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At the time, it seemed like employees had little need to worry. PGE assured its employees with sunny words that Enron was doing well, and employees saw their investment portfolios growing. hey felt assured that their futures were secure. After all, in August 2000, Enron's stock was $90.56. All of that changed in 2001.
he creators of Enron's house of cards were punished, but that is of little comfort to the individuals whose fates and futures were unwittingly ground under the wheels of history. hey did everything right except trusting the wrong people, people who smiled and told them the stock was high, and to pay no attention to the men telling lies behind the curtains of accounting shenanigans. But no matter how harshly the perpetrators of the Enron fraud are punished, it is PGE employees will never recover what they lost.
Recently, I read of a New Jersey high…
The ordinary employees had no idea that PGE had joined the fortunes and the future of every employee with what would become one of the most notorious, fraudulent companies in American business history. At the time, it seemed like employees had little need to worry. PGE assured its employees with sunny words that Enron was doing well, and employees saw their investment portfolios growing. They felt assured that their futures were secure. After all, in August 2000, Enron's stock was $90.56. All of that changed in 2001.
The creators of Enron's house of cards were punished, but that is of little comfort to the individuals whose fates and futures were unwittingly ground under the wheels of history. They did everything right except trusting the wrong people, people who smiled and told them the stock was high, and to pay no attention to the men telling lies behind the curtains of accounting shenanigans. But no matter how harshly the perpetrators of the Enron fraud are punished, it is PGE employees will never recover what they lost.
Recently, I read of a New Jersey high school valedictorian whose acceptance to Harvard had been rescinded because of evidence she had plagiarized while a student. How could she have thought she could have gotten away with it, asked the newspapers? I knew it was arrogance -- the arrogance of assuming that because you have a little knowledge, even if it is only the knowledge of how to cheat, you are above the law and that your actions have no consequences.
Ethical Violations - Politics
Unethical political behaviors include: breaching the public trust by manipulating facts; favoring a policy that harms the public interest; profiting personally when public tax dollars are in play; or using one's political position for personal gain.
The Union of Concern Scientists (UCS) issued a report in 2004 that accuses the George . Bush Administration of conducting a "…well-established pattern of suppression and distortion of scientific findings by high-ranking Bush… political appointees across numerous federal agencies." (Over 5,300 scientists signed a statement agreeing with the UCS findings.)
For ONE example, the following scientific studies were either censored or had key facts removed by the Bush Administration prior to release to the media and the public: air pollution; "heat-trapping emissions"; "reproductive health"; "drug resistant bacteria"; "endangered species"; "forest health" and "military intelligence" (UCS). This is an enormously unethical policy. hy would the Bush Administration censor science on heat-trapping…
Cornell University. (2004). The way the Bush administration operates. Retrieved December 28,
2012, from http://www.cs.cornell.edu .
Google. (2010). Investor Relations / Code of Conduct. Retrieved December 28, 2012, from http://investor.google.com .
Lillis, Mike. (2011). Hill Poll: Politicians, Congress unethical -- and getting worse. The Hill.
Police Use 'Fake News' in Sting Aimed at California Gang," ABC news reporter Melley (2016) describes a recent and unusual tactic used by Santa Monica Police Chief alph Martin. The story details how Police Chief Martin issued a press release that was picked up by the Santa Monica Sun. The press release said that two gang members had been arrested. It later turned out the press release was false, issued by the Police Chief in order to entrap other members of the gang. Investigators later deemed the fake press release legal, even if it does raise serious ethical issues about the behavior of the Chief of Police. "There was nothing illegal about what police did, but it could raise questions about the department's future credibility," said one journalism professor interviewed for the story (Melley, 2016). Harming the credibility of the police could in itself be considered a significant ethical violation…
Grant, J.K. (2002). Ethics and law enforcement. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 71(2): 11-14.
Melley, B. (2016). Police Use 'Fake News' in Sting Aimed at California Gang." ABC News. 3 Dec, 2016. Retrieved online: http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./wireStory/police-fake-news-sting-aimed-california-gang-43949543
United States Department of Justice (2016). Ethics and integrity. Retrieved online: https://cops.usdoj.gov/Default.asp?Item=2469
Best Ethical Approaches and Alternatives
Frankly, the Satyam case is not one that requires splitting the proverbial hairs sometimes associated with more complex ethical analyses. Virtually every known ethical system other than egoism would condemn aju's conduct (osenstand, 2008; Shaw & Barry, 2007). Unfortunately, the magnitude of the harm caused and the vast numbers of individuals detrimentally affected by aju's subterfuge absolutely defies any conceivable ethical solution that relies on restitution or compensation to the victims.
In the Satyam case, aju would not benefit from any of the ethical systems considered. Act utilitarian ethical analysis would condemn aju's actions simply by virtue of their consequences on the countless victims of his conduct. ights-based ethical analysis would reach the same conclusion regardless of whether the system relies on objective or conventional ethical rules. Justice-based ethics would condemn aju's conduct because it violated both objective ethical principles and the formal rules governing…
Halbert, T., and Ingulli, E. (2007). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati, OH: West.
Rosenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York:
This is dangerous for both clients and workers. When this becomes an issue in the human service field is when an organization is charged with a client that cannot be left alone. At this point in time, certain managers may desire to force employees to stay on the clock or to work while off the clock, but making such workplace violations can lead to an unsafe environment in which both client and worker are at risk. In addition, safety and OSHA workplace violation are an ethical problem that put many at risk, especially when one is working in a dangerous or medical field. Thus, workplace violations on the part of both workers and managers can be dangerous for all involved.
In conclusion, the field of human services is reserved for those who wish to provide care to others. Although this field is the perfect fit for those who genuinely have…
Department of Transportation. (2001). Preventing Sexual Harassment: A Fact Sheet For
Employees. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.dotcr.ost.dot.gov/Documents/complaint/Preventing_Sexual_Harassment.htm
National Organization for Human Services (1996). Ethical Standards of Human Services
Professionals. Retrieved July 12, 2009, from http://www.nationalhumanservices.org/%5Btitle%5D-22
J. Simpson or John Gotti. In both cases, the defendants are entitled to the presumption of innocence only in court; but there is no such "presumption" in the intellectual "court" of one's mind.
A lawyer with integrity would refuse to represent any defendant he believed was probably guilty of horrendous crimes and simply let that defendant be represented by a court-appointed attorney who is obligated by law to represent any defendant who cannot afford a private attorney. If all criminal defense lawyers had high personal ethical standards, the Simpsons and Gottis of the world would find it impossible to retain any defense counsel other than those obligated by law to take their cases.
4. Define and briefly explain ethical dilemma. Of the four categories of dilemmas: discretion, duty, honesty and loyalty, which one applies best to the following situations? Explain your rationale. Also, explain how an officer might analyze the…
BRIBERY AS AN ETHICAL ISSUE
Bribery is fundamentally unethical because it is inherently unfair. Regardless of the situation, bribery means that someone is transferring some form of compensation that is not permitted and that necessarily undermines the fair efforts of competitors or the purpose of rules and regulation. Where bribery occurs in connection with gaining an unfair advantage over others (such as bribing a college professor for a good grade), the ethical violation is a function of the fundamental right of others competing for the same goal to achieve it through only legitimate means. The student who bribes a college professor and receives a grade for it harms the other students by lowering the grading curve for everybody. In the long run, many instances of bribery of this kind would also diminish the value of the educational degree from an institution whose reputation as lowered by unqualified graduates who perform…
Going on vacation or taking a day off resulted in coming back to a flood of emails about "mistakes" she had uncovered while you were away, so time off was not even seen as an incentive any more.
As shown, there was really very little in comparison between my classroom and this department. One was a toxic environment due to poor leadership, while the other was a positive and nurturing environment due to leadership. Another writer states, "Successful leadership -- and the trust of those led -- demands a true partnership between leader and followers to create a team that advances our society toward the common good" (Erickson, 2006). In my experience, there was no team with the unethical leader, the staff was divided into "us" against "them," and the leader had no clue that her actions were causing such dissension in the staff.
In conclusion, comparing these two leaders…
Ciulla, J.B. (Ed.). (2004). Ethics, the heart of leadership (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Erickson, a.L. (2006). Ethical leadership and the public trust: The winner of the 2006 ASPA Wallace O. Keene Conference Scholarship shares her thoughts on four important characteristics of leaders. The Public Manager, 35(1), 62+.
