Ethical Consideration Essays (Examples)

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Ethical Aspects in Research Studies the Essential

Words: 1340 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94884429

Ethical Aspects in esearch Studies

The essential aspects of research are the concern and respect that the researchers offer to the participants. esearch is aimed at producing insights that are beneficial to the society. However, the research should be conducted ethically. The ethical concern in research adduces that it should not advance a society at the detriment of others especially the participants in the research. Ethics in research is vital because it guides the working principles of the researcher for the research to conform to the required standards. This is the case especially when research subjects in health or medical research are often human beings. Therefore, it is vital to respect these individuals. The guiding principles in research ethics focus on preserving the rights and dignity of the research participants. In this regard, ethics focus on ensuring consent is obtained, no harm is done, the participant's privacy is respected, and…… [Read More]

References

Austin, W. (2007). The Ethics of Everyday Practice: Healthcare Environments as Moral Communities. Advances in Nursing Science, Volume 30 - Issue 1 - p 81-88.

Bernadette M.M. & Ellen F.O. (2011). Evidence-based practice in nursing and health care: a guide to best practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Carol J.H. (2013). Professional Issues in Nursing: Challenges and Opportunities. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Corey-L., Patricia M., Anita J., Marlene Z., & Alison M. (1999). Healthcare Reform: Its Effects on Nurses. Journal of Nursing Administration, Volume 29 - Issue 3 - pp 30-37.
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Ethical Problem's Relevant Values Stakeholders Decision Making

Words: 3888 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4540143

Ethical Problem(s)

elevant Values

Stakeholders

Decision Making

Utilitarianism

Problems with Utilitarianism

Deontology

awlsian Ethics

oss's Ethical Theory

Natural Law Theory

Ethical Analysis

Scenario

A Pennsylvania hospital is faced with a non-U.S. born 5-year-old daughter of undocumented immigrants who has a life-threatening need for a 2 million dollar transplant. Using critical analysis and your ethics knowledge render and defend a decision about whether to provide the transplant.

Ethical problem(s)

One of the ethical problems present is the fact that the 5-year-old was born in undocumented immigrants parents. She also was a non-United States citizen. Another problem is the child has a life threatening disease that requires a transplant for a substantiate amount of money that is two million dollar to be spending on a non-U.S. citizen. The case that is being presented brings into focus a number of the most currently vital questions that occur in the gap of medicine and…… [Read More]

References

Dwyer, J. (2004, February). Illegal immigrants, health care, and social responsibility. The Hastings Center Report, 34(1), 34-41. Retrieved from http://benedictine.learntoday.info/AngelUploads/Content/MPH-603-D3A3/_assoc/site/MM/WK5_Dwyer_Article.pdf

Kershaw, S. (2007). U.S. rule limits emergency care for immigrants. Retrieved from http://benedictine.learntoday.info/AngelUploads/Content/MPH-603-D3A3/_assoc/site/MM/WK5_NYTimes%20_%20No_Healthcare_for_Illegals.doc

Maximiano, J.M.B. (2003). Corporate social responsibility: Basic principles and best practices: Historico-philosophical issues in international business. Manila: DLSU University Press.
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Ethical Issues in Nursing Scenario the Scenario

Words: 1254 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81837468

Ethical Issues in Nursing

Scenario

The scenario in this study involves a nurse who has intentionally disregarded the elderly patient's expressed wishes to receive pressure area care. The patient finds the procedure uncomfortable, embarrassing, and painful. The nurse continues to turn the patient in spite of the patient's wishes. This study will answer if the nurse is justified in turning the patient and if so, on what ethical grounds and if not then why not. This case will be discussed in light of the principles of bioethics and at least one ethical issue.

The work of Lakeman (2000) entitled "Nurses as Tools: Instrumentality and Implications for Nursing Ethics" states "Nurses are left in a particularly compromised position when required to administer compulsory treatment. The task of administering the treatment is often left to nurses who are legally required to follow "doctor's orders." There is little room for conscientious objection by…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Browning, J.S. (2007) Ethical Issues in Nursing Practice; Identifications and Comparisons Across Clinical Specialty. Ethical Issues. 12 Jul 2007. Retrieved from:  http://stti.confex.com/stti/congrs07/techprogram/paper_32839.htm 

Johnstone, M.-J. (1999). Bioethics: a nursing perspective. (3rd ed.). Sydney: Harcourt Saunders.

Jonsen, AR, Siegler, M and Winslade, WJ (1998) Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1998.

Kurtz, R.J., & Wang, J. (1991). The caring ethic: more than kindness, the core of nursing science. Nursing Forum, 26(1), 4-8.
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Ethical Branding Case of Divine

Words: 3560 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34797428

The business is also becoming one of the leading companies and a well-known case study of the fair trade principles within the market. The business is also creating a noble image within the target market through its efforts of creating awareness for paying the fair price to its coca producers. The image created by the business is significantly affecting its brand image as an ethical brand. The research of Britain (2007) is also evident of the findings presented above.

USA consumer attitudes:

According to Ma (2007) the consumers in United States are also familiar with the fair trade attitudes and principles. The young consumers are highly likely to purchase products that are manufactured by the businesses incorporating fair trade principles. The consumers of young age group prefer to value the contributions of manufacturers towards fair trade principles (Gropel, 2012). The graduates and educated high income group is also tilted towards…… [Read More]

References:

Britain, G 2007, Fair trade and development: seventh report of session 2006-07, Vol. 2: Oral and written evidence (Vol. 356), Stationery Office, United Kingdom.

Clarke, N, Barnett, C, Cloke, P & Malpass, a 2007, the political rationalities of fair-trade consumption in the United Kingdom, Politics & Society, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 583-607.

De Pelsmacker, P, Driesen, L & Rayp, G 2005, Do Consumers Care about Ethics? Willingness to Pay for Fair-Trade Coffe, Journal of consumer affairs, vol. 39, No. 2, pp. 363-385.

DeCarlo, J 2011, Fair trade and how it works, the Rosen Publishing Group.
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Ethical Behavior in Organizations

Words: 7363 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67578921

Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations

This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.

ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS

Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations

UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS

Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations

Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior

Results from Baucus and Near's research model

Part Three

SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS

Part Four

NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY

hat is organizational behavior?

Purpose of organizational behavior

An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components

Basic models of organizational behaviors

Part Five

PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION

Part Six

FUTURE DIRECTION

orks Cited

APPENDIX

Ethical Behavior…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business

Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.

The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition

Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
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Ethical Behavior According to Mill

Words: 2008 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49235441

Here, Aristotle recognizes the variances which appear
to define our establishment of the means to pursuing happiness, musing that
"the characteristics that are looked for in happiness seem also, all of
them, to belong to what we have defined happiness as being. For some
identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a
kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied
by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external
prosperity." (Aristotle, I: 8) Aristotle uses this as a divining rod for
dissecting the various relationships which are perpetuated amongst
individuals. His argument engages in the dialectical process to discern
that which is 'good' apart from that which is 'evil' or 'neutral.' Through
such an engagement, he achieves a satisfactorily defended notion of 'good':
"Aristotle identifies the distinctively human phenomenon of
action arising from reason as the function of the human being:…… [Read More]

Works Cited
Eliot, G. (1872). Middlemarch. Penguin Classics.
McNickle, D. (1936). Surrounded. University of New Mexico Press.
Rachels, James. (1993). The Utilitarian Approach. The Elements of Moral
Philosophy, pg. 91-101. New York: McGraw Hill.

