Existence Of God Essays (Examples)

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Existence on God

Words: 3572 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69726706

God Exist?

The Case for God's Existence


Thomas Aquinas

Other Arguments

The Case Against the Existence of God

My Assessment

Many people go to churches, mosques, and synagogs each week to worship God and to pray. ut does God hear those prayers? Does he exist? The debate over God's existence has gone on for centuries and is alive and well in our time. Philosophers, theologians, scientists, and ordinary people have weighed in on the argument. Theologians such as Aquinas and Anselm argued for the existence of God in the Middle Ages, but even in that time, others disputed their contentions. Even some who believe in God argue that proving God's existence through logic, science, or reasoning is impossible because even hard evidence has nothing more than faith behind it. Are the people who worship God wasting their time then? Does God impact their lives? That question can be difficult…… [Read More]


Anselm of Canterbury." The Internet Encyclopedia of Knowledge. 1996. Retrieved 10 December 2002 from www.utm.edu/research/iep/a/anselm.htm.

Bradley, Walter. "The Real Issue: The Scientific evidence for the Existence of God." 14 July 2002 Retrieved 10 December 2002 from http://www.leaderu.com/real/ri9403/evidence.html.

Burr, David. "Anselm on God's Existence." Medieval Source Book. 1996.

Retrieved 9 December 2002 from www.fordham.edu/halsall / source/anselm.html
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God the Necessary Existence of

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41242143

If it cannot be effectively proven that God does not exist, then God apparently does exist. In fact, the lack of proof for atheism can be used as direct proof in the existence of God. "It is much easier to be persuaded that ontological arguments are no good than it is to say exactly what is wrong with them," (Oppy).

The apparent manifest multiplicity of the universe is further proof of the necessity of God. "Abstract objects depend on God for their existence, and abstract objects exist in every world; therefore, God exists in every world," (Davidson). The crux of the necessary existence of God theory is that God is most certainly not a being that could have conceivably not existed. The fact that the thought of God exists illuminates the existence of God, and thus, the necessity of God.

Central to the theory of the necessity of God is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cline, Austin. "God Exists." About.com. Retrieved online: http://atheism.about.com/od/whatisgod/a/exists.htm

Davidson, Matthew. "God and Other Necessary Beings." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 29 April 2005. Retrieved online:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/god-necessary-being/ 

Oppy, Graham. "Ontological Arguments." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online:  http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ontological-arguments/ 

Vaknin, Sam. "Is God Necessary?" Retrieved online:  http://samvak.tripod.com/sciencereligion2.html#god
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God's Existence Arguments for God's

Words: 740 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87783366

The Cosmological Argument: This argument begins with the tenet that for the Universe to exist something outside the universe must have created it. Also refereed to as the First Cause or the Uncaused Cause theory, here God exists as the prime mover that brought the universe into existence. The universe is a series of events, which began with God who must exist apart from the universe, outside of time and space as well. (Martin) the detractors of this theory say that if everything has a creator than God must also have a creator and that perhaps an infinite series of creators and universes exist as well. Also if God is an uncaused cause than why could not the universe be one as well.

The Moral Argument: This is perhaps one of the most interesting arguments for the existence of God. Basically it states that since man perceives a moral law,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene UK; Oxford University Press, 1989

Lamprecht, Sterling P. Our Philosophical Traditions: A Brief History of Philosophy in Western Civilization. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955.

Martin, C.F.J. Thomas Aquinas: God and Explanations. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997.

McIntyre, John. St. Anselm and His Critics: A Re-Interpretation of the Cur Deus Homo. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1954.
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God Exist The Question of

Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69198952

Unlike natural theology and revealed theology, however, the philosophy of religion is not concerned only with the existence or non-existence of God, but with a wide range of other issues that religion raises and is connected to, such as life after death, ethics, and moral behavior. The application of rationality to these other areas of religion raises other philosophical questions as well.

One type of theory used by religious philosophers (or natural theologists) are cosmological arguments. These attempt to prove the existence of God by logically proving that the universe must have had a cause or "prime mover," and this cause, then, is God (or gods). Aristotle's three point sum up the groundwork for most cosmological arguments: 1) something cannot be the cause of itself; 2) something cannot come from nothing; and 3) there cannot be an infinite series of causes and effects. If these arguments are taken as true,…… [Read More]

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God Exist Humanities Fascination With

Words: 1416 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78238253

Answer to an Atheist

e are mortals and cannot possible know the will of God. God does perform miracles in our lives, if we only stop to pay heed to them. If one takes a bunch of parts and random parts and pieces, gives them to a chimpanzee, and asks them to assemble a car from them, an Atheist would have one believe that eventually they would do it through random chance. There is another similar argument that if you placed 100 monkeys at 100 typewriters they would eventually come up with a Shakespeare play. Just as the Atheist argument claims that there is no proof that God exists because no on has ever seen him, there is also no proof that the monkeys will ever make a car or type Shakespeare. It has never been done and no one has ever proven that it will actually happen. At the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Freud, S. The Future of an Illusion (New York: Norton, 1961), p. 30.

Grislis, E. The Meaning of Good Works: Luther and the Anabaptists* Word & World 6 (2). University of Manitoba, 1986.

Marx, K. And Engels, F. Collected Works, vol. 3: Introduction to a Critique of the Hegelian Philosophy of Right, by Karl Marx (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1975).
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Existence Proceeds Essence What Is

Words: 320 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64002081

Sartre rejected such Platonic idealism, and as an atheist who revered human thought, he also rejected the idea that human beings are like hammers. Humans are unique in their capacity, Sartre believed, for premeditated thought. But that thought must be developed, it is not something we are 'given' at birth -- we have the responsibility to craft that sense of autonomy with our own free will. "There is no given human nature common to everyone because there is no God to give it in the first place. Human beings exist, that much is clear, but it is only after they exist that some 'essence' that can be called 'human' may develop (Cline 2009). Sartre believed that human beings should develop this capacity for 'essence' or higher thought, but without existence there is no essence.

orks Cited

Cline, Austin. "Existence Precedes Essence." April 18, 2009.

http://atheism.about.com/od/existentialistthemes/a/existence.htm… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cline, Austin. "Existence Precedes Essence." April 18, 2009.

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Film God on Trial

Words: 2172 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27227714

God on Trial: Movie Analysis and Review

The Holocaust of orld ar II spawned many tragedies, one of which was the crisis of faith it precipitated amongst European Jews. The film God on Trial depicts the inhabitants of a concentration camp literally putting God on trial for his crimes against humanity as they wait to be "sorted out" into groups of who will live and who will die at Auschwitz. The film begins set in the present, where various tourists to the concentration camp are shown gawking at the premises. They can hardly believe the horror was once real and then slowly, there is a shift as the camera pans away to reveal a change of time and the viewer is taken back to orld ar II. The event is based upon an apocryphal incident in which the residents of Auschwitz were said to have staged such a mock court,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

God on Trial. BBC, 2008.
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God's Activity in Men's Lives God's Active

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42408212

God's Activity In Men's Lives

God's Active Role

How many people look for God's activity in their lives, and never come up with the evidence? Yet, in the lives of Mary Rowlandson, and Ben Franklin, they recognized the working of The Almighty in their every day circumstances. Maybe it was that they didn't look for God to prove himself to them, but they acknowledged that the Almighty God is always at work. Maybe it was their colonial upbringing which emphasized that God is active in the lives of his children which taught them to see the Hand of God in everyday situations.

What could be said with a measure of certainty is that these two did not have a pre-determined list of what they expected god to do for them. In the two readings, Ben Franklin recognized God's hands in protection and providential care throughout his lifetime which grew from…… [Read More]

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God Given Rights Understanding America's Equality and

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51624834

God Given Rights:

Understanding America's Equality and Freedom

The poem "On Being Brought to America" by Phillis Wheatley and The Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson share similarities on the ideals that America possesses. Each of these writings argues for their God given rights, claiming every person is equal. Each must start new: One as a Christian, the others as a government. It is the bravery and the challenge in these writings that fascinate readers and help them understand America's growth process into the country it now proudly is.