Reilly, E.C. (2006). The future entering: reflections on and challenges to ethical leadership. 163+..
Did he have the right to make such promises knowing that the company may be moving to Mexico? The simple answer is no. It was unethical to make such promises knowing full well that the company may be moving to Mexico. However, it is not always simple. He made the promises knowing that the company MIGHT move to Mexico. The negotiations are still ongoing so at the time the promises were made he had no concrete knowledge that a move would be taking place. Because he had no knowledge of an actual move being planned, and only knew it was being negotiated he was under no legal obligation to not make those promises. Luckily ethical obligations and legal obligations are often two different things. Ethical obligations are not as concrete nor do they require proof beyond the shadow of a doubt. It is without question that the promises this company…
ERWIN, WESLEY J. Supervisor Moral Sensitivity. Counselor Education and Supervision; 12/1/2000;
Kensicki, Peter R. 'Utmost Good Faith' Implies Good Ethics. National Underwriter Property & Casualty-Risk & Benefits Management; 7/31/2000;
Reamer, Frederic G.,the Social Work Ethics Audit: A Risk-Management Strategy.
Social Work; 7/1/2000;
Their reputation suffered, although it did not seem to make a dent in their passenger traffic, something that indicates how complacent and compliant the American people have become. Most people did not even seem to care that Southwest had endangered them and only a few spoke out in blogs or in other areas when the news broke. Southwest has a serious responsibility to keep its passengers and crews safe, and they lost the trust of at least some people because of their callous disregard for safety. That is a huge moral responsibility, and Southwest has never really acknowledged their failure, which is an even larger ethical concern, it seems. In a statement before Congress, Southwest CEO Gary Kelly said, "Our compliance with certain specific Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness directives has been called into question. We have committed to a thorough review and to make any changes necessary to ensure…
Goodwyn, W. (2008). FAA whistleblowers: Southwest probes stymied. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the NPR Web site: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=89328997 .
Kelly, G. (2008). Southwest Airlines provides testimony to U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the Southwest Airlines Web site: http://www.southwest.com/swamedia/trust_in_southwest.html .
Levin, a. (2008). Inspectors: FAA officials gave Southwest a pass on safety checks. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the USAToday Web site: http://www.usatoday.com/travel/flights/2008-03-09-safety_N.htm .
Wilber, D.Q. (2008). Airlines, FAA under fire on the hill: Lawmaker links safety lapses to 'cozy relationship,' will hold hearing. Retrieved 29 Nov. 2008 from the Washington Post Web site: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/04/01/AR2008040102696.html
Counseling is a highly sensitive profession that depends on maintaining boundaries and solidifying trust. The establishment of clear ethical codes helps counselors to understand their roles and responsibilities to clients and to their colleagues. Laws at the state and federal level may provide additional protection to both clients and counselors and determine penalties for ethical violations. However, counselors inevitably encounter ethical dilemmas. Ethical dilemmas can arise when there is a conflict between two or more moral standards, or between the law and an ethical standard. Likewise, a counselor’s personal moral code could sometimes conflict with the law or the ethical code guiding their professional practice. This paper outlines some of the most common ethical and legal dilemmas counselors are likely to face, and how counselors can rightfully and safely resolve those conflicts.
The counseling profession is governed by a set of ethical standards similar to those used in…
Ethical Dilemma: Comparison to Behavior of Abramoff in Washington Circles
The objective of this study is to consider the work of Jack Abramoff, which was illegal although the company for whom he worked was completely satisfied with his work. Abramoff was a lobbying and had the ability to get laws passed. In addition, this study will detail an ethical dilemma the writer has faced at work or home and consider the decisions that were made that resulted in one part being hurt or offended regardless of the choice made. The situation will be described and the choice that the writer was faced with and why the course of action taken was chosen. The situation described in this study involves an ethical dilemma in the family, which was experienced by the writer of this work.
Following the death of the writer's mother, the youngest sister of the writer, upon having…
ead the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure. Select three of the violations discussed in the document. Explain the violation, including its U.S. Code, use examples from your own career or the document, and discuss the possible fines / imprisonment for the violation.
Three possible violations of the Encyclopedia of Ethical Failure include: bribery, fraud and gambling / other contest guidelines. In the case of bribery, the guide forbids anyone from taking kickbacks or money for special favors. In general, this can cost the government between $400 thousand and $1 million for every $115 thousand that is earned illegally. Under Section 18 U.S.C. § 201(c)(1)(B) (2003) it says that these practices, "Forbids any public official from accepting anything of value in exchange for an official act to be performed, or because of any official act already performed. Violations of this law can merit fines, imprisonment for up to 2 years,…
Encyclopedia of Unethical Failure. (2007). Department of Defense.
Bruce, A. (1998). Motivating Employees. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Nemeth, C. (2011). Private Security and the Law. Boston, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann
Ethical Practice Involves Working Positively Diversity Difference
Counseling is a profession that involves associations based on principles and values ethically. Patients are able to benefit by understanding themselves better and through creating relationships with others. Through counseling, the clients are able to make positive alteration in life and enhance their living standards. Communities, organizations, couples and families are different groups of individuals are main sources of relationships (BACP Ethical Framework, 2013, p.4). Frameworks of ethical practice direct the attention of counseling practitioners to engage in ethical responsibilities. This stud describes the purpose of each principle following the development of good counseling practice. Practitioners make reasonable decisions grounded on these principles without making any contradictions. Nevertheless, research indicates that professionals have met barriers hindering them to integrate all the principles in some cases. In such situations, they are forced to select between required principles. A course of action or a decision…
BACP Ethical Framework. (2013). The Ethical Framework for Good Practice in Counselling. Pp 1-10. Accessed April 7, 2013 from www.bacp.co.uk/admin/structure/files/pdf/9479_ethical%20framework%20jan2013.pdf
Clarkson, P. (2009). The Therapeutic Relationship. New York NY: Wiley
Handout 1. MkSame-Sex Relationships, an Historical Overview. A review by Robin Heme
Handout 2. What are the potential abuses of these kinds of power in the relationship between counsellor and client? Janet Dowding 02.2010 saved as power
Ethical Practices ithin Business
BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster
Over the past 20th century and in the 21st century, ethics has neither been an option nor a luxury. It has not only become a moral or legal responsibility, but has also been an organizational priority within all sets of work groups, including both public and private institutions, organizations and companies. Ethical practices have also become the only strategy to combat the growing impatience within the society, as well as their responsible competitions and/or actions. These ill and unethical acts may in the long run impoverish a section of the regional economy through various organizations while enriching the crafty economies. Organizational leaders must thereby keep abreast of the rapidly changing technological advancements together with their possible effects on globalization, competitor products and services, opportunities, and threats that their organizations may face. Over a century, BP, the formerly Anglo-Persian Oil Company…
Carl, Safina. BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster. Annual Report and Form- Case
4, 32:2, (2012),342-352.
In the article Ethical Issues in Information Technology, author Richard T. DeGeorge points out the existence of five interrelated ethical issues: issues in the usage of technology in business, issues in the it business, issues related to the Internet, issues in e-business and issues affecting the social background. Each of the five categories presents several ramifications. The article has a general coverage, an informal writing and throughout its 24 pages presents reduced details. The article merely highlights the existence of ethical problems and concerns in the information technology sector and poses questions as to how could these problems be best resolved. The academician also gives short but relevant examples as to how it procedures are being improperly used to deceive and cause harm. Among these examples, DeGeorge includes shortcoming of the medical systems, within organizations and individual usage of the Internet, mentioning at all times the inappropriate legislature.…
Anderson, James G., Goodman, Kenneth, 2002, Ethics and Information Technology: A Case-Based Approach to Health Care System in Transition (Health Informatics), 1st Edition, Springer
DeGeorge, Richard T., 2002, Ethical Issues in Information Technology, Blackwell Publishers
Hongladaram, Soraj, Ess, Charles, 2006, Information Technology Ethics: Cultural Perspectives, IGI Global
Johnson, Doug, 2007, Information Technology Ethics, Doug Johnson Website, Creative Commons License, http://www.doug-johnson.com/ethics/,last accessed on December 7, 2007
Ethical issues are now just as much of a concern as they were thirty years or more ago. (Qian, Gao, Yao & odriguez) Ethics are a clear set of principles dealing with what is considered appropriate behavior in-group and individual counseling. These standards were created not only to protect clients, but also to protect counselors. As a counselor, a fine line can easily be crossed if the counselor and/or the client do not follow and understand basic rules that are in place regarding ethical interactions between clients and counselors. It is evident that no matter what area of counseling one chooses to go into, there are always concerns and issues with ethical boundaries, and what is and is not acceptable. (Justice & Garland) Every Human interaction involves the interpretation of roles and interpersonal boundaries. These roles dictate what behavior is appropriate and inappropriate professionally and personally. In the current essay,…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
American School Counselor Association. (2004). Ethical standards for school counselors. Retrieved September 15, 2011, from http://www.schoolcounselor.org/content.asp?contentid=173
Aoyagi, M, & Portenga, S 2010, 'The role of positive ethics and virtues in the context of sport and performance psychology service delivery', Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 41, 3, pp. 253-259, PsycARTICLES, EBSCOhost, viewed 17 September 2011.