Rachels, James. (1993). Kant and Respect for Persons. The Elements of
Moral Philosophy, pg. 127-138. New York: McGraw Hill.
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Ethical Challenges in Healthcare Administration

Words: 4869 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62855472

Ethical Challenge Scenaios in Healthcae Administation

Scenaio 1: You have withdawn an offe at the last minute (due to poo efeences) to an ICU nuse manage candidate who has moved acoss the county to accept the job. The only way you will avoid a lawsuit is if she is hied somewhee else soon. A close colleague calls to ask you fankly why you withdew the offe. What do you say?

This paticula scenaio seems like moe of a legal issue than an ethical question. An ethical dilemma would be about whethe to talk to the fiend o not. It seems that thee ae a few sepaate issues with egad to the oveall scenaio. Fist, of couse is the legality of talking to the fiend at all. Why does she want to know? Did she ecommend the employee? Next, what does an offe of employment mean? Anothe point to expound upon…… [Read More]

references: A survey of recently enacted state legislation. William and Mary Law Review, 39(1). 177-228.

Meier, K.J., & Hicklin, A. (2008). Employee turnover and organizational performance: testing a hypothesis from classical public administration. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18(4). 573-582.

Robinson, R.K., Jackson, W.T., Franklin, G.M., & Clayton, R.W. (2010). The changing legal environment for employers: Implications for small businesses. Journal of Business and Entrepreneurship, 22(1). 91-99.

Yoder, B. (2008). How reasonable Is "Reasonable"? The search for a satisfactory approach to employment handbooks. Duke Law Journal, 57(5). 1517-1529.
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Ethical and Personal Knowledge Development

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13684595

Ethical knowledge stems from the external world, what society has bred within us through our assimilation and experience within it. This is often set in place by societal foundations, legal requirements, and moral expectations of a community or culture at large. Ethical knowledge is thus shared by large groups of people from the same community or culture. From a nursing perspective, there is "a unique set of values and a particular culture and practice that affects the ethical decision-making processes" that are often shared by a number of members within the nursing community at large (Chinn & Kramer, 2010, p 93). On the other hand, personal knowledge is unique and often comes from our own internalization of the independent experiences each individual witness throughout his or her life. This is much more internal and variant than ethical knowledge, where each individual has a different knowledge base founded from their own…… [Read More]

References

Chinn, Peggy L. & Kramer, Maeona, K. (2010). Integrated Theory and Knowledge Development in Nursing. Mosby / Elsevier.
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Ethical Case Analysis JOHNSO62 on

Words: 3376 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71485907

The Tasman Spirit crew and financiers should work to investigate acute health concerns as well as the marine ecosystem surrounding Karachai. The American Club, likely one of two involved parties with the financial resources to affect significant change in the region which actually suffered the effects of the environmental disaster. ather than working against each other with suits and counter suits and the assorted other motions and legal actions underway, it would be most effective and positive for those two companies to work together with environmental awareness and protection agencies to restore the region.

Step Three

Affected Parties

This portion of the analysis is concerned with the specific affected individual parties. While it is important not to allow empathy for a specific group to outweigh the impartiality of an effective analysis it is also important to understand the relevant human components of a situation especially one which has such a…… [Read More]

References

1. Janjua, N.Z., Kasi, P.M., Nawaz, H. (2006). Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health, 6, 84. 435- 488.

2. Ha, M., Lee, W.J., Lee, S., & Cheong, H.K. (2008). A literature review on health effects of exposure to oil spill. Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health 45,5 345-354.
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Ethical Situations What Does the Patient Have

Words: 882 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4124087

Ethical Situations

What does the patient have the right to know?

What the patient has the right to know (regarding genetic tests) is: a complicated matter and many people, including experts, have varying opinions. The information patients receive from genetic testing can have significant consequences, especially if it leads a pregnant woman to have an abortion. The ethical principles that arise in situations like this are varied and are often in conflict with each other. The ethical decisions in genetic counseling would be fairly cut and dry if the principle of autonomy was the only one that was considered. However, by doing this a counselor may be ignoring the other ethical concerns like: what is best for society and being fair to other people (regarding who the patient's decisions are affecting).

Who should have decision making power in our society on issues of genetic / medical testing?

Regarding the "Dwarfism…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Biesecker, Barbara. "Future Directions in Genetic Counseling: Practical and Ethical Considerations." Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8.2 (1998). 145-160. Web.

Flackelman, Kathy. "Beyond the genome: the ethics of DNA testing." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 66-70. Print.

Flackelman, Kathy. "DNA dilemmas: readers and 'experts' weigh in on biomedical ethics." Science News. 5 Nov. 1994: 64-66. Print.
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Ethical Theory and Moral Practice

Words: 4260 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80307899

Ethical Theory & Moral Practice

Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.

This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.

"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml

Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/#H3 

Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
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Ethical Dilemma Recently I Have

Words: 1781 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49840754

George must take time and think about his company, his coworkers, and Med-Train because his decision will have a ripple effect on them all. When applying the golden rule George will think about the stakeholders and make a more informed decision. A selfish decision in this case may not only harm George but also have negative consequences on all the stakeholders involved.

Recommendation-Conclusion

After analyzing the Georges case and considering the dilemma facing him; deciding between loyalty to his company and being honest to all stakeholders involved in the process and the ethical and legal ramifications to consult (albeit from a position of his own company) with his employer's main competitor. The recommendation to George has several facets to help him make the most beneficial ethical and legal decision.

George must schedule a meeting with the human resources director and check into XYZ Incorporated's policy to gauge the rules regarding…… [Read More]

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Ethical Issues in Contemporary Neuroscience

Words: 369 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23311306



Despite the tremendous capacity of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation to improve human health and minimize suffering from disease and trauma, there has been significant opposition primarily based in religious dogma: specifically, the belief that human life begins at conception. Certainly, there are important ethical considerations, but they are no different in principle from those currently relied upon to regulate all other aspects of modern medicine and health care delivery. Ultimately, it is imperative to develop the full potential of stem cell science, cloning technology, and neuro-implantation in conjunction with a comprehensive set of ethical guidelines to prevent irresponsible or unethical misuses. However, those ethical guidelines may only incorporate secular concepts and definitions and never the religious beliefs of any particular religious tradition.

eferences

Gerrig, , Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th…… [Read More]

References

Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2007). Psychology and Life. New York: Allyn & Bacon.

Levine, C. (2008). Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Bioethical Issues. 12th Ed. Dubuque

Iowa: McGraw Hill.

Tong, R. (2007). New Perspectives in Health Care Ethics: An Interdisciplinary and Cultural Approach Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
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Ethical Issues Surrounding the Adoption of Electronic

Words: 1295 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55644945

Ethical Issues Surrounding the Adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) by Health Care Organizations and Meaningful Use

The objective of this work in writing is to examine why health care organizations are hesitant to adopt electronic health records (HER) in light of the potential of HER to improve quality, increase access, and reduce costs. This issue will be examined from a legal, financial, and ethical standpoint and in relation to 'meaningful use'.

The use of information technology in the health care field shows a great deal of potential toward improving quality, efficiency, and safety in medical care. (DeRoches, Campbell, and Rao, 2008, paraphrased; Frisse & Holmes, 2007, paraphrased; and Walker, et al., 2005, paraphrased) The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 is reflective of the unprecedented interest of the Federal government in the area of bringing about increases in the use of IT in health care for system…… [Read More]

Bibliography

A New Hospital EMR Adoption assessment Tool (2012) HIMSS Analytics. Retrieved from: http://www.himss.org/content/files/EMR053007.pdf

American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. Available athttp://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/getdoc.cgi?dbname=111_cong_bills&docid=f:h1enr.pdf. Accessed 5 August2010.

