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I believe that all politics create some kind of estrangement, particularly when large entities such as the European Union are at issue. The fact that power struggles dictate most of the current relationships between political entities and even individuals and their citizenry makes it difficult for a general individual to identify with a large entity of powerful heads of state that apparently pursue only their own personal agenda.
In addition, there is such a vast array of ideologies, that citizen estrangement is hardly a surprising phenomenon. Individual citizens can hardly identify with any single ideology with alienating or violating another. There is no unifying ideology that binds Europeans and their leaders together. There is no common cause.
A third component of this alienation is the fact that many member states consider the European Union as a source of failure, while the nation, made up of citizens, is considered…
European Tour Operators
External Analysis European Tour Operators
European Tourism Industry
Tourism plays a key role in the economy of the European Union. This sector contributes 5% to the gross domestic product of Europe. The European tourism industry consists of 1.8 million enterprises and these enterprises employee almost 5.2% of the total workforce of the European Union. The tourism industry of the European Union consists of a wide variety of products and a large number of stakeholders that are dispersed geographically.(The European Commission, 2010, pp. 1-91)
Apart from the domestic competitiveness the European tourism industry is a key player in the global tourism market as well. (The European Commission, 2010, pp. 1-91) The graph below demonstrates the share of the European tourism industry in the global tourism market;
(The European Commission, 2010, pp. 1-91)
As evident from the above chart, the European tourism industry captures eighty percent of the global…
Action for More Sustainable European Tourism. 2007. Action for More Sustainable European Tourism. London: The European Commission. pp. 1-43. http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/sectors/tourism/files/docs/tsg/tsg_final_report_en.pdf [Accessed: 15 Oct 2013].
Gangadharan, S. 2011. TUI - Analysis and Implications. Liverpool: Liverpool Business School. pp. 1-6. http://www.scribd.com/doc/25781511/TUI-Analysis-and-Implications [Accessed: 15 Oct 2013].
Kelessidis, V. And Kalonaki, E. 2009. Global SWOT Analysis. Thessaloniki: Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki. pp. 1-136. http://www.stepc.gr/_docs/library_docs/GLOBAL_SWOT_Analysis_TOUREG.pdf [Accessed: 15 Oct 2013].
Key Note Limited, O. 2013. Travel & Tourism Market - 2006 - PEST Analysis. [online] Available at: https://www.keynote.co.uk/market-intelligence/view/product/1822/travel-%26-tourism-market/chapter/4/pest-analysis [Accessed: 15 Oct 2013].
European Counter Terrorism
Challenges Faced by European Counterterrorism Efforts in Tackling Transnational Terrorism.
Terrorist activities and violent extremism represents a significant threat to the European Union (EU) member states, which necessitates the need for appropriate measures for curbing the severe extent of such activities. This article briefly highlights the hurdles encountered by EU in implementing the counter terrorism strategies. The core challenge involves major threats from Al-Qaeda groups and individuals, radicalization of violent terrorist activities, the drastic growth of cyber terrorism and the challenges faced by European intelligence agencies pertaining to the cooperation among them.
Challenges Faced by European Counterterrorism Efforts in Tackling Transnational Terrorism
The growing pace of terrorist activities in EU member states compelled them to adopt a wide variety of measures in combating them. The structure of EU counterterrorism policies has changes a great deal after the 9/11 terrorist attack in U.S.. The counterterrorism policy revolves around…
Boer, D., M., Hillebrand, C., & Nolke, A. (2008) Legitimacy under Pressure: The European Web of Counter-Terrorism Networks, JCMS, 46(1), 101-124
Europol (2012) EU Terrorism Situation and Trend Report, European Police Office.
Wille, B., M. (2008) The Effect of International Terrorism on EU Intelligence Co-operation, JCMS, 46(1), pp. 49-73
European inancial and Debt Crisis
i a research paper " European inacial debt crisis" typed pages. I charts bibliography reference pages.charts, bibliography include typed pages
The European financial and debt crisis
The European financial and debt crisis refers to the struggle which the European Union region endured while trying to pay off the enormous debts that had built up in the recent decades. There were five countries in the region whose economic growth was stunted, and thus it played wrongly on their ability to pay back to their bondholders the guarantee that they had intended. These five countries are Greece, Italy, Portugal, Spain and Ireland. Their inability to pay was in varying degrees, and although these five countries were in greatest immediate danger to default on their debts, the consequences that would result from the crisis would extend beyond these five countries and would affect the whole world. In October…
From this chart, it can be seen that the public debt of Greece was higher than the average of the Eurozone countries. The situation was present since 1999 but there was a sharp increase from about 2008 which led to the European financial and debt crisis and this kept on increasing as bond yields increases and as the vicious cycle continued.
Figure 3: Government fiscal balances from 1998-2012
From this figure, we can see that the fiscal balances of the Eurozone countries was high but as a result of the European financial crisis, the deficit of the Eurozone countries continued to increase.
European Bank for Reconstruction and Development:
The first challenge is related to pricing. Pricing reflected market yields and referred to the "benchmark" rate. The market yields were compounded through the national Treasury yields, but there was no such Treasury yield for the ECU, since this was not an actual currency for the EU. Issues such as lack of liquidity for the European market and others meant that the European Bank would have difficulties in putting together a reasonable pricing strategy.
The market was also complicated at the time of the issuing. The ECU Eurobond market was in a process of being reshaped, and it had significant integration difficulties, with different volatile markets affecting the overall perspective of things and making marketing entirely more difficult in this environment.
Another marketing challenge is that the European Bank is a new bank, so the market remains skeptical until it has proven that it…
European Union's Emission Trading System
What is the stated purpose behind the EU ETS?
The EU ETS has been a cap and trade method made to incentivise economical cutbacks in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) coming from carbon-intensive industrial sectors as well as electrical power generators. Proof shows that the executive load (the expense of checking, confirming and validation of emissions and costs to government bodies) involving the EU ETS upon smaller sized emitters has been disproportionately big. Article 27 involving the EU ETS Directive offers a great opt out via the EU ETS in Phase III (2013-2020) to lessen the executive burdens upon small-scale emitters as well as hospitals. It entails that opted out setups deal with procedures which attain a similar share to emissions cutbacks as though the setup had been still within the EU ETS. The aim in providing an opt-out has been to incentivise GHG pollutants cutbacks…
CMIA. (2012). Climate Markets & Investment Association Press Release, October, 16th.
European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) (2008). EU action against climate change: The EU Emissions Trading Scheme. European Commissions.
European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) (2007). EU ETS Guidance Note 1 -- Guidance on Inclusion: Updated for Phase II. European Commission.
Impact Assessment. (2012). Title: EU ETS Small Emitter and Hospital Phase III Opt-Out, IA No: DECC0068, Lead department or agency: Department for Energy and Climate Change.
European Debt Crisis
Beginning in 2010, Europe was plunged into a major financial crisis. This is because many of the weaker member states (i.e. Greece, Spain, Portugal and Ireland) were running high deficits to finance different social programs. When the economy was strong, these initiatives were used as a way to help win the support of the electorate. At the same time, many individuals believed that this kind of approach was ensuring that everyone had a social safety net. (Cline 2012)
However, as the crisis began to worsen, these high debt levels weighed on the financial position of different governments. This is from the slowing economy hurting their tax revenues and the inability to continue borrowing made it difficult to deal with these challenges. When this happened, these nations were plunged into a crisis that effected unemployment, the economy and the financial markets. (27 Statistics 2012) (Greek Unemployment Hits 21%…
27 Statistics, 2012, The Economic Collapse. Available from: [29 October 2012].
Greek Unemployment Hits 21%, 2012, Yahoo Finance. Available from: [29 October 2012].
Recent Measures, 2012, LSE. Available from: [29 October 2012].
Spain Emerges, 2012, Alpha Now. Available from: [29 October 2012].