Bodenhorn, N 2006, 'Exploratory Study of Common and Challenging Ethical Dilemmas Experienced by Professional School Counselors', Professional School Counseling, 10, 2, p. 195, MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 16 September 2011.
Officer response: Ethics
Police officers are given additional powers to enforce the law that ordinary citizens do not possess, such as the right to stop and frisk suspects and if necessary to use proportional force against a suspect. However, with additional powers comes additional responsibility. On a human level, it is easy to understand why it might be tempting to act violently against someone committing child molestation. But an officer cannot appoint him or herself judge and jury, and must ensure that justice is done through the legal system. He or she is a representative of that system, not a lone avenger.
First of all, the violent officer's actions could have severely compromised the prosecution's case. The defendant could have used the evidence of his beating and the fact that the officer was violent against him to support his claim that he was innocent and wrongly accused.…
Model policy on standards of conduct. (2012). International Association of Chiefs of Police.
Ethical Behaviors of Mattel in the Toy Industry
The ethicacy of corporate behaviors are influenced by a myriad of factors yet most strongly reflect the internal culture, alignment of leadership to vision, and accumulated trade-offs made by management over years of ethical decisions, trade-offs and outcomes. In the study Mattel, Inc.: Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP) - A life-cycle analysis of a company-based code of conduct in the toy industry (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011) the authors successfully provide insights into the moral and ethical dilemmas of operating a multinational corporation (MNC) that is highly dependent on Global Manufacturing Principles (GMP). The life-cycle analysis of company-based code of conduct also illustrates how creating a solid ethical foundation using a Corporate Social esponsibility (CS) platform is only as effective as the aligning of senior management, vision and mission, and manufacturing, sourcing, supply chain and distribution is (Sethi, Veral, Shapiro, Emelianova, 2011). When…
Gordley, J., & Cecil, S. (1998). Good faith and profit maximization. Review of Business, 19(4), 11-17.
Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.
Kielsgard, M.D. (2011). Universalism and human rights in the 21st century. Asia Pacific Law Review, 19(2), 155-176.
Machan, T.R. (2004). Aristotle and the moral status of business. Journal of Value Inquiry, 38(2), 217-223.
The foundational ideas of the limits of science and medical ethics goes back a very long way and as it has evolved over the centuries, certain laws, rules, regulations and taboos have been put in place to protect the human race from that sometimes blurred line between scientific discovery and human existence. Medical ethics created a system, bound by the ideals of many that came before them to control this blurring and attempt to stand between sciences desire to discover and the public and individual's desire to remain safe and in control of one's own body. A long time medical ethicist discusses the history of medical ethics as one that was founded on the principles of the ancients, but that has now become one where medical ethicists are demanding concrete answers, even laws to guide and demand decisions regarding medical ethics be enforced. "My new colleagues were polite enough, to…
Adler, Robert E. Medical Firsts: From Hippocrates to the Human Genome. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004.
Harvey, William. Lectures on the Whole of Anatomy: An Annotated Translation of Prelectiones Anatomiae Universalis. Trans C.D. O'Malley, F.N.L. Poynter, and K.F. Russell. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1961.
Jecker, Nancy S. "Knowing When to Stop: The Limits of Medicine." The Hastings Center Report 21.3 (1991): 5.
Marble, Annie Russell. The Nobel Prize Winners in Literature. New York: D. Appleton, 1925.
Through its partnership with the Department of Justice and the Human Health Services, the HEAT has expanded data sharing and improved information sharing procedures in order to get critical data and information into the hands of law enforcement agencies to enable them track patterns of fraud and abuse, and increase efficiency in investigating and prosecuting complex health care frauds (Department of Health and Human Services, HHS, 2011). The DOJ and the HHS have established cross government health care fraud data intelligence sharing work group that helps to improve awareness across the government on issues related to health fraud.
The Healthcare Fraud and Abuse Control Program (HFAC) is enshrined in the section 1128c of the social security Act. This Act authorized the Health and Human Services and works through the office of the inspector general and the department of justice to ensure that the control and designs towards control…
American Medical Association, (2013). Federal Fraud and Abuse Laws. Retrieved July 29, 2013
Department of Health and Human Services, HHS. (2009). The Department of Health and Human
and the Department of Justice Health Care Fraud and Abuse Control Program Annual
Ethical Pros & Cons of Criminal DNA data banks
DNA banking of criminal information is a source of controversy among many human rights activists. According to statistics, Criminal DNA databanks offer an effective means of controlling crime. Genetic information on criminals is being collected and stored in many states as a means of identifying current and future criminals. Statistics support the notion that collecting DNA information on criminals helps reduce crime. Case in point, the Division of Forensic Science has managed an average of 37 "hits" per month, where hits refer to a situation where DNA analysis of a crime scene has resulted in suspect matches from previously convicted offenders and subsequent arrest (DCJS, 2004). In Virginia the DNA databank database contains more than 200,000 of criminals (DCJS, 2004).
Proponents of DNA banks argue that DNA identifying information should be collected on larger segments of the population to better control…
DCJS - Department of Criminal Justice Services - DNA Databank Statistics (2004)
Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.dcjs.org/forensic/information/dna.cfm?menuLevel=1
Escanaba, Thomas L. "Strands of Justice: Do DNA databanks infringe on defendants' rights?" February 1998. Retrieved February 6, 2004, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/forum/july98/dna_databanks02.html
Fridell, Ron. "DNA Fingerprinting: the Ultimate Identity." New York: Franklin Watts: 2001.
The main concern in virtue ethics becomes about a person's moral character. When people choose to develop their moral character, better virtues will be created, and thus there will be more people acting in virtuous ways in all aspects of their lives -- and this includes how they treat all animals.
One example to be considered when thinking about how a person with a strong sense of virtue might behave is to counter it with how a person with a strong sense of duty might behave. From a duty sense, if one were a livestock farmer, he or she might believe that his or her duty lies in what is best for the people because, after all, the job is about raising livestock for slaughter, which will then become food for people. Therefore, the first duty would be to humans and the second duty to animals (Panaman 20008) (which may…
Garner, R. (2005). Animal ethics. Cambridge: Polity.
Gruen, L. (2011). Ethics and animals: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press;
Hursthouse, R. (2000). Ethics, humans and other animals: An introduction with readings. New York: Routledge.
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business
Review, 03-01-1999, pp 65.
The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition
Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
Ethical Reasoning," Donaldson and Werhane outline the three fundamental theories of ethics: consequentialism, deontology, and human nature ethics. Consequentialism, also known as teological ethics, can be further divided into ethical egoism and utilitarianism. Ethical egoism is based on the theory that to act out of self-interest will ultimately be the most ethical decision. Ethical egoism is rarely supported by philosophers, especially in relation to other ethical reasoning theories such as utilitarianism. Philosophers like Bentham and John Stuart Mill argued that the ethical decisions should be based on the principle of the greatest good for the greatest number. Although Mill framed the concept of "good" in terms of happiness, the "greater good" does not necessarily entail happiness and may refer to other abstract concepts like aesthetics. Utilitarianism can itself be subdivided into pluralistic utilitarianism and preference utilitarianism: the former embraces all abstract concepts that can be classified as "good" whereas the…
The Tasman Spirit crew and financiers should work to investigate acute health concerns as well as the marine ecosystem surrounding Karachai. The American Club, likely one of two involved parties with the financial resources to affect significant change in the region which actually suffered the effects of the environmental disaster. ather than working against each other with suits and counter suits and the assorted other motions and legal actions underway, it would be most effective and positive for those two companies to work together with environmental awareness and protection agencies to restore the region.
