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Experimental design employs comparison as its strategy for the given research. It uses two groups, which the researcher uses for comparison purposes. These include the experimental group and a control group. The two groups used in a study have similarities, but the experimental group uses the independent variable, whereas the researcher the control group is not assignment of subjects to either control or experimental group because it is central to chance. Nevertheless, the researcher assigns cases to the two groups randomly. In order to determine the influence of the independent variable, investigators will measure the dependent variable, designated as scores, two times from both groups (Frankfort-Nachmias and Nachmias, 2008).
In addition, researchers take a single measurement, the pretest, for all cases before introducing the independent variable in the experimental group. Moreover, they also take a second measurement, the posttest, for both cases after exposing the experimental group to the independent…
Frankfort-Nachmias, C., Nachmias, D. (2008). Research methods in social sciences 7 ed. New
York: Worth Publishers.
Walker, W. (2005). The strengths and weaknesses of research designs involving quantitative methods. Journal of research in nursing, 10(5), 571-582.
Dependent Variable 1:
Strength of Expressed Opinions on Questionnaire.
Independent Variable 2: Exposure to Indirect Intervention. Dependent Variable 2:
Strength of Expressed Opinions on Questionnaire.
Direct Intervention -- Test subjects will be exposed to conversation at the dinner table directed to them and including them on three separate occasions one week apart about the importance of consuming alcohol responsibly and about the dangerous consequences of drinking irresponsibly.
Indirect Intervention -- Test subjects will be exposed to modeled behavior of adults expressing concern over matters such as designating a non-drinking driver and avoiding excessive intoxication without any conversation about them or directed to them three separate occasions one week apart.
There will be a control condition in the post-test version of the experimental design. Specifically, the responses of test subjects will be compared to a comparable control group that is not exposed to the specified intervention.
Experimental Design for Hypothetial Researh Study
Reent researh has emerged whih suggests that the ingestion of hoolate may lead to improved ognitive funtion within the realm of memorization and retention of information. Establishing a onlusive link between ertain hemial omponents found in hoolate and the improvement of memory funtion would be a signifiant point of progress for medial siene, espeially when the impat of Alzheimer's disease, early-onset dementia and other memory-redution ailments on senior itizens is fully onsidered. By expanding on the work of Jones and Wilson (2011) -- who improved soring on math tests two hours after subjets ate hoolate -- it may be possible to identify the partiular enzymes released during digestion whih serve to alter fundamental aspets of memory. Researh published by Wong, Hideki, Anderson, and Skaarsgard (2009) -- whih suggests that the impat of hoolate on memory improvement ours more frequently for women -- an also…
cited in the Introduction, as the subjects who ingested chocolate before testing showing marked improvements over their baseline scores, while the control group exposed to a placebo chocolate substitute returned results which were nearly identical to their baseline. More specifically, women tested higher than their baseline at each duration interval of chocolate ingestion, and the gains experienced by women were significantly higher (on a statistical basis) than those produced by men. In terms of the previously stated hypothesis, the fact that women were consistently observed to record higher test scores after eating chocolate, and that these improvements consistently outpaced that documented in their male counterparts, would appear to suggest a biological basis for the discrepancy. Additional research must be performed from a molecular analysis standpoint to determine if a link between naturally occurring enzymes in chocolate and hormones like estrogen and progesterone which occur predominately in women. The conclusion to be drawn from this experiment is that chocolate contains a particular chemical capable of interacting with the brain on a biological level to stimulate improved cognitive function relating to memory and retention of information. Furthermore, this phenomenon has been observed to occur more frequently and more powerfully in women, suggesting that a component of female biology such as certain hormones may be producing an exaggerated effect. The null hypothesis stated prior to the experiment has been rejected, as chocolate appears to offer genuine benefits for those seeking to improve their ability to memorize facts and retain information.
Experimentation is one of the common methods used in quantitative research. Premised on the positivist philosophy, an experiment is essentially conducted to investigate causal relationships between variables (Bryman, 2008). Indeed, this is one of the major strengths of experimental research compared to other types of studies -- it not only describes association between variables, but also explains causation between variables (Kothari, 2004). This essay describes the various components of an experimental method plan. The paper also explains threats to validity as well as nuances involved in interpreting results from an empirical study.
An experimental design has four major components: participants, materials, procedures, and measures (Creswell, 2014). Participants denote the subjects from which the required data will be obtained. The participants section should describe the process of selecting and assigning the participants. This involves explaining whether random or non-random procedures will be used to select participants, whether the participants will be…
experimental design feasible? Why or why not?
• What suggestions can you make for future studies of the DARE program?
The aims of DARE are long-term in nature, namely to encourage students to not abuse drugs over the course of their lifetimes. The only way to test this aim is to conduct a longitudinal study of a representative body of DARE graduates over at least a twenty-year period, to see if the intervention had a lasting effect upon their drug use habits. The control groups would be a group of students from similar demographics and geographical locations who did not have DARE or any other anti-drug program in their schools and a group of students who experienced an anti-drug education intervention substantially different than DARE. The selection of students would have to be balanced in terms of factors such as race, gender, and neighborhood, given that graduates of DARE programs…
goal of the research is to conduct an assessment of probable issues relating to hiring a deputy director for the organization, which has operated without an actual office manager for a year. Consequently, the research objective is to identify positive qualities that an individual must possess to be considered for the vacant position of an office manager. In light of the current situation, acquiring a manager with positive qualities is the objective for the study because of the need to lessen the negative results of change in management and promote employees' receptiveness of the new manager.
This study will entail conducting an experiment, which involves manipulating at least one independent variable and observing the impact on certain results i.e. dependent variable. The experiment will be conducted in the field because the study involves human subjects. Given these considerations, the most suitable experimental design is true experiment, which entails…
Shaughnessy, J.J., Zechmeister, E. & Zechmeister, J. (2003).Research methods in psychology (6th ed.). New York, NY: Mc-Graw Hill.
Sommer, B. (n.d.). Types of Experiments. Retrieved from The Regents University of California -- Davis Campus website: http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/sommerb/sommerdemo/experiment/types.htm
featuring a QUANTITATIVE experimental design related criminal justice security management. Attach article ( a hyperlink article) posting. Please answer questions: Overview: Provide an overview study ( -write abstract; words).