Wheatley writes a poem discussing the introduction to both America and the Christian faith. The author feels as though she was brought to America out of kindness, and is thankful for the introduction to Christianity. She continues on to discuss the social factors, asking why her race is good enough for God, but not for the other Americans. When asking,…… [Read More]

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Existence the Nature of Existence

Words: 2390 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89704252

The Implicate Order and Explicate Order can be compared to a piece of holographic film and the image it produces. The film corresponds to the enfolded, or hidden, Implicate Order. The image, or hologram, (what is humanly perceived) is the Explicate Order. Thus, the tangible "reality" of our everyday lives is a kind of holographic image being projected from the "film" or source -- the Implicate Order (Dunlap, 2000).

The flow of time is part of the dynamic process of enfolding and unfolding. "As the present unfolds and becomes part of the past, it does not cease to exist, but simply returns to the cosmic storehouse of the implicate" (Talbot, 1990, p. 200). The event we call death is another example of what he is saying. Death is not the end -- it is simply moving out of the Explicate and into the Implicate.

Bohm (1987) suggests that consciousness flows…… [Read More]


Bohn, D. (1980). Wholeness and the implicate order. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Carson, R. (1962, 1994). Silent spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Dunlap, C. (2000). The rhetorical construction of God: Mary Baker Eddy's journey. Doctoral dissertation. Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Herbert, N. (1987). Quantum reality: Beyond the new physics. New York: Anchor.
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Descartes' Believe in God Descartes Believe in

Words: 1045 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48568991


Descartes Believe in God

Descartes' Believe in God

Science attempts to prove how God did or does things. The assessment is heavily disputed by archaic religious doctrines. The traditional conflict between science and religion is entirely based on the dominion and not what is right or wrong. Rene Descartes' belief in God is not based on atheistic principles, but on blasphemy as seen from the way he investigates God's functions. hilst examining Descartes' belief in the existence of God, it establishes that Descartes does not dispute the existence of God, but has a different opinion (parallel from the religion). A scientific argument proving Descartes' arguments and a reflection on his presumptions are provided.

Does Descartes believe in God?

As a philosopher and mathematician, Descartes dedicated his work entirely on writing and researching. His arguments combined humanism, science, and religion to arrive on the much-aggrandized assumptions of…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Broughton, Janet and Carreiro, John. A Companion to Descartes. New York: John Wiley & Sons,

2010. Print

Kohn, Hans. The Idea Of Nationalism: A Study In Its Origins And Background. Transaction Publishers, 2005. Print

McKnight, Edgar. Jesus Christ in History and Scripture: A Poetic and Sectarian Perspective.
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Moral and Not Belief in God Humanity

Words: 2170 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68579642

moral and not belief in God?

Humanity encompasses all aspects about exemplification of life and the utmost being. The origin of man is detrimental to the subsequent behaviours and codes of living among these human beings. In most cases, many researchers have shown that human existence is based on the origin and existence of God. God is regarded as a supreme being who gives and takes life. Nonetheless, human behaviour and character is dictated by what takes place in the multilingual conglomerates and thoughts within the human mind. In fact, humanity is obviously inexistent without the existence and intervention of God. Nonetheless, I support the opinion that believing in God changes human characters and behaviours. The impairment of morals and sensible approaches of handling life come with assurance of living in the presence of God. With God being an assurance to a moral sustenance of human life, one can be…… [Read More]


Dorff, E.N. (2007). For the love of God and people: A philosophy of Jewish law.

Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society.

Fuchs, J. (1983). Personal responsibility and Christian morality. Washington, D.C:

Moreland, J.P., & Craig, W.L. (2004). Philosophical foundations for a Christian worldview.
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Aristotle's Position on the Existence

Words: 1141 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68944403

The material cause refers to that substance out of which a thing is constructed. The formal cause is the idea of the thing in the mind of the creator who sets about creating that particular thing. The efficient cause is the Agent - or the being that creates the thing. The final cause is the purpose for which the thing has been created.

Mere potentiality does not exist on its own, but enters into the creation of all things - except for the Supreme Cause. Mere potentiality thus stands at one pole of reality, while the Supreme Cause - or God - is at the other. oth of these entities are real. Materia prima contains the most attenuated reality, as it is pure indeterminateness. God, on the other hand, contains the highest, most complete reality, as God is on the highest level of determinateness. One of the central tasks of…… [Read More]


Adler, Mortimer. Aristotle for Everybody: Difficult Thought Made Easy. New York: Touchstone

Books, 1997.

Aristotle. Metaphysics. 24 March 2008. Retrieved at http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0052
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Morality Still Exist if God Did Not

Words: 1463 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27268442

morality still exist if God did not exist?

Is something pious because it is loved by the gods -- or do the gods love all that is pious? This is the central question asked in Plato's dialogue the Euthyphro (Ross 2012). The dialogue revolves around a young man who has elected to bring charges against his father for killing a slave. To complicate matters still further, the slave was accused of murder himself before he was killed. The question is never answered in the dialogue, but this raises the question: if something is only moral because the gods approve of it, what if there is no God? Is there then no morality?

Socrates seems to suggest that morality is intrinsic to actions themselves, given his largely deflationary view of traditional myths of the Greek gods. This is one of the reasons that he was charged with impiety under Athenian law.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Byrne, Peter. "Moral Arguments for the Existence of God." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 Edition). Edward N. Zalta (ed.). [11 Oct 2012] .

Ross, Kelley. "Comments on the Euthyphro." [11 Oct 2012]

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Reason God and Religion With Reference to

Words: 1328 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89115533

reason, God and religion with reference to ancient philosophers. These philosophers gave us some interesting views on the subject of God, which may prove helpful in understanding the nature of good in a world where evil often dominates.


Socrates maintained that 'reason' must dominate every community and its beliefs or else the world would turn into a chaotic, poorly organized unit. He was of the view that with reason comes knowledge, which further helps the statesmen in acting virtuously. Virtue is then the most important product of reason, which is needed to save a society. Here it is important to keep in mind that Socrates wasn't concerned with reason for its own sake but because of the notion that it could give birth to knowledge and virtue. It is also critical to know that for Socrates, reason was not connected with an ability to separate right from wrong. Instead…… [Read More]


Augustine. "The Problem of Evil" Classical and Contemporary Readings in Philosophy of Religion, Ed. By John Hick. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964.

Theon of Smyrna: Mathematics Useful for Understanding Plato, by Theon of Smyrna, translated by Robert and Deborah Lawlor from the 1892 Greek/French edition of J. Dupuis, Secret Doctrine Reference Series, Wizards Bookshelf, San Diego, 1979

Augustine, The City of God, XI, Chapter 9.

John Brunet, Early Greek Philosophy, 1920
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Can God Be Personal

Words: 3210 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36304457

God Personal

Defining "Personal"

etween the belief that God is a person and the belief that God is personal which one is essential to Christian faith? My stand is that the belief that God is a person is a hindrance to Christian faith. Interestingly, some recent religious philosophy writers have however made the assumption that believing in God is believing in a person. Richard Swinburne is one such influential advocate of this concept. It is clear from his works that Richard Swinburne understands that God is like "a bodiless person, a spirit who can do anything, is all knowing, free, without fault, eternal and the creator of the universe.

That God is a person or personal is one of the fundamental claims believers have continuously made about God. God is represented like a person in Vishnu, Hinduism, rahma and Shiva. In the bible, the Old Testament, You can read about…… [Read More]


Bloesch, Donald G. 2006. Jesus Christ: Savior & Lord. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press.

