we live in today. Climate change, income disparity, terminal illnesses and continued wars all plague our world. The means by which we typically understand such phenomenon is through science. We have created vast canons of academic texts in fields like psychology, sociology, and other social sciences. Even politics is now "political science." Anything that cannot be codified or empirically researched is not deemed worthy of discussion. It is this over-emphasis on science that creates a boom in fantasy literature.
Fantasy writing is also a "special skill," according to Chadbourn (2008). "Being able to see beyond the boundaries of the world around us" requires a different approach to writing than other genres (Chadbourn 2008). Many reluctant readers find that fantasy liberates them from the tyranny of science. As the new religion of the world, science demystifies. Many readers find reading mundane because it too closely resembles the predictable world of science.
Of course, not all readers enjoy fantasy and science fiction. The otherworldly aspect of these genres may be too detached from daily life for some readers to understand. Some readers might also not relate to the symbols and codes used by fantasy and science fiction writers. I have always devoured works of historical fiction because they re-create the world of the past and make that universe relevant. Although I appreciate historical fiction more than fantasy, the two genres are not totally dissimilar. When I read a work of historical fiction, I encounter names, places, imagery, and motifs that are not present in any work that is set in the 21st century. While the author does not stretch the boundaries of physics to convey the central themes of the novel, the author does appeal to my sense of imagination. This is what all good fiction should share in common.
Is there such a thing as retribution, though -- or at least does evil ever regret its actions. As the story ends, Misfit seems to be thinking about goodness and probably thinking that evil is not the answer to the problems in his life. At the end of the story Misfit regrets killing Grandma, and says that "she would have been a good woman if it had been somebody there to shoot her every minute of her life." Everyone has evil inside them; sometimes we see only good or only evil; but the battle exists on various planes in a regular, almost evolutionary manner -- the conflict is what drives humans forward. What are these consequences, though? If Mme. Loisel would not have been so determined to rise above her station and show off, or if she had been more honest and less presumptive, she would not have spent a…
Gretlund. J., et.al., eds. Flannery O'Connor's Radical Reality. University of South
I would say that while the world seems like a smaller place, there are still problems and people still act the way they always have. There are still diseases we cannot cure and people still die. I would say that the one disease that began some 30 years ago in the 1980s has finally taken hold of the majority of the population.
I would talk about how AIDS was once GRID and how heterosexuals thought they were safe but now everyone is a carrier. It is like the plague was back in its day, I would say. I would include pictures of empty neighborhoods, of houses falling apart because money for the medical bills does not allow for upkeep of any kind. I would show empty offices and buildings. There would be pictures of huge offices with no one at the desks. I would include pictures of doctor's offices filled…
Compare and contrast two other Olympic deities with the story of Zeus. Discuss and elaborate in your answer how these gods interact with Zeus and why the stories about their origins are important to our understanding of Greek mythology
Zeus overtook and destroyed his father, the Titan Cronos -- but was nearly destroyed by the birth of his own daughter, Athena. Zeus, fearing that her mother Metis would become wiser than himself, ate his lover while she was pregnant, and Athena was born from Zeus' skull, fully formed. Zeus proved his ability to 'give birth,' thus showing his greatness as a god, and Athena gained her unique status, having been entirely mentally generated by a male, although female in appearance. Unlike the other deities of Olympus, she seldom had conflicts with Zeus, as Zeus seemed to respect her wisdom.
Zeus also had another special relationship with Hermes, another of his…
Ganz, Timothy. (2009). Early Greek Myth. Excerpted at About.com March 20, 2009 at http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/grecoromanmyth1/a/hesiodagesofman.htm
It is accepting Jesus as the Son of God or even a spiritual figure that many cannot grasp. In this regard, history can be interpreted as too narrow for an understanding of Jesus. In fact, history is often interpreted as too narrow for religious or spiritual belief of any sort. These types of historical documents and data are labeled mythology. Because Jesus' arrival coincided with a great deal of relatively recent mythology such as Greek mythology, the Epic of Gilgamesh, and others, many students of history may find it easy to lump all of these spiritual beliefs together as myths. Similarly, that Jesus performed miracles is a second facet of Jesus' existence that many have a hard time grasping. Some, who believe in practicality and science above the spiritual, suggest that he was simply performing tricks that the uneducated population did not know any better than to accept. Thus, while…
Although they still remain a mystery as to their origin, the Sumerians seem to have appeared as a fully developed society with technology and organizational skills far superior to any other societies of that era. The Sumerians evolved from hunters and gathers to communities of farmers who faced an unpredictable and hostile environment, yet their innovations in writing and recordkeeping influenced future civilizations. Not only are they credited with inventing the wheel, the plow, and timekeeping, but the earliest known literature, the epic of Gilgamesh, is attributed to the Sumerian civilization. Thus, modern civilizations owe much to this mysterious ancient peoples.