Confidence in the criminal justice system, by David Indermaur and Lynne oberts
Indermaur and oberts (2009) commence by arguing the importance of the judicial system within any country, especially a developed one, where there is ongoing pressure to improve the quality of the criminal justice system. Throughout the past recent years then, various efforts have been made across the countries to reform and modernize the criminal justice system. The two authors as such strive to analyze these efforts and conclude on their effectiveness, based on the analysis of the confidence revealed by the people in the criminal justice system. In this examination, emphasis is placed on the reforms implemented in the UK and the confidence of the people in the criminal…
Indermaur, D., Roberts, L. (2009). Confidence in the criminal justice system. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice. November edition.
he Experimental Design
I altered the experiment slightly to help make sure that it would demonstrate the issues it was supposed to demonstrate without adding extraneous variables. Specifically, I was concerned that if I walked around all day with a sock on my hand, every person who interacted with me would ask about my sock and that would get in the way of the main point of simply forcing me to not to rely on my dominant hand in my daily routine. Likewise, there seemed to be no point to introducing the variable of self-consciousness since left-handed people don't usually wall around self-conscious and worried what everybody else thinks about their being left-handed. So, I simply wrapped the fingers of my right hand in some first-aid gauze to make it impossible to use them and then I wrapped an Ace bandage around my hand and wrist so that…
The first thing I noticed was that the most ordinary chores, such as brushing my teeth and accomplishing other personal hygiene tasks were extremely difficult and took much longer. On one hand, that represented an inherent limitation in the experimental design, because those issues do not ordinarily affect anybody who has always been left-handed; they would only be issues for people who have lost the use of their dominant hands and not anybody who has been left-handed since birth. However, from the perspective of a manager in business, it certainly is relevant to understanding the challenges of the thousands of injured military veterans whose lives have been changed by the loss of limbs in Iraq or Afghanistan since 2003 and 2011, respectively. However, I did immediately notice that my toothbrush is shaped for the right hand and that I cannot ever remember even seeing a toothbrush labeled "left-handed" in the drug store or supermarket. Possibly the most significant problem I encountered was that I was completely unable to drive my car even though it is an automatic transmission. The transmission shifter is on my right side and requires pushing a button with my thumb. I realized that learning how to drive must be that much more difficult for left-handed people because it probably is easier to use your dominant hand on the gear shifter.
In principle, the experiment reinforced how much most of us live our lives totally oblivious to many of the challenges faced by others. For example, males typically do not appreciate that when a female speaks in a group situation in the workplace, she might have concerns about the attitude of others (especially her superiors) about the competence of women, or about whether being proactive or assertive might be considered negatives when they would not be seen that way if she were male. Similarly, a Caucasian manager who lacks cultural sensitivity might not consider that an African-American or Hispanic coworker might worry that his colleagues think he might not have earned his position by merit and that he might have to work harder (and be more careful to avoid mistakes or about admitting to encountering difficulty with a task) to avoid reinforcing prejudicial assumptions that he received his position (or his educational degree) partly because of affirmative action.
In fact, the more I thought about it, the more I started considering that there might have been a point to the ridiculous aspect of the ball-and-sock design after all: because when I walk into a classroom or a job interview, the last thing on my mind is that the person might be making pejorative judgments about me as soon as they seem me and before I open my mouth. I realized that for my minority colleagues, that might not be the case: they might walk into every room feeling as though they have a sock and ball attached to their hands.
limiting a researcher's view of the problem are situational factors that can skew the results of her experiment, i.e., effects of pretesting, social threats, and group differences (Trochim, 2008, 188). External factors, such as possible sample size, can limit even the type of testing available to the researcher. As such, researchers have come up with a number of different types of designs over the years. This essay will compare and contrast two of these; experimental and quasi-experimental designs.
"Experimental designs are often touted as the most rigorous of all research designs" (Trochim, 2008, 186). hat is so rigorous about them is that they are the strongest type of design in regards to their internal validity (Trochim, 2008, 186). This is because the basic form of the experimental design uses random assignment, or chance to group participants. In effect, this makes the two groups, if selected from the same sample, basically…
Why would a researcher, who values internal validity, then choose a quasi-experimental design, that specifically lacks in internal validity? The reason is that experimental designs are not always the most effective. They're subject to social threats of internal validity, and have difficulties with external validity (Trochim, 2008, 188). An experimental design is "intrusive and difficult to carry out in most real-world contexts," and is basically an "artificial situation" created to "assess [a] causal relationship with high-internal validity." Resultingly, there are difficulties in generalizing the findings to the real world.
Alternatively, certain types of quasi-experimental designs are some "of the most intuitively sensible designs around" (Trochim, 2008, 210). This is because random selection is often not logical or possible. For example, say we wanted to understand the effects of a certain type of treatment on both developmentally disabled adults and adults that were not developmentally disabled. Random selection, or an experimental design, would be impossible here, because we already have our two groups; they're dictated by the difference.
The basic reasons one might choose an experimental design or a quasi-experimental design has to do with, I think, resources, and what exactly is being tested. I feel that there is no design that is "better" or "worse" -- applying those labels would not make any sense at all here, because every experiment has a different aim. What is good for one experiment may be bad for another. The most important thing, I feel, is simply to have an understanding of both, and the ability to employ each when necessary.
Threats to Validity in a Quasi-Experimental Design
Evaluating design choice: Walk Texas!
The research study by Bartholomew (et al. 2008) entitled "Walk Texas! 5-A-Day intervention for women, infant, and children (WIC) clients: A quasi-experimental study" is defined as quasi-experimental because it lacks a formal control group. The purpose of the study was to determine an intervention designed to improve the eating habits of low-income WIC clients. The participants were "primarily native Spanish speaking, Hispanic women, of low educational level" (Bartholomew 2008: 297). The study "utilized a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design, with two intervention and two comparison clinics that were matched for size and ethnicity" (Bartholomew 2008: 297). The comparison clinics served as an informal control although participation in the experimental and control groups was not randomized, as would be the case in a true experimental study.
The purpose of the experiment was to see if low-income women who make use…
Bartholomew, J.B. (et al. 2008). Walk Texas! 5-A-Day intervention for Women, Infant, and children (WIC) clients: A quasi-experimental study. Journal of Community Health, 33:297 -- 303. DOI 10.1007/s10900-008-9103-y
Quasi-Experimental Design on the Effect of TV Adverts on Children
This study carries out the evaluation of a research titled "A quasi-experiment assessing the effectiveness of TV advertising directed to children" (Goldberg, 1990 p 445). The paper examines the extent the research hypotheses have been able to address the study. The paper also examines the research dependent variables and independent variables. Moreover, the study investigates the extent the author has adhered to both external and internal validity for the research.
esearch question the study Addresses
Goldberg, (1990) carries out the experimental research to investigate the potential impact of television advertising on children. Although, the author does not provide the research questions, nevertheless, the author tests two hypotheses using the quasi-experiment to assess the effectiveness of television advertising that has been directed to children.
ationale for the study
The rationale of the study is to assess whether children exposed to higher…
Goldberg, N. (1990). A Quasi-experiment Assessing the Effectiveness of TV Advertising directed to Children. Journal of Marketing Research JMR, 27 (4): 445
Khandker, Shahidur R., et al. (2010). Handbook on Impact Evaluation: Quantitative Methods and Practices, World Bank, Washington, D.C: 53-103.