Burns, Elizabeth. "Must Theists Believe In A Personal God?" THINK 8, no. 23 (Autumn, 2009): 77-86,


Cross, George. "Does a Philosophy of Morals Tend to Undermine the Christian Faith in a Personal God?" The Journal of Religion .Vol. 1, No. 2 (Mar., 1921) (pp. 197-199)
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Philosophy -- Kant and Ethics Existence

Words: 941 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82521811

Admittedly, we do not know how it that anything (such as a physical universe) exists, let alone exactly how it came about that life came into existence. It is often suggested that there must be a God since it is impossible for anything to come into existence spontaneously through "self-creation" and equally impossible that anything existed forever in the past. Regardless of how elementary the very first particle of matter (or energy) and regardless how long ago it first emerged, it must have come from somewhere and through some process.

In the minds of many people, the only logical explanation for the existence of the universe and (especially) of life is that it must have been created by a God. However, there are serious logical problems with that belief. First, it necessarily relies on completely circular reasoning: either spontaneous existence from nothing is possible or it is impossible; it cannot…… [Read More]

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Most High God

Words: 1193 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72336795

High God

Christians, Muslims and Jews world over practice their belief that God is the Supreme Being, absolutely perfect, Who is responsible for creating all the things we have in today's world and for continuing to keep them in existence.

God has made everything that we have in the universe today; the list is infinite but it includes mankind, animals, plants, planets, etc. God keeps everything alive, if He were to stop giving life to all that exists today, everything would vanish faster than we could blink our eyes. Think about it, without God there could be nothing in this Universe.

In him we live and move and have our being" (Acts 17:28). "In him were created all things" (Col. 1:16). "It is he who gives to all men life and breath and all things" (Acts 17:25).

Not a single nation doubts the existence of God because they have an…… [Read More]


Benny Hinn And His "Gospel," available at http://home.hawaii.rr.com/bibletruths/benny.htm, accessed on: August 30, 2003

My Catholic Faith - Chapter 3 - God the Supreme Being, available at http://net2.netacc.net/~mafg/mcf/mcfc003.htm, accessed on: August 30, 2003

NTCOF: Does God Exist?, available at http://www.church.freethought.org/doesgodexist.html, accessed on: August 30, 2003

Benny Hinn, Good Morning, Holy Spirit
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Problem of Evil God Evil

Words: 2146 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54004106


Defenses against it may be equally inconclusive, but in their fertility they at least promise a solution some day.


dams, Marilyn McCord. Horrendous Evils and the Goodness of God. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Belliotti, Raymond a. Roman Philosophy and the Good Life. Plymouth: Lexington Books, 2009.

DeRose, Keith. "Plantinga, Presumption, Possibility, and the Problem of Evil," Canadian Journal of Philosophy 21 (1991), 497-512.

Draper, Paul. "Probabilistic rguments from Evil," Religious Studies 28 (1992), 303-17.

Dueck, a.C. Between Jerusalem and thens: Ethical Perspectives on Culture, Religion, and Psychotherapy. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1995.

Ferreira, M. Jamie. "Surrender and Paradox: Imagination in the Leap." In Kierkegaard Contra Contemporary Christendom, edited by Daniel W. Conway, 142-67. New York: Routledge, 2002.

Griffin, David Ray. God, Power, and Evil: Process Theodicy. Louisville: Westminster Press, 2004.

Hick, John. "The 'Vale of Soul-Making' Theodicy." In the Problem of Evil: Reader, edited by Mark…… [Read More]

A.C. Dueck, Between Jerusalem and Athens: Ethical Perspectives on Culture, Religion, and Psychotherapy (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1995), 153.

M. Jamie Ferreira, "Surrender and Paradox: Imagination in the Leap," Kierkegaard Contra Contemporary Christendom, ed. Daniel W. Conway (New York: Routledge, 2002), 145.

Larrimore, xx.
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Concept of God in Judaism and Christianity

Words: 7257 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52966776

Judaism and Christianity both have fairly common as well as totally contrasting religious concepts. In spite of the apparent differences and divisions it has to be understood that both these religions are like different streams of water merging in the ocean of god.

Christianity and Judaism are both religions of abrahamic origin. There are many similarities and differences between the two religions. Since Christianity originated from Judaism, it lends to the thought that both the religions are very closely related. However, in spite of their common origin, they differ considerably in some of the important issues while at the same time exhibit resemblance in many aspects. Even the monotheistic belief, which both these religions stand for, is quantified by entirely different perception of the attributes of godhead. Similarly, in the understanding of the messianic concept there is a significant contradiction giving us a hint of the vastly different nature of…… [Read More]


1) Tracey R. Rich, "Moshiach: The Messiah," Accessed on May 23rd, 2003


2) Catholic Encyclopaedia, "original Sin," accessed on May 23rd, 2003  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11312a.htm 

3) Jono, " Different sects of Judaism," Accessed on May 23rd, 2003, http://members.aol.com/bagelboyj/reports/sects.html
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The a And B Theory of Existence

Words: 520 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82371640

B-Theory, one need not fear death?

There is a common assumption that all atheists fear death, given that the atheist lacks the comfort of a world which exists after this one. However, according to Robin Le Poidevin's essay "Should the Atheist Fear Death?" this is not necessarily the case. First of all, Le Poidevin points out that not all theists believe in a concrete conception of the afterlife (643). Secondly, the question arises as to why we are so fearful of the "attenuation of the effects of our life after we die" and why we "fear being forgotten" (643). Le Poidevin implies that a theist conception of the universe is in part why we regard such an eventuality as an awful thing.

Over the course of his essay, Le Poidevin makes a contrast between what he calls the A-theory and B-theory of time. The A-theorist conceives of time as being…… [Read More]

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Human Soul and the Existence of Life

Words: 1332 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99487518

Human Soul and the Existence of Life After Death

The presence of the human soul and the existence of life after death are questions that have plagued people for centuries, perhaps since the beginning of human life. Specifically, fear and concern over death of the physical and metaphysical permeate human life and culture. While there is no concrete proof of the existence of life after death, most people do believe in it as we are spiritual beings connected to something greater than the physical body and life. By altering our perception of death -- learning not to fear it and understanding it as a beginning, not an end -- we can alter our lives.

Almost all religions of the world have concerned themselves with the questions of life after death. While religious leaders, prophets of God, emphasized the concept of life after death, followers usually came to odds with this…… [Read More]

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How to Know God by Using the Bible

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18785422

Lewis's The Message Of The Living God: His Glory, His People, His World

The first point that Peter Lewis makes in his book The Message of the Living God is that God does not speak to us on our own terms, the way that Woody Allen would want Him to speak.[footnoteRef:1] No, God speaks to us in His own language, though He uses our words: it is the language of spiritual love, expressed through ancient covenants described in the Old and New Testaments. It is a language that we must look for if we are desirous to know God. This is the thesis of Lewis's work -- and thus the book takes a foray into the Scriptures so that the reader might better understand the God Whom he seeks. Lewis connects this idea with that of Calvin, who also began his teaching from the basis of "knowing" God rather than…… [Read More]


Lewis, Peter. The Message of the Living God: His Glory, His People, His World. IL:

InterVarsity Press, 2000.
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Aristotle Aquinas Kant and Anselm Views on God

Words: 1021 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64855809

Philosophy and Theology

Philosophy is the study of wisdom while theology is the study of God. Some of the earliest and best known classical philosophers are Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. They essentially laid the foundation for Western philosophy by examining such concepts as truth, goodness, virtue, and the meaning of life. Socrates made the claim that God and Truth are basically one and the same: in fact, for Socrates, God, Truth, Goodness, Beauty, and Virtue were all united and of the same essence (Plato, 2010). Theology, on the other hand, largely came into being in Middle Ages in the West thanks to Church Fathers like Augustine and Aquinas. Aquinas basically codified the science of theology in his Summa Theologica -- the Sum of Theology. This was the scholastic view of theology or of how the Medieval world thought of God: it was based on reason and on the philosophical tenets…… [Read More]


Aquinas, T. (1920). Summa Theologica. UK: Fathers of the English Dominican.

Aristotle. (n.d.). Metaphysics. Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved from http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/metaphysics.html

Descartes, R. (2013). Meditations on First Philosophy. OR: Oregon State University.