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Tracing the history of Iraq from its earliest days of civilization to the present. Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. September 19, 2002. Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
atkins, Thayer. "Sumer." San Jose State University Economics Department.
Retrieved December 09,…
Conan, Neal. "Analysis: Tracing the history of Iraq from its earliest days of civilization to the present. Talk of the Nation: National Public Radio. September 19, 2002. Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Watkins, Thayer. "Sumer." San Jose State University Economics Department.
Retrieved December 09, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library. http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/sumer.htm
Waymire, Gregory B. "Recordkeeping and human evolution." Accounting
The level of subject matter knowledge and argumentative ability an individual involved in an argument possesses determine rationality. Finally, the rational world paradigm presupposes that the world is composed of logical puzzles that human beings solve through rational analysis. As can be seen both paradigms offer highly differing presuppositions over what constitutes human beings and how they communicate among one another.
Although Fisher has not explicitly mentioned it, the conduit metaphor can be said to share certain similarities with the rational world paradigm. The conduit metaphor stresses that thoughts and feelings are transferred via language between individuals. This entails that senders of information put their thoughts and feelings into words, which have to then be extracted out by receivers using objective interpretation (eddy, 1979).
The metaphor's assumption that receivers will be objective while interpreting the message is similar to the rational world paradigm's assumption that individuals will objectively examine how…
Axley, S. (1984) "The study of management in terms of the conduit metaphor." AMR, 9, 428-437
Berman, D. And Russell, G. (2005, July 5). "As rancor mounts, CNOOC needs to push its offer for Unocal." Wall Street Journal. P. C1.
Conduit Metaphor Paper." Retrieved Oct. 27, 2005:
Gifts of the Jews
Thomas Cahill's book The Gifts of the Jews: How a Tribe of Desert Nomads Changed the ay Everyone Thinks and Feels demonstrates what happens when a great idea is ultimately brought down by a lack of critical and rhetorical rigor. This is not to suggest that The Gift of the Jews is not worth reading, or that its insights are not valuable, but rather that every surprising fact or remarkable contribution is lessened somewhat by a longing for what the book could have been, had Cahill simply been more precise in his language and extensive in his sourcing. As it is, The Gifts of the Jews is an entertaining, surprising examination of Jewish history and culture, albeit one whose evidence ultimately falls short its boldest claims. By examining the book's central thesis regarding the Jewish contribution to the conception of time and historicity alongside the more…
Cahill, Thomas. The Gifts of the Jews. New York: Anchor Books, 1999.
Why do People Study Mythology?
There are all kinds of reasons why people study mythology. Those reasons might be part of a larger, cultural reason, or they might be very personal to the person doing the research and studying. Both ways are completely understandable, and if a person is thinking about studying mythology, he or she might want to take some of the reasons people study it into consideration to examine his or her own motives. For example, some people study mythology because they are very interested in other cultures. When studying a different culture, how (and who or what) that culture worships is very important. It can provide a lot of insight into the overall beliefs of that culture and how it survived the way it did for the length of time it was in existence. Of course, there are other reasons for studying mythology, and one of…
Economics in Ancient Civilization
It is said that "Rome was not built in a day." Indeed, the Roman Empire was the last of a series of civilizations to emerge in the Mediterranean by the First Millennium, B.C. Precursors to the culture most identified as the seat of estern political economy, the Ancient Egyptians, Etruscans, Greeks, Syrians, Carthaginians and Phoenicians all had contact with the Romans, and eventually were incorporated through territorial expansion of the Empire in Asia Minor, Cyrenaica, Europe, and North Africa. Prior to the Roman period, Europe was primarily occupied by Barbarian tribes; societies where no written language, legal system or alternative mechanism of governance was in place. hen we discuss the advancement of Ancient civilizations, then, it is through the transmission of law, literacy and polity that we find source to retrospect on early economic forms. In Feinman and Nicholas (2004), Perspectives on Political Economies, the difficulties…
Buck-Norss, S. The Dialectics of Seeing: Walter Benjamin and the Arcades Project. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1991.
Benjamin, W.(1927). Das Passagen Werken. Notebooks.
Bitros, George C., and Anastassios D. Karayiannis. "Morality, institutions and the wealth of nations: Some lessons from ancient Greece." European Journal of Political Economy 26.1 (2010): 68-81.
