European Counter Terrorism
Challenges Faced by European Counterterrorism Efforts in Tackling Transnational Terrorism.
Terrorist activities and violent extremism represents a significant threat to the European Union (EU) member states, which necessitates the need for appropriate measures for curbing the severe extent of such activities. This article briefly highlights the hurdles encountered by EU in implementing the counter terrorism strategies. The core challenge involves major threats from Al-Qaeda groups and individuals, radicalization of violent terrorist activities, the drastic growth of cyber terrorism and the challenges faced by European intelligence agencies pertaining to the cooperation among them.
Challenges Faced by European Counterterrorism Efforts in Tackling Transnational Terrorism
The growing pace of terrorist activities in EU member states compelled them to adopt a wide variety of measures in combating them. The structure of EU counterterrorism policies has changes a great deal after the 9/11 terrorist attack in U.S.. The counterterrorism policy revolves around safeguarding fundamental rights in face of the growing danger of radicalization, as regards both religiously and ideologically motivated terrorism. The following are the core challenges faced by European counterterrorism strategies in dealing with transnational terrorism:
Terrorist Activities by Home Grown Terrorist Groups
Terrorist activities affiliated to Al-Qaeda possess a great diversity in the EU member states. Al- Qaeda-directed groups, home-grown cells inspired by Al-Qaeda and self-radicalized, self-directed lone actors tend to be part of religious attacks occurring in several states. EU counterterrorism strategies widely face challenges from religiously inspired terrorist networks formed by violent individuals returning from jihadist camps abroad. Home-grown Al-Qaeda groups in based in Europe pose a dire threat to EU counterterrorism policies as they continue planning attacks despite the death of prominent Al-Qaeda figures and Osama bin Laden. Violent Jihadist groups residing at the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan interact with EU home grown networks to plan devastating...
Some religiously inspired elements joined hands with Eastern European OCGs and got indulged in human trafficking and production of forged identity documents, which ultimately posed a major threat to terrorism in Europe (Europol, 2012).
The Challenge of Cyber Terrorism
Internet communication measures provide a safe and inconspicuous means of communicating information among the terrorist and violent extremist activities. They tend to be a major threat in promoting propaganda efforts of terrorist groups. The rise of cyber terrorism due to extensive use of criminal tools like botnets, crimeware tool kits, coding activities, phishing of emails and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS attacks) pose a dire threat to counterterrorism efforts in Europe. All these cyber-criminal tools breakdown entire computer networks, saturate servers and websites, until all of them cease to function properly. This involves the challenging feature of identifying the true cause of the attack, which gets quite difficult due to the breakdown of the entire network. Thus the counterterrorism activities are required to be focused on enforcing proper laws and regulations as a holistic response towards these electronic attacks (Europol, 2012).
Threats faced by European Intelligence Agencies
Intelligence and intelligence cooperation plays a pivotal role in the securitization process at the national and European level. The threats of international terrorism necessitate the need for cooperation among the European intelligence agencies. Information sharing and pooling of expertise among European intelligence agencies caters with an effective way of dealing with terrorist activities. Europol and SitCen are the two major European agencies which are involved in counter terrorism activities. However, they suffer a great deal from the ingrained resistance towards the centralization of cooperation of European Intelligence Agencies. The core drawback lies in the fact that the Europol is not playing a coordinating role comparable to the U.S. department of Homeland Security. The efficiency of Europol is limited by the unwillingness of national agencies…
Terrorism Organizations What is Terrorism? Legacy in the 21st century Based Terrorist Organizations Aryan Nation Ku Klux Klan Counterterrorism and Prevention Definitions and Structures Homeland Security Patriot Act The very nature of terrorism, of course, is to engender fear and panic into the population base. Thus, targets are so numerous that complete protection of all is impossible. Targets could include any of the governmental buildings in Washington, D.C., courthouses or public buildings in major cities, malls, churches, and transportation centers
Some rates had even decreased. Maritime shipping rates grew by 5 to 10% on average in the two weeks after the attack, but that rise was soon reversed. Airfreight rates, however, were about 10% higher in late 2001 than before the attacks. Due to the abrupt slowing of cumulative demand starting in 2000 and the decline in fuel costs after the terrorism, there should have been a steeper falling
At times terrorist succeed and at times they fail. Some times they have larger and long-term goal and some times they have short-term aims. For example, a group hijacking a plane wanted some immediate results like release of the prisoners or financial gain but blowing a plane into a building would definitely mean that terrorists wanted something big out of it. Sometimes terrorists want to just cause panic and
S., is used on events that require drastic recovery processes like floods (natural) or terrorist attacks (man-made). But the MOI would not be in control of the military in such cases (Lindstrom, 2004). "Today, France has 'a pool of specialized judges and investigators adept at dismantling and prosecuting terrorist networks.'" (Perelman, 2006) "France has a system, Vigipirate, used at moments of danger to the country. Instituted in 1978, Vigipirate has two levels,
Global Terrorism Right and left wing extremism, which are both forms of domestic or home-grown terrorism, have a rather long history in the U.S. Generally motivated by Marxist and communist ideologies, left wing extremism emerged as early as the late 19th century (White, 2016). Nonetheless, left wing extremism in the U.S. became more prominent in the 1960s and 1970s, with Weather Underground, Black Panthers, and Students for Democratic Society being the
Risk Management of Terrorism in the UK The issue of designing a risk management strategy for terrorism in the UK is dependent upon understanding and identifying the commensurate risks attendant with the various extremists groups that are perceived as threats to the UK's safety and infrastructural stability. Challenges include adopting an intelligence and surveillance system, educating the public regarding attendant trouble spots (such as retaliatory violence and discrimination as well as