Kant, I. (1892). Critique of Judgment. Online Library of Liberty. Retrieved from Plato. (2010). The Dialouges, vol. 1. Online Library of Liberty. Retrieved from http://lf-oll.s3.amazonaws.com/titles/111/Plato_0131-01_EBk_v6.0.pdf
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Armand Nicholi Freud and God

Words: 671 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62762128

Armand Nicholi's The Question of God: C.S. Lewis and Sigmund Freud Debate God, Love, Sex, and the Meaning of Life is a downright unusual book. It places in counterpoint the thought and writings of two men who never met, spoke, or engaged in any important way with each other's writings -- in fact they had little in common apart from both living in Great Britain at the same time for a period of about fourteen months. These men are the Oxford don, C.S. Lewis, an authority on Renaissance literature and a novelist and Christian polemicist, and the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, still famous as a doctor and theoretician who posited the existence of such concepts as the Oedipus complex, the unconscious, and polymorphous perversity. Freud never read a word that C.S. Lewis wrote, and while it is extremely unlikely that Lewis could have escaped exposure to the widely disseminated ideas of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Nicholi, Armand. The Question of God: C.S. Lewis and Sigmund Freud Debate God, Love, Sex, and the Meaning of Life. New York: Free Press, 2002. Print.
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God Faith Reason

Words: 1594 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8284752


Thomas Aquinas was summarily concerned with the compatibility of faith and reason. In The Summa Against the Gentiles (Summa Contra Gentiles) and the Summa of Theology in particular, Aquinas presents his arguments for the synthesis of faith and reason. Aquinas offers a rather ironic glimpse at the nature of reason, which is both capable of intellectual comprehension of God but simultaneously insufficient for understanding God. Thus, Aquinas argues that God can be ascertained and even logically proven via the use of reason, but that the experience of God is a transcendent, spiritual, and emotional one that requires faith. Faith also fulfills the goals of reason, which is truer and greater understanding of God. hereas faith fails to provide the means by which to perceive the mundane world, reason is unable to offer a genuine proof or understanding of God.

One of the ways Aquinas reconciles faith and reason is…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Aquinas, Thomas. On Politics and Ethics. Trans. Sigmund, P.W.W. Norton, 1987.
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God What Is the Image of God

Words: 2079 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29789040


What is the image of God? This is an important theological question. Depending upon what a person believes the image of God to be, and man's relation to that image, the whole rest of that person's theological belief system will be affected and slanted by it. The Bible gives some good guidelines as to what the image of God is, and what man's relation to that image is. Noted theologian Henry Theissen discusses it in his lecture series, as well. This paper discusses the idea of the image of God and man's relation to that image using contemporary theological research.

The Bible tells us that man was created in the image of God. This seems pretty straightforward. On first reading, one might reasonably assume that man was created to look like God. This would mean that God looks like us. This is a very comforting thought for most people,…… [Read More]


Dolphin, Lambert. "Made in the Image of God." LDolphin.Org. 2001. http://www.ldolphin.org/Image.html>.

Humanity as the Image of God." Shef.Ac.UK. n.d. http://www.shef.ac.uk/uni/academic/A-C/biblst/DJACcurrres/Postmodern2/Humanity.html

The Image of God in Man." Let Us Reason Ministries. n.d.  http://www.letusreason.org/Wf14.htm >.

Man, Created in the Image of God: How Man is Unique Among All Other Creatures on Earth." God and Science.Org. 2003.  http://www.godandscience.org/evolution/imageofgod.html
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Existence and Nature of Matter

Words: 1091 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59861592

Since this simplifies and organizes our experience of the world, it is wiser to accept the value of truth of this belief.

If Russell questioned the existence of matter, Aristotle was concerned with its nature. According to him, all the things which come into existence must come from a substratum (which is the very nature of matter). Nevertheless, should this underlying matter of the universe come from another, already-existing underlying matter, this judgement results self-contradictory. On the other hand, nothing can be generated ex-nihilo, therefore, it can only be concluded that in order to exist, matter needs to be possible. However, possibility can not exist in itself, but must be conceived as residing in something else. And here one could bring Spinoza's conceptions into discussion. In his opinion things can exist or in themselves or in something else. Since God is the only one who can exist through himself and…… [Read More]


Aristotle. Physics. Trans. Waterfield, Robin.Oxford University Press, 2008

Descartes, Rene. Discourse on method. Kindle Edition, 2006

Gould, James. The existence of absolute space. 16 November 2008 < https://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/1811/4849/1/V62N02_101.pdf

Russell, Bertrand. Problems of philosophy. Book Jungle, 2008
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God and the Word Was God So

Words: 1205 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14570806

God, and the ord was God. So reads the first verse of the book of John, just two in a handful of bible verses I was made to memorize and recite before I was able to read. These verses and the ones preceding and following them were read to me nightly -- and often in the mornings as well -- by my mother, grandmother and grandfather in our home in the small Southern Baptist community of Perry, Georgia. In addition to the bible, I was read bible stories in books with colorful illustrations meant to engage children. The illustrations helped me to associate meaning with the words on the page, while the words themselves struck me as just another way of painting a picture. hen I was asked to recite the verses or stories read to me, remembering the picture the words described often helped me to remember the requested…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brice, Shirley. Ways with words: language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
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God Exist The Debate as

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63098987

DNA instructs the cell. DNA is a three-billion-lettered program telling the cell to act in a certain way" [what authorized and created that system, if not God?] and e) "e know God exists because he pursues us… constantly initiating / seeking for us to come to him… [and] keep the question of His existence constantly before us" (Morse, 2010, p. 2).

Meanwhile Oxford professor Anthony Flew argues against those who say that because of the big bang God is proven to exist. Did God cause the big bang, or was it just "popped" into existence, Flew asks. And why only two possibilities? Only a physicist can explain that, Flew asserts. Okay then, Flew explains that if God is truly "omnipotent and omniscient" and wants people to "behave in a certain way, why couldn't he accomplish this? If you were omnipotent wouldn't you expect results and expect people to do exactly…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Craig, William Lane, Flew, Anthony, and Wallace, Stan W. Does God Exist?: The Craig-Flew

Debate. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing, LTd, 2003.

Morse, Donald R. "Does God Exist?" The Journal of Spirituality and Paranormal Studies.

(2010): 1-2.
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Existence for This Exercise I

Words: 748 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12300602

She was struggling with a bag of dog food and I helped her get it in the car. She was surprised by my wanting to help her, but very appreciative. As I was bringing my cart back to the location for carts, I grabbed another that was taking up a parking space and I brought it with me to the cart location. I thought someone would want to park there and wouldn't be able to because of the cart.

While I walked on the sidewalk during the middle of the day I also saw a homeless man with a cup for money. I was going into Starbucks and I didn't have any change or cash on me and so I asked him if I could buy him something to eat or drink. He said that he would love a hot coffee and something sweet to eat. I bought him a…… [Read More]


Lyubomirsky, Sonja. The How of Happiness: A New Approach to Getting the Life You

Want. Penguin (Non-Classics); Reprint Edition. 2008. Print.
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Existence of Tastes Among Groups of People

Words: 860 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75318881

existence of tastes among groups of people is essential to many fields, which include psychology, sociology, demography, politics, and marketing. Such studies allow us to establish mean tastes and preferences, whether we want to analyze a correlation in order to understand cognitive behavior better, or generate revenue models that will cater to the buying power of the greatest number of people. In this assignment, I will develop two studies that may be used to determine in one case the correlation between certain religious beliefs and mental instability and in another whether successful students prefer different beverages than unsuccessful ones.

Are certain types of religious beliefs associated with mental instability?