Daniel, J. And Goldstein, MM (2010) Consumer Consent Options for Electronic Health Information Exchange: Policy Considerations and analysis. 23 Mar 2010.

DesRoches CM, Campbell EG, Rao SR, et al. Electronic health records in ambulatory care -- a national survey of physicians. N Engl J. Med 2008; 359:50 -- 60.
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Ethical to Raise Animals for

Words: 2104 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55572059

fosterfacts.net).

Arguments For: In response to those allegations, Bill Mattos, the president of the California Poultry Federation, said that he had invited California Senate representatives to visit poultry farms -- and to see for themselves that allegations of inhumane treatment are not true -- but his offer was declined (Fitzenberger). "To me, it's propaganda disguised as research," Mattos said in response to the report the California state Senate Office of Research produced.

Essayist Bart Gruzalski (Ethics and Animals, p. 253) writes that "the use of animals for food can be justified on utilitarian grounds even if we take into account only the pleasures and pains of the animals involved." Gruzalski quotes pig farmer James Cargile, who buys "several pigs" every year "from a neighboring hog farm"; Cargile raises them "to slaughter for food" but sees no meanness because the pigs "are given lots of room and food, everything a pig…… [Read More]

Works Cited

East Bay Animals Advocates (EBAA). (2005). Foster Farm Facts. Retrieved June 23, 2009,

From http://www.fosterfacts.net.

Fitzenberger, Jennifer M. (2004). California report criticizes animal cruelty at large cattle

And poultry farms. Sacramento Bee, Retrieved June 22, 2009, from  http://www.sacbee.com .
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Ethical and Legal Issues Related to Product Safety Marketing and Intellectual Property

Words: 1676 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34100951

Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property

Legal and ethical considerations

Ethical issues

PharmaCAE intentionally bypassed the Food and Drug Administration when it established CompCAE a compounding pharmacy. This was done in order to avoid FDA scrutinization, which indicates that the company was aware of the side effects that the drug would have on patients. By evading FDA scrutiny and approval, PharmaCAE was able to sell the new formulation on a prescription basis without the need to seek approvals. CompCAE was not supposed to market directly to consumers, but it still conducted direct marketing to consumers and hospitals. Furthermore, the company encouraged doctors to fax them lists of fictitious patient names. This was done to demonstrate that the company was not selling directly to consumers, but rather it was doctors who were prescribing the drug to the patients.

When reports started surfacing indicating that the drug was causing heart attacks, the…… [Read More]

References

Halbert, T., & Ingulli, E. (2011). Law and ethics in the business environment. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Kim, Y.K., Lee, K., Park, W.G., & Choo, K. (2012). Appropriate intellectual property protection and economic growth in countries at different levels of development. Research policy, 41(2), 358-375.

Liu, W., KNOx, C.A., & Brushwood, D.B. (2013). Discretion of the Food and Drug Administration to enforce compounding rules. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH-SYSTEM PHARMACY, 70(17), 1538-1543.

Peffer, S.L., Bocheko, A., Del Valle, R.E., Osmani, A., Peyton, S., & Roman, E. (2013). Whistle Where You Work? The Ineffectiveness of the Federal Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 and the Promise of the Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 0734371X13508414.
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Ethical Issues That Should Be Addressed by

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47591923

ethical issues that should be addressed by researchers in the field of psychology who use human subjects: the protection of the human participants and the protection and maintenance of the integrity of the research findings (Punch, 2013). This paper will discuss several important ethical considerations regarding the use of statistics in the integrity of research findings.

Perhaps the topic that is addressed most frequently regarding the ethical use of statistics and certainly is a current concern is the overreliance of statistical significance testing (Verdam, Oort, & Sprangers, 2014). The surprising to find that many researchers still believe that significant P. values indicate that the research results will replicate, smaller team P. values indicate a larger magnitudes and results, or that smaller P. values mean that the results are more important (Gorard, 2014; Punch, 2013). None of these are true. In fact, the American Psychological Association [APA] has suggested since the…… [Read More]

References

Asendorpf, J.B., Conner, M., De Fruyt, F., De Houwer, J., Denissen, J.J., Fiedler, K., ... & Wicherts, J.M. (2013). Recommendations for increasing replicability in psychology. European Journal of Personality, 27(2), 108-119.

Gorard, S. (2014). The widespread abuse of statistics by researchers: What is the problem and what is the ethical way forward?. Psychology of education review., 38(1), 3-10.

Punch, K.F. (2013). Introduction to social research: Quantitative and qualitative approaches.

New York: Sage.
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Ethical Issues and Questions Are

Words: 2602 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28858501

Did he have the right to make such promises knowing that the company may be moving to Mexico? The simple answer is no. It was unethical to make such promises knowing full well that the company may be moving to Mexico. However, it is not always simple. He made the promises knowing that the company MIGHT move to Mexico. The negotiations are still ongoing so at the time the promises were made he had no concrete knowledge that a move would be taking place. Because he had no knowledge of an actual move being planned, and only knew it was being negotiated he was under no legal obligation to not make those promises. Luckily ethical obligations and legal obligations are often two different things. Ethical obligations are not as concrete nor do they require proof beyond the shadow of a doubt. It is without question that the promises this company…… [Read More]

References

ERWIN, WESLEY J. Supervisor Moral Sensitivity. Counselor Education and Supervision; 12/1/2000;

Kensicki, Peter R. 'Utmost Good Faith' Implies Good Ethics. National Underwriter Property & Casualty-Risk & Benefits Management; 7/31/2000;

Reamer, Frederic G.,the Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.

Social Work; 7/1/2000;
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Ethical Theories

Words: 796 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14149754

Ethics and Experimentation

Ethics and Medical Experimentation

On Staten Island there was an institution for the mentally disabled which operated from 1947 to 1987, but in the period from 1956 through 1971, children at the institution were used for experiments involving hepatitis. Although the experiments are considered to be successful, the involvement of mentally disabled children has brought many ethical considerations to the forefront. Dr. Saul Krugman, the man who ran the experiment, stated that his team took a number of ethical considerations into question before the experiment began. Firstly, Krugman rationalized the use of children by stating that "It is recognized that infectious hepatitis is a much milder disease in children." (obinson 81) Then, a mild form of the disease was inflicted upon the children under conditions that were the most favorable including special medical personnel and isolation quarters. Krugman specifically stated that only children who's parents consented were…… [Read More]

References

Rivers, Eunice, et al. "Twenty Years of Follow-up Experience in a Long-Range

Medical Study." Public Health Reports 68.4 (April 1953). Web. 30 Mar. 2013.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc2024012/

Robinson, Walter, Brandon Unruh. "The Hepatitis Experiments and the Willowbrook
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Ethical Review Board Discussion

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74714306

Internal eview Board Discussion

The IB (Internal eview Board) is an organization that is known as the IEC ( independent ethic committee) formally designated to review biomedical and behavioral research that involves human beings. The IB conducts a risk analysis to determine whether to allow a research to be conducted. Thus, the IB takes appropriate steps to protect the welfare and rights of humans participating in a research study. (IB, 2014).

The objective of this study is to discuss the type of IB appropriate for my research. The study also provides feedback to my classmate's posts.

Type of IB review Appropriate for my Selected esearch

My research will require the FB (Full Board eview) since the research will require the human subjects. When human subjects are to be used to carry out a research, the research should require a full board review. In the case, a researcher should allow a…… [Read More]

Reference

IRB (2014). Guidelines and Information Related to the Certification of Research Projects Connected in Any Manner to the University. IRB.