This portion of the analysis is concerned with the specific affected individual parties. While it is important not to allow empathy for a specific group to outweigh the impartiality of an effective analysis it is also important to understand the relevant human components of a situation especially one which has such a…
1. Janjua, N.Z., Kasi, P.M., Nawaz, H. (2006). Acute health effects of the Tasman Spirit oil spill on residents of Karachi, Pakistan. BMC Public Health, 6, 84. 435- 488.
2. Ha, M., Lee, W.J., Lee, S., & Cheong, H.K. (2008). A literature review on health effects of exposure to oil spill. Journal of Preventative Medicine and Public Health 45,5 345-354.
Here, Aristotle recognizes the variances which appear
to define our establishment of the means to pursuing happiness, musing that
"the characteristics that are looked for in happiness seem also, all of
them, to belong to what we have defined happiness as being. For some
identify happiness with virtue, some with practical wisdom, others with a
kind of philosophic wisdom, others with these, or one of these, accompanied
by pleasure or not without pleasure; while others include also external
prosperity." (Aristotle, I: 8) Aristotle uses this as a divining rod for
dissecting the various relationships which are perpetuated amongst
individuals. His argument engages in the dialectical process to discern
that which is 'good' apart from that which is 'evil' or 'neutral.' Through
such an engagement, he achieves a satisfactorily defended notion of 'good':
"Aristotle identifies the distinctively human phenomenon of
action arising from reason as the function of the human being:…
Eliot, G. (1872). Middlemarch. Penguin Classics.
McNickle, D. (1936). Surrounded. University of New Mexico Press.
Rachels, James. (1993). The Utilitarian Approach. The Elements of Moral
Philosophy, pg. 91-101. New York: McGraw Hill.
Rachels, James. (1993). Kant and Respect for Persons. The Elements of
Moral Philosophy, pg. 127-138. New York: McGraw Hill.
Typical examples might include decisions not to recall products because the potential financial cost to the organization of recalling millions of units is much greater than the potential financial cost to the organization of simply compensating victims of the malfunctioning products or their families where design or manufacturing defects present risks of harm to consumers (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008). hereas organizational decision makers may view the only prevailing moral standard as being that which is dictated by law, the virtue ethicist would reject that approach out of specific concern for each and every potential victim of harm as well as by the profit-motive underlying that analysis (Hursthouse, 2005).
Ethical Perspective Evolution through the MBA Education Program
My perspective has not necessarily evolved during the MBA program. Rather, I would characterize the effect of the program on my ethical development as having greatly increased my awareness that objective moral values and…
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
Hursthouse, R. (2005). On Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ethical and Legal obligations in financial reporting is extremely important in today's world, fraught as it is with corporate frauds and accounting scams and scandals of every other sort. One Company, the Thornburg Investment Company, has taken a firm stand on financial reporting within its company, wherein all concerned officials are expected to report accurately, any actual, as well as suspected violations and breaches in the laws and rules and regulations of the company, to the appropriate personnel, immediately. (Code of Business Conduct and Ethics) Another Company, the 'Trinity Capital Corporation' stresses the importance of adhering to the rules and regulations created by the Company so that the company's loyalty to its numerous shareholders may be apparent. Where financial reporting is concerned, all the employees of the firm are expected to comply with the generally accepted rules laid down by the accounting principles of the United States of America, so…
"Accounting Concepts, underlying assumptions, principles, and conventions" Retrieved From
http://www.quickmba.com/accounting/fin/concepts / Accessed on 20 June, 2005
"Business Conduct and Ethics Policy" Retrieved From
http://www.lanb.com/tcc/bcecharter.asp Accessed on 19 June, 2005
Utilitarian Abortion Considerations:
The utilitarian perspective applied to the abortion issue would focus on whether
permitting or prohibiting elective abortion would contribute more positively the interests of society Mill, 2003 p160). The principal difference between the utilitarian and deontological perspectives is that utilitarianism is wholly unconcerned with the underlying motivation for decisions. Whereas deontological formalism values the state of mind of the individual, utilitarianism focuses on the ultimate consequences of the act, irrespective of motivation Russell, 2002 p 99).
Within the utilitarian ethical perspective, rule utilitarianism would promote the choice associated with the overall benefit to others and to society if it were adhered to religiously in all circumstances, irrespective of isolated cases in which the rule produced a negative result Russell, 2002 p101-2). For example, in a society where relative birth and death rates were such that the continuation of society were in jeopardy, the utilitarian perspective might require…
(Dershowitz, 2002 p112).
Therefore, the contemporary utilitarian approach to morality in human life is to consider other definitions of "goodness" and "benefit" rather than equating morality with the interests of the greatest number. In many respects, that is the perspective exemplified by the modern American justice system (Dershowitz, 2002 p112). Under that view, the moral rightness or wrongness of elective abortion would seek to weigh the manner in which permitting abortions might benefit society and how that decision would affect all of the individuals directly involved in specific situations. If the initial assumption is that society is benefited by the respect for the autonomous rights of individuals to make personal decisions about abortion without interference from the state, utilitarianism would support the freedom to make that decision.
Under the act utilitarianism perspective, therefore, certain types of abortions (such as in cases of rape, incest, or medical necessity for the life of the mother)
Ethical Business Challenges
Identify the ethical and legal issues of which Gerard needs to be aware.
Gerard definitely needs to be aware of the potential conflicts of interest that he is currently dealing with. There are many rules and regulations that protect the firm's clients from any kind of disclosure of their internal state of affairs. Obviously some of the information will be disclosed as public information once the accounting documents are released to the public, but even giving out public information before the official release is considered a crime. Even if Gerard would avoid criminal charges, the fact that he is disclosing information could be bad for the firm because it will lose its integrity amongst its clientele.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each decision Gerard has made and could make.
Gerard needs to focus on his career and support his family; especially given his personal circumstance. However,…
Ethical Issues egarding the use of FID
Ventron United sent out a memo to all their employees that they would be required to carry (adio Frequency Identification), and the chips will be inserted into their left or right hands. The company believes that the FID will allow employees to open doors, log on computers and use a computer. Moreover, the company also reveals that the IFD will assist them monitoring their high-level security equipment because the company has experienced a break in recently. While Ventron United can realize some benefits by inserting the FID on the hands of the employees, I believe this policy raises the ethical and health issues.
The objective of this paper is to discuss the ethical and health issues related to the use of FID by employees.
Ethical Issues related to Inserting FID on Employees Hands
This paper is in the response of the FID chips…
Bacheldor, B. (2016). AMA Issues Ethics Code for RFID Chip Implants. RFID Journals
Kelly, E. P. & Scott, E. (2007). Ethical Perspectives on the Use of Radio Frequency Identification Tags. IEEE Engineering Management Review, 35 (2): 57-57.
Ethical Dilemmas in Business
This is a situation where a disgruntled worker from the company's main competitor mailed top-secret information or innovative product samples to me. Some of the major concerns that arise include whether to forward the information to the firm's research department or to mail the information back to the competitor informing them what is happening. The other ethical dilemmas that arise include whether to ignore or throw the secrets away and whether to notify the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI). hile this situation is more of an ethical situation, it's also a legal concern because of the legal aspects that arise when choosing the most suitable course of action and the legal implications.
From a legal perspective, this situation is covered by Uniform Trade Secrets Act, which contains various provisions on misappropriation and gathering information through improper means. According to the Act, misappropriation is obtaining…
Ackerman, Frank, and Kevin Gallagher. "Getting the Prices Wrong: The Limits of Market-Based Environmental Policy." Tufts University. Global Development and Environment Institute, Tufts University, Oct. 2000. Web. 30 Sept. 2011. .
Millien, Raymond. "Gathering Information on Your Competitors: Competitive Intelligence or Trade Secret Theft?" Washington D.C. Intellectual Property Attorney. DC-Based IP Attorney Raymond Millien, Mar. 2010. Web. 30 Sept. 2011. .