Freud first observed that many of his patients that suffered from various neuroses also maintained somewhat compulsive religious beliefs. However, a determination could be made between expressing obsessive behavior and applying it to religious matters and maintenance certain specific religious beliefs…… [Read More]

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God Has Given His Prophet

Words: 1389 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21242376

The scene is reminiscent of Egyptian burial chambers; the walls were covered with brilliantly painted images of deities in animal form, including Anubis, the jackal-headed god who weighed the soul of the dead. This second phase of the prophet's vision of Jerusalem illustrates a number of important points with respect to the state of religion in the capital city. The nation's leadership was actively engaged in the pursuit of evil. hen the integrity of the nation's leadership is lost, there is no hope for its people.. It is already clear from the first part of the prophet's vision that the worship of the temple had become sadly debased; a pagan altar had been set up in the temple's outer court. So why, with a public altar outside was there a secret worship of the other false gods inside? Probably, there were two forms of the false religion? The open altar…… [Read More]

Work cited

Allen, Leslie C Word Biblical Commentary: Ezekiel 1-19 vol 28. Nashville: Nelson Thomas Inc. Print.

Blenkinsopp, Joseph .Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching: Ezekiel. Louisville:Westminster John Press. Print Block, Daniel I . The New International Bible Commentary: Book of Ezekiel chapters 1-24. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, William B. Publishing Company. Print Craigie, Peter C. The Daily Study Bible Studies: Ezekiel. Westminster Press. Print
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Good V Evil

Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18380467

God's Existence And Evil Existence

God's existence and the existence of evil

hen considering illiam Paley's Argument from Design, St. Thomas Aquinas's Cosmological Argument, and St. Anselm's Ontological Argument, one can only come to one conclusion. As superficial as this might seem for some believers, the conclusion is not that God exists. Sometimes it is better to be superficial, as this provides a person with the ability to see matters from a general perspective. Considering the complexity of things can lead to serious dilemmas, taking into account that as long as someone wants to believe that God exists, the respective individual can go through great efforts with the purpose to come up with a theory that can convince many to accept it. This is exactly what happened in the cases of Paley, Aquinas, and Anselm. These people devised ingenious theories that are hard to contradict by simply relating to the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Herman, A.L. (1993). "The Problem of Evil and Indian Thought." Motilal Banarsidass Publ.

Saint Augustine of Hippo. (2008). "The Confessions of Saint Augustine." Filiquarian Publishing, LLC.

"The Book of Job"
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Religious Ethics God and the

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63301804

In fact, there is a sense here in which the will to do good deeds restores God to the universe as the fountainhead of morality, with the famous "categorical imperative" substituting for specific divine commandments. However, those who are not already convinced that moral truths are possible -- who are not already "morally certain" -- tend to find this argument circular (Palmer 259).

For the rest of us, it is a very different proposition to develop and defend a moral framework in the absence of religious certainty. e can simply reframe our notions of good and evil in terms of personal responsibility, as Kierkegaard does when he defines wrongdoing (sin) as the very absence of certainty itself. In this approach, human nature is split between conviction (or faith) on the one hand and anxiety on the other. "The anxiety of sinfulness manifests itself either as an anxiety about evil or…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldrich, C.A. (1931). The primitive mind and modern civilization. London: Routledge.

Kant, I. (2008). Kant's critiques. Radford, VA: Wilder Publications.

Palmer, M.F. (2001) The question of God: an introduction and sourcebook. London: Routledge.

Palmquist, S. (2000). Kant's critical religion Aldershot: Ashgate .
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Solaris God and Ineffability the

Words: 1420 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56581753

It can be argued that they have no way of knowing the outcome of their reactions. And indeed, nor does Chris. What differentiates Chris from the rest of the crew is the love he feels for Rheya. Love in the end is the essential force that enables him to forgive both Rheya and himself, and in the end love both redeems and kills him. This dichotomy furthers the ineffability of both death and the god force symbolized by Solaris.

Chris chooses to remain on the doomed station rather than face further life without Rheya on earth. He has no way of knowing what the outcome will be and most likely believes that he will simply die. His "redemption" is therefore not based upon faith, but rather upon the love emotion. Emotion in this case takes the place of faith in redemptive force. Furthermore, his "afterlife" entails life with his love…… [Read More]

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History of God by Karen Armstrong

Words: 1901 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41036307


Review of Karen Armstrong's "History of God"

The History of God" by Karen Armstrong reads more like a quest for God amongst the annals of Man's history. It relates the transition of the nature of God as perceived by His human subjects, catering to the ideological differences amongst followers of Islam, Christianity and Judaism. y highlighting the influences that led Armstrong to embark on this quest for illumination as well as providing a summary of the book, this paper endeavours to explore the central theme that the definition of God is subject to conventionality. It is continuously being modified, abandoned, revived and reiterated in accordance with Man's realistic and pragmatic challenges as opposed to philosophical reverie.

efore providing an analysis of the book's core theme, it is necessary to study the influences that drove Armstrong to write this book. Armstrong's interest in religion was cultivated at an early age,…… [Read More]


Ali, M.M. (February 1993) "Karen Armstrong: A Profile in Literary Diversity," in Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. http://www.washington-report.org/backissues/0293/9302038.htm

Armstrong, Karen. (1993) A History of God: the 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Ballantine Books, New York.

History of God: the 4,000-Year Quest of Judaism, Christianity and Islam - Review by Alfred A. Knopf. http://www.pinn.net/~sunshine/book-sum/histgod.html

Karen Armstrong - A History of God. http://www.2think.org/hll/shtml
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Attributes of God Philosophy of

Words: 811 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9492606

This may cause a rift between individuals, even if they are on the same side, so to speak. While one individual may follow a belief system wholeheartedly, another may only partially follow through with it, which raises the question as to whether or not someone must commit themselves one hundred percent or if they can take what they believe and implement the most important parts into their lives and beliefs.

One can see how wise each argument is. If an individual is going to claim that they believe in specific belief systems, it stands to reason that that individual would follow through with these beliefs in everything they do, even if they question some of those beliefs. Many would argue that if you fully believe, you should not question anything. Others take a more realistic point-of-view and understand that there will be many questions surrounding their belief system. Following most…… [Read More]

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Why God Can't Be Blamed for Evil

Words: 1256 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21509748

Problem of Evil

Natural Evil vs. Moral Evil

Natural evil is a term that embraces theodicy, in the sense that there are devastating earthquakes, and tornados, tsunamis, and hurricanes, and other terrible weather situations that harm people and communities (Philosophy of Religion). God created the planet and in doing so He never promised to always have fair weather with puffy white clouds and rays of sunshine every day. The planet is a natural world reality, and besides the frightening weather events, natural evil could also be seen in a child's birth defects, in a mother's breast cancer; one could argue that a woman got breast cancer from eating too much red meat or other foods that are not recommended, but nevertheless when she is stricken with this deadly disease, it can be considered a natural evil that has caused her pain -- and maybe taken her life as well.

On…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Elwell, Walter A., Evangelical Dictionary of Theology (Second Edition). Edited by Walter A.

Elwell. (Ada, MI: Baker Academic, 2001): 434-436.

Flescher, Andrew Michael. Moral Evil. Georgetown University Press. (October, 2013).

Retrieved June 28, 2014, from  http://press.georgetown.edu .
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Son of God -- a

Words: 1816 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2856793

According to the concept of homoousion, Christ the Son was consubstantial (sharing the same substance) with the Father." (Gill, 2006) Only then was it resolved that although Jesus was the Son of God, the unique nature of Jesus as Son meant that Jesus, God the Father, and the Holy Spirit all were won.