Morgan, G. A. (2000). Quasi-Experimental Designs. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry: pp. 794-796.
Shadish, William R., et al. (2002). Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Generalized Causal Inference, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston: 103-243.
threats to validity in an experimental design. Your response should include an evaluation of the choice of design, the author's rationale for the design choice, the types of validity presented and the critical differences among them, the author's performance in explaining them, and how you would assess the study's validity and the information you would require to do so.
Choice of research design:
The efficacy of female condom skills training in HIV risk reduction among women
andomized clinical trials are often considered the 'gold standard' of good medical research. This is because randomized trials make use of an experimental and control group and the randomization process is designed to eliminate possible selection bias, which causes correlative rather than correlative factors to potentially skew results. In the case of Choi (et al. 2008) according to the study "The efficacy of female condom skills training in HIV risk reduction among women" a…
Choi, K. (et al. 2008).The efficacy of female condom skills training in HIV risk reduction among women: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public
Health, 98 (10):1841-1848
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…
Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.
Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
e., contemporary or historical issues (Eisenhardt 1989; in Naslund, 2005);
(3) the extent of control required over behavioral events in the research context (Yin 1994; as cited in Naslund, 2005); and (4) the researcher's philosophical stance, i.e., his/her understanding of the nature of social reality and how knowledge of that reality can be gained. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund (2005) states that qualitative research methods "primarily create meanings and explanations to research phenomena" and include data collection methods such as:
(2) Fieldwork including interviews and questionnaires, diary methods, documents and texts, case studies; and (3) the researcher's impressions and reactions to observed phenomena. Quantitative research methods serve to make provision of a broad range of situations as well as being fast and economical.
Commonly utilized quantitative research methods include those of:
(1) Laboratory experiments;
(2) Formal methods; and (3) Numerical methods and techniques. (Naslund, 2005)
Naslund states that analysis identifies…
An experiment is a form of quantitative research that tests causal relationships. The researcher manipulates and controls the conditions under which individuals are observed to behave. Experimental research starts with a hypothesis and then modifies something in a particular relationship. The researcher has control over the environment, variables and individuals under study. At the end of the experiment, the outcome is compared with the situation before the modification. An experiment consists of a number of components:
Treatment or independent variable
Classical Experimental, Pre-Experimental, Quasi-Experimental and the Solomon Four-Group designs all differ in how they treat these components, thus impacting the reliability and validity of the experiment.
Classical Experimental Design comprises random assignment of cases to groups, a pre-test and a post-test, an experimental group and a control group. Each group is exposed to different conditions or stimulus materials.…
Trochim (2006) states that a quasi-experimental design is one that looks a bit like an experimental design but lacks the key ingredient -- random assignment. He notes that his mentor [Don Campbell] used to refer to quasi-experiments as "queasy" (2006) experiments because they give the experimental purists a queasy feeling.
With respect to internal validity, they often appear to be inferior to randomized experiments. But there is something compelling about these designs; taken as a group, they are easily more frequently implemented than their randomized cousins (Trochim 2006).
The most important part of both experimental and quasi-experimental research is the measure of the dependent variable, which it allows for comparison. Some types of data are very straightforward, but there are other measures, but there are other types of data that are completely subjective. In cases where the data is highly subjective, the quasi-experiment will have to have various strategies to…
Trochim, William K. & Donnelly, James P. (2006). The research methods knowledge base. Thomson Custom Publishing.
Experimental Research Argument
y examining Einstein's statement on research - "if we knew what we were doing, It would not be called research, would it?" - one can see that he means research is designed as a way to learn and experiment. It is used to find things out and discover things, which is why people spend so much time on it. They do not always know what they are doing, many believe, but they know what they want to discover. They have to use various methods to find what they want to know, and sometimes there is a great deal of trial and error involved in finding the answer to the question. Einstein believed that there were many ways in which people could discover the world around them, and it was clear by his life's work that he was dedicated to doing all he could to advance science and…
Cooperstock, F.I. 2009. General relativistic dynamics: Extending Einstein's legacy throughout the universe. World Scientific.
Freedman, D.A. 2009. Statistical models: Theory and practice, Second edition, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hinkelmann, K. & Kempthorne, O. 2008. Design and analysis of experiments, volume I: Introduction to experimental design, Second edition, New York: Wiley.
Kupelis, T., & Kuhn, K.F. 2007. In quest of the universe. New York: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
population sample will be a convenience one -- at least 500 individuals between ages 18 to 50 - acquired from 5 different sites in Connecticut
Inclusion symptoms will be people who experienced a minor emergency and that the respondent be cognitively able to participate, speak English, and have telephone access. Participants will be matched as to age, condition of emergency, intelligence, and gender, and effort will made to gain a diverse ethic sample.
The intervention: random sampling will be conducted on survivors of an emergency incident in an emergency unit in Connecticut. 500 individuals will be targeted. 250 will be in the experimental group and 250 will be in the control group. All will be closely matched in terms of demographics and similarity of condition necessitating their hospitalization. The nurses who will be involved in the experiment will receive a one-hour course of special training on how to provide patient-centered…
Ware, J., Jr., & Sherbourne, C.D. (1992) The MOS 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36): I. Conceptual Framework and Item Selection, Medical Care, Vol. 30, No. 6, pp 473-483.
Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research
Research is imperative to quality analysis and development of theories. In any science, no matter if it is a physical, psychological, or sociological, research is integral to formulation of working theories. ithout research, not only can problems not be solved but problems cannot even be properly determined. Having said that, it is important to understand that there are many different types of research methodology. Not all forms of research, and thus the data that they collect, are created equal. Some methods of research are far superior to others and the findings of researchers more influential and verifiable than research conducted in other methods. In The Research Methods Knowledge Base, authors Trochim and Donnelly (2008) discuss the importance of research and also explain the difference between types of research that can be conducted. Two types of research that they explore are experimental and quasi-experimental and in so…
Trochim, W & Donnelly, J. (2008). The Research Methods Knowledge Base. (3rd ed.) Mason,
Experimental Method Design Project
Impact of different types of support systems on postpartum depression in women
he research question under study is the degree to which support structures can affect the severity of the symptoms of postpartum depression. Other questions that may be considered include whether certain support structures are more valuable than others, such as the father of the child vs. family members and friends, or formal, professional supportive structures such as through a hospital or school.
he first difficulty of studying women with postpartum depression is finding women who can be the object of study. Not all women suffer from postpartum depression, so a generalized study of pregnant women is not sufficient. he most appropriate methodology would be to study women currently identified as suffering from postpartum depression. Subjects could be contacted through physicians and also through soliciting volunteers through advertisements on parenting-themed websites. hey could also…
The women in the study will be subjected to a 'follow up' series of interviews within six months, after the initial series of interviews. This will allow the research to be contextualized in terms of the women's recovery or trajectory of the illness, to assess the impact of support after identification and treatment in the long-term.