European Union's Emissions Trading System (ETS)
The objective of this study is to research the European Union's Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) and to answer the questions of what is the stated purpose behind the EU ETS and why the concept of the EU ETS is agreed or disagreed with. The question of what the current and potential results of the EU ETS will be examined and other effects of the EU ETS. This work will examines whether the United States should participate in the EU ETS and what are two other options for achieving the stated purpose behind the EU ETS? The work of Egenhofer, Alessi, Georgiev, and Fujiwara (2011) reports that the objective of the EU ETS is to "promote greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction in a cost-effective and economically efficient manner." (p.1) This has both long and short-term perspectives and specifically "In a short-term perspective (i.e. until 2020),…
Egenhofer, C., Aliessi, M., Georgiev, A., and Fujiwara, N. (2011) The EU Emissions Trading System and Climate Policy towards 2050 Real incentives to reduce emissions and drive innovation? CEPS Special Report. Retrieved from: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&ved=0CEsQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.c2es.org%2FdocUploads%2FEU-ETS-In-Perspective-Report.pdf&ei=b5XHUMzjEun-iwKBpYGwDg&usg=AFQjCNFis7rpkR0CUJ6C4WQSROdD4hGA_Q&bvm=bv.1354675689,bs.1,d.cGE
Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) (2012) Climate Action. Retrieved from: http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ets/index_en.htm
Emissions Trading: The Pros and Cons (2008) Climate Change. 8 Apr 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.climatechange.com.au/2008/04/08/emissions-trading-the-pros-and-cons/
Meltzer, J. (2012) Prohibiting Compliance with the EU Emissions Trading Scheme: Why This is Not A Good Idea. Brookings Institute. 13 Sept 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2012/09/13-eu-emission-trading-meltzer
His experiments in anatomy and the study of fluids, for example, absolutely blew away the accomplishments of his predecessors…the sheer range of topics that came under his inquiry is staggering: anatomy, zoology, botany, geology, optics, aerodynamics, and hydrodynamics among others. (Renaissance 2010).
Da Vinci questioned the prevailing faith in the written word of the bible and instead sought knowledge of nature in nature. He simply observed the physical world and began to draw conclusions about it. He dissected bodies in order to study human anatomy despite the long-standing Church policy against such practices. He studied the human organ systems and the skeleton. His research, drawing upon the methodology of men like Bacon, "heralded the birth of a new method of scientific study: the systematic, descriptive method of the natural sciences, which was the predominant method of scientific study well into the 19th century" (Renaissance 2010). Via men like Da Vinci,…
Burckhardt, Jacob. The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. New York: The Modern
Grendler, Paul F. "The Universities of the Renaissance and Reformation." Renaissance
Quarterly 57:1 (2004): 1-42.
) of about 9000. Some critics consider the numbers to be excessive and the proposed reduction in the number of Commissioners envisaged in the Lisbon Treaty in 2007 is a tacit recognition of criticism, but the Commission itself defends the numbers by stating on its website that "...in fact it is fewer than the number of staff employed by a typical medium-sized city council in Europe" ("The European Commission.") the European Commission has not remained untainted from corruption charges either. In fact the biggest scandal in the history of the EU occurred in 1999 when the entire body of the Commission had to resign in the face of serious allegations of fraud, mismanagement and nepotism (Perry 28).
Another frequent charge against the European Commission is its alleged "democratic deficit." Since the Commission's highest body, i.e., the Commissioners and its President, is appointed rather than elected, concern has been raised about…
Agencies of the European Union." Europa. 2008. May 27, 2008. http://europa.eu/agencies/index_en.htm
Bermann, George a. "Executive Power in the New European Constitution."
Altneuland: The EU Constitution in a Contextual Perspective, Jean Monnet Working Paper 5/04, http://www.jeanmonnetprogram.org/papers/04/040501-13.pdf
Cabinet." European Commission: Civil Service. 2008. May 27, 2008. http://ec.europa.eu/civil_service/about/how/cabinet_en.htm
European Union - Business in Europe
* Competitive advantages of a European area in a chosen
Industry and Porter's Five Forces
* Personal impressions and reflections on what was learned?
The European Union is made up of several countries, and all these countries have one single aim, which is to promote and develop business relationships within Europe and also with the rest of the world, in today's world of globalization. When one wishes to conduct business with the European Union, he would do well to study the various issues that are involved, and then proceed. The rules, the ethics, the values, and the discipline in the country where he wishes to set up operations, and the financial atmosphere, the cultural differences, and the differences in the workforce and in the methods of management must all be analyzed and researched before venturing out into the now free and open…
Arcelor Annual Report 2003. Retrieved From
http://www.arcelor.it/rls/data/upl/89-60-arcelorgblow2.pdf Accessed on 28 July, 2005
Aspects of Competitive Advantages and Regional Clusters. Retrieved From
European Economic Crisis -- Greek Government
This paper provides a deep insight into the European economic crisis and the events which eventually lead up to Greece debt crisis. It explains the causes which were responsible for the chaotic and poor financial situation currently prevalent in Europe. It also analyses the current tools used for stabilizing the situation in Greece and the shortcomings in them. It also highlights certain steps and measures which can be taken in improving the current scenario.
Occurrence of Greek Debt Crisis
Core Causes of Financial Crisis in Greece
Extensive Money orrowing at Low Interest Rates
Misrepresentation of Public Records
Inappropriate usiness Environment
Inefficiencies in the Public Sector
Greek Domestic Policy Responses to Debt Crisis
Financial Assistance from Eurozone Member States
Financial Assistance from IMF
5. Pros and Cons of the Greek Debt Crisis Issue 12
Prospective Solutions for Dealing with the Debt…
Abboushi, Sohail. "Analysis and Outlook of the Greek Financial Crisis" Journal of Global
Business Management (2011): 1-9. Accessed November 5, 2012,
Arghyrou, Michael, G. And Tsoukalas, John, D. "The Greek Debt Crisis: Likely Causes,
European Parliament is the representative assembly of the European Union (EU) and the only body that is directly elected through universal suffrage by the citizens of its member states. The institution was first created in 1952 when it was known as the 'Common Assembly' and initially represented the European Coal and Steel Community. Later other institutions such as the European Economic Community (EEC) were formed that eventually merged and became known as the European Union. The 'Common Assembly' also expanded to act as the representative body for these institutions and was renamed as the European Parliament in 1987. ("The European Parliament: historical background;" "The European Parliament"-Encarta)
The role of the European Parliament (EP) within the EU is limited as compared to the more powerful legislative and executive branches of the EU -- the European Commission and the Council of the European Union. hile the EP has the powers to dismiss…
European Parliament" Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD Rom Version, 2003
The European Parliament: Overview" Europarl: Official Website of European Parliament. 2003. November 17, 2003. http://www.europarl.eu.int/presentation/default_en.htm
The European Parliament: historical background." European Parliament Fact Sheets. Europarl. 2003. November 17, 2003. http://www.europarl.eu.int/factsheets/1_3_1_en.htm
The European Parliament: Powers." European Parliament Fact Sheets. Europarl. 2003. November 17, 2003. http://www.europarl.eu.int/factsheets/1_3_2_en.htm
The divisions created by this influence often continue to plague the area with conflict even today, as seen in the case of the constant fighting between Palestinians and Israelis.
European military policies also inflicted great damage on the waning Ottoman Empire in the twentieth century. The Ottoman Empire entered into the chaos of World War I on the German side. This directly pitted it against the majority of the other European powers, who were united in their fight against Germany and its allies including Austria. In fact, the Ottoman sultan "proclaimed a military jihad against Great Britain, France, and ussia," (Goldschmidt & Davidson 2009 p 200). After years of failure in the war, trouble began brewing internally within the Empire itself. What resulted were massive waves of revolts from Muslim citizens of the Empire. As Arabs around the Ottoman Empire began to rebel against Ottoman control, they were often helped…
Goldschmidt, Arthur & Davidson, Lawrence. (2009). A Concise History of the Middle East. Westview Press.