Ritter, F. et al., (2013). Running Behavioral Studies with Human Participants, Sage Publications Inc.
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Ethical Issues in Healthcare Prayer and Religion

Words: 1079 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53667214

eligion and health have long been linked, and continue to be so in most cultures around the world. In fact, both mental and physical health problems were once believed to have supernatural or spiritual origins, a belief which persists until this day in spite of empirical evidence showcasing the biological and chemical causes of illnesses (Koenig, 2000). egardless of whether or not religion is a worthwhile social institution, religion, spirituality, and practices like prayer remain central to the lives of most people. eligion can be inextricably linked with personal and cultural identity, and can greatly inform both medical decisions and health practices including lifestyle choices. There is also a notable link between religiosity and a number of health outcomes including morbidity and mortality rates, proven in empirical studies. The literature tends to support a strong connection between prayer and stress relief in particular, as prayer and religion are widely believed…… [Read More]

References

Bearon, L.B. & Koenig, H.G. (1990). Religious cognitions and use of prayer in health and illness. The Gerontologist 30(2): 249-253.

Davis, L.I. & Owens, C. (2013). The impact of religion on health practices. American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. Retrieved online: http://www.aacp.org/governance/SIGS/hdcc/Documents/Webinar%20Materials/Impact%20of%20Religion%20Webinar.pdf

Koenig, H.G. (2000). Religion and medicine I. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 30(4): 385-398.

Koenig, H., King, D. & Carson, V.B. (2012). Handbook of Religion and Health. Oxford University Press.
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Resolving Ethical Challenges in Clinical Tests

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51423116

Ethical Factors in Clinical Testing

The conduct of the medics during their course of duty is regulated and governed by the established regulations relating to their profession. The basis of all these regulations is mainly to safeguard the rights of the patients. The patients must be accorded the utmost respect and handled in a dignified manner that makes them feel respected. It also covers what sort of equipment to be used in the case of an operation. Besides, regulations in the medical fraternity also cover the conditions of the treatment facilities such as the hospitals. The level of hygiene among other conditions is put into consideration. This paper focuses on the ethical issues that surround the observation of patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea condition in the United States. This is a medical condition where a patient has difficulties breathing during sleep. However, it is unknown to these patients and can…… [Read More]

References

Brown, D.L. et al., (2011). Ethical Issues in the Conduct of Clinical Trials in Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J Clin Sleep Med. 2011 Feb 15;7(1):103-8.

Silverman H. (2007). Ethical Issues During The Conduct Of Clinical Trials. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 200 7 May;4(2):180-4; discussion 184.
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Distributing Resources in an Ethical Manner

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18775243

Ethical Distribution of Access to Health Care esources

ight to Health Care esources

ole of Nurses

ight to Health Care esources

While the concept of 'right to health' is applicable in many of the socialist countries, most of the modern societies lay emphasis on the concept of 'right to health care." This is the concept that has been evolving over the years with the aim of providing equal health care resources to keep every individual healthy and to promote "quality of life" for their citizens.

However the concerns are about what the governments and the authorities related to health care can do what considerations, especially the ethical ones, which need to be considered while preparing a policy for equitable distribution of health care for the citizens (Flak & Chong, 2008).. These attempts of ethical policy formation help to open access to proper health care for people who had been previously…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp, T., & Childress, J. (2001). Principles of biomedical ethics, 5th ed. NY: Oxford University Press.

Best, M. (2006). Ethics in Health Services Management. Quality Management In Health Care, 15(4), 311. doi:10.1097/00019514-200610000-00016

Flak, N., & Chong, E. (2008). Beyond the Bedside: Nurses, a Critical Force in the Macroallocation of Resources. Nursingworld.org. Retrieved 30 August 2015, from http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents/vol132008/No2May08/ArticlePreviousTopic/MacroallocationofResources.html

Tschudin, V. (2003). Approaches to ethics. Edinburgh: Butterworth-Heinemann.
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Ethical Self-Assessment

Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35057319

Ethical Self-Assessment

The role of ethics in healthcare is to mitigate risks and ensure oversight of each strategic process area, ensuring patient treatment quality consistency and transparency. The American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE) Code of Ethics and its self-assessment provide foundational insights into how ethical decisions can be more effectively made and how decision making can align effectively to the ACHE standards. Ethics are the foundation of patient trust and need to be the catalyst of transparency throughout a healthcare provider organization to the practice level and ultimately solidifying patient and healthcare provider collaboration to common goals (Higgins, Gross, Hackett, 2000). In the highest-performing healthcare providers, there is a tight alignment of patient expectations and the need for transparency on the one hand, and the ethics and willingness of a healthcare provider to disclose data and knowledge necessary to keep treatment plans progressing (Frederick, Wasieleski, Weber, 2000). In addition…… [Read More]

References

Ehlen, K.J., & Sprenger, G. (1998). Ethics and decision making in healthcare. Journal of Healthcare Management, 43(3), 219-21.

Frederick, W.C., Wasieleski, D., & Weber, J. (2000). Values, ethics, and moral reasoning among healthcare professionals: A survey. HEC Forum, 12(2), 124-40.

Higgins, W., Gross, J.W., & Hackett, K.L. (2000). Ethical guidance in the era of managed care: An analysis of the American College of healthcare executives' code of ethics. Journal of Healthcare Management, 45(1), 32-42; discussion 43-5.

Weil, Peter A, PhD., F.A.C.H.E., Kimball, P.A., & Lerner, Wayne M, Dr. P.H., F.A.C.H.E. (2010). The volunteer activities of healthcare Executives/Practioner Application. Journal of Healthcare Management, 55(2), 115-29; discussion 129-31.
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Ethical Decisions in a Patient's

Words: 2178 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 882404

That record must state that the patient's medical condition is terminal, irreversible and indefinite, involves permanent unconsciousness and that life-sustaining treatment would create tremendous or extraordinary burden on the patient. The guardian's decision to withdraw or withhold life-sustaining treatment must be filed with 2 witnesses, one of whom is the attending physician. The guardian may be a parent, adult sibling, healthcare provider, the CEO of the health facility or the commissioner of an agency in charge of mentally retarded who are terminally ill. Healthcare practitioners need to understand the state and local laws governing the delivery system. They should also reach out to the guardian who may be unaware of these laws. If refusing medical care is not allowed by these laws, guardians should resort to active lobbying (King).

Nurses' Values and Managing Pain and Ethics

Unprecedented medical advances view death as a disease that must be treated rather than…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bimbacher, D. (2007). Terminal sedation, euthanasia and causal roles. Medscape General Medicine: Medscape. Retrieved on August 8, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/556486

Cardoso, T et al. (2003). Life-sustaiing treatment decisions in Portuguese intensive care units: a national survey of intensive care physicians. Critical Care: Biomed Central

Ltd. Retrieved on August 8, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/464501

King, E.L. (2007). Refusing medical care in New York state: politics and implementation of policy. 7 (3) Current Opinion in Gastroenterology: Medscape.
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Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference

Words: 2498 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31023695

Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference

Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…… [Read More]

References

BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf

Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley

Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme

Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
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Ethical Theories the Three Basic Ethical Theories

Words: 2729 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8101894

Ethical Theories

The three basic ethical theories share a number of similarities, because they each attempt to describe and explicate the ethical decisions made by humans as well as the logic (or illogic) that is used to inform any particular behavior. Utilitarianism offers what is perhaps the most sound ethical theory due to the way it chooses for itself the goal of its efforts, but it is hampered by disagreement regarding the precise execution of the theory. A deontological theory of ethics may be useful for formulating general rules regarding proper behavior, and as such is popular is the workplace, but these rules are not universally applicable and in some cases can actually lead to unethical behavior if followed without fail. Finally, while virtues-based ethics purports to offer individuals instruction for the cultivation of ideal behavioral traits, by definition it cannot offer a universal ethical norm, as it is based…… [Read More]

References

Begley, A.M. (2005). Practising virtue: A challenge to the view that a virtue centred approach to ethics lacks practical content. Nursing Ethics, 12(6), 622-37.