The interpretation of the term "Son of God" continues to divide Judaism from Christianity, theologically and linguistically, as well as provided a source of division amongst Christians themselves. And interpretations of the phrase continue to change in emphasis, even amongst fellow Christians. Recent interpretations of Jesus in the American cultural context have used the notion of 'sonship' to personalize Jesus, rather than to alienate Jesus, in an attempt to have a more accessible divinity. (Prothero, 2003) In its original theological context, the notion of God's dual spiritual and physical essence was just exciting and divisive as it…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aherene, (2002) "Son of God." The Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 19 Nov 2006.  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14142b.htm 

Gill, N.S. "The Arian Controversy." About.Com. Retrieved 19 Nov 2006. http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/godsreligion/p/aa082499.htm

Kaufmann, Koheler & Emil G. Hirsch (2002) "The Pious as the Sons of God." Article

Retrieved from the Jewish Encyclopedia 19 Nov 2006 at http://jewishencyclopedia.com/view.jsp?artid=964&letter=S&search=Son%20of%20God
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Dutiful Children of Loving God

Words: 1589 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74160695

Luther's concept of the "liberated Christian" allows for both an almost existential responsibility and an odd passivity on the other hand. Humans are responsible for creating faith within themselves, but having once accomplished the achievement of faith, they can simply allow themselves to exist in the cocoon of divine love. Christ has done the work for others through his life and death. (Countering this is the idea of Luther's that all Christians serve as a communal priesthood, although it is not entirely clear to what extent he means this to be literal and to what extent he may be allowing for the metaphorical.) This tension between the active and the passive (or perhaps "accepting" might be a better translation of Luther's ideas than "passive") brings us back to the seeming contradiction posed in Luther's opening statements. It allows us to see another level of complexity in Luther's understanding of the…… [Read More]

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Prophets and Gods the Roots of Christianity and Ancient India

Words: 1012 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73247749


On the surface, Hinduism and Christianity could not be much more different. Ancient Hinduism offers a colorful pantheon of playful deities, some of which assume animal characteristics such as Hanuman and Ganesh. Stemming from its Jewish roots, Christianity presents a much different view of the origin and structure of the universe. Christian cosmology is more tightly ordered than that of Hinduism. Strictly monotheistic, Judaism imparted a mistrust of pagan polytheism to Christianity. Christian deity is unitary but also triune, in the worship of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Herein lies the strongest connection between worship in ancient India and worship in early Christianity. Hinduism, like Christianity, has a triune God concept. The Hindu God Brahma is the Supreme God, but God has three manifestations as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Each of these gods has its own expression and role in the Hindu cosmology. hereas Brahma is…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bhagavad Gita

Bible: Old and New Testament

Das, Subhamoy. "Top 10 Hindu Deities." About.com. Retrieved online: http://hinduism.about.com/od/godsgoddesses/tp/deities.htm

"The Origins of the Universe." BBC. Retrieved online:  http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/rs/environment/hinduismbeliefsrev1.shtml
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Religion in the God Part

Words: 655 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77450263

The Humanistic Faith proposes neither a concept of deity nor a concept of Evil. We allow each individual practitioner to conceive of God in whatever way best suits their personality or cultural environment with the one caveat: that God never suggests that one person or group of people are superior or inferior to any other. Sexism and other social biases will not be tolerated by the Humanistic Faith.

Our rituals are simple but are constructed from a variety of worldwide sources. Influenced by Buddhism, we suggest that our practitioners examine the concept of the Four Noble Truths: the life is suffering, and that all suffering is caused by desire. To understand that pain is an integral part of life is, we believe, the doorway to genuine religious understanding. All living creatures suffer at some point and going through suffering with open eyes and a willing heart can help eliminate many…… [Read More]


Alper, Matthew. The 'God' Part of the Brain. Rogue, 2001.
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Encounter With God and Understanding Scripture and Its Use in Theology

Words: 1327 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67841130


Describe an experience of faith in your own life where you were aware of an encounter with God. How does this encounter illustrate some of the concepts which Haight and arth bring out in their chapters on faith?

Encountering God, if one is lucky, is possible at any time. The unknown nature of spirituality, combined with the material presence of existence, necessitates a faith of some sort. There are many theological and philosophical views that pertain to varying ideas of faith. Haight (2001) interpreted faith as a symbolic, yet personal journey that leads to many benefits for those seeking spiritual guidance. He additionally believed that all of humanity is destined to come to some understanding of faith. I can appreciate this interpretation in my own personal experiences dealing with God and theology. For me, symbolism represents the unknown and helps me relate what's going on in the real world…… [Read More]


Barth, K. (1959). Dogmatics in Outline. Harper Books.

Dogmatic Constituion on Divine Revelation (1965). Die Verbum.

Gibson, D. (2009). The vatican levies further penalties on Roger Haight, SJ. Commenweal 2 January 2009. Retrieved from http://www.commonwealmagazine.org/blog/?p=2644

Haight, R. (2001). Dynamics in Theology.Orbis Books.
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Concept of God in Judaism and Christianity

Words: 14079 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81059360

history medical studies have concluded that prayer helps to heal the sick. Many political meetings begin with a prayer and American currency has the words "In God We Trust" imprinted on its face. Around the world God is a powerful deity and one that has historically led entire societies to make decisions based on God's word. While God has been the single deity that leads and guides societies in their decisions both on an individual and collective basis there are many different concepts of what God is and entails. Two large worldwide faiths have many similarities and differences in God and its meaning. The faith of Christianity as well as the faith of Judaism both believe in a single God. The faiths are based in the word of that God and their followers respect and revere the God of their faith. While both faiths believe in a single God there…… [Read More]


J.S. Spong, "A New Christianity for a New World: Why Traditional Faith is Dying & How a New Faith is Being Born," HarperSanFrancisco, (2001), Pages 37 & 38.



Book Review: Concept of God as shepherd is Jewish paradigm
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When Is a Person Truly in the People of God

Words: 3900 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41021154

People of God

When Is a Person Truly "In" the People of God?

When Is A Person Truly "In" The People Of God?

"Inclusivism" is a term that encompasses a fairly wide range of positions, as J.A. DiNoia notes in his book, The Diversity of eligions. DiNoia's definition is broad enough to encompass both a minimal and a maximal form of inclusivism. The maximal form is asserted by those who believe that "all religious communities implicitly aim at the salvation that the Christian community most adequately commends." Non-Christian religious bodies may think and act as if their ultimate goals are distinctively different from the church's. However, their goals in fact orient them to some degree towards Jesus Christ, and to the extent that they do, their concrete identities may be truthful and their way of life leads to salvation. A minimal version of inclusivism says little or nothing about the…… [Read More]


Congar, Yves. (1964) The Church: The People of God in Concilium, vol. I. New Jersey: Paulist Press, pp. 11 -- 37.

D'Costa, Gavin. (1986) Theology and Religious Pluralism: The Challenge of Other Religions. Oxford: Blackwell.

Rahner, Karl, S.J. (1968) The Theology of Pastoral Action. New York: Herder.

Karl Barth could be understood as an exclusivist on the basis of the way he opposes "religion" to Christianity in his early work. I would say that by his Church Dogmatics period he had more of an inclusivist position, though one that had little bearing upon his ecclesiology. See Church Dogmatics, trans G.W. Bromiley, II/2 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1957), pp. 417f.
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Playing God' and Invoking a

Words: 1277 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 483058

This does not mean that any individual has the right to do whatever they would like to any other individual, but rather that humanity as a whole can make its own decisions without impunity, which robs humanity of their dignity (Ramsey, qtd. In Verhey, 292). Thisties directly back to Verhey's thesis that "the fundamental perspective from which we interpret our responsibilities is critically important to seeing what those responsibilities are" (Verhey, 292). Even without surety of a God or other overriding moral imperative, the perspective that neither of these things does or even can exist is a dangerous one. In this sense, the concept of "playing God" actually refers to a perspective -- a healthy one, according to the author (and with which it is difficult to disagree) of caution and hesitancy in performing all the we as a species are capable of. That is, the mere usage of the…… [Read More]

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Communication The Goodness of Existence Exterminating a

Words: 962 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80121703

Communication: The "Goodness of Existence"

Exterminating a fetus simply because the life may have birth defects, according to Kass, is to obliterate the notion that life in and of itself is good. Existence is good, despite its nature according to Kass. There are currently no standards which dictate how such situations might be handled. These ideas are explored in greater detail below. Kass is very much opposed to the notion of interfering with nature, as well as producing a separate standard of existence for children who are artificially or "naturally" born with defects. Kass would argue that to punish the mother in one circumstance but not another "is blatantly anti-life, making it an offense to keep the baby alive and bring it to birth" (168).