The inability of some workers to comply led to absenteeism. More repressive measures were introduced, such as records of tardiness, poor workmanship and charges of sabotage against the Five-Year Plan. Violators could be shot or sent to forced labor on the altic Sea Canal or at the Siberian Railway. Stalin's opponents argued that this inequality was an act of betrayal of socialism, which would create a new class system in the Soviet Union. His opponents could not deter him, so that in the 1930s, the gap between the wages of the manual laborers and the skilled laborers had increased (Spartacus).
Stalin's Five-Year Plans were aimed at building the industrial might of the Soviet Union (Kreis 2000). Targets or quotas were constantly announced to give an illusion that the Plans were working. efore one Five-Year Plan was finished, another Five-Year Plan would take its place. His totalitarian regime was a permanent…
Eichengreen, Barry. The European Economy Since 1945: Coordinated Capitalism and Beyond. Princeton University Press, 2007
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. World War II: What Was the Fighting All About? IEEE Foundation: IEEE, Inc., 2007
Kershaw, Ian. Hitler: 1889-1936 Hubris. New York: WW Norton & Company, 1999
Kreis, Steven. The Age of Totalitarianism: Stalin and Hitler. Lecture 10. Lectures on Twentieth-Century Europe. The History Guide. Steven Kreis, 2000. Retrieved May 19, 2007 at http://www.historyguide.org/europe/lecture10.html
What issues were involved in the European colonization of the New World from 1492-1640? How significant were these issues for the future course of U.S. History?
The world of Columbus, of 1492, may seem like a foreign country as well as another time, when comparing the new American nation of the 18th century to the European world of the 15th century. During the period from 1492-1640, the European powers were obsessed by trade, commodities, and racing to the New World in search of colonial dominion and gold. In contrast, America was interested in founding a new and enclosed national territory. However, Columbus' view of the native peoples, as quoted in Howard Zinns' A Peoples History of the United States illustrate that the initial encounters between Europeans and the natives of the land was to be a continuing limitation upon equitable relations between Anglo and Indian-Americans.
Columbus wrote of…
Germany was punished, rather than rehabilitated. Historic grievances still existed between many of the prevailing European powers, such as France and Germany. After orld ar I, the United States retreated to isolationism and did not provide either strength or a mediating force upon the warring European powers. During orld ar II, Europe was divided by war and the only unity that existed, such as the alliance between England, the U.S., and Russia, were based upon expediency, not upon shared values that could continue in a time of peace.
Ash's essay was written in 1996, when much of Europe was still in disarray after the breakdown of the Soviet empire. One wonders if he would still agree with his contention: "no continent is externally more ill-defined, internally more diverse, or historically more disorderly. Yet no continent has produced more schemes for its own orderly unification" (Ash 2). Ash has a point…
Ash, Timothy Garton. "Is Europe Becoming Europe?" Sanford S. Elberg Lecture. 1996.
April 16, 2009. http://globetrotter.berkeley.edu/Elberg/GartonAsh/ga-elb01.html
S. As compared to Europe.
Let's take that one-by-one. The U.S. tax rate is 15% for long-term (i.e. over 12-month) capital gains. This means that those who invest early in highly risky investments (like Google stock when it went public at $85), get to keep most of what they earn when things grow. If one is skeptical of this claim, look at what happened in the 1960's when JFK reduced the capital gains rate, or in 1982 when Ronald Reagan reduced it to 15%. In both cases, venture capital and new corporate formation soared. We are still living in an era where venture capitalists receive and invest over $30 billion per year. In Europe, by contrast, there are no ill Gates, Steven Jobs or Larry Ellison's. The reason? European taxes are confiscatory, discouraging capital accumulation. Mitterand famously said that he wanted "Steve Jobs without the money (Hornby, 2006)."
BBC. (2002, March 5). EU unemployment stabilises. BBC News, p. n.p.
BLS. (2004, July). How the Government Measures Unemployment. Retrieved November 1, 2007, from BLS, Dept of Labor: http://www.bls.gov/cps/cps_htgm.htm
Burgess, S. e. (n.d.). A Dynamic Approach to Europe's Unemployment Problem. Bristol: Bristol Economics.
EU. (2005). New EU report shows active labour policy can increase employment rate despite low growth. Brussels: EU.
The European military policy is based on the activities taking place within military of United States i.e. merger-mania of U.S. defense firms.
But there are three other factors pushing the Europeans for taking concrete measures for pursuing the ESDI. The measures are must to overcome the delays and constraints the Union experiences. The first of the blockade is with reference to the defense spending of European countries. The new NATO Secretary-General estimated that, 'total military spending of European countries is around 60% of the U.S. total, and yields only 10% of the capabilities'. Secondly, European firms are becoming increasingly angry that the U.S. while procuring new weapons and equipment refuses to "buy European military products." Thirdly, European governments are not satisfied with U.S. restrictions 'on the transfer of technology even though the Europeans are investing money in the development of new U.S. built weapons such as the Joint Strike Fighter'…
Lawrence Freedman, "The Coming War on Terrorism" in Lawrence Freedman, ed., Super terrorism (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002).
Julian Lindley-French, Terms of Engagement. The paradox of American power and the trans-Atlantic dilemma post-11 September (Paris: EU-ISS, 2002)
Gordon Adams, "Fortress America in a changing trans-Atlantic defense market," in Burkard Schmitt, ed., Between Cooperation and Competition: The Trans-Atlantic Defense Market (Paris, WEU-ISS, 2001)
George Parker, "France and UK call for new force at top of EU," Financial Times, 15 May 2002.
European World View
In the 15th Century, the knowledge that the Europeans had of the world was so limited since most of them had never been outside Europe and their view of the outside world was in relation to Europe itself. Indeed, the European map of the world had only Europe, Asia and the top part of Africa as the only continents that existed in the world. The map also depicted only one ocean, "the Ocean Sea" to be existent in the world (Schmiechen James, 1999). There was a wide belief that the world was flat, though a few Europeans had the knowledge that it was not flat but the challenge was to know how big it was.
The lack of knowledge about the outside world gave room for rumors to fill in the gaps. From the European art, it is apparent that there was a gross misconception of what…
Chris Butler, (2007). Early voyages of Exploration (c.1400-1550). Retrieved October 22,
2011 from http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/west/12/FC81
Schmiechen James, (1999). A History of Western Society, 6th ed. Study Guide vol. II.
Boston: Houghton, 1999. (p. 540). Retrieved October 22, 2011 from http://chrislayson.com/about2.html
Europeans Settling the Great Plains
In the 1860s and 1870s, large numbers of European settlers made their way to the Great Plains. While they adapted and changed on some level, they also went to great lengths to keep and preserve much of their native culture. Among the ways they did that were to market the Great Plains as a beautiful place to live and raise a family, even though they knew that really was not the case (Faragher, et al., 2009). The goal was to get many more European settlers to move there so that the culture and lifestyle they had enjoyed and grown used to could be recreated. Many of the settlers were traveling in very tight-knit groups, and they all colonized a particular area. The homes and businesses they built were reminders of what they had left behind, and the individual towns that sprang up were often almost…
Faragher, J.M., Buhle, M.J., Czitrom, D., & Armitage, S.H. (2009). Out of many: A history of the American people, Volume II (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
SBUs C. And D. are the cash cows necessary to fund the growth of SBUs a and B. The dog of the group, SBU E, provides no net cash flow and adds no value to the overall product mix. The European distance learning center's current product mix is relatively well balanced. There are SBUs able to generate cash and SBUs that could become stars with cash infusions from the cash cows. The college's competitive "health" is good, but the college must have a strategy to remain healthy.