Whipple, Bryan. "Legal Advice: Business Law." LawGuru Answers. WebsiteBroker, Inc., 7 Apr.
2008. Web. 30 Sept. 2011. .
Law enforcement agencies should also enforce the existing gender laws decisively. Organizations should also seek to diffuse gender-based stereotypes by amongst other things educating employees on the need to embrace diversity.
Disability discrimination according to the U.S. Equal Employment Commission -- EEOC (n.d.) "occurs when an employer or other entity covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act, as amended…treats a qualified individual with a disability who is an employee or applicant unfavorably because she has a disability." When an employee is treated unfavorably because of a disability, such an employee could become distressed and consequently lose his sense of self-worth. The performance of employees (in terms of productivity and effectiveness) who are constantly discriminated against on the basis of a disability could also be negatively affected. Discriminating others on the basis of a disability also impedes their progress at both the social and professional level. To…
Financial Times Lexicon. (2013). Globalization. Retrieved from http://lexicon.ft.com/Term?term=globalisation
Gluck, S. (2013). The Effects of Gender Discrimination in the Workplace. Retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/effects-gender-discrimination-workplace-2860.html
NOLO. (2013). Illegal Reasons for Firing Employees. Retrieved from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/illegal-reasons-firing-employees-30209.html
The United States Department of Labor -- DOL. (n.d.). Hiring Issues: Overview. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/compliance/topics/hiring-issues.htm
Defining an Ethical Leader
Jeffrey Immelt, General Electric
The nature of leadership is multifaceted and often requires the continual mastery of new skills, insights, intelligence and perspectives to stay effective over the long-term. Such is the nature of ethical leadership, which requires a steadfast focus on a core set of ethical principles and values that guide a leader's judgment, ensuring consistency over the long-term. These are also the fundamental aspects of any leader's long-term credibility as well, and their ability to transform their enterprises over the long-term as well (John, 2005). Ethical leaders often resonate with credibility and the willingness to also change quickly in response to the needs of their organizations, employees, stakeholders and customers.
The purpose of this analysis is to define what an ethical leader is, how managers can progress to being more ethical in their leadership style, and how Jeff Immelt, CEO of general Electric,…
Crainer, S. (2009). From Edison to Immelt: The GE Way. Business Strategy Review, 20(3), 18-22.
Gonzalez, T.F., & Guillen, M. (2002). Leadership ethical dimension: A requirement in TQM implementation. The TQM Magazine, 14(3), 150-164.
Heinze, E. (2010). The meta-ethics of law: Book one of Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics. International Journal of Law in Context, 6(1), 23-44.
Immelt, J. (2010). Renewing American Leadership. Vital Speeches of the Day, 76(2), 53.
Health Care -- Ethical Issues in Evaluation Research
Ben is a professor and Alyssa is his graduate student in health sciences. Ben is the program chair for a conference with publications that are "refereed" or reviewed by an expert board of editors before publication. The conference has a policy that accepted papers must be presented by their authors but Ben does not mention this policy to Alyssa. He suggests that Alyssa submit a paper to the conference and that he will present it because the conference is being held abroad and he cannot support her trip to the conference. Alyssa writes the paper entirely with her own research while funded by an external fellowship, and submits it with herself as the sole author. She gives several drafts to Ben, who does not comment on any of them. Alyssa's paper is accepted by the conference, she is then advised of their…
American Evaluation Association. (1994, revisions through 2004). American Evaluation Association guiding principles for evaluators. Retrieved on December 15, 2012 from www.eval.org Web site: http://www.eval.org/Publications/GuidingPrinciples.asp
Kass, N.E. (2001, November). An ethics framework for public health. Retrieved on December 15, 2012 from search.proquest.com Web site: http://search.proquest.com/docview/215114044/13B0743D48B182F5BD9/1?accountid=28844
Public Health Leadership Society. (2002). Principles of the ethical practice of public health, version 2.2. Retrieved on December 15, 2012 from www.apha.org Web site: http://www.apha.org/NR/rdonlyres/1CED3CEA-287E-4185-9CBD-BD405FC60856/0/ethicsbrochure.pdf
Thomas, J. (2004). Skills for the ethical practice of public health. Retrieved on December 15, 2012 from phls.org Web site: http://phls.org/CMSuploads/Skills-for-the-Ethical-Practice-of-Public-Health-68547.pdf
" (Johnson, 2005) the notion of ruling against the defendant in all identity theft or related cases may establish the wrong precedent for future cases. "On the other hand, if liability is too readily assessed, it will have the power to bankrupt valuable enterprises because of the often vast numbers of potential plaintiffs and consequent extensive resulting damages." (Johnson, 2005)
Internet security and identity theft is a very pervasive problem globally. In fact, most every nation with a web presence must deal with the same issue of hackers breaching server security or web browser security and stealing identities or other destructive behavior with malicious intent. The United States has a much more serious issue in this realm, however, when compared to countries within Europe, Asia, Africa, ussia, and South America. Although the threat remains global and can affect any nation at any time, the probability of identity theft in America…
Anthes, G. (2010) Security in the Cloud. Association for Computing Machinery. Communications of the ACM, 53(11), 16. Retrieved December 14, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 2198161791).
Babcock, C. (2010) Cloud Computing Differences Between U.S. And Europe. Information Week. Retrieved from: http://www.informationweek.com/news/government/cloud-saas/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=224202598
2009. New Straits Times. Cyber security challenges. Retrieved from: http://www.lexisnexis.com.rlib.pace.edu/lnacui2api/results/docview/docview.do?docLinkInd=true&risb=21_T10848791436&format=GNBFI&sort=RELEVANCE&startDocNo=1&resultsUrlKey=29_T10848791439&cisb=22_T10848791438&treeMax=true&treeWidth=0&csi=151977&docNo=13
Campbell K., Gordon L., Loeb M., Zhou L. The economic cost of publicly announced information security breaches: empirical evidence from the stock market. Journal of Computer Security Vol.11 Number 3/2003 pgs 431-448
The employee is faced with ethical requirements throughout their workday that must be met with knowledge and a trained attitude. Workplace ethics is one of the most crucial elements whether the person involved in an ethical dilemma is a high-level manager or an entry-level employee. An ethical stance is important because it is what guides the interactions that the employees will have with each other, their management, and the customers that patronize their products. It is also important that the business leaders follow an internal and external ethical stance so that the culture generated within the company is one that promotes positive ethical practices. This paper begins by talking about the way that the business leaders view the external world of ethics through accounting practices and how they deal with other companies. The discussion then moves inside the company and how the management treats its employees. Employee to employee…
Brandt-Rauf, S.I., Brabdt-Rauf, E., Gershon, R., Li, Y., & Brandt-Rauf, P.W. (2011). Genes, jobs, and justice: Occupational medicine physicians and the ethical, legal, and social issues of genetic testing in the workplace. Ethics & Medicine, 27(1), 51-55.
Dinkins, C.S. (2011). Ethics: Beyond patient care practicing empathy in the workplace. Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 16(2), 1-8.
Embse, T.J.V.D., Desai, M.S., & Ofori-Brobbey, K. (2010). A new perspective on ethics safeguards: Where is the clout? SAM Advanced Management Journal, 75(3), 4-13.
Klimek, J., & Wenell, K. (2011). Ethics in accounting: An indispensable course? Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 15(4), 107-113.
Ethics in elationship to Power Structures
Ethical obligations allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office
Senator Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were accused of attempting to fix the mayoral ballot. They were allegedly reported having exchanged thousands of dollars in cash. This money was intended to pay off the officials of the epublican Party to agree to one of the Democrats, Smith on the GOP line. Halloran demonstrated clear ignorance as he walked into the evil bargain as the confidential witness dangled campaign funds for a personal interest bid. In the context of public ethics, the actions of Smith and Halloran raise questions their principles of justice, democratic society, and common good (Stensota, 2010).