Kass would definitely support the notion that even a "modest prolongation of life" would be satisfying. There is no virtue in the death of a…… [Read More]


May, William E. "Leon Kass and the Challenge of Bioethics." {Online} Available: http://www.christendom-awake.org/pages/may/leonk.htm
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Jainism and the Jain Concept of God

Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69248423

Jainism and the Jain concept of God. Jainism is a religion of India that is not based on the Vedas of Hinduism, and only a few Indians practice this religion (according to some about 1% of the population) ("What is Jainism?"). A Web site notes, "The name derives from a Sanskrit word meaning 'follower of the Jina, or conqueror')" ("What is Jainism?"). Their concept of God is very different from most other religions. They do not look to a savior or Creator as the leader or God of the religion, instead, the leader is a teacher. They believe a person is reborn repeatedly, and that the Jiva, or higher consciousness, can discover perfection and rise above the troubles of life on Earth. They also have no priests in their religion, although they do have monks. The religion has been in existence since the sixth century BC, so it has lasted…… [Read More]


Editors. "Jainism." ReligiousTolerance.org. 2009. 28 Oct. 2009.


Editors. "What is Jainism?" Beliefnet.com. 2009. 28 Oct. 2009. .

Fisher, Mary Pat. Living Religions: An Encyclopedia. London: I.B. Tauris & Co., 1997.
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George Berkeley Nature of Existence in This

Words: 752 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68474954

George Berkeley


In this reading, we come across an interesting discussion, which focuses on the nature of existence of things and persons. Here, the two friends Hylas and Philonous are trying to argue the true nature of existence with Hylas, being a materialist arguing in favor of existence without or without perception while Philonous believes that to exist, mind should have an idea of the ting and without idea, things simply do not exist. Philonous is of the view that when we cannot see a thing in our mind, it is impossible to say that it actually exists. In other words, it is our senses that help us establish the existence of something but if they fail to do, that thing simply wouldn't exist. He cites the example of fire, which can be seen and touched but if our senses fail to acknowledge its heat, this fire…… [Read More]

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Why Wright Does Not Always Understand God

Words: 3052 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43727356

God I Don't Understand: Reflections on Tough Questions of Faith

Preface and Introduction

The Preface explains why Wright chose to write this book. He felt that it could be a more personal and humble approach to God than that achieved in his other books, which were about "knowing God." In this book, Wright wants to address some of the more confusing aspects of God. He justifies this approach by showing how God Himself points out that His ways are not our ways in Scripture. This is a valid point, and what Wright is doing is drawing attention to the fact that we are not God's equals and therefore should not try to humanize Him but rather should try to understand that He knows and sees all and therefore has a good reason for why He commands and does things that might seem disturbing or odd to us.

However, in Wright's…… [Read More]

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Iran God Has Planted in

Words: 1616 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46272761

The advocator of the Iran Democracy Act incorporates the Iranian Monarchist groups, The American Israeli Public Affairs Committee -- AIPAC, and the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs -- JINSA.

It also includes the well established organizations that may get sanctions under the Bill such as Coalition for Democracy in Iran -- CDI- which was formed by Morris Amitay of JINSA, ob Sobhani, President of Caspian Energy Consulting and Michael Ledeen of the American Enterprise Institute who were recognized as the staunch supporters of the change in the rule of Iran. Moreover, the advocators also put forth that the previous U.S. funding of opposition groups in other countries was important to promotion of democracy in such countries and Iran cannot be an exception to this. This necessitates the U.S. To include human rights and democracy on its agenda in respect of Iran. (Senator Brown Back Announces Iran Democracy Act with…… [Read More]


Afrasiabi, Kaveh L. Regional Obstacles to Democracy in Iran. 24 January, 2001.

Retrieved from  http://www.payvand.com/news/01/jan/1144.html  Accessed on 7 May, 2005

Chomsky, Noam. Promoting democracy in Middle East. Khaleej Times. 4 March, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle.asp?xfile=data/opinion/2005/March/opinion_March6.xml& section=opinion& col= Accessed on 7 May, 2005

Kazemzadeh, Masoud. Political culture and obstacles to democracy in Iran. The Iranian. 30
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Holy Trinity How Can God Be One and Three

Words: 3220 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86400189

Doctrine of the Holy Trinity

The Doctrine of the Trinity and Anti-Trinitarian Theologies:

Servetus, Milton, Newton

The Doctrine of the Trinity

The Arian Heresy

Anti-Trinitarianism Part I: Michael Servetus

Anti-Trinitarianism Part II: John Milton

Sir Isaac Newton

The Arian heresy -- or rejection of the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity -- is actually relatively uncommon among contemporary Christian denominations; to pick one particular national example, Post-Reformation England would tolerate a broad array of theological stances -- from the dour Calvinism of the early Puritans to the sunnier Arminianism of the esleyan Methodists -- but more or less drew the line at anti-Trinitarianism. Yet it is remarkable that some of England's greatest intellectuals -- including the epic poet John Milton and the father of modern physics Sir Isaac Newton -- would secretly author theological works reviving the old heresy of Arius in order to disprove the Christian doctrine of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bouwsma, William J. John Calvin: A Sixteenth Century Portrait. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Catholic Encyclopedia, "Nicene Creed."  http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/11049a.htm  (accessed 21 March 2011).

Grudem, Wayne. Sytematic Theology. Grand Rapids; Zondervan, 1994.

Hill, Christopher. Milton and the English Revolution. New York: Viking, 1978.
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Genesis the Hebrews or Israelites Were God's

Words: 1029 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1383649


The Hebrews or Israelites were God's chosen people, whom He delivered from bondage to Egypt, to whom He revealed His law and with whom He established a covenant through Moses on Mount Sinai. Up to the 10th line of patriarchs after Moses, the Hebrews remained pure in their form of worship and in their lives. ut in the 500th year before the Deluge, their descendants greatly multiplied, and so did much violence, division, lust and arrogance when the spirits of hell possessed these descendants and worked iniquity through their inherent weaknesses (Dolphin 2003). This also happened because the descendants of two separate lineages, one from God through Adam and Eve's third child, Seth and the other, a female descendant through the murderer Cain - merged in violation of God's command that His Chosen People (through Seth's line) should not be equally yoked, or interbreed, with unbelievers.

The "sons of…… [Read More]


Bratcher, Dennis. Sons of God and Giants. The Voice Christian Resource Institute, 2004. http://www.cresourcei.org/giants.html

Dolphin, Lambert. Notes on Genesis Chapters 6-9. Lambert Dolphin Library, 2003.  http://www.ldolphin.org/gen6-9.html 

Huie, Bryan. Genesis 6: Who Were the Sons of God? 1996. http://users.aristotle.net/~bhuie/gen6sons.htm

Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Genesis. The Official Scripture of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, 2000. http://www.lsd.org
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Schoreder's the Hidden Face of God

Words: 1274 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31614801

ethinking the Universe

Conflicts between religion and science are neither new nor novel. In the 1600s, Galileo was hauled before a court and convicted of heresy for saying (and publishing) that the earth revolved around the sun instead of the opposite. There have been trials on the teaching of evolution, controversies about physics and even states that battle schools and parents for including certain scientific concepts in the public school curriculum. Yet, the more science discovers the details of biology and physics, the more it seems that within each tiny creation there are similarities -- almost a microcosm of the entire universe within one molecule. To some, like Gerald Schroeder, this indicates that existence is about universality - and universality is about a way to describe the existence of everything. This in turn, is more of a cosmic journey, both macro and microcosmic as the merging between science and religion…… [Read More]


Kalat, J. (2013). Biological Psychology (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cenage/Wadsworth.