To formulate future strategy, dividing the SBUs into business units that fit into clear categories and SBUs that do not fit easily into a category helps the company focus on the SBUs that need work. The ideal cash cow is SBU D. The large amount of excess cash generated by this SBU is very secure. The college has a strong leadership position. The…
And for example, in 1910 one group of Islanders "...gave 10,000 coconuts to their island neighbours and an additional 3,000 to the Papuan Industries Limited for a new church rather than selling" the coconuts, according to Lui-Chivizhe. Meanwhile, in the 1930s, control of the pearl boats was taken over by government administrators, who controlled "earnings of the Islanders who worked the boats," Lui-Chivizhe writes. When the Islanders didn't work fast enough or hard enough to suit the administrators, the Islanders were punished. Eventually, the Islanders not only lost the right to control their production, the government of Queensland "introduced a nightly curfew and a permit system to control Islander movement between the Islands."
Eventually, those restrictions were eased, and more recently, things have not been quite as repressive. "Even though the social and political organizational context for our lives has changed with European arrival in the region," Lui-Chivizhe concludes, "the…
Bibliography - List of References
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Queensland University, Retrieved July 20, 2006 at http://humanities.cqu.edu.au/abtorres/tsiwww/course/module/chap3/chap3.htm .
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Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Iraq were all "constructed" as "imperial conveniences for France and ritain" (Gause, 444). And so, when the ritish and French were authoritative landlords, places like Kuwait (a ritish "protectorate" until 1961) were safe from outside interference. ut once ritain was long gone from Kuwait, Hussein had his chance to move in and he did, until the U.S. And its allies pushed him out in 1991.
Conclusion: After WWI, the winners divided up the Ottoman Empire, and that was the origin of the country of Iraq. The history of the Middle East -- beginning in the 19th Century and continuing today -- is shaped by outside forces, by colonialism, war, greed, and cultural conflicts. An alert reader can see why the invasion of Iraq by the U.S. In 2003 was star-crossed in the first place, and why ritain and the U.S. are hated so fiercely by the…
Gause, Gregory F. 1992, 'Sovereignty, Statecraft and Stability in the Middle East', Journal of International Affairs, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 441-460.
Gillen, Paul, and Ghosh, Devleena, 2007, Colonialism & Modernity, University of New South Wales (UNSW), UNSW Press: Sydney, Australia.
Nieuwenhuijze, Chritoffel Anthonie Olivier. 1971. Sociology of the Middle East: A Stocktaking and Interpretation. Brill Archive: Boston, MA.
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Thus, the ideas of mercantilism contributed directly to colonialism and a host of colonial wars and conflicts. No mercantilist state was averse to expanding into the markets of any other nation. ather the goal was to contain as much of the production and trade within one's own borders. War was a natural consequence of each nation attempting to control as much of a finite supply of wealth as it possibly could. The nation that most successfully exploited these policies became naturally the most powerful. Spain with its huge resources of gold and silver failed in the control and production of other resources. France failed to maintain control over the territories necessary for production. Holland lacked sufficient native resources to establish effective control over enough territories to fully ground a mercantilist empire. Great Britain succeeded because it followed the mercantilist credo and was able to take control over each stage of…
(1999). 4: Colonies, Enterprises, and Wealth: The Economies of Europe and the Wider World in the Seventeenth Century. In Early Modern Europe: An Oxford History, Cameron, E. (Ed.) (pp. 137-170). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
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The problem was: that the distances were much further and many of the different explorers (such as: Columbus) began to seek out other routes to these areas. This led directly to: the colonial ambitions of many European nations and their desire to explore the new world to achieve these objectives. (Willner, 2008, pp. 255 -- 294)
The Role that the Individual will Play in Society
A third development of the Middle Ages, was that the individual is playing a vital role in: matters of government and society. This developed out of frustration that many people were feeling about the different monarchies. As, everyone was expected to follow: the various traditions and the laws that were imposed upon them by the nobility. This became problematic over the years, as this would turn into a sense of anger. At which point, many of these different monarchies faced direct challenges to their power.…
Middle Ages. (2011). Free Dictionary. Retrieved from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Middle+Ages
Holt, J. (1992). Magna Carta. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Willner, M. (2008). Global History. Hauppauge, NY: Barons.
"Some also do grudge at the great increase of people in these days, thinking a necessary brood of cattle far better than a superfluous augmentation of mankind" (Harrison 1586). One way to ease the situation was to induce or force some to settle in the new territories. They would become the workforce in the colonies and reduce the problem back home at the same time. "These petty thieves might be condemned for certain years in the western parties" as indentured servants to provide hard labor and menial tasks (Hakluyt 1584). This was not only an attractive concept for the privileged classes but also for many of the poor or disadvantaged. In the society they left behind they had little hope of ever improving their circumstances. The hardships and threats they would face in the new world were worth the risk for the chance to improve their condition. Many, however, regretted…
Frethorne, John. "Letter to His Parents." Indentured Servitude. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1623.
Fumas, J. The Americas: A Social History of the United States. New York: Putnam, 1969.
Hakluyt, R. "Reading 2." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1584.
Harrison, W. "Reading 1." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1586.
After the statement of the Truman Doctrine in 1947, both Greece and Turkey were provided with aid to counter the Soviet threat.
When the war ended, circumstances in Greece were unfavorable to the maintenance of civil peace:
EAM was in control of nearly all Greece. Its leaders numbered many excellent liberals, the most eminent being Professor Svolos, a Socialist; but the Communists were clearly dominant. The returning Greek army was under the control of rabid, uncompromising monarchist officers... Had the issue of Greek sovereignty been left to these two Greek forces, there is no doubt of the outcome. The ineffectiveness of the returned Greek monarchist army was shown when, at the end of 1944, civil war broke out in Greece. ELAS surrounded the monarchist army and immobilized it from the outset.
However, they were not left to their own devices, and instead they were influenced by outside forces from ritain…
Anderson, Paul, "Why Did the Spanish Civil War Start in July 1936?" History Review 48(2004), 36-40.
Bolloten, Burnett. The Spanish Revolution: The Left and the Struggle for Power during the Civil War. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1979.
Kousoulas, Dimitrios G. The Price of Freedom: Greece in World Affairs, 1939?1953. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1953.
Smith, Howard K. The State of Europe. New York: Knopf, 1949.
From this point-of-view, on Protestant art, the effect of Reformation is a releasing effect, with the former conceptualization into iconic figures of saints and Christ being transformed in the more relaxed imagery of peasants simply enjoying their time together.
On the other hand, Reformation had a different impact on Catholic art. Especially through its Counter-Reformation process, the Catholic Church wanted to impose a continuance of tradition even in terms of culture and art. This obviously meant, among others, a preservation and exacerbation of icon and religious imagery use in everyday paintings.
One good example of this is a painting of the lamentation by Scipione Pulzone. A traditional image in Catholic art, the act seems greatly increased in intensity in Pulzone's case. Despite the portrayal of a town in the background (as was the tradition during the 14th to 16th centuries), this remains not only lost in the background, but almost…
" (nd) the conception of Ringrose is one that was based upon "family, clan, and community allegiances. The links in such a network are stated to have resulted from "individual decisions and, in the aggregate, they constituted the inter-city transactions that, described collectively, allow us to identify urban networks." (nd)
II. GLOAL EXPANSION of CHINA
Ringrose relates that the same process is observable in the history in Ming China. The community schools were only nominal providers of education and "were subverted by local elites in a predictable way." (nd) However, in sixteenth century China central authority was not nearly as overwhelming in affairs that were local resulting in these schools being transformed by elites into "academies that provided the training necessary to pass the Imperial Civil Service examination." (Ringrose, nd) Not only did bureaucracy become more acknowledging of local dynamics in communities but also resulting was the construction of "commercial…
Europeans Abroad, 1400-1700: Strangers in Not-so-Strange Lands" Online available at http://www.iga.ucdavis.edu/Research/All-UC/conferences/2006-fall/Ringrose.pdf
Zurndorfer, Harriet T. (nd) Cotton Textiles and Ming/Qing China in the Global Economy (1500-1840) Online available at http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/economicHistory/GEHN/GEHNPDF/PUNEZurndorfer.pdf
Frank, Andre Gunder. 1998. ReOrient: The Silver Age in Asia and the World Economy (Berkeley: University of California Press)
Pikerman, Allen (2002) the Iberian Golden Age: European Expansion, Exploration and Colonization 1400-1650. 2002. Online available at http://history-world.org/iberian_golden_age.htm
These new laws applied to native-born Jews only; foreign, that is, Russian, Jews still suffered from restrictions. This division between native and foreign Jews was of importance then and still exists in present-day German law as it did in the days of the German empire, the eimar Republic, and the Nazi regime. (Cohn 10)
These old standards left the door open for new and modern forms of the same archaic segregations and prejudices.