Smith and Halloran must adhere to the principle of ethical policymaking. This principle requires that they hold one another accountable for what they know and value. As such, it draws…
Cody, J. (2012). Chicago called most corrupt city in the nation. CBS Chicago. Retrieved from http://chicago.cbslocal.com/2012/02/14/chicago-called-most-corrupt-city-in-nation/
Politico. (2013). N.Y. state senator arrested in alleged mayor race plot. Retrieved from http://www.politico.com/story/2013/04/nyc-mayor-race-rig-malcolm-smith-89536.html
Stensota, H. (2010). The Conditions of Care: Reframing the Debate about Public Sector Ethics. University of Gothenburg; Blackwell Publishing Limited. Retrieved from http://faculty.cbpp.uaa.alaska.edu/afgjp/PADM601%20Fall%202010/Reframing%20the%20debate%20about%20public%20service%20ethics.
Ventriss, C. (2012). Democratic Citizenship and Public Ethics The Importance of Civic Stewardship in an Era of Public Distrust and Cynicism. Public Integrity, Summer 2012, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 283 -- 297.
organization you selected. Describe the ethical issue or violation you identified as it relates to finance or budgeting. Explain why it is/was an ethical issue or violation. Then, briefly explain how the organization is addressing or has addressed it, and what you think about that response. Or, if the violation has not yet occurred, consider what the organization could do to prevent it.
Ethics in local government: The New Jersey ethics scandal
New Jersey has long had a reputation as one of the most corrupt state in the U.S., and the 2009 bribery scandal which resulted in the indictment of 44 people, including three New Jersey mayors, two state assemblymen and five rabbis, perpetuated this stereotype. Over the course of the case an informant working for the government named Solomon Dwek told "three rabbis in rooklyn and two in New Jersey that he was bankrupt and trying to conceal his…
But the New Jersey politicians' desires to profit from their position did not end there. One of the men involved in the money-laundering scheme introduced Dwek to other officials. "Mr. Dwek -- now operating under an assumed identity, according to people involved in the case -- honed an approach: introduced to a local influence-peddler, he would say he was looking to build high-rises or other projects in their city or county. He would offer $5,000 in cash for an upcoming campaign, or as a straight-up bribe, with the promise of more to come, and with earnest pleas that his official requests be 'taken care of.' And he would pull the money out of the trunk of his car" (Halbfinger 2009).
This was fundamentally in violation of one of the most important cornerstones of the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Public Administrators: "[To] maintain truthfulness and honesty and to not compromise them for advancement, honor, or personal gain" (III.1). In this instance, the New Jersey state officials were using their positions purely for personal gain, not to serve the needs of the public. They made decisions regarding projects that would affect the community with an eye upon how much they could gain with their deal with Dwek, not based upon the needs of their constituency. Ethical guidelines are vitally necessary for public administrators to follow, given the heavy responsibility they shoulder. "At any phase in the budgetary process, there are many dilemmas present. Decisions are made that favor some values such as efficiency, political responsiveness, preserving the public interest over others. It is not a simple matter of determining what constitutes a right vs. A wrong allocation decision; instead choices must be made between competing 'right' choices" (Franklin & Raadschelders 2004: 457).
When these suppositions are violated, then the overall trust of the public in public officials and public institutions is impinged upon. Unethical behavior by members invested with the public's trust does not merely damage the politician's own reputations, but also the reputation of government as a whole. New Jersey's bad reputation as a particularly unethical place for government creates a self-perpetuating cycle. Because higher officials take ethical violations for granted, public officials are more inclined take a lax attitude towards their obligations, rationalizing that there is no incentive to do
Combining morphine and Ativan (lorazepam) can be deadly, making the Primary Care Physician (PCP) statement seem contradictory to medical ethics. The specific medical ethical issues addressed in this case include patient autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence. However, there are other ethical issues and dilemmas raised by this case. The nurse faces professional ethical dilemmas in terms of the conflicts between Provision 2 and Provision 8 in the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics. Provision 2 indicates that nurses have a primary commitment to the patient, followed by Provision 3, which calls for the professional nurse to actively advocate for and protect the "rights, health, and safety of the patient," (ANA, 2015). However, Provision 8 indicates that the nurse also "collaborates with other health professionals and the public to protect human rights, promote health diplomacy, and reduce health disparities," (ANA, 2015). This case shows how the nurse's primary obligation to protect…
American Nurses Association (ANA, 2015). Code of Ethics. Retrieved online: http://www.vcuhealth.org/?id=1220&sid=13
International Council of Nurses (2012). The ICN Code of Ethics for Nurses. Retrieved online: http://www.icn.ch/images/stories/documents/about/icncode_english.pdf
"Patients' Bill of Rights," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.aapsonline.org/patients/billrts.htm
The objective of this study is to review the work entitled "What Should We Mean 'Military Ethics?" And the work entitled "Strengthening Moral Competence: A Train the Trainer Course on Military Ethics."
Cook and Syse (2010)
The work of Cook and Syse (2010) entitled "What Should We Mean by Military Ethics?"states that when it comes to military ethics that there is a "great diversity of activities normally gathered under that rubric." (p.119) Military ethics is reported to be a "species of the genus 'professional ethics'. (Cook & Syse, 2010, p. 119) In other words, ethics is a service to professionals who are not actually ethics specialists but "who have to carry out the tasks entrusted to the profession as honorably and correctly as possible." (Cook & Syse, 2010, p.119) While philosophy on military ethics may be developed quite logically and be clear in conceptual terms and even debated…
Wortel, E and Bosch, J. (2011) Strengthening Moral Competence: A 'Train the Trainer' Course on Military Ethics. Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 10, No. 1, 2011
Cook, ML and Syse, H (2010) What Should We Mean by 'Military Ethics'. Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 9, No. 2, 119_122, 2010
Apple's Current Position On Its Ethical And Social esponsibilities
Corporations are increasingly seeking a vision in maintaining social responsibility alongside a vision in business. There are also demands for greater accountability and transparency in corporate actions of organized consumers, state representatives and grass movements (Garsten, 2003). Many corporations aim to engage in corporate citizenship and to be socially responsible by adhering to social accountability standards and voluntary codes of conduct. This essay endeavors to examine Apple's current position on the social and ethical responsibilities and to determine whether it has met the responsibilities. The study also determines the impact caused by the violation of ethics and social responsibilities among Apple's suppliers.
Current Position on the Company's Ethical and Social esponsibilities
Corporate Social esponsibility comprises of actions that are not required by the law, but extend beyond the transactional interest of companies and further social good. CS is often used to…
Creel, T. (2010). Environmental Reporting Practices of the Largest U.S. Companies. Management Accounting Quarterly 12(10): 13-20
Garsten, C. (2003). The cosmopolitan organization -- an essay on corporate accountability. Global Networks 3(3):355 -- 370
Kenney, M. (2011). How venture capital became a component of the U.S. National System of Innovation. Industrial and Corporate Change, 20(6): 1677 -- 1723
Northrop, E. (2013). The Accuracy, Market Ethic, and Individual Morality Surrounding the Profit Maximization Assumption. American Economist, Vol. 58, No. 2: 111-124
ethical and legal issues regarding sub-prime mortgage lenders. Unfortunately, the focus has been inordinately upon the poor individuals who were exploited by accepting these predatory and exploitive loans o highlight & copy (Goolsbee, 2007) . Simplistically, they have been blamed for the recent U.S. financial meltdown. The emphasis needs to be focused upon the mortgage lenders themselves. hile exploitation of such individuals is bad enough, to make matters worse, they are having the entire economic collapse based upon them. This is not only unfair, but inaccurate. The holders of subprime loans did not come up with the system of bundling whereby their loans were wrapped with other regular loans and with risky no-mortgage products. Needless to say, the regular mortgage loans camouflaged the risky assets. However, worst of all, the victims of subprime loan exploitation who lost their homes and their jobs will now have their government benefits taken away…
Gad, S. (2007, July 10). The skinny on subprime. Retrieved from http://www.fool.com/investing/value/2007/07/10/the-skinny-on-subprime.aspx .
Eichler, A. (2011, July 11). Private investment firms lending to subprime borrowers again . Retrieved f rom http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/12/subprime-lending_n_896229.html .
Goolsbee, A. (2007, March 29). 'irresponsible' mortgages have opened doors to many of the excluded .
Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03 .