Borgatti, Steve. (n.d). Introduction to grounded research. Retrieved July 23, 2011 at http://www.analytictech.com/mb870/introtoGT.htm
You have just answered an advertisement to participate in an experiment from researchers at Yale University. You enter a professional looking building and are met by a professional looking man in a white lab coat. You have been paid $4.50 (which would have easily filled up your gas tank in 1961) to participate in a memory and learning experiment. The experiment requires that you play the role of "teacher" and another volunteer plays the role of "learner" (at least you think that he is a volunteer). The goal is to teach the learner to learn and recall a list of words. Sounds pretty simple, does it not?
This is the basic premise for one of the classic experimental studies in psychology: Stanley Milgram's (1963) Behavioral Study of Obedience. Milgram was influenced by the trials of Nazi war criminals, particularly Adolf Eichmann, who had claimed that they had only…
Haney, C., Banks, W.C., & Zimbardo, P.G. (1973). Interpersonal dynamics in a simulated prison. International Journal of Criminology and Penology, 1, 69-97.
Milgram, S. (1963). Behavioral Study of Obedience. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 67 (4), 371 -- 378
Milgram, S. (1974). Obedience to authority: An experimental view. New York: Harper Collins.
Packer, D.P. (2008). Identifying systematic disobedience in Milgram's obedience experiments: A meta-analytic review. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 301-304,
In the first post-World War decade, Maya Deren stood out among her experimental filmmaking contemporaries by collaborating with her husband Alexander Hammid on one of the most famous of all American avant-garde films, Meshes of the Afternoon (1943) in which a woman portrayed by Deren herself experiences a series of "mysterious encounters with a hooded figure whose face is in a mirror. She passes through chambers, splits into several personalities and eventually dies" (490). In this instance, the abstract imagery used in this film is focused upon the mirror which reflects the personalities of Deren, much like the common theme of Jekyll and Hyde, a type of doppleganger construction. This film also projects a dream structure, meaning that the images of part of the dream state and lie beyond reality. Deren also experimented with psychodramas which contain strong cues for the audience that "the images are projections of the heroine's…
Danks, Adrian. (2006). "The Silent Village." Senses of Cinema. Internet. Retrieved November 9, 2008 at http://www.sensesofcinema.com/contents/cteq/06/41/silent-village.html .
Documentary and Experimental Cinema in the Post War Era: 1945 -- Mid -- 1960's." Chapter 21.
Williams, Deane. (2002). "Robert Flaherty." Senses of Cinema. Internet. Retrieved November 9, 2008 at http://www.sensesofcinema.com/contents/directors/02/flaherty.html .
This study seeks to answer the question of what individual treatment modes have been found to be the effective for treating this population as stated by the study. Complementing that question is the fact that the study is also attempting to determine whether certain treatments are more effective than other treatments for adolescent boys between the ages of 14 -- 16 who have been diagnosed with conduct disorder. In order to ascertain if one of the proposed treatments is more effective than the other, the study is collecting qualitative and quantitative data which will then be analyzed by the researchers. In addition to the collection of data, variables will be presented and tested using a variety of methodologies.
One method that will be employed by the study is the experimental design most commonly referred to as a factorial design method. The factorial design method is a methodology that…
Ducharme, J.M. & Shecter, C.; (2011) Bridging the gap between clinical and classroom intervention: Keystone approaches for students with challenging behavior, School Psychology Review, Vol. 40, Issue 2, pp. 257-274
Everitt, H.A.; Moss-Morris, R.E.; Sibelli, A.; Tapp, L.; Coleman, N.S.; Yardley, L.; Smith, P.W.; Little, P.S.; (2010) Management of irritable bowel syndrome in primary care: Feasibility randomized controlled trial of mebeverine, methylcellulose, placebo and a patient self-management cognitive behavioral therapy website, BMC Gastroenterology, Vol. 10, pp. 136 -- 144
Nair, V.; Strecher, V.; Fagerlin, A.; Ubel, P.; Resnicow, K.; Murphy, S.; Little, R.; Chakraborty, B.; Zhang, A.; Screening experiments and the use of fractional factorial designs in behavioral intervention research, American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 98, Issue 8, pp. 1354-1359
esearch Method and Design Proposal
A research design is the approach utilized for a study used as a guide in gathering and analyzing data. There are two popular methods of research; qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research is an inductive, holistic, subjective, and process-oriented method technique employed to understand, interpret, describe, and establish a theory on a given topic, phenomena, or setting. Investigators employ this technique when their studies attempt to describe life experiences and give them meaning. In most cases, the method has associations with words, language and experiences, rather than measurements, statistics and numerical figures. When the investigators use this method, they adapt a person centered, and holistic view to comprehend the given phenomenal without focusing on particular concepts. In addition, this method is dynamic and developmental, and it does not employ the use of formal structured instruments (Hodkinson, 2009).
Most importantly, qualitative data methods…
Bickman, L. (2008). Chapter 1 Applied research design: A practical approach. Retrieved from http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/23770_Ch1.pdf
Grimes, A.D., & Schulz, F.K. (2002). Descriptive studies: What they can do and cannot do.
Lancet, 359, 145-149.
Hofferth, S.L. (2005). Secondary data analysis in family research. Journal of Marriage and Family, 67, 891 -- 907.
Therefore, it will be the teacher's responsibility to streamline the use of a standard bike pump and the erection of a launch tube, ensuring that this common denominator does not impact differently any group's experimental design.
Using a wide open space such as a soccer field which is not in the direct proximity of any structures or populated areas, groups could affix their respective design to the launch tube and retain it by tethering it to a length of twine. The student selected as the launch captain for each group would stand at a distance of at least 20 feet with the free end of the string at hand while another student from the group, selected as Ground Control, would activate the bike pump. Upon the point at which the compressed air reaches the top of the water bottle and pressure begins to build, the launch captain would release the…
Johnson, D. (1998). Water Rocket Annex. Dog Rockets. Online at http://dogrocket.home.mindspring.com/WaterRockets/index.html
Mazza, D. (2005). All About Water Rockets. NASA. Online at http://exploration.grc.nasa.gov/education/rocket/BottleRocket/about.htm
Wikipedia. (2009). Water Rocket. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
Wikipedia1. (2009). Newton's Laws of Motion. Wikimedia, Ltd. Inc.
social science researchers have a number of different types of research designs available to them, including observational studies, correlational research, developmental designs, survey research and experimental designs (Neuman, 2009). This paper reviews the literature concerning quantitative survey research and experimental designs to provide a comparison of their similarities and differences, including their respective processes for selecting an appropriate population sample. In addition, a description of a respective strength and limitation of each design is followed by a conclusion that can be drawn from this comparison. Finally, an explanation concerning ethical, legal, and social-cultural considerations that may be relevant for these designs is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning survey and experimental research designs in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Two similarities and two differences between the survey and experimental research
Survey and experimental research both use data in the form of numbers rather than qualitative…
De Vaus, D. (2002). Surveys in social research. London: UCL Press.