hen the Nazis rose to power, they revived many of the old evils. Restrictions on Jews owning businesses or entering certain professions were instituted, ghettos were reestablished, and special taxes were placed on the Jewish community at large rather than on individuals. The new ghettos were governed by Nazi-appointed Jewish officials, the Judenrat, right up to the point when the entire ghettos were "cleansed" and the inhabitants either shot out of hand or deported to extermination camps.…
Christie, Clive. "Unity and Diversity: A Critique of Religion and Ethnicity in Europe." The Ecumenical Review 47.1 (1995): 12+. Questia. 23 Oct. 2004 http://www.questia.com/ .
Cohn, Michael. Jewish Bridges: East to West. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1996.
Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup
Yet, such measures ignore not only debt, but the impact on economic growth, with rescue measures tied to austerity and tax increases. While Adam Davidson's The Other eason Europe is Going Broke attempts to place Europe's economic crises into a debt component and an economic growth component; the reality is that they are one and the same. European economic growth has lagged the U.S. considerably since the early 1970's largely due to government involvement in the European economic model. Heavy spending on the entitlement state, financed by higher tax rates has sapped economic strength from Europe. For the U.S., the sovereign debt crisis in the EU highlights the dangers of an expanding entitlement state, which weakens economic growth through ever increasing drains on the private sector.
The U.S. economic future will be one of slow growth, as with Japan and Europe, as the U.S. debt to GDP ratio increases.…
Davidson, Adam. "The Other Reason Europe is Going Broke." The New
York Times. The New York Times, January 6, 2012. Retrieved January 11, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/08/magazine/the-other-reason-europe-is-going-broke.html?pagewanted=all
Fingleton, Eamonn. "The Myth of Japan's Failure." The New York
Times. The New York Times, January 4, 2012. Retrieved January 11. 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/08/opinion/sunday/the-true-story-of-japans-economic-success.html
A small but vigorous Communist party already experienced with underground work was the first to initiate clandestine operations. They set up front organizations and recruited members. By April 1942, they had recruited enough people to form a guerrilla arm called ELAS. Aris Velouchiotis, a former schoolteacher and Communist revolutionary, was the leader of this group whose goal was to harass the occupiers and wear them down.
A charismatic leader with a strong streak of cruelty, he had a knack for communicating with peasants in the simple but subtle language of the mountains and possessed a flair for the dramatic. He draped his short, powerful figure with bandoliers, wore a black Cossack-style hat flamboyantly and was surrounded by a personal bodyguard of a score or more men, who adopted his headgear and hence were known as "black bonnets" (Bailey, 1978, p. 153).
Another group in Greece, EDES, developed in the mountains…
Bailey, R.H. (1978). Partisans and guerrillas. New York: Time-Life Books.
Fogelman, E. (1994). Conscience and courage: Rescuers of Jews during the Holocaust. New York: Anchor Books.
Haas, a. (1984). The doctor and the damned. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Olsen, O.R. (1952). Two eggs on my plate. Translated from the Norwegian by F.H. Lyon.
His analysis is therefore a direct investigation of the contact between the two cultural identities and their specific characteristics.
As opposed to this, Cronon uses an indirect argumentation to demonstrate the differences between the two cultures. He starts his discussion from a critique of Thoreau's view on the origins of the American civilization. Thoreau first advocated that the American land was a virgin territory when it was in the hands of the Indian-Americans. He thus contrasts at the same time the ecosystems and the economic policies of the Natives and the Colonists, focusing his argumentation of the external aspects of the two cultures rather than on the inner, spiritual cores of these cultures, like Axtell. His main thesis is that the Western colonizers brought with them the concept of "property" which is the main culprit for the subsequent radical changes in the ecosystems of the country: "English property systems encouraged…
In Italy, Mussolini exploited the state of confusion and malaise to seize power. From this cradle, Fascism emerged into the world. In Germany, it morphed into Nazism, a more virulent and transformed fascism feeding upon race mysticism as well as extreme nationalism and dictatorship. Both countries took this highway to the Hell of World War II. During this second installment of Great War, European countries groaned under the Fascist boot heel and fought back under native partisan movements in the underground resistance.
Ironically, the European Federal movement was midwifed by Italian political theorist Alberto Spineless. After the Second World War, the people of Europe wanted human rights, an end to despotism against both and human freedom and dignity.
he Union of European Federalists was formed in December of 1946. In the wake of two world wars, theorists such as Spineless were convinced that Federalism in Europe would save Europe by…
The Union of European Federalists was formed in December of 1946. In the wake of two world wars, theorists such as Spineless were convinced that Federalism in Europe would save Europe by transcending nationalism much as the multinational Resistance had in World War II. In this movement, Communists, Socialists, and Christian Democrats resisted Fascisim in a united front. Spinelli and contemporary E. Rossi wrote the Ventone Manifesto, encouraging a federation of European States to make way for the European Union body. Union of European Federalist concluded that the existing political system could not creatre the new Europe. Federalist advocates thought that Europe integration was a process of building for the politics of a new Europe.
After achieving freedom from the Nazi tyranny, the people of Western Europe developed a consensus that a united Europe was the best way to bring peace and prosperity. Opposition forces like Resistance movement veterans thought they should overcome nationalism. Uniting Europe was the first task in its post war recovery. Federalism provided the theoretical basis of these for this movement. As the result, Federalism plans appeared as a blueprint to prevent future European wars.
The federal ideas were first concretely represented in the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951 in the Treaty of Paris. The ECSC paved the way for the integration of Europe, followed by the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1957 and the European Union (EU) of 1993 based upon the Matriarchs Treaty. Transnational organizations now are paving the way for a Europe that will be one state.
While the government may have initial setup costs to bring legislation and services into line with other member states, there are a large variety of benefits in the long-term. These include benefits to the government itself, with increased stability in the economy and overall prosperity. There are also numerous benefits to the individuals within the country, such as the freedom to travel and work within the different countries within the market. There are further benefits to companies as they benefit from increased access to consumers, also benefiting consumers by increasing quality of goods while at the same time lowering prices. It does appear from the information available on the common market at present that while there are likely to be benefits to all in joining it is the poorer members who benefit the most. This is largely due to these countries having the most to gain from the benefits which…
Europe on the Move." European Commission. November 2005. 19 November 2007. .
Kenen, Peter B. The International Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Prodi, Romano. "A Wider Europe: A proximity policy as the key to stability." Sixth ECSA World Conference. 5 December 2002. European Commission. 19 November 2007. http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/news/prodi/sp02_619.htm .
Schimmelfenig, Frank, Stefan Engert and Heiko Knobel. The Europeanization of Central and Eastern Europe. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2005.
Substances such as sugar and honey were not used in the aboriginal diets, and the use of abusive substances such as alcohol or other min-altering psychoactive agents with the exception of tobacco and the 'black drink' were not common or problematic (French, 2000).