Business operations are deemed viable of they succeed in establishing conditions that guarantee safety for its product consumers. Specified standards are applied by business entities to attain such viability. These considerations are critical in product safety, intellectual property, and marketing in general. If a company or business entity violates any of the aspects mentioned, it stands a high risk being caught in a web of ethical and legal complications that might destroy it. PhamaCARE finds itself in such a precarious predicament owing to its blatant violation of a number of legal and ethical standards. There were both ethical and legal problems that impacted on its clients and businesses. Investigating behavior is paramount in uncovering issues related to legal and ethical problems of any business entity.
Pursuant to the scenario above, identify three (3) legal issues and problems PharmaCARE has in relation to marketing and advertising, intellectual property, and regulation of…
The field is social psychology, and the selected title is bullying. The articles selected as follows:
Mundbjerg Eriksen, T. L., Hogh, A., & Hansen, A. M. (2016). Long-Term Consequences of Workplace Bullying On Sickness Absence. Labor Economics, 43: 129-150. doi:10.1016/j.labeco.2016.06.008
This peer-reviewed article explores the effects of bullying at the place of work. The study done in the article indicates that sickness, boredom, and poor productivity are some of the results of bullying from among employees. The article is significant in that it helps to understand the effects of bullying at the workplace and hence aids in deriving ways to reduce its occurrence. The social setting at workplace relates to the social psychology effects as seen with the occurrence of bullying (Mundbjerg Eriksen et al., 2016).
Priest, N., King, T., Becares, L., & Kavanagh, A. M. (2016). Bullying Victimization and Racial Discrimination among Australian Children. American Journal of Public Health,…
ethical issues, challenges, and dilemmas that have arisen due to technological advances of law enforcement on personal privacy. Addressed are the major pro and con viewpoints of economically, politically, individually, and socially.
Eight sources. APA.
Privacy and Technology
Big Brother is definitely here. Just the other day the news reported that the average American is photographed nine to twelve times per day. Cameras are everywhere. People are photographed while they are driving to and from work, while they are parking their cars, entering their place of employment, and if the company is any size other than a mom and pop shop, they are watched at work. hether one is making a deposit at the bank, buying groceries at the local grocery chain, gas at the 7-11 store, or browsing books at the library, they are being not only watched, but photographed. From the smallest market to the largest mall, every…
Branom, Mike. "Orlando Gets New Air Security Devices." AP Online. March 5, 2002.
Digital Big Brother." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. February 05, 2001.
EU/U.S.: EURO-MPS 'CONFIRM' ECHELON SPY NETWORK." European Report.
Hamilton, Tyler. "Surveillance technologies nibble at offline privacy." The Toronto Star.
The program focuses on building an ethical culture, but does not appear to specifically address fraud risk assessments, controls over fraud prevention or other SOX provisions.
3) the company currently focuses on training and enculturation to sensitize its employees to ethical issues. One suggestion would be to align executive compensation with the objectives of the shareholders. Options only bring about temporary alignment, so shares or other long-term strategies should be used instead. This will help management to focus on both ethics and profitability. Another suggestion would be to build upon their existing program by creating job-specific training as well as corporate-wide training. This way the scenarios that the workers are exposed to are specific to situations they might see, which will bring the message closer to home.
No author. (2008) Sarbanes-Oxley. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://thecaq.aicpa.org/Resources/Sarbanes+Oxley/
No author. (2008). Federal Sentencing…
No author. (2008) Sarbanes-Oxley. American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://thecaq.aicpa.org/Resources/Sarbanes+Oxley/
No author. (2008). Federal Sentencing Guidelines. Ethics Resource Center. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.ethics.org/erc-publications/federal-sentencing-guidelines.asp
At which point, the attorney could face ethics charges because of this ethical conflict. To prevent such situations from occurring, it is advisable that all attorneys become passionately involved in their clients cases. This will ensure that they are always following the most ethical standards, by looking out for their client's best interests first. These points are significant, because the literature that was reviewed highlights the challenges that all attorneys are constantly grappling with, in regards to the issue of ethics. In some cases, the attorney may not be aware that they are in violation of an ethical standard, because of the delusion of impunity that exists. As a result, those attorneys who are constantly aware of the role that their ethics will play in this field will avoid such issues. This is why it is imperative that all attorneys understand their ethics, so that they can augment them to…
Graham, R. (2004 ). Legal Ethics. Toronto, on: Montgomery.
Luban, D. (1999). Reason and Passion in Legal Ethics. Stanford Law Review. 51 (9), 122 -- 129.
Rhode, D. (2000). Ethics in Practice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Rubin, P. (1994). The Changing Role of Lawyers in Changing the Law. Journal of Legal Studies, 23 (2), 807 -- 831.
Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property
Legal and ethical considerations
PharmaCAE intentionally bypassed the Food and Drug Administration when it established CompCAE a compounding pharmacy. This was done in order to avoid FDA scrutinization, which indicates that the company was aware of the side effects that the drug would have on patients. By evading FDA scrutiny and approval, PharmaCAE was able to sell the new formulation on a prescription basis without the need to seek approvals. CompCAE was not supposed to market directly to consumers, but it still conducted direct marketing to consumers and hospitals. Furthermore, the company encouraged doctors to fax them lists of fictitious patient names. This was done to demonstrate that the company was not selling directly to consumers, but rather it was doctors who were prescribing the drug to the patients.
When reports started surfacing indicating that the drug was causing heart attacks, the…
Halbert, T., & Ingulli, E. (2011). Law and ethics in the business environment. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
Kim, Y.K., Lee, K., Park, W.G., & Choo, K. (2012). Appropriate intellectual property protection and economic growth in countries at different levels of development. Research policy, 41(2), 358-375.
Liu, W., KNOx, C.A., & Brushwood, D.B. (2013). Discretion of the Food and Drug Administration to enforce compounding rules. AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEALTH-SYSTEM PHARMACY, 70(17), 1538-1543.
Peffer, S.L., Bocheko, A., Del Valle, R.E., Osmani, A., Peyton, S., & Roman, E. (2013). Whistle Where You Work? The Ineffectiveness of the Federal Whistleblower Protection Act of 1989 and the Promise of the Whistleblower Protection Enhancement Act of 2012. Review of Public Personnel Administration, 0734371X13508414.
These are ethics that know no cultural bounds. hat is perceived as ethical in one society as well as any other is an example of a natural law. These are typically based on the human desire for equality as well as the desire to do good ("hat is Natural Law?"). Furthermore, natural rights evolve legally from natural laws often. They also often see an intertwining of religious beliefs, although they can also be expressed as more an intertwining of moral beliefs that are then supported by religion. The primary weakness of natural law theory is that it is sometimes difficult to determine if a belief is truly universal, or simply cultural.
Virtue ethics determines whether an action is right or wrong by the virtue of the action.
Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that…
"Kant's Moral Philosophy." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p., 23 Feb. 2004. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. .
MacKinnon, Barbara. Ethics: theory and contemporary issues. Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Pub. Co., 1995. Print.
"Virtue Ethics." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. N.p., 18 July 2007. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. .
"What is Ethical Relativism?" Philosophy - AllAboutPhilosophy.org. N.p., 2011. Web. 9 Feb. 2011. .
Rupert Murdoch gave a speech in 2011 that defines ethics in a manner that many individuals would likely find quite enlightening. In that speech, Murdoch states "There is simply no excuse for unethical behavior. There are real issues that we must confront and are confronting. e could not be taking this more seriously or listening as intently to criticisms" (Murdoch, 2011, p. 436). The violation of ethical conduct that Rupert was referring to were the actions taken by a number of journalists in his employment. The journalists were accused of hacking into personal telephone voicemails.
Having harboured a secret desire to be a professional journalist at sometime in my life, I followed closely the allegations, as well as Mr. Murdoch's response to those allegations. In his speech to shareholders of the company that he runs, Murdoch states "if we hold others to account, then we must hold ourselves to account"…
Liveris, A.N.; (2011) Ethics as a business strategy, Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 77, Issue 1, pp. 35 -- 39
Murdoch, R.; (2011) We must put things right, Vital Speeches of the Day, Vol. 77, Issue 12, pp. 435 -- 437
Dragojlovic, N.I.; (2011) Priming and the Obama effect on public evaluations of the United States, Political Psychology, Vol. 32, Issue 6, pp. 989 -1006
Anna's rationale for not obtaining informed consent?