Grinnell, R. M. Jr. & Unrau, Y. A. (2005). Social work research and evaluation: Quantitative and qualitative approaches. New York: Oxford University Press.
McConville, M. & Chui, W. H. (2007). Research methods for law. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
Neuman, W. L. (2009). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 6th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
gender discrepancies in regards to African-American education. There has been a noticeable, growing increase of the presence of African-American women in undergraduate and graduate education while the gap between African-American males and females has widened. The dissertation will use a mixed methods, grounded theory perspective to determine why this is the case. The overall theoretical perspective of the work will be rooted in critical race theory and poststructuralist concepts.
Quantitatively assessed questionnaires and coded qualitative interviews will attempt to answer the question of why African-American male participation in higher education lags behind that of African-American females. These trends will be contextualized in the overall, larger trend of increased female participation as a whole on the undergraduate and graduate levels, to the point that women are now graduating in greater numbers than their male colleagues.
As well as research questions specific to the dissertation, the relative merits of qualitative and quantitative…
Charmaz, Kathy. (2003). Grounded theory. The SAGE Encyclopedia of Social Science Research Methods. Sage. Retrieved from:
The gender gap. (2012). Journal of Blacks in Higher Education. Retrieved from:
The Challenges of Dual Credit: A Research Proposal
Dual credit or dual enrollment programs “are designed to boost college access and degree attainment, especially for students typically underrepresented in higher education,” (United States Department of Education, 2017, p. 1). With this lofty goal set, it should seem that dual credit programs would be reducing the educational achievement gap. After all, dual credit programs by definition allow all students the opportunity to potentially shorten the amount of time they spend in college, thereby reducing their tuition fees that enable the completion of a degree program. Yet recent research shows that college enrollment and completion gaps may be getting wider, based both on ethnicity and on socioeconomic class (Gewertz, 2017). The results of the RAND study reported by Gewertz (2017) may not be applicable specifically to the state of Hawaii, and yet educational attainment disparities do continue to exist and…
Attributes of a Well-Designed case report form
An informative footer and header are some of the components of a case report form (CRF) that is well-referenced. A good footer or header contains information such as page number, date of printing, subject initials, subject ID, protocol number and sponsor ID. These pieces of information identify the CRF page in a unique manner.
All the CRF booklet's pages ought to be numbered sequentially. This assists in the identification of manual review and data validation queries. Where there is just a single cumulative log page or unscheduled assessment being printed, one can insert a sequence number in the footer so that the pages being photocopied can easily be sequentially identified. A CRF that is well designed in the case of data collection in a laboratory would capture all the essential parameters linking to the central laboratory. Where the study takes place…
Bellary, S., Krishnankutty, B., & Latha, M. (2014). Basics of case report form designing in clinical research. NCBI, 159-166.
CCRNCI. (n.d.). Clinical Data Management. Retrieved from crrod.cancer.gov: https://ccrod.cancer.gov/confluence/download/attachments/71041052/CDM.pdf
Clinical Trial Designs. (n.d.). Retrieved from onlinecourses.science.psu.edu: https://onlinecourses.science.psu.edu/stat509/book/export/html/18
DHHS. (2013). Oversight of Clinical Investigations -- A Risk-Based Approach to Monitoring. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration.
gap, problem, purpose, Q's, method, design, and analysis?
According to Hickman (et al.) in the 2008 article "The differential developmental pathways of high school dropouts and graduates" from the Journal of Educational esearch, the concern about the gap in achievement between high school graduates and non-graduates has long been a concern of educators and educational policy-makers alike. The peer-reviewed study posed two essential research questions to address the problem of low high school retention rates: first, do differences in the educational development of high school graduates and dropouts exist early on in their elementary school careers and secondly, if differences do exist, "where in time and across which variables do these differences occur" (Hickman et al. 2008: 2). The study attempts to address a 'research gap' in the existing literature regarding the focus on the secondary school careers of high school graduates. Focusing on the problems students encounter in high…
Hickman (et al. 2008). The differential developmental pathways of high school dropouts and graduates. Journal of Educational Research
Nachmias and Nachmias (2008) indicate that the quasi-experimental design allows researchers the opportunity to use intact comparison groups and "straight forward comparative statistical analyses" to explore variables and their correlations. In an effort to better understand the continuing and persistent social problem of high school dropouts, Hickman, Bartholomew, and Mathwig (2005) conducted a quasi-experiment contrast group design with purposive random sampling to explore the differential developmental pathways of high school graduates and those who drop out. Hickman, et al., (2008) focus their research on the development process over an extended period of time, attempting to locate "markedly different" patterns related to academic performance and experiences in the educational
Accept This Conclusion?
This conclusion is spurious because there are too many potential intervening variables. For one, the students are enrolled and being taught at two different schools. There is no mention of their ages, grade levels, background, or any other pertinent data that could affect reading habits or scores on reading tests. Any number of factors could influence their literacy levels, including demographic issues and the reading resources available at their respective schools.
Second, there is no definition of terms or operational definitions that would be critical for clarifying issues related to literacy. Simply noting that the word method and phonics method were being used is not specific enough. The researchers need to indicate what tools and techniques are being used, in what manner, and in which classrooms, in order to classify one group as "word" and one as "phonics." Finally, the participants were not given a pre-assessment of…
As such the research investigator is obliged to set for a research question that asks whether or not the application of a treatment will affect the outcome of a selected measurement variable. The stated research purpose of the Blanzola investigation was to determine whether or not a nursing internship program at a U.S. naval hospital would effect the core competencies of those nurses who attended the internship program vs. those nurse who did not attend. Although the purpose of the study was clearly defined the authors failed to format the research purpose into a well-defined research question followed by a properly stated testable null hypothesis. Blanzola and her two co-authors, in following best-fit research protocol should have stated the research question as follows: To what extent will participation in a naval hospital internship program affect the level of core competency attainment by those nurses who participate in the internship program…
experimental method, otherwise known as quantitative research or laboratory study, is to formulate a hypotheses, to collect the data, and test this hypotheses according to scientific principles that obstruct, as carefully as possible, bias, and then to analyze this data using statistical measures. The experimental method uses random sampling as part of its discourse.