Prior to the introduction of alcohol the natives were seen as fit, athletic and lean people, whereas the people of today are often seen as obese and sickly (French, 2000). Today the dietary practices and substance abuse habits of natives run rampant. Among Native Americans alcohol abuse is considered the norm rather than the exception to the rule (French, 2000). Many tribes are no longer recognized, and many natives live in a state of displacement as they are forced to live on inadequate spaces that don't come close to representing the vast land they used to occupy.
ecently tribes have become less concerned with their blood degree…
French, a. (2000). Addictions and Native Americans. Westport: Praeger
Parker, L. (1990). "The missing component in substance abuse prevention efforts: A Native American example." Contemporary Drug Problems, 17(2), 251-270
Thomason, T.C. (2000). "Issues in the treatment of Native Americans with alcohol problems." Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 28(4): 43
European Voyages of Exploration of the 15th and 16th Centuries
For several centuries following Columbus's historic discovery the North American Continent, pain enjoyed riches from overseas that allowed it to be the most influential country in Europe. Originally inspired by a combination of a quest to prove that he could reach the Far East by sailing west and the desire to reap the rewards of precious metals and spices, Columbus left Portugal for pain, after failing to achieve the support he needed from the king to finance his first voyage (Hayes & Clark, 1966). With the eventual support of Queen Isabella in pain, he managed to stumble onto North and outh America while looking for the Indies. Initially, the silver, gold, and spices imported from the first panish conquests in the Americas enabled pain to become the most powerful nation in Europe.
That happenstance was fortunate for pain, at least…
Stannard, David, E. (1993). American Holocaust: The Conquest of the New World. New York: Oxford University Press.
Zinn, Howard. (2003). A People's History of the United States. New York: Harper-
For example, the EP has the right to bring an action for failure to act, and can also take action to have the ECJ review acts of the Council or the Commission.
Despite those protections, the ECJ determined that the legal remedies provided for in the Euratom Treaty and EEC treaty might be ineffective or uncertain.
For example, an action for failure to act cannot be used to challenge a measure that has already been adopted.
In addition, though the EP has the right to seek a preliminary ruling on the validity of such an action, such a ruling does not mean that anyone will actually bring an action for annulment.
In fact, even though the Commission is required to respect the EP's prerogatives, it is not obliged to adopt the EP's positions as its own.
As a result, the ECJ concluded that the legal remedies available to the EP…
"Article 230." Treaty of Nice. 2000. University College Cork. 25 Aug. 2009
Case 70/88, European Parliament v. Council of Ministers, Judgment of the ECJ of 22 March
1990, European Court Reports 1990, p. I-2041.
To achieve these various purposes, NATO embarked on a series of interlocking efforts during the 1990s that were intended to provide some aspect of an overall concept of security. A series of initiatives resulted in NATO accepting new members with the possibility of still further additions in the future, crafted the Partnership for Peace and created the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council; entered into a Founding Act with ussia and a Charter with Ukraine; revised its command arrangements; and, simultaneously, became increasingly aware that developing a new relationship with the Western European Union was clearly in its best interests (Hunter, 2003).
In this regard, Dannreuther (2004) maintains that the EU's engagement with its immediate periphery represents a highly important, and potentially the most important, post-Cold War geopolitical challenge for its foreign and security policy; the nature of these obstacles can be considered to have three major dimensions, as follows:
There has been…
Cohen, L.J., Moens, a., & Sens, a.G. (2003). NATO and European security: Alliance politics from the end of the Cold War to the age of terrorism. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Dannreuther, R. (2004). European Union foreign and security policy: Towards a neighbourhood strategy. New York: Routledge.
Dunn, DH, & Zaborowski, M. (2003). Poland: A new power in transatlantic security. London: Frank Cass.
A rtner, H., Hyde-Price, a., & Reiter, E. (2001). Europe's new security challenges. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
One of the phenomenal things about the European Union is its extraordinary capacity to be able to work both as a unified entity, in which all 27 voices act as one, and as a federation, in fact, of its member states. In order to be able to function in this manner, the European Union also needs functional institutions. John McCormick is keen in this part of the book to describe both how all these European institutions operate internally (the European Commission, the Council of Ministers, the European Parliament, the European Court of Justice and the European Council and Specialized Agencies) and, additionally, how they are able to work with one another in a functional manner. Each of these institutions is allocated a separate chapter, with generally the same structure that includes the institution's structure, its evolution, functionality and the way it works etc.
The final part of the book deals…
1. McCormick, John. The European Union: Politics and Policies. Westview Press; Fourth Edition (December 24, 2007)
European Union has adopted an aggressive position relative to the area of employment law. Although the primary goal of the Union is to promote the economic relationship between member states, there is a social dimension to the Union activities that demands that it involve itself in collateral matters that might impact on this goal (Sparrow, 2009). Employment law is one of those collateral matters and the goal is to maintain a high level of employment throughout the Union and to improve the living conditions of all workers. The hope of the Union was that the working conditions of the workers would be enhanced in the process (Kenner, 2002).
The approach taken by the Union was to adopt legislation that would be enforceable throughout its member states. This legislation would establish minimum standards governing working and employment conditions. As one of the basic social rights of the European Union was to…
Besson, S. (2008). Gender Discrimination under EU and ECHR Law: Never Shall the Twain Meet. Human Rights Law Review, 647-682.
European Commission. (2011, June 6). Emploiyment, Social Affairs and Inclusion. Retrieved July 11, 2011, from European Commission: http://ec.europa.eu/social/main.jsp?catId=157
Jacobsen, L. (2006). Finding your way in the European union health and safety policy. Brussels: ETUI.
Kenner, J. (2002). EU Employment Law: Form Rome to Amsterdam and Beyond. Oxford, UK: Hart Publishing.
Thus, despite the high per-capita incomes in Scandinavia, consumers are value-conscious. Unlike Germany, Scandinavians are willing to pay more for wine, and recognize quality differences.
Like Scandinavia, the Netherlands is open to wine imports. With historical connections to Spain and Portugal, and without alliances with Italy or France, Dutch wine drinkers are friendly to imports and to the Spanish character found in Chilean wines. Like Scandinavians, the Dutch have high per-capita incomes are willing to spend for super-premium wines. They are unwilling to 'overpay' for quality, however, and are likely to compare the quality of an 8 pound Chilean wine to similarly-priced products from Australia, the U.S. And other major wine exporting countries.
Chilean Wine Promotion in Europe
Chile is not alone in wanting to increase wine exports to Europe. Australia and the United States have developed significant market share and see growing exports to European markets. The Wine…
Alcyon. "China and Chile Sign Wine Agreement." Wine Marketing. 2007. http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:Tk-70Aey3zEJ:winemarketing.blogs.com/wine_marketing/veille/page/2/+chile+wine+marketing+europe&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=us (Accessed November 24, 2007).
Anderson, K. The World's Wine Markets: Globalization at Work. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, 2004.
Anderson, K. "Wine's New World." Foreign Policy, 2003: 47-59.
BeverageDaily. "World wine sales go from strength to strength." Beverage Daily, March 13, 2003: n.p.
European Convention Human ights African Charter Human Peoples' ights. Critically review analyse similarities differences instruments. *Assessment criteria: Students adopt analytical approach questions a descriptive .
Human rights have become one of the most important issues under discussion at the moment, largely due to the constant fighting that is taking place especially in African countries doubled by the ongoing abuses in terms of human rights, not only in Africa but also throughout the world.
From this point-of-view, there was a clear necessity of transforming the need to have basic human rights comprised in a legally binding document into a transnational document. Such documents are now created at the level of regions and even continents. The present paper analyses two important legal documents for this area, the European Charter for Human ights and the African Charter on Human and Peoples' ights. There are essential documents for Europe and Africa as they tried…
African Charter for Human and Peoples' Rights. University of Minnesota. 1981. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/instree/z1afchar.htm . (accessed March 05, 2011).
Calvocoressi, Peter. World Politics since 1945. London: Longman, 2008.
Council of Europe. "European Convention on Human Rights." Hellenic Resource Center. 2010. http://www.hri.org/docs/ECHR50.html (accessed March 05, 2011).