Broad, C. (1930). Five types of ethical theory. New York: Routledge.

Darwall (Ed.). (2003). Virtue ethics. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

DeConinck, J.B., & Lewis, W.F. (1997). The influence of deontological and teleological considerations and ethical climate on sales managers intentions to reward or punish sales force behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 16(5), 497-506.
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Ethical Awareness Inventory Results and Analysis Results

Words: 933 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56911382

Ethical Awareness Inventory esults and Analysis

esults of my Ethical Awareness Inventory described my ethical perspective to be character-based, wherein I evaluate people more on their ethical character than their present actions. Basically, the results determined me as an individual who can see past ethical or unethical actions, and identify an ethical or unethical person based on his/her overall character. Since my ethical perspective is character-based, I value in people the qualities of integrity, honesty, and wisdom. For me, a person with a strong ethical character is one who would be capable of discernment and would not have difficulties knowing what is right and what is wrong. It goes without saying then, that I myself is an individual who has developed an ethical character over time. I consider myself to be an individual with integrity, and I expect other people to develop this integrity as well.

The results are indeed…… [Read More]

References

Abbott, A. (1983). "Professional Ethics." The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 88, No. 5.

Brown, M. (2006). "Ethical leadership: a review and future directions." The Leadership Quarterly, No. 17.
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Ethical Training Success and Failures

Words: 3400 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79115192

Ethical Training -- Successes and Failures

Ethical Training: Successes and Failures

Ethics are often thought of as black and white, but that is really not the case. There are many shades of grey, and what is ethical in some instances may not be ethical in others. Additionally, there are concerns when it comes to what one person thinks is ethical vs. what another would find ethical. That is often why there are so many discrepancies and issues to consider when one talks about ethics. It is not just a simple issue where a person can say that something is always ethical or not ethical. Instead, the situation must be considered, as well as the people and the circumstances surrounding everything. In many cases, the issue comes down to ethical training, which does not always work out well. The plan is to train people to act ethically, but training someone to…… [Read More]

References

Becker, L.C. & Becker, C.B. (2002). Encyclopedia of Ethics (2nd ed.). NY: Routledge.

Singer, P. (2000). Writings on an ethical life. London: Harper Collins Publishers.
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Ethical Management in Fictitious Company

Words: 1013 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45108954

In that regard, NatHealth Inc. managers and supervisors are trained to recognize potential ethical conflicts as early as possible, to analyze possible course of action, and to take decisive action by implementing the best possible ethical decisions and corresponding solutions that are the most consistent with organizational ethical values and principles.

In addition, all NatHealth Inc. managers attend a week-long mandatory training retreat every September at which they attend strategic meetings and receive training in several different aspects of their operational responsibilities. Two days are reserved for ethics-specific discussions, policy reviews, and updated training in the full range of ethical issues in the workplace. Subsequent to their return, individual managers conduct an ethics policy review session with their direct reports at which time they provide supplemental ethical instructions to update all employees with respect to any changes in organizational ethics policies and expectations.

Monitoring:

While the organization does maintain scrupulous…… [Read More]

References

Halbert, T., and Ingulli, E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.

Cincinnati, OH: West.

Locker, K. (2006). Business and Administrative Communication 2nd Edition. Boston,

MA: McGraw-Hill.
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Ethical Theory

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29740557

Ethical Theory

Despite the fact that codes of conduct and belief systems permeate everyone's life on an everyday basis, developing a universally acceptable concept of ethics or moral philosophy remains a seemingly impossible task that has plagued philosophers and the world's great thinkers since the beginning of time. Over time a great number of different philosophical theories have arise. Each one has its strengths and weaknesses and each has enjoyed its own period of popularity but, strangely, due to the fact that some of the world's greatest minds have spent their lives formulating other theories, the theory that seemingly has the greatest degree of validity is one of that has enjoyed the longest history: virtue ethics.

Virtue ethics were developed as a theory by the ancient Greek philosophers. Aristotle and Plato in developing their views toward ethics placed little importance on the rules that people should obey or follow and,…… [Read More]

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Ethical Theories Describe in Detail Teleological Deontological

Words: 1637 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93678187

Ethical Theories

Describe in detail

Teleological, deontological, and virtue ethics: A comparison

Teleological ethics are also called consequence-based ethics. Teleological ethical systems emphasize the results of ethical decisions, versus the moral principles behind such decisions. Utilitarianism is an excellent example of teleological ethics. The stress in utilitarianism is doing the greatest good for the greatest number of people, versus setting a precedent for all ethical actions. "It denies that moral rightness depends directly on anything other than consequences, such as whether the agent promised in the past to do the act now" (Armstrong 2011). What is good for the greatest number of people one day may not be the case several years from now, or even to morrow.

For example, no one would state that as an abstract moral principle, having to fire competent employees is a 'good thing.' However, bosses are often forced to do so, because of the…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, Larry & Michael Moore. (2007). Deontological ethics. The Stanford Encyclopedia

of Philosophy. Retrieved:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/ 

Armstrong, Walter. (2011). Consequentialism. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Retrieved:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/consequentialism/
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Ethical it the Question of

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25690125

From the utilitarian perspective, it can be assumed that the use of spyware will reduce the private use of computers and restore the lost work hours, which is a benefit for the company. Employee relationships with the company will be damaged, however, perhaps irrevocably, and this could also affect productivity. Managing the data from the spyware will also require company resources, which can be seen as a detriment. Deontologically speaking, it is generally considered wrong to spy, but it is also wrong to waste company time when an employee is accepting money in an agreement to work, not take care of private business. The two wrongs do not cancel each other out, but either decision leaves one side wronged, so neither system provides a direct answer to the problem.

A combination of the two approaches is not impossible, and in fact makes a great deal of sense in this scenario.…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, L. & Moore, M. (2007). "Deontological ethics." Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Accessed 24 January 2010.  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-deontological/ #DeoThe

Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (2008). "Calculating Consequences: The Utilitarian Approach to Ethics." Markula center for applied ethics. Accessed 24 January 2010.

Mautner, T., ed. (2002). The Penguin dictionary of philosophy. New York: Penguin.
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Ethical Decision 'Not to Resuscitate' Is Indeed

Words: 2702 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37490633

Ethical Decision

'Not to Resuscitate' is indeed a difficult decision that has to be made by the patient, when he or she is in good health, or the guardians of the patient. However, according to the law and ethical code of conduct, the medical practitioner, or whoever is in charge of the health care of a patient in a hospital setting, should always inform the patient about the whole procedure (L., 2008). There are certain indications when resuscitation needs to be performed on the patients, meanwhile there are also some contradictions where it should not be performed on the patient. Nonetheless, the final decision lies with the patient or with family. The indications of this decision include a case in which resuscitation would be of any help to save the life of the patient. For example, if the patient is dying and who has been given all sorts of treatment…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Miller, Franklin and Wertheimer, Alan (2009). "The Ethics of Consent: Theory and Practice." Oxford Scholarship Online, Print.