Practical considerations usually limit the amount of control we have in structuring experiments, for instance we cannot always hope to randomize; we sometimes (more usually) often have to make do with the sample of participants given. This is when quasi-experimentation is employed.
This particular study is a quasi-experiment
Levels of measurement of the variables
There were two levels / conditions: (1) inquiry-based science curriculum and (ii) an inquiry-based science curriculum and reading strategy instruction
Types of statistics used to analyze the data and generate results
Three types of relevant psychological instruments were used to measure science…
Fang, Y. & Wei, Z. (2010) Improving Middle School Students'Science Literacy Through Reading Infusion The Journal of Educational Research, 103:262 -- 273,
Hough David L. & Schmitt Vicki L. (2011) An ex post facto examination of relationships among the developmental designs professional development model
Middle Grades Research Journal, 6(3), 163 -- 175
A number of daily newspapers reports tales concerning leaders who have failed to deliver the anticipated results. Many people are delighted by leaders who produce the desired results. Moreover, these leaders are frequently commemorated because of their exemplary work. These successful leaders are often imitated by several people. In addition, several people perfect on the conduct of these successful leaders. The daily newspapers and even radio and television stations makes it a habit of sharing vital information regarding a successful leader who has just passed on. Those individuals in a society who usually compel others to attain certain objectives within a society are usually listened to and respected by others. Many articles in newspapers are usually designed to offer worthwhile information concerning how well individuals can become effectual leaders in the society. The main information includes how an individual should be attentive and how s/he ought to unite with his/her…
Adams, J., & Kirst, M. (1999). New demands and concepts for educational accountability:
Striving for results in an era of excellence. In J. Murphy & L. Seashore (Eds.), Handbook
of Research on Educational Administration. 2 nd ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Barbuto, J.E. (2005). Motivation and transactional, charismatic, and transformational leadership: a test of antecedents. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 11(4), 26-40.
dosage levels of Cholestease on Serum Cholesterol levels and the side effects associated with them in human beings.
Cholesterol has been a major media issue in recent years, especially the negative effects on the heart and its role in the development of heart disease. There have been many studies that indicate a connection between serum cholesterol heart disease and depression (1-3). Developing new methods to lower serum cholesterol has become a major industry in recent years. Currently the leaders in the industry are American Pharmaceutical giants, Pfizer, Merck, and Warner-Lambert (1), who have developed medications that lower cholesterol.
The Endicon corporation recognizes the potential market in developing a drug that will significantly lower serum cholesterol without the side effects associated with long-term use of the drugs currently on the market. In addition, we recognize the potential of developing a ritish Product, primarily marketed in Great ritain. Endicon has been conducting…
Clarke, R. et al. (1997) Dietary lipids and blood cholesterol: quantitative meta-analysis of metabolic ward studies. Brit. Med. J 314 p.112-117.
Howell, W. et al. (1997) Plasma lipid and lipoprotein responses to dietary fat and cholesterol: a meta-analysis. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 65 p.1747-1764.
Hudson, M. (2003) How Cholesterol Affects the Body. BurnBraeFarms.com. (Online at ( http://www.burnbraefarms.com/nutrition/cholesterolnews.pdf ) Accessed June 4, 2003.
Kronmal, R. et al. (1993)Total Serum Cholesterol Levels and Mortality Risk as a function of Age, A report based on the Framingham Data. Arch. Intern.Med. 153 p. 1065-1073.
sound technologies and sound design in Film
Sound in films
Experiments in Early Age
Commercialization of sound cinema: U.S., Europe, and Japan
Unified sound in film production
Sound designers in Cinematography
Sound Recording Technologies
History of Sound Recording Technology
Film sound technology
Modern Digital Technology
History of sound in films
Sound Recording Technologies
The film industry is a significant beneficiary of performing arts. The liberal arts combined with latest techniques and advancements experienced a number of stages. The introduction of films and sound in films was a significant development of its times. The introduction of first film along with sound was a unique event and it revolutionized the industry in such a way that it influenced every individual related to the industry to start thinking on creative and innovative grounds for improvements. The stages of films can be identified as silent films…
Alten, SR 2008, Audio In Media, Thomson Wadsworth, USA.
Altman, R 2004, Silent Film Sound, Columbia University Press, USA.
Ballou, G 2008, Handbook for sound engineers, Focal Press, USA.
Beck, J & Grajeda, T 2008, Lowering the boom: critical studies in film sound, University of Illinois Press.
With respect to the McGuckin studies neither randomization nor sample selection is ever discussed. In fact sampling per se is not presented except for cursory mention in the results section. Again, without proper identification as to the sampling method implemented, the reader is ever cautious as to how legitimate the results will be. Not wanting to pre-empt the discussion on statistical methodology, mention must be made at this time with respect to the Poisson egression statistical tool selected for use in these two studies in terms of sampling. This particular regression technique, if utilized properly, requires the sample size to be determined on the basis of the square root transformation of the Poisson random variables. More specifically, the formula for calculating the sample size of the Poisson variables is as follows:
The data received from this calculation will give the research investigator the number of sampling units per…
Armitage P. And Berry, G. (1994) Statistical Methods in Medical Research (3 rd edition).
London: Blackwell Publishing.
Connor, E.F., Hosfield, E., Meeter, D. And X. Nui. (1997). Tests for aggregation and size-based sample-unit selection when sample units vary in size. Ecology 78: 1238 -1249.
Corning, S.P. (2002). Profiling and developing nursing leaders. Journal of Nursing
M.S. Advanced Architectural Design
Office of Architecture Admissions
To the Admissions Committee.
As the son of an architect, my exposure to artistic forms and cultural designs began at an early age; my decision to become an architect was of course quite natural. The study of Architectural Engineering at Han Yang University in Seoul, South Korea broadened my knowledge on theory and I soon realized that my perspectives were changing. When I began working at my father's architectural firm I quickly decided to become a designer and theorist architect instead of an engineer. This desire soon led me to the Southern California Institute of Architecture, where I successfully completed an Architectural Degree.
When I began my studies at SCI, my knowledge in the field was limited, but as time passed and the course work became increasingly difficult, I thought of quitting, due to feeling that I was not qualified. As a…
What is Environmental Design Research?
Design and art can accept scientific principles
Environmental Design Research (EDR) = the study of the mutual relationships between human beings and the physical environment at all scales, and applications of the knowledge thus gained to improving the quality of life through better informed environmental policy, planning, design, and education. (passive and active definition)
EDR is related to many other areas of the social sciences
EDR is NOT:
building science or structural engineering
Eg. An architect does research to apply to a single building project, but EDR applies research to things like job satisfaction and other measurable results that advance the whole field.