Louw, Frans Viljoen and Lirette. "State Compliance with the Recommendations of the African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, 1994-2004 ." The American Journal of International Law Vol. 101, No. 1, 2007.
GDP went down due to weak domestic demand, which went further down after a decline. Somehow, it again rose by 0.1% in the first quarter and appeared to have pulled the economy out of recession. ut Portugal retained big trouble. In the last quarter of 2002, its GDP plummeted.8% from the third quarter and in the last quarter, it contracted by 1.3% from the previous year until the.3% in the third quarter of 2002. The economy continued to sag until the ank of Portugal itself observed the fall of business confidence to its lowest recorded level since the 1993 recession. Official unemployment rate increased to a high 49.6%, rising by 26.3% from 2001 (O'Flynn).
Unemployment was 6.7% in 2003, compared with 4.3% in 2002 (O'Flynn 2003). Labor unions in Portugal claimed it was more than 7.6% as against the 5% ceiling set by the EU, despite the fact that the…
Clapp, D. (2005). Spain's Economy is Vibrating and Growing. Group Communications, Inc. http://www.facilitycity.com/busfac/bf_04_03_global1.asp
Development Assistance Committee (2001). Portugal Development Cooperation Review. Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/document/31/0,2340.en_2649_201185_1883871_1_1_1_1,00.html
Giomo, C. And Jimenez, M. (2001). Economic Survey of Spain. Building Partnership for Progress. Organization for the Economic Cooperation and Development. http://www.oecd.org/document/36/0.2340.en_2649_201185_1912676_1_1_1_1.00.html
Internal Study Programs (2004). Portugal. http://www.studyprograms.com/focus_portugal.htm
European colonies across the world and their relationships with the natives and competing colonial powers.
Development of European colonies throughout non-European territories began in the 15th century, and perhaps even earlier. For European explorers, their motivation was likely a combination of human curiosity, pursuit of adventure, and a possible economic payoff for discovering new trade routes. Such motivations typically compelled European explorers like Amerigo Vespucci, Magellan, Columbus, and others, to seek out undiscovered lands, peoples, and potential profits.
In particular, European colonization of non-European territories, in areas like the New World (now the Americas); Alaska; and Africa, permitted countries like Spain; Portugal; Italy; Great Britain; Holland, Russia, and various others, sometimes at the same time, to lay claim to foreign territories, and their indigenous peoples (often, as with the Spanish, in the guise of religion). Colonization by one European power also often led to competition from others; increasingly, nations like…
In fact, it is some of these same benefits that have these Europeans bothered. Some argue that it is an attempt to erase a sense of national identity. Open borders, free trade, and a single-currency do serve to blur the distinction between different countries, and the reduction of nationalism was in fact a part of the intention of the EU. It was hoped that diplomatic relations, which necessitate a better understanding of each other's culture, would replace the destructive warfare that was often the result of nationalism.
Other objections to the EU are more pragmatic. he financial redistribution that makes the single-currency and free trade systems fair for everyone also mean that some of the wealthier nations are providing more assistance and receiving less of the benefits. his argument, to, has some merits, although the benefits are supposed to remain invisible --…
The concept of a unified and less nationalistic Europe began to gain attention in the nineteenth century, and after World War II it was seen by many as an essential goal if Europe wished to remain viable and intact. One of the first steps towards creating this international union came in 1951, when several major European powers signed a treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and again in 1957 with the establishment of he European Economic and Atomic Energy Communities. Denmark, Great Britain and Ireland refused to join these Communities at first, but did so in 1973, and in 1979 the first European Parliament was formed from full elections. In 1993, the European Union was officially established with major economic incentives such as free trade for member countries, and the EU continues to add member countries today.
Despite the economic and travel benefits that the EU provides, such as open borders, international citizenship, and a single currency, many Europeans feel that the European Union and their country's involvement in it is not a good thing. In fact, it is some of these same benefits that have these Europeans bothered. Some argue that it is an attempt to erase a sense of national identity. Open borders, free trade, and a single-currency do serve to blur the distinction between different countries, and the reduction of nationalism was in fact a part of the intention of the EU. It was hoped that diplomatic relations, which necessitate a better understanding of each other's culture, would replace the destructive warfare that was often the result of nationalism.
Other objections to the EU are more pragmatic. The financial redistribution that makes the single-currency and free trade systems fair for everyone also mean that some of the wealthier nations are providing more assistance and receiving less of the benefits. This argument, to, has some merits, although the benefits are supposed to remain invisible -- peace is not as tangible as war.
The first is represented by the benefits I would experience from participating to the courses of the European School of Economics, and the second is represented by the benefits I myself would be able to create for the school.
From a personal perspective, I thrive to participate in the educational process of the European School of Economics due to the prestige of this academic institution, but also as a result of the hopes for future gains. I expect the classes to introduce me to a new world. I expect the professors to guide me and help me understand concepts and situations from different and infinitely more complex angles. I expect to collaborate with my fellow colleagues and to set the basis for life long friendships.
In terms of the benefits I can create for the university, I intend to work as hard as possible, to value the educational experience and…
' hile in theory this may seem defensible, in practice it is more questionable to carefully watch every second an employee spends online -- if the employee does a bit of Christmas-shopping online, but is otherwise productive, should this be used against the employee? And cannot such objectionable sites be blocked, without violating employee privacy? hat if the employee uses his or her work email to send one or two brief personal emails -- the time 'theft' is quite minimal, yet so easy to do companies are falling prey to this temptation. And the issues of time theft blurs as employees do more work on their home computers for work -- work is taking over the home and ' private time' already. Yet this also means employees can store secret work-related items that they could store and share, if left unmonitored. Finally, RFID (radio-frequency IDs) in the workplace, which track…
EU data privacy directive. (2009). Privacilla. Retrieved September 17, 2009 at http://www.privacilla.org/business/eudirective.html
European Corn Borer affect the yield of corn?
Experiment 1-140 days
Chamber 1 -- BT 123 Corn, no infestation
Plate 1 -- 160.1 g
Plate 2 -- 164.8 g
Plate 3 -- 164.2 g
Chamber 2 -- BT 123 Corn, low infestation
Plate 1 -- 164.0 g
Plate 2 -- 162.6 g
Plate 3 -- 168.3 g
Experiment 2 -- 140 days
Chamber 1 -- BT 123 Corn, no infestation
Plate 1 -- 160.1 g
Plate 2 -- 164.8 g
Plate 3 -- 164.2 g
Chamber 2 -- BT 123 Corn, high infestation
Plate 1 -- 155.1 g
Plate 2 -- 163.0 g
Plate 3 -- 163.9 g
Experiment 3 -- 140 days
Chamber 1 -- Golden crop (non-BT crop), no infestation
Plate 1 -- 181.6 g
Plate 2 -- 182.8 g
Plate 3 -- 189.8 g
Chamber 2 -- Golden crop (non-BT crop), high infestation
Plate 1 -- 135.4…
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
" During the third and final stage, the European Central bank would be in operation. According to the agreement, this was to occur no later than 1999 and for three years thereafter Euro coins and banknotes would be issued (Eichengreen and Frieden).
By 2002, the Euro had been implemented as the single currency for member states. However, the implementation and consequent use of the Euro appeared to be a bit rocky. According to an article found in the journal Challenge, the value of the Euro had fallen slightly. The author blamed this fall on the central bank and its efforts to shore up the Euro (Bibow). The author contends that this unrelenting support stifled economic growth. According to the article
Between the start of 1999 and October 2000 the euro lost some 20% of its initial external value (even 30% vis-a-vis the U.S. dollar). After a brief rebound toward the…
Bibow, Jorg. "The Euro: Market Failure or Central Bank Failure?." Challenge 45.3 (2002): 83+. Questia. 12 Oct. 2004
Unlike the French, most English and Spanish conquerors believed that it was abnormal for one to worship in any other way that was not Christian. The French managed to live along side of the Huron tribes, making it possible for Huron tradition to exist in the present. In contrast, the Spanish and the English imposed their cultural values on the people they conquered, to the point where they were assimilated and were left with no cultural identity other than the one that was forced on them (Sayre 131).