Boyazoglu, J., I. Hatziminaoglou, and P. Morand-Fehr. "The role of the goat in society: Past, present and perspectives for the future." Small Ruminant Research 60.1/2 (2005): 13-23.
civilization in the ancient Near East (3500-1000 B.C.E.) and the Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) shared a great number of similarities as well as numerous differences. These points of comparison covered the political, economic, and social realms, cultural and intellectual ideas, as well as values and institutions. Further, each civilization differed in their specific impact on the creation of estern civilization, and the degree of that impact.
Civilization in the ancient Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) arose out of a number of important causes. First, the location of the Mediterranean area between three continents, and the influence of civilizations like Mesopotamia, India and China nearby. Further, the excellent communication by sea, the mild climate, and the invention of writing were important factors in encouraging the development of civilization in the area (Poiycratis).
The history of civilization in the Mediterranean is not one of a single cultural, political, social,…
Ancientnewreast.com. Near eastern history, language and culture. 03 June 2004. http://www.ancientneareast.com/
Carlos, Michael C. Near East. Odyssey Online. 13 June 2004. http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/NEAREAST/homepg.html
Poiycratis, G.S. 1992. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN CIVILIZATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CULTURES. Annals of the MBC,5(1). 03 June 2004. http://www.medbc.com/annals/review/vol_5/num_1/text/vol5n1p5.htm
Enuma Elish vs. Bible
The parallels and similarities between the Enuma Elish and the first few chapters of Genesis are strikingly similar in the form and function of the account being told. However, there are also differences between the two. These differences and similarities illustrate the very parallel nature and form that Babylonian and Israeli belief structures have taken over the centuries. hile differences like this may breed divisiveness and animosity with some groups, the focus should remain on the scholarly dimensions of the debate and the differences as this is a question that all people tumble and toil with at one point or another.
As noted in the introduction, there are stark similarities as well as differences between the account of creating enumerated and described in the first two chapters of Genesis and the account of pretty much the same event in the Enuma Elish. However, it goes a…
ReligiousTolerance.com. "Comparing the Genesis and Babylonian stories of creation."
Comparing the Genesis and Babylonian stories of creation. N.p., 30 June 2014.
Web. 30 June 2014. .
The author of this report has been charged with describing and listing the facets of at least two major creation myths that have existed or do exist in modern culture. Indeed, the course of human history and culture has led to the presentation and belief in multiple creation theories and religious beliefs. Many people point to the Bible and Genesis or Job in particular when it comes to such theories. However, there are a number of others and two of those non-Biblical mythology arcs will be the focus of this report. While there are common threads and facets of many of the different creation myths, they each stand on their own in important ways.
The first creation myth that will be covered in this report is that of the Enuma Elish, which emanated from the Babylonians. Those that have heard reference to the Epic of Gilgamesh were being…
Deuer. (2016). Egyptian Creation Myths. Egyptartsite.com. Retrieved 3 October 2016, from http://www.egyptartsite.com/crea.html
GVSU. (2016). Enuma Elish -- The Babylonian Creation Story. Faculty.gvsu.edu. Retrieved 3 October 2016, from http://faculty.gvsu.edu/websterm/enuma_elish.html
Michael Wood’s “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” offers fascinating insight into human civilization, through a narrative of the story of Iraq. Tracing Iraq from the cradle of civilization to its current state of devastation, Wood warns viewers to learn from the mistakes of the past instead of continuing to repeat them. In addition to its overarching message, “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” includes some incredible details about the cultural diversity within Iraq and how current customs reveal cultural continuity with the past. Some of the most amazing examples of diversity include the Mandean people, who have cultural practices that are vestiges of Christian times such as a wedding ceremony that includes a full-immersion baptism in a river they refer to as the “Jordan,” even though it is the Euphrates. There is also the Yazidi people, who worship Satan but are not what a European or American would call a Satan…
Madam Eglantyne the Nun, is also an ironic charater. She eats in a very refined manner and attempts other fine characteristics such as speaking French, although she fares poorly at this. Ironically, not all her language is pure, as she swears cosntantly by "St. Loy," a saint renowned for not swearing. Unlike the general conception of the Nun, she is very concerned with outward appearances and did not much care for human beings. Indeed, she cared much more for her three dogs than the human beings around her. Another irony is that she has a coral trinket to fight worldly temptations, which is clearly failing badly.
A second character is the Friar, Hubert. While he is jolly, merry, and festive, his actions are nevertheless evil and cunning. He impregnates girls, for example, and marries them off. He deceived the faithful by hearing confessions for a fee, and even begged from…