Basic Research (generation, discovery of knowledge)
Applied Research (answering specific questions related to specific social policy or context)
Research Applications (apply research to policy, plans, designs)
**Must communicate results to policy/professional applications
EDR = Environmental Psychology =…
Reintegrating job design and career theory: Creating not just good jobs but smart jobs explores the relationship between how a job is designed and its effect on a person's overall career development. This is accomplished by discussing Career Theory and its relationship to Job Design, but also by reversing the thought process and exploring the relationship between Job Design and Career Theory. Finally the authors use their research and recommend a course of action: the creation of jobs that are both designed to provide personal fulfillment but also aid in the development of a long-term career.
The authors begin the article with a review of the relevant research that has already been conducted on the subject with a view towards how the fields of Job Design and Career Theory came to be. They also discuss the relationship between the terms "job" and "career;" how both relate to a person's work…
Hall, Douglas T., and Miera Las Heras. "Reintegrating job design and career theory:
Creating not just good jobs but smart jobs." Journal of Organizational Behavior
31 (2010): 448-462. Web. 15 Feb. 2014.
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
Validity, in essence, has got to do with the extent to which a given research study measures the accuracy of a specific concept – effectively meaning that a study can be said to have passed the validity test if it accurately mirrors that which the researchers set about to investigate. In quantitative research, as Polit and Beck (2012) point out, “researchers strive to design studies that are strong with respect to all four types of study validity” (p. 303). As the authors further point out, while an attempt to enhance one kind of validity may benefit another form of validity, efforts to ensure one kind of validity sometimes end up interfering with the achievement of other validity types. The four kinds of validity to be taken into consideration in the review of a research design are identified as external validity, internal validity, construct validity, and statistical conclusion validity (Balnaves and…
If customers are satisfied with the services and convenience that a business provides them, a business will most likely have a desirable income. Aside from this, there is a great chance that the business will gain more customers.
Self-Checkout service is also advantageous for businesses during peak hours or peak seasons. During hours when there are many customers and the service staff are not enough to attend to their needs, self-checkout systems can provide an alternative. erman Evans, from his Retail, Management: A Strategic Approach, indicates the following other advantages of self-checkout systems.
There are quite a number of manufacturers of self-checkout systems nowadays. Following are some of the software/hardware companies that develop self-checkout systems for different companies.
Optimal Robotics Corp.
One of the leaders in Self-Checkout Systems industry and is the leading supplier of self-checkout systems in North America (FashionWindows Online, 2002).…
Evans, B. Retail Management: A Strategic Approach. http://mgtclass.mgt.unm.edu/mids/shul/Berman_ch_02.ppt.
Griffin, J., Mayer, K. (2004). World's First Hybrid Self-Checkout Installed in METRO Group's RFID Innovation Center. http://www.ncr.com/media_information/2004/aug/pr080904.htm
Wolfrom, K. (2001). Self-Checkout: Who's Got Control?
Predictors of the Transition From Experimental to Daily Smoking Among Adolescents in the United States
By reviewing the methodology and analysis sections of the study, I discovered that the quantitative method used was a complex sampling design with restricted-use data. The authors of the study used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health as their focus, so they had the opportunity to study a large amount of data without being required to collect it from survey participants or interviews (Park, Weaver, & omer, 2009). Examined were strata at the individual student level and schools as clusters, as well as the subjects and their unique selection criteria (Park, Weaver, & omer, 2009). There were 134 schools and 90,000 students participating. Each of those students filled out a 45-minute questionnaire regarding expectations for the future, their friendships, and their health (Park, Weaver, & omer, 2009).
I found that the covariates,…
Denzin, N.K., & Lincoln, Y.S. (2011). The SAGE Handbook of qualitative research ( 4th ed.). CA: Sage Publications.
Franklin, M.I. (2012). Understanding research: Coping with the quantitative-qualitative divide. London/New York: Routledge
Gorard, S. (2013) Research design: Robust approaches for the social sciences. London: SAGE
Park, S., Weaver, T.E., & Romer, D. (2009). Predictors of the transition from experimental to daily smoking among adolescents in the United States. JSPN, 14(2): 102-111.
This lighting component is connected by the "IR receiver/sensor to the dimming ballast...[which]...provides the control to change the lamp's lumen output." (Richman, 2005)
Another lighting system introduced by Knisley is one that "features a manual override of automated fluorescent lighting settings through use of a wall-mounted control, an infrared handheld remote control device, or a PC workstation." (Knisley, 2005) This system is capable of implementing natural daylight where available which is known as "daylight harvesting" and a strategy which utilizes "ceiling-mounted photocells to measure the changing contribution of daylight and then compares this light level to an established level of light in a room. The controller responds by dimming or brightening the fluorescent lighting to sustain the desired level. The controller is compatible only with specific manufacturer's electronic fluorescent dimming ballasts." (Knisley, 2008) Knisley describes yet another system which combines "fixtures, user controls, and digital communications and as an alternative…
G.R. (1995). Quantifying lighting quality based on experimental investigations of end user performance and preference. In Proceedings of Right Light Three, the Third European Conference on Energy-Efficient Lighting, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England, June 18-21, 1995 (Vol. 1, pp. 119-127). Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK: Northern-Electric PLC National Research Council Canada.
Hogrege, Mark (2008) Putting Light Where it's Needed: The Benefits of Task Lighting. DAZOR. National Association of Independent Lighting Distributors, Inc. Online available at http://www.dazor.com/benefits.html
How Can Full-Spectrum Lighting Sources Be Compared? (2005) Lighting Research Institute. Vol. 7 Issue 5 March 2005. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute March 2005.
How valid are the claims regarding full-spectrum light sources? (2005) Lighting Research Institute. Vol. 7 Issue 5 March 2005. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute March 2005.
ut science is about stepping stones: the creation of theories and hypothesis, and the testing of these hypotheses with empiricism. If these theories fail, then additional hypotheses have to be proposed. During the process of the testing these hypothesis, experimentalists will find evidence based that will enable to fine tuning of the hypothesis, and the process carries on. Indeed, most of quantum theory is hinged on the Uncertainty principle put forward by Werner Heisenberg. What apt that it be named the Uncertainty principle.
Eventually, one hopes that some consensus will come between those that support graduated equilibrium vs. phyletic gradualism in terms of evolution of species. Or a new theory will develop and come to the fore, if new fossil evidence comes to light. ut that does not mean that we subscribe to the watchmaker theory. William Paley, an eighteenth century moral theorist, philosopher and religious conservative, was perhaps the…
Asimov, Isaac. The Roving Mind. Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, 1983.
Behe, Michael J., and T.D. Singh. God, Intelligent Design & Fine-Tuning. Kolkata: Bhaktivedanta Institute, 2005.