Not informing research subjects regarding one's purpose is unethical. In order to see just how unethical her decision is, Anna must understand ethical concerns linked to studies that utilize human participants. The basic principles of justice, independence, and goodness form the basis of the aforementioned ethical concerns and warrant attention (UNC Charlotte| esearch& Economic Development Centre, n.d).). Ethics guidelines and codes explain the idea of informed consent with regard to studies on human participants. This process aims at presenting adequate facts to participants to ensure they are able to decide, after acquiring an adequate grasp of the situation, whether to participate in any research venture or not, and whether to continue participating or not. It is imperative to seek informed consent for every kind of research on humans, including therapeutic, diagnostic, social, behavioral and interventional researches, as well as for studies performed locally…
Argosy University (2014).Institutional Review Board Handbook. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from https://ucmrp.edmc.edu/idc/groups/webcontent/@edmc_aug/documents/webcontent/edmc-03428020.pdf
Office for the Protection of Research Subjects (OPRS)| University of Southern California (n.d) Informed Consent in Human Subjects Research. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from http://oprs.usc.edu/files/2013/04/Informed-Consent-Booklet-4.4.13.pdf
Office of Research Integrity| The University of Tennessee Chattanooga (n.d) Informed CnosentConsent Requirements. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from https://www.utc.edu/research-integrity/institutional-review-board/informedconsent/
UNC Charlotte| Research & Economic Development Centre (n.d). Informed Consent. Retrieved 7 April 7, 2017 from http://research.uncc.edu/departments/office-research-compliance-orc/human-subjects/informed-consent
Duties of a Correctional Psychologist
An increasing rate of violation of crimes characterizes the current global environment. Different forms of violence and aggression, including drug trafficking and abuse, robbery, and rape cases among other forms of violence necessitates the need for analyzing the roles of a correctional psychologist. he special roles played by the correctional psychologists such as providing environments that improve the safety of the staff and inmates, psychological services, inmate management, and conducting an evaluation of the inmate/prison population and its influence on inmates' health necessitated the study into the topic. In addition, the fact that the correctional psychology has numerous ethical dilemmas and conflicts makes it wanting to study the topic.
he working environment, professional and personal experiences made me interested in studying the duties and challenges facing correctional psychologist. he fact that correctional psychologists work in a simulative and challenging environment attracts my interests…
The study provides a variety of opportunities for future research. For example, it provides an avenue for conducting research on the organizational factors that influence decision-making of the correctional psychologists. Organizational factors such as structure have been predicted to affect the practicing of correctional psychologists. Therefore, this study will provide the basis for studies into the issue. In addition, the study provides opportunities for future research on the contributing factors to the transformation of the correctional psychologists and their roles. Other ways in which this study will provide opportunities for future research include studies that aim at criticizing legitimacy of studies conducted on the topic.
Corriea, K.M. (2009). A Handbook for Correctional Psychologists: Guidance for the Prison Practitioner. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, LTD
Volkswagen Emission Scandal
Volkswagen is a company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany and is the original marquee within the Volkswagen Group. The Volkswagen Group includes different car marquees like Bentley Motors, Audi, Automobile Lamborghini, Bugatti Automobiles, and Scania, which manufactures heavy goods vehicles. Since its inception, Volkswagen has developed to become the third largest manufacturer of automobiles after Toyota and General Motors respectively. However, the company was recently involved in an emission scandal that has generated significant concerns in this industry and among the public. The emission scandal is attributed to the company's corporate misbehavior, which is largely unacceptable from any perspective. The unacceptability of this misbehavior is attributable to its impact on the world and violation of business ethics.
Emission Issue at Volkswagen
Volkswagen is renowned across the globe as one of the leading and successful car manufacturers that have experienced tremendous growth and profitability since inception. Despite…
Argenti, P. (2015, October 13). The Biggest Culprit in VW's Emissions Scandal. Fortune. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://fortune.com/2015/10/13/biggest-culprit-in-volkswagen-emissions-scandal/
Hotten, R. (2015, November 4). Volkswagen: The Scandal Explained. BBC. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-34324772
Queen, E.L. (2015, September 26). How Could VW Be So Dumb? Blame the Unethical Culture Endemic in Business. The Conversation. Retrieved December 8, 2015, from http://theconversation.com/how-could-vw-be-so-dumb-blame-the-unethical-culture-endemic-in-business-48137
Other less formal societal virtues may not be controlled by the state, but violation of social norms may often result in social rejection and other spontaneous negative consequences in public. For example, Jews and Muslims do not eat pork products or shellfish, Hindus do not eat cows, and in the United States, dogs and cats are considered pets exclusively, and rats considered filthy vermin; none of them are eaten. In many parts of India, cows are considered sacred and (depending on which particular society) rats are either revered and pampered in religious temples or trapped in large numbers for food. In many parts of the U.S., transvestites are considered social deviants; in parts of Indochina, they are celebrated.
The Argument for Objective Virtue:
Aristotle believed in universal truths, although he wrote less about exactly what virtues in particular emanate from those truths. Objective virtues are those that relate in some…
Ethics and Specialized Knowledge
Enron's case summary
Enron is an interstate pipeline company that was founded in 1985 as a supplier of power utilities. In the 20th century, Enron had grown quickly, and due to increased competition in the global market, the company decided to diversify and use international investments that would help in keeping their market position. Enron's rapid expansion exceeded their funding abilities, and this resulted in the creation of a complex web of off-balance-sheet financing (Silverstein, 2013). It is clear that they ignored the dangers associated with their activities in bringing serious losses. Moreover, in 2001 is when the company overstated on its revenues and its liabilities became hidden from the public.
Additionally, their driving culture became reinforced by incentive schemes that promised and delivered rewards that were huge concerning their compensation packages (Silverstein, 2013). As such, their outstanding performance required them to portray the company as…
Marianne M. J. (2009). Business Ethic Case Study and Selected Readings (sixth Ed.). Salt Lake City, UT, U.S.A.: Southwestern Cengage Learning.
Silverstein, K. (2013, May 14). Enron, Ethics and Today's Corporate Values. Forbes. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kensilverstein/2013/05/14/enron-ethics-and-todays-corporate-values/#7a4cfc557688
That particular ethical concern may be harder to define precisely, simply because it may be too restrictive and no different from the types of decisions considered appropriate in the U.S. In that regard, provided it violates no domestic or foreign laws and that it is not undertaken for the purpose of shifting the environmental risk (osenstand, 2008), the relocation is no different from situating a similar plant in any local community that does not benefit from the existence of the plant.
osenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics.…
Rosenstand, N. (2008). The Moral of the Story: An Introduction to Ethics. New York:
ETHNICAL DILEMMA I HAVE FOUND IN Business violation of professional ethics occurred when a colleague pretended to be me when she telephonically ordered narcotics. Even though my employer and the colleague in question both felt that the action was intended to help lighten my workload, I felt that my personal status as a registered nurse was being compromised.
Although the order was ultimately sanctioned by my employer, the initial dishonest order still reflected on my license. The outcome of the incident was that everyone concerned was now more aware of the influence of encroaching ethical boundaries.
To not refill the prescription and to resign from my position.
Does the action, as far as possible, maximize social benefits and minimize social injuries?
It is my belief that by not refilling the prescription and resigning from my position I would contribute to the maximization of social benefits in that the order…
Ethical Issues at Apple
Apple Inc. is one of the leading global companies, but in spite of its success, it is also faced with some legal and ethical issues, such as the employment of under-aged workers in ten of its plants in China. The company is striving to address these issues as apart of a wider commitment to transparency and sustainability, but more dramatic measures might be necessary.
Apple Inc. is one of the largest companies of the globe, having in fact the largest capitalization of al companies -- 563 billion (Y Charts, 2012) -- and also being the largest company in the IT field, generating more revenues that Microsoft and Google combined (Goldman, 2012). Apple is mostly popular due to the high level of technologic innovation it has made fun and easily available to the larger market. But aside from its success, the company has also been blamed for…
Goldman, D., 2012, Apple's $46 billion sales set new tech record, CNN Money, http://money.cnn.com/2012/01/24/technology/apple_earnings/index.htmlast accessed on July 23, 2012
Moore, M., 2011, Apple's child labor issues worsen, The Telegraph, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/apple/8324867/Apples-child-labour-issues-worsen.html last accessed on July 23, 2012
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