Nandimath, Omaprakash V. (2009). Consent and medical treatment: The legal paradigm in India. Indian J. Urol. 25(3): 343-347.

O' Neill, O (2003).Some limits of informed consent. J Med Ethics.

Salins, Naveen S.; Pai, Sachin G.; Vidyasagar, MS; Sobhana, Manikkath (2010).Ethics and Medico Legal Aspects of "Not for Resuscitation." Indian J. Palliat Care.
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Ethical Treatment of Prisoners the Treatment of

Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36128161

Ethical Treatment of Prisoners

The treatment of a society's prisoners has been an issue of debate for centuries. The emotions surrounding such treatment are considerable and reaching a consensus on the best and fairest method is often difficult. Torture is considered illegal in most civilized societies and, therefore, in order to maintain an acceptable level of treatment an alternative and more humane approach must be established (Filter, 2000).

There presently exist two leading schools of moral thought: utilitarianism and deontology (Gibbs, 1977). Despite what has been characterized as great differences between the two schools they seem to agree on most substantive issues.

Utilitarianism argues that the right action is the one, out those available, that maximizes one's total happiness. In the prisoner treatment situation this results in considering the emotional pain, physical discomfort, expense, and time involved in housing the prisoner against the advantages garnered by society such as retribution,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bentham, J. (1988). Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation. Buffalo: Prometheus Books.

Filter, J.A. (2000). Prisoner's Rights: The Supreme Court and Evolving Standards of Decency. Santa Barbara, CA: Greenwood Press.

Gibbs, J. (1977). Social control deterrence and perspectives of social order. Social Forces, 408-423.

Kant, I. (2010). Critique of Practical Reason. Seattle: CreateSpace.
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Ethical and Legal Perspectives in

Words: 1055 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84669249

Bans save cash. It is costly to encourage smoking in prisons. Smoke-harmed detainees and staff require costly medical care, for different tobacco impacts. Citizens pay, both by expanded duties, and by expanded insurance rates. The prison authorities must raise the issue with government officials and ask them how much smoking costs citizens. When inmates smoke in jail, more bills, hospital expenses, come to citizens: for the smokers' conditions, and for those of the nonsmokers around, being unconstitutionally pushed to inhale contaminated air (Ducat, 2009).

eaction 2

Approximately 50% of smokers die from tobacco related ailments (World Health Organization, 2007). Available evidence confirms that prisoners die from cancers related to smoking at higher rates than the public. Further, second hand smoking is also threatening lives of non-smokers within the system of prisons. They include workers, visitors, prison officers and other inmates. The ban on smoking in prison will dramatically reduce the…… [Read More]

References

Ducat, C.R. (2009). Constitutional interpretation. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Hendrick, J. (2010). Law and ethics in nursing and health care. Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes.

McWay, D.C., & McWay, D.C. (2010). Legal and ethical aspects of health information management. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.

World Health Organization (2007). Protection from exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke: Policy recommendations. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
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Ethical Communication

Words: 2175 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20242649

Ethical Communication

The Definition of Ethics

In practically all areas of society ethical subjects are rapidly increasing. Professionals in the health field struggle with ethical questions in relation to abortion, transplants, birth control, informed consent, life-support systems, malpractice suits, patient privacy, human genetics, and high costs of insurance, as well as care on the whole. Ethical matters in relation to nuclear power accidents, oil spills, disposal of industrial waste, defense weaponry, lead and asbestos poisoning, acid rain, as well as ecological balance challenge those in technology, science, and industry. People in the political ground deal with ethical queries in relation to unemployment, homelessness, foreign policy decisions, Social Security, welfare reform, electioneering costs, law enforcement practices, Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) activities, racial and gender discrimination, immigration control, drugs, crime, and lobbying actions. The legal profession is blamed of unethical customs like engaging in doubtful plea-bargaining practices, motivating a harmful litigious spirit,…… [Read More]

Reference

Arnett R.C. (1992). Dialogic education: Conversation about ideas and between persons. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

Berlo D.K. (1960). Dimensions for evaluating the acceptability of message sources. Public Opinion Quarterly, 33, 563-576.

Bauer R.A. (1964). The obstinate audience: The influence process from the point-of-view of social communication. American Psychologist, 19, 319-328.

Converse E.J., Campbell D.T., Miller R.D. And Stokes L. (1960). Nonreactive measures in the social sciences. (2nd ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
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Ethical Theories and Abortion Issues

Words: 1437 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77472400



Utilitarian Abortion Considerations:

The utilitarian perspective applied to the abortion issue would focus on whether

permitting or prohibiting elective abortion would contribute more positively the interests of society Mill, 2003 p160). The principal difference between the utilitarian and deontological perspectives is that utilitarianism is wholly unconcerned with the underlying motivation for decisions. Whereas deontological formalism values the state of mind of the individual, utilitarianism focuses on the ultimate consequences of the act, irrespective of motivation Russell, 2002 p 99).

Within the utilitarian ethical perspective, rule utilitarianism would promote the choice associated with the overall benefit to others and to society if it were adhered to religiously in all circumstances, irrespective of isolated cases in which the rule produced a negative result Russell, 2002 p101-2). For example, in a society where relative birth and death rates were such that the continuation of society were in jeopardy, the utilitarian perspective might require…… [Read More]

(Dershowitz, 2002 p112).

Therefore, the contemporary utilitarian approach to morality in human life is to consider other definitions of "goodness" and "benefit" rather than equating morality with the interests of the greatest number. In many respects, that is the perspective exemplified by the modern American justice system (Dershowitz, 2002 p112). Under that view, the moral rightness or wrongness of elective abortion would seek to weigh the manner in which permitting abortions might benefit society and how that decision would affect all of the individuals directly involved in specific situations. If the initial assumption is that society is benefited by the respect for the autonomous rights of individuals to make personal decisions about abortion without interference from the state, utilitarianism would support the freedom to make that decision.

Under the act utilitarianism perspective, therefore, certain types of abortions (such as in cases of rape, incest, or medical necessity for the life of the mother)
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Ethical Issues Are Now Just as Much

Words: 4469 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94979976

Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…… [Read More]

References

American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.

American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173

Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.

Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
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Ethical and Legal Perspectives in

Words: 1216 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15181604

In any case, patients can set out defined clause in the Power of Attorney telling operators how they might like them to act with respect to deathbed issues (Edge & Krieger, 2008).

esponse 2

Living wills and other development directives depict a patient's inclination with respect to medicine if the patient is confronted with a genuine mishap or disease. These authoritative reports represent the patient when he/she is not ready to represent himself/herself. Unforeseen end-of-life scenarios can happen at any age, so it is imperative for all grown-ups to have progress directives. Durable power of attorney for health care (POA) is an authoritative record that designates a single person to settle on restorative choices for a patient in case he/she is unable to do so (Kerridge, Lowe & Stewart, 2013).

A patient's advance directives incorporate the living will and durable power of attorney for health care. They may be the…… [Read More]

References

Cohen, M.H. (2010). Beyond complementary medicine: Legal and ethical perspectives on health care and human evolution. Ann Arbor: Univ. Of Michigan Press.

Duquenoy, P., George, C., & Kimppa, K. (2008). Ethical, legal, and social issues in medical informatics. Hershey, PA: Medical Information Science Reference.

Edge, R.S., & Krieger, J.L. (2008). Legal and ethical perspectives in health care: An integrated approach. Albany: Delmar Publishers.

Kerridge, I., Lowe, M., & Stewart, C. (2013). Ethics and law for the health professions. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.
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Ethical Argument

Words: 3188 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36427916

Ethical Argument

Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.