The aftermath of European expansion in America is still felt today, through the fact that most of the continent speaks English, French, and Spanish, in accordance with the three major nations that conquered territories on the continent. The fact that the Native American population presently living in America is very small in comparison to people of other races is largely owed to…
1. Sayre, Gordon M. Les Sauvages Americains: Representations of Native Americans in French and English Colonial Literature (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1997).
Jeremy ifkin: The European Dream
So we are all familiar with the proverbial American Dream. Whether it exists or not, whether it is attainable or not are questions that better to be left alone at this point because there appears to be another proverbial dream that has emerged that demands our attention. According to Jeremy ifkin, the idea of American dream is not only outdated, it is also being quickly replaced by the European Dream. "While the American Spirit is tiring and languishing in the past," ifkin writes, "a new European Dream is being born.." In his book, The European Dream, ifkin lays down the thesis that America has lost its charm, its appeal and almost everything it once symbolized, the new American generation is overweight, under-educated and unnecessarily aggressive with little or no regard for religion. So the American Dream that revolved around tapping into opportunities, buying a nice…
Jeremy Rifkin, How Europe's Vision of the Future Is Quietly Eclipsing the American Dream TARCHER/PENGUIN; 2004
This is a paper concerning European share rallying. There is one reference used for this paper.
The stock market has seen a number of changes in the past couple of years. It is important to look at an article concerning the European market and how its shares have rallied, while determining its pertinence to international business.
On April 2nd 2004, the European markets had their highest numbers since the day before the deadly Madrid bombings. These numbers were boosted by the latest payroll numbers from the United States, as well as a decline in crude oil prices. Investors have been concerned about the market due to the sluggish United States economy in the past few years. While many feel interest rates have hit their lowest numbers and expect an interest rate hike in 2005, others speculate the Federal eserve will wait to see if…
Jones, Huw. 02 April, 2004. "European shares rally, data revives recovery story." (accessed (12 April 2004). http://biz.yahoo.com/rf/040402/markets_europe_stocks_9.html .
European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and the euro. Included is a critical assessment of the sources used.
All of the sources used for this report were well written, concise, and understandable. The European Union and the Euro are difficult topics to understand on a first reading, but the authors had a real understanding of their topics, and explained the issues clearly.
For example, Taylor gives the background that makes the forming of the European Union more understandable. "This Summit produced a communique which supported the idea of European Union by 1980, and proposed a great push towards a European Great Society, illustrated by the efforts made to push the European social programme forward at that time, which no member government opposed" (Taylor 10).
The subject could be considered dry, but Taylor gives it life, making his book interesting to read, and right to the point. He writes with authority,…
Barclays Capital. "Barclays Capital says new Poll Showing Depth of Opposition to Euro Suggests Gilts to Decouple from European Bonds." 30 Nov. 2001. 6 Dec. 2001. http://www.barcap.com/cgi-bin/pressreleases/public/newsView2.pl?item=2001113001
Bartlett, Patrick. "Problems' Threaten Euro Launch." BBC News. 4 Dec. 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/europe/newsid_1691000/1691635.stm
Euro Web Site. "Questions & Answers on the Euro and European Economic and Monetary Union." 9 Sept. 1998. 5 Dec. 2001. http://europa.eu.int/euro/quest/
Europe Yes, Euro No! "Opposition to Euro Remains at Record Levels - Six Cut of Ten Labour Voters Say No." 3 Sept. 2000. 6 Dec. 2001. http://www.no-euro.com/release.cfm?IDNO=8Feld,Werner J. The Integration of the European Union and Domestic Political Issues. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998.
(Jordans, 2008) "Europe's unilateral approach will only lead to legal battles and trade wars," Bisignani also stressed. (Jordans, 2008) a hint of this contention occurring in the future was evidenced recently when 27 nations, including the U.S., China and 25 other countries, registered opposition to the EU's attempt to include commercial airlines in its cap-and-trade program by supporting an ICAO-run program. This signal confirmed united opposition to the European Union's intentions to develop a separate, regional emissions trading system. U.S. officials warn that the inclusion of U.S. And other non-European airlines in the EU cap-and-trade program "may break international aviation and trade laws." (Jordans, 2008) Although reasons differ, along with official warnings, scientists raise questions regarding the European program. Airlines, experts basically agree, contribute approximately 2% of man-made emissions of carbon dioxide, a gas reportedly contributing to global warming. Perceptions, nevertheless, differ regarding the impact of other gases aircraft emit,…
Aircraft emissions capped to tackle climate change." European Commission, 20 Dec. 2006. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://ec.europa.eu/news/environment/061220_1_en.htm .
Aviation and the Environment." Finance Wire, May 7, 2008. Retrieved June 16, 2005, at http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1474988211.html .
EPA to Revise Aircraft Engine Emission Standards." IHS, 30 Nov. 2005. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/2005/epa-aircraft-engine-emissionsstandards.htm .
FAQ on Aviation Emissions and Climate Change." HIS, 2 Jan. 2007. Retrieved June 17, 2005, at http://aero-defense.ihs.com/news/eu-en-airplane-emissions-faq-1-07.htm .
The most important development in shaping the modern world was the development of the internal combustion engine. European exploration, expansion and imperialism sits well behind that. But in terms of European expansion and imperialism, there is a lot to unpack if one is to apply a value judgment (good versus bad). Moreover, one of the main issues with that sort of framing is the unknown element of the alternatives, which could range from the expansion/imperialism of other nations, the delay of European expansion until the internal combustion engine (and subsequent advances in philosophy and governance that may have dramatically altered the shape of that expansion). European expansion likely did not occur at the best time for something like that to have occurred.
The key underpinnings of analysis with respect to European expansion and imperialism lie with the belief among the Europeans conducting such expansion that they were…
These new goods and services will be marketed across national lines and cultural differences. Unlike before, Germany is now a stabilizing factor and sets the standard for the integration of the continent, unlike its radical past. It is the opinion of this author that the future can be considered bright (save with conservative optimism). With true irony, the solution to the German problem has been to unleash their accountants and not their soldiers. The accountants seem to be producing a truly revolutionary, if peaceful economic miracle that continues well into the 21st century. Entrepreneurship will thrive, intellectual property protection will foster the development of new goods and services and their unique multinational partnerships between companies that has been developed and will continue to be the hallmark of the EU. These new goods and services will be marketed across national lines and cultural differences.
Beesley, a June 29, 2010 "EU…
Beesley, a June 29, 2010 "EU can be agent of change - but only if its members pull together," Irish Times.com, Retrieved June 29, 2010,
Coy, P Feb. 10, 2010 "Greece risks debt trap of market's siren song," Bloomberg
Businessweek, Retrieved June 28, 2010, http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-02-10/greece-risks-debt-trap-of-market-s-siren-song-peter-coy.html .
European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) guarantees the citizen within the EU a right to respect for private and family life, and is typically appealed to in conjunction with disputes regarding unlawful searches. However, as Wicks, Rainey and Ovey (2014:334) illustrate, Article 8 is actually quite open-ended and may be applied in any number of ways -- even in the case of Y who is threatened with deportation to Nepal.
Article 8 states in two provisions that, first, "everyone has the right to respect for his private and family life, his home and his correspondence," and, second, "there shall be no interference by a public authority with the exercise of this right except such as is in accordance with the law and is necessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security, public safety or the economic well-being of the country, for the prevention of disorder or crime,…
England and Wales Court of Appeal (Civil Division) Decisions (2010) Birmingham City
Council v Clue, Accessed 12 May 2015 at http://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Civ/2010/460.html
European Convention on Human Rights (2010) Convention for the Protection of Human
Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, Strasbourg, European Court of Human Rights.