Schroeder, G. (2001). The Hidden Face of God: How Science Reveals the Ultimate Truth. New York: The Free Press.
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Cain Abel God's Reasons for

Words: 697 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13269753

Cain and Abel represent the competition over land resources arising out of the domestication of farm animals and the use of large swathes of land for agriculture. God's preference for Abel over Cain suggests the beginning of class conflict that continues to plague human existence.

Henry & Scott's (1835) interpretation is awash in inferences and jugements that have no basis in sincere scholarship. The authors note, "Cain was wicked and led a bad life, under the reigning power of the world and the flesh; and therefore his sacrifice was an abomination...God had no respect to Cain himself, and therefore none for his offering," (p. 40). The authors imply that Cain's agricultural work symbolizes sin because of the proximity of the man with earth. Earth, representing the pleasures of the flesh, is somehow representative of original sin and possibly evocative of the serpent that tempted Cain's mother. This interpretation is tempting…… [Read More]


Carmy, S. (1996). Cain, Abel, and the fairness of God. Project Genesis. Retreived online: http://www.torah.org/projects/genesis/topic1.html

Henry, M. & Scott, T. (1835). The Comprehensive Commentary on the Holy Bible: Genesis-Judges. Fessenden & Co.

Waltke, B.K. (1986). Cain and his offering. Westminster Theological Journal 48(1986): 363-372.

Walton, J.H., Matthews, V.H. & Chavalas, M.W. (2004). The IVP Bible Background Commentary. InterVarsity Press.
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How Does Teilhard Justify Placing God Christ in Evolution

Words: 2393 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13000021

Teilhard De Chardin

Pierre Teilhard de Chardin is one of the few people who can legitimately claim a place in the history of both Darwinian science and Christian theology. Born in 1881, Teilhard was both a Jesuit priest in the Roman Catholic church, and also a scientifically-trained paleontologist and geologist who participated in the discovery of the first fossil specimens of the hominid Homo erectus, then popularly dubbed "Peking Man" due to its discovery in China, whose precise relationship to present day homo sapiens, or indeed any other subsequent hominids, remains a matter of scientific debate). Yet Teilhard also maintained a constant interest in matters prompted by his scientific work, but more speculative and theological in character. These writings would bring Teilhard into some conflict with the official guardians of Roman Catholic orthodoxy, and the Vatican denied him the imprimatur or official permission required to publish his work. But on…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aersten, Jan A. "Aquinas's Philosophy in its Historical Setting." In The Cambridge Companion to Aquinas, edited by Norman Kretzman and Eleonore Stump. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993. 12-37. Print.

Flach, Frederic R. "The Phenomenon of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin." Journal of Religion and Health, 4:2 (1965): 174-9. Print.

Mooney, Christopher F. "Teilhard de Chardin and the Christological Problem." Harvard Theological Review, 58:1 (1965): 91-126. Print.

Ruse, Michael. "Belief in God in a Darwinian Age." In The Cambridge Companion to Darwin, edited by Jonathan Hodge and Gregory Radick. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003. 333-56. Print.
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Faith in God an Interview

Words: 2296 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26721845

interview was conducted with 30-year-old Sandra. This essay examines her answers within the context of her identity as it pertains to religion and religious belief. The first question asked what she identified as. Her answer was non-denominational Christian. hat is it to be a nondenominational Christian? It means these Christians choose not to formally align with an established and Christian religious denomination. (Lantzer) In essence, they hold on to the framework of the basic Protestant tenets, electing to identify themselves as "born-again Christians" or just "Christians." hen someone chooses this kind of Christianity, they desire to believe and follow the word of Jesus Christ, but not through a specific tradition or group.

This could be because of her origins with Christianity. Her family is Baptist and while she attended church service when she was around 6 or 7, she did not go to church in her teens. hile her parents…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Lantzer, Jason S. Mainline Christianity. New York: New York University Press, 2012. Print.

Wilberforce, William, and Kevin Charles Belmonte. A Practical View Of Christianity. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson Publishers, 1996. Print.
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Religion Anselm Aquinas and Hume

Words: 2500 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24187463

Thus, Sam argues that although the world often seems unjust (and is filled with innumerable instances of evil), yet P. is solved through the belief that every condition (good, in this case) necessitates an equal and opposite condition (evil, as it were.) However, Gretchen counters by asking whether those who behave in an evil way are ever punished for their transgressions, and whether there is any motivation for people to not simply act in their own best interests, whether or not this involves behaving in an immoral manner. Sam's rejoinder appeals to the afterlife as the site in which the importance of morality becomes manifest: "But the doctrine of an afterlife, in whatever form, says that this isn't the whole story" (47). However, Sam disregards the fact that God is purported to pardon many sinners, which would ostensibly mean that he regularly pardons instances of injustice.

The dialogue between Sam…… [Read More]


Anselm. Proslogium. Trans. S.N. Deane. Internet History Sourcebook. Fordham University, Aug. 1998. 10 Sep. 2012. Retrieved from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/anselm-intro.asp.

Aquinas, T. Summa of Theology. Trans. B.P. Copenhaver. Publisher Unknown, 2005.

Hopkins, J. A New Interpretation of Anselm's Monologion and Proslogion. Minneapolis: Arthur J. Banning Press, 1986.

Hume, D. Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion. Unknown Publisher, 1779.
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Mccloskey Asserts That the Initial

Words: 1593 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96197182

This contradicts the reason provided by McCloskey theism that only makes the life of man more difficult. If not for God, as Craig states, there will be no man and, therefore, there could be no argument that man will help each other in providing solutions to their problems. God also contributes to the knowledge of man; consequently, without God there would be no innovation or invention by man, a contradiction to McCloskey assertion.


Eden, Michael 2008. The Absurdity of Life Without God - William Lane Craig. etrieved from: http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/2149706/posts

Evans, C. Stephen. 1982. Philosophy of religion: Thinking about Faith. Downers Grove, Ill.,

U.S.A.: InterVarsity Press.

McCloskey H.J., 1968. On being an Atheist. London: ationalist Press Association,

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Cosmological Argument. etrieved from:


McCloskey H.J., 1968. On being an Atheist. London: ationalist Press Association,

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Cosmological Argument. etrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/cosmological-argument/

McCloskey H.J., 1968. On…… [Read More]


Eden, Michael 2008. The Absurdity of Life Without God - William Lane Craig. Retrieved from:  http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-religion/2149706/posts 

Evans, C. Stephen. 1982. Philosophy of religion: Thinking about Faith. Downers Grove, Ill.,

U.S.A.: InterVarsity Press.

McCloskey H.J., 1968. On being an Atheist. London: Rationalist Press Association,
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Anselm Aquinas Augustine and the

Words: 1593 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47678249

Aquinas argues that the fact that man can perceive himself to be true serves as a validation for God's existence; however this is dissimilar to Descartes impressions of the Mediator who, according to the philosopher, is capable of mistaking that which is certain and uncertain.

It is important to remember to distinguish fact from fiction; will from intellect. In this presentation I believe that Aquinas and Anselm intermingled the two, suggesting that intellect and will are more similar than different. This clearly offers a different interpretation of what is certain and uncertain as Descartes might argue that the intellect is certain but the will or mind may interpret that which is certain incorrectly.


Descartes, ene. The philosophical writings of Descartes, Vol. II. Trans. John Cottingham, obert Stoothoff, and Dugald Murdoch. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1984.

Egan, David. SparkNote on Meditations on First Philosophy. 3, May 2007 http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/meditations.

S. This…… [Read More]


Descartes, Rene. The philosophical writings of Descartes, Vol. II. Trans. John Cottingham, Robert Stoothoff, and Dugald Murdoch. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 1984.

Egan, David. SparkNote on Meditations on First Philosophy. 3, May 2007 http://www.sparknotes.com/philosophy/meditations.

S. This is surprisingly similar to Descartes' meditations suggesting the human mind is impossible to understand fully.

D. While the philosopher again confirms a distinction between the mind and intellect as Descartes might, he does not provide physical evidence that God exists, only suggests that some "form" of intellect must direct everything in nature.