The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.

James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.

Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.

R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
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Ethical Treatment of Animals the

Words: 3045 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60756557

The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.

One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.

Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;

1st edition.

Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
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Ethical Entity the Profiled Organization Is Youth

Words: 1071 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57634543

Etical Entity

Te profiled organization is Yout LifeLine America, ttp://www.youtlifelineamerica.com. Te organization is a not-for-profit 501 c3 tax-exempt status and domiciled in O'Fallon Missouri, United States. Yout LifeLine America (YLA) operates in multiple cities trougout America providing services targeted to te adolescent. Specifically, YLA coordinate efforts to influence yout via suc mediums as te arts, entertainment, sports and celebrities, to teac ways to be productive and encourage a mindset of sustained development.

YLA is a small business employing below ten employees. Te Founder & CEO is Roland Williams, Director of Development & Programs is Cedric Cobb, Katryn Vasconcellos is Event Guru, and Angela Castelli is Vice President of Operations. According to Angela Castelli, YLA as a very targeted approac to assisting te yout population.

"Tis organization as identified te gaps tat exist in our yout's culture today, educates and empowers tem to develop te skills tat allow tem to reac…… [Read More]

http://www.youthlifeline.org/events.php

Dismal Ethics. Economist; 1/8/2011, Vol. 398 Issue 8715, p76-76, 1p, 1 Color Photograph

Thomson, G.S. 2010, "Taxonomy of Business Ethics Theories," SSRN Working Paper Series,, pp. n/a.
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Ethical Lens Inventory There Is Probably Nobody

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97641224

Ethical Lens Inventory

There is probably nobody who goes through life without, at some point, being faced with an ethical dilemma. These are situations where either projected outcome might be equally undesirable, or where there are no clear rules to indicate the appropriate course of action. In these situations, it is helpful to first determine one's own ethical values and viewpoints. These can then be used to come to a decision that is least detrimental to one's own sense of fairness and justice. The ethical lens inventory is one tool that can be used to determine the specific nature of one's own sense of ethical fairness and justice (Ethics Game, 2009).

The ethical lens inventory includes four ethical lenses that might be used to determine one's own sense of values and ethics (Ethics Game, 2007). The most important element to recognize here is that ethics is not uniform, static, or…… [Read More]

References

Ethics Game (2009). Ethical Lens Inventory. Retrieved from:  http://www.ethicsgame.com/Exec/GGEG/Products/EthicalLensInventoryEdSlick.pdf 

Ethics Game (2007). Introduction to Four Ethical Lenses. Retrieved from:  http://bahrec.shrm.org
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Ethical Issues of Capital Punishment

Words: 309 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83428518

Various objections to capital punishment hinge on religious beliefs. On the other hand, the American justice system does not recognize religious principles.

Capital punishment also raises numerous ethical issues pertaining to the likelihood of errors in its administration. Lethal injection, for example, causes excruciating pain and a slow death from prolonged suffocation instead of instantaneous death if it is performed incorrectly. If suffering of this nature were considered torture when inflicted purposely, what incidence of error would be enough to prohibit lethal injection altogether on ethical grounds? Finally, does the prospect of erroneous conviction or disproportionate application to the poor or to racial minorities undermine all the other ethical justifications for capital punishment?

eferences

osenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York:…… [Read More]

References

Rosenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York: McGraw-Hill
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Ethical Behavior of a Person or a

Words: 1086 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40994200

Ethical behavior of a person or a corporation greatly affects the stakeholders with which that person is involved. Often, people and companies take serious consideration when it comes to those stakeholders, and they work to take good care of the people who are involved with them (Keller, 2002). There have been cases, though, where ethical behavior has been ignored in the name of profit. Eventually, most companies and people who ignore their ethics are caught and punished, but not before they end up harming the financial and emotional lives of many of their stakeholders. Plato once said that the nature and the origin of justice was that men who were capable of doing wrong to other people would often do so. He also said that men who did not have enough strength to keep themselves from being harmed by others would not do harm to other people.

In other words,…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, A.A. (1999). Downsizing and the Meaning of Work. Babson College Business Ethics Program.

Keller, K.W. (2002). What does a business owe the community? The Signal.
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Ethical and Legal Obligations in Financial Reporting

Words: 1865 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83102397

Ethical and Legal obligations in financial reporting is extremely important in today's world, fraught as it is with corporate frauds and accounting scams and scandals of every other sort. One Company, the Thornburg Investment Company, has taken a firm stand on financial reporting within its company, wherein all concerned officials are expected to report accurately, any actual, as well as suspected violations and breaches in the laws and rules and regulations of the company, to the appropriate personnel, immediately. (Code of Business Conduct and Ethics) Another Company, the 'Trinity Capital Corporation' stresses the importance of adhering to the rules and regulations created by the Company so that the company's loyalty to its numerous shareholders may be apparent. Where financial reporting is concerned, all the employees of the firm are expected to comply with the generally accepted rules laid down by the accounting principles of the United States of America, so…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

"Accounting Concepts, underlying assumptions, principles, and conventions" Retrieved From

http://www.quickmba.com/accounting/fin/concepts / Accessed on 20 June, 2005

"Business Conduct and Ethics Policy" Retrieved From

http://www.lanb.com/tcc/bcecharter.asp Accessed on 19 June, 2005
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Ethical Perspective Discuss From an

Words: 1073 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58142388

This is when insurance companies will charge more for premiums based upon someone coming from a particular ethnic group. In the past, many of these practices were utilized to give some kind of advantage to people who were from non-indigenous backgrounds. This focus is taking a similar approach, by showing how someone is a higher risk because of their ethnicity. These views are not considering the lifestyle choices they are engaging in such as: physical activities, their diet, if the person is a smoker or drinks alcohol. (Bombak 2012)

Instead, they will use this category to automatically rate indigenous people higher largely based upon this variable. From an ethical perspective, one could argue that insurance companies are discriminating against this segment of the population without taking into consideration other factors. This makes it difficult for this demographic to locate and obtain affordable life insurance because of these views. When this…… [Read More]

References

2012 Indigenous Report, 2012, Productivity Commission. Available from: [30 April 2013].

Genetic Discrimination, 2012, NHMRC. Available from:
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Ethical Issue at Work

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11786699

Ethical Argument: Smoking in the Workplace

In 1994, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) defined second- hand tobacco smoke as a potential workplace hazard, estimating that as many as 14,000 workers die each year from the effects of exposure to passive tobacco smoke. The National Cancer

Institute endorsed much higher estimates, according to which as many as 65,000 Americans die each year from heart disease and lung cancer caused by inhaling secondhand smoke (Washington Post, 2004). Since then, many states have instituted legislation prohibiting smoking in the workplace and the FAA has imposed an outright smoking ban on commercial aircraft, which many smokers view as an infringement of their rights.

Argument:

While anti-smoking legislation certainly does affect the rights of smokers, it is justified on the basis of comparing the relative imposition on smokers to the rights of non-smokers to a healthy work environment. Certainly, smokers have the same…… [Read More]

References

Washington Post; "Who's Protecting Workers' Health." August 27, 2004; p. A20. (Washingtonpostonline.com) Accessed August 27, 2004, at  http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A37210-2004Aug26.html
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Ethical Dilemma Introduction- Eco-Friendly Business

Words: 755 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22748125



Can both sides be right? Hardly, and when the initiative is analyzed with a critical eye, one sees that it looks like the initiative is a tactic for large corporations to appear to be following the letter of the law, but saving money by making Clean Air Act and EPA required equipment to reduce certain emissions by delaying capital expenditures and pushing out previous goals, thus saving millions if not billions of technological investment dollars. Likely these companies lobbied the Bush Administration, citing the need to reinvest in their businesses to become more competitive and thus, unable to divert funds into pollution control.

From the simplest ethnical standard, for instance utilitarianism, the initiative on its own might be ethical if not for the fact that it significantly alters previous legislation, and lessens the impact of EPS regulations on big-business. Certainly, stakeholders in those offending companies would benefit; stockholders, employees, management;…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

President Announces Clear Skies and Global Climate Change Initiatives. (2002, February 14). Retrieved Nocember 2010, from the White House:  http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/02/20020214-5.html 

Utilitarianism Resources. (2007, March). Retrieved November 2010, from Utilitarianism.com:  http://www.utilitarianism.com/ 

Adams, J. (2003, Winter). Illogical Extremes. Retrieved November 2010, from NRDC-on Earth: http://www.nrdc.org/onearth/04win/view.asp

Bluhm and Heineman. (2006). Ethics and Public Policy. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
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Ethical Evaluations About Doe Run

Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70639503

With regard to the issue of environment, the company has faced the ire of EPA and lot of other legal authorities for its failure to confirm to emission standards within the permissible limits. The company has not been able to contain emission levels on a year to year basis. With regard to the issue of employment, the employees of the company have occupational hazards being faced by its employees and the company has several litigations being filed against them for the misuse of the services of its employees. It could be stated that Multinational Corporations like Doe un has been unethical in its activities which need to be brought under scrutiny and control.

Appendix

Table showing metals mined by Doe un

Dollars in thousands)

Silver

Copper

Lead

Zinc

Gold Bullion

By-Products

Table showing Net Sales of Products and Services

Dollars in thousands)

Primary lead metal sales

ecycling operation:

Tolling

Metal…… [Read More]

References

Cheryl Whittenauer. U.S.: Doe Run ordered to clean up tailings site. 2 October, 2006.  http://www.warprofiteers.com/article.php?id=14196 

DeVous, Philip. Utopian solutions vs. real corporate social responsibility. http://ff.org/centers/csspp/library/co2weekly/20051222_news/20051222_04.html

Doe Run Resources Corp: Annual Report 10-K. http://sec.edgar-online.com/2005/03/23/0001047469-05-007373/Section2.asp

Final Award allowing Compensation. The Labor and Industrial relations Commission. http://www.dolir.mo.gov/lirc/wcdecisions/wcdec01%5CLorenA.htm
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Ethical and Legal Perspectives in

Words: 1296 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2347754

Through its partnership with the Department of Justice and the Human Health Services, the HEAT has expanded data sharing and improved information sharing procedures in order to get critical data and information into the hands of law enforcement agencies to enable them track patterns of fraud and abuse, and increase efficiency in investigating and prosecuting complex health care frauds (Department of Health and Human Services, HHS, 2011). The DOJ and the HHS have established cross government health care fraud data intelligence sharing work group that helps to improve awareness across the government on issues related to health fraud.

Student 2

The Healthcare Fraud and Abuse Control Program (HFAC) is enshrined in the section 1128c of the social security Act. This Act authorized the Health and Human Services and works through the office of the inspector general and the department of justice to ensure that the control and designs towards control…… [Read More]

References List

American Medical Association, (2013). Federal Fraud and Abuse Laws. Retrieved July 29, 2013

from http://www.ama-assn.org//ama/pub/physician-resources/legal-topics/regulatory-compliance-topics/health-care-fraud-abuse/federal-fraud-enforcement-physician-compliance/federal-fraud-abuse-laws.page

Department of Health and Human Services, HHS. (2009). The Department of Health and Human

and the Department of Justice Health Care Fraud and Abuse Control Program Annual
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Ethical Pros and Cons of Criminal DNA Data Banks

Words: 1532 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84593917

Ethical Pros & Cons of Criminal DNA data banks

DNA banking of criminal information is a source of controversy among many human rights activists. According to statistics, Criminal DNA databanks offer an effective means of controlling crime. Genetic information on criminals is being collected and stored in many states as a means of identifying current and future criminals. Statistics support the notion that collecting DNA information on criminals helps reduce crime. Case in point, the Division of Forensic Science has managed an average of 37 "hits" per month, where hits refer to a situation where DNA analysis of a crime scene has resulted in suspect matches from previously convicted offenders and subsequent arrest (DCJS, 2004). In Virginia the DNA databank database contains more than 200,000 of criminals (DCJS, 2004).

Proponents of DNA banks argue that DNA identifying information should be collected on larger segments of the population to better control…… [Read More]

Bibliography

DCJS - Department of Criminal Justice Services - DNA Databank Statistics (2004)

Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.dcjs.org/forensic/information/dna.cfm?menuLevel=1

Escanaba, Thomas L. "Strands of Justice: Do DNA databanks infringe on defendants' rights?" February 1998. Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/july98/dna_databanks02.html

Fridell, Ron. "DNA Fingerprinting: the Ultimate Identity." New York: Franklin Watts: 2001.
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Ethical Changes in the Classroom

Words: 6690 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36334177

The Vietnam War was a turning point in the Army's growing realization that senior military leaders, and not just political leaders, had a responsibility to be able to speak to soldiers, to the American people, and to the press about ethical issues.

The Professionalism Study of 1970, examined institutional systems and requirements for success in the Army, attitudes and values of senior officers, and tasks for the 1970s. One of the striking conclusions of the first study was that the Army contained "untoward and unhealthy pressures to strive for success" on the part of officers. Systems that regulated the selection, education, promotion, and reward of Army officers were in need of major correction.

It was clear that the Army needed to evaluate its concepts of values and ethics.

During the decades of the 1970s and 1980s senior commanders in all the services began to exert their influence on the direction…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.

Carter, D. & Wilson, R. (1995). Thirteenth annual status report on minorities in higher education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.

Farris, P. (1996). Teaching, Bearing the Torch. Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark

Publishers.
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Ethical Practices Related to My

Words: 625 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60288075

Wit the help of these assistants, I will also ascertain that the following does not exist; implicit value judgments in questions, leading questions, context effects and so forth. Since people like to present themselves in a positive light when filling in surveys, I will stress the need for an honest response and will also assure the participants that come the end of the study and following interpretation of these results, the feedback will be trashed or they can receive their answers returned to them as given would they so wish.

The consent form attached to the questionnaire will emphasize anonymity and confidentiality. After the survey is complete, debriefing will occur where I can address any questions or concerns the participant has would be mailed to respondents. I may conduct this debriefing on the online environment where I originally found my participants.

As regards my attempts in finding the particular sites…… [Read More]

Reference

Breakwell, G.S., Hammond, S., & Fife-Schaw, C. (2000). Research methods in psychology. London: SAGE.
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Ethical Decisions Given That the

Words: 571 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39744424

As such, were the credit manager to approve of the loan in the given and uncertain circumstances, the bank might:

Be reworded for the trust they had bestowed in the client, who would pay up his debts; in this case the bank will earn a loyal customer

Be faced with financial losses as the client is unable to pay up his debts and return the borrowed money.

If on the other hand, the credit manager denies the loan request, the bank could:

Lose a potential customer and lose the financial resources derived from his payment of interest rate

Protect itself from the risk of not recovering its loan.

The situation encountered at Providian is a good example that unsafe actions which imply an increased amount of risk can be highly profitable, but can also turn into real disasters. The financial institution has set the trend for loaning money to rather…… [Read More]

References

Bad Credit? No Credit? College Student? Providian Loves You, Leadership Case Problem