Brennan, S. Edwards, Governor of Louisiana, Et Al. V. Aguillard Et Al. 1987. UMKC. Available:
http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/edwards.html. April19 2008.
As a result, only one-third of the participants actually fulfilled their role during the course of the year (Melin & Lenner, 2009). Typically, parents failed to appear at previously arranged joint meetings with the nurses and their children; likewise, two-thirds of the subjects failed to complete all of the elements of the program as expected. Second, the fact that the subjects grew and developed physiologically during the period of the study complicated reliance on BMI as a measure of outcomes. Third, the prospect of stigmatization associated with participation proved to be a barrier to full participation. In that regard, most of the student subjects reported negative responses on the part of classmates and peers (Melin & Lenner, 2009).
esults, elevance, and Implications
Overall, those subjects who adhered to the entire program did exhibit positive results by reducing their BMI after factoring in their normal physiological growth (Melin & Lenner, 2009).…
Anna Melin and Ragnhild Arvidsson Lenner. "Prevention of further weight gain in overweight school children, a pilot study." Scandinavian Journal of Caring
Sciences, Vol. 23; (2009): 498 -- 505.
Lighting, temperature and other environmental factors were indistinguishable among the rooms.
Subjects in T1 were allowed to play with toys for forty-five minutes before the vocabulary lesson began. Subjects in T2 and T3 were given forty-five minutes to complete their puzzles.
At the beginning of the actual treatment, subjects in T2 and T3 were encouraged to ask for assistance if they needed any.
T2 subjects were given positive feedback from researchers even when negative feedback was warranted, such as being unable to complete the easy puzzle in forty-five minutes. Researchers were instructed to say encouraging, affirmative things to subjects even when subjects were having no problems with the puzzles, such as "You're making fine progress!" "Good job!" "I know you can do it!" "That's looking great!" And so forth. Further, researchers were instructed to make these comments loudly enough for them to be overheard by the most distant subject.
structured analysis of an experimental study by Buller et al. (2004), which describes a randomized statistical trial of two types of medication that were used to treat a blood disorder. The two types of medication used were called Fondaparinux and Enoxaparin. The blood disorder being treated was called Symptomatic Deep Venous Thrombosis. We will be analyzing the 2004 study to highlight the experiment's use of selected statistical methods that are commonly taught in introductory Statistics. These include (in sequence) measures of central tendency, measures of variation, the standard normal distribution, and a review of the study's conclusions. The term sample may be used interchangeably with the term data set, to refer to a limited number of values or measurements that have been taken from an overall population.
The primary methods of central tendency employed in statistics include three parameters known as the mean, median and mode. The mean, or average,…
Buller, H.R., Davidson, B.L., Decousus, H., Gallus, A., Gent, M., Piovella, F., Prins, M.H., et al. (2004). Fondaparinux or Enoxaparin for the Initial Treatment of Symptomatic Deep Venous Thrombosis. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140(11), 867 -873.
Human Factors and Interior Space Design
The objective of this work in writing is to summarize the article entitled "The Relation of Human Factors and Interior Space Design." This article begins by noting the importance of the human having tools that fit them well and that this was realized early in the development of the human species. Specifically, this article notes that Australopithecus Prometheus "selected pebble tools and made scoops from antelope bones in a clear display of selecting/creating objects to make tasks easier to accomplish." (p.3) Over the centuries there was improvement in the effectiveness of the tools as discovered by anthropologists and archaeologists including tools such as hammers, plows and axes. During the Industrial Revolution, more advanced machines were developed that assisted man with his work including such as the spinning Jenny and the rolling mills.
The methodology utilized in the study under review is reported to have…
ridge Design and Engineering
ridges are an integral but often overlooked part of today's commuting society. Most drivers feel completely secure and grounded when on any well-designed bridge, even though they may in fact be hundreds of feet in the air above a large gap or body of water. ridges are not only functional for travel, but may be the key to growth and survival of many areas that would otherwise remain in isolation. ridges also have a way of becoming important historical and artistic landmarks, and many bridges receive engineering and even artistic awards. Many cities like San Francisco, for example, are as recognizable by the their bridges as by any other city landmark. There are many different kinds of bridges used today. Three of the more common and interesting types of bridge in common usage today is the suspension bridge, the cable stayed bridge, and the reinforced concrete…
Cable Stayed Bridge." Super Bridge. NOVA. 1997. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/bridge/meetcable.html
Caprani, Colin. "Cable Stay Bridge History." Cable Stay Bridges. Thesis. http://www.clubi.ie/ccaprani/thesis/
Christien, et al. "Suspension Bridge." Wikipedia. 2003-2004. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspension_bridge
Concrete Arch Bridges."
Graphic Design Comparison
Graphic design has the power to shape our world and reflect our history. This is abundantly clear when examining two works of graphic design over a century apart. This paper will examine the similarities and difference between the handbill for the excursion tickets to Baltimore of 1876 and Paula Scher’s poster for the Public Theatre.
One major similarity between these two posters that have over 100 years of difference between them is that they both employ a visually arresting typography. Both posters use a font that is recognizable but hard to identify and depend on the use of large words given to words considered most important. “The 1995 posters Pentagram designed for The Public Theater’s production of Savion Glover’s Bring in 'Da Noise, Bring in 'Da Funk featured the wood typefaces used throughout The Public's identity” (Pentagram.com). In the case of the handbill, the largest and most important word…
Benefit Plan Design Analysis
Select and profile an organization for the benefit plan
Extraordinary and above average people are recruited by ABC. Their task force possesses a number of exceptional skills and many of them are graduates of top universities or possess professional qualifications. One of the most interesting things about ABC is that it is continually trying to make the organization host to an increasingly global platform that employs people coming from various nationalities and cultures. This way, it makes sure that the creme de la creme of the task force is employed in the organization that is not afraid of taking on challenges. Also, the organization then comes up to their expectation by providing a healthy and competitive corporate culture.
Staff that is new to the ABC organization undergoes a series of sessions whose themes range from personal mentoring to formal training. The training is imparted by their…
Fronstin, Paul. "Sources of Health Insurance and Characteristics of the Uninsured: Updated Analysis of the March 2008 Current Population Survey." EBRI Issue Brief, no. 321 (Employee Benefit Research Institute, September 2008).
Experimental Design Worksheet
This study will test the contention of Hall (2016) that Internet use is inversely correlated with happiness. In his study of Internet use, Hall found that the longer individuals spent online per day, the lower their measures of personal satisfaction. This study will attempt to further explore Hall's findings, namely to determine if specific types of Internet use (social media versus research-based use) are more likely to have a negative impact on adolescent's moods. Adolescence is often noted as a particularly fraught time in most individual's personal history and a crucial period of self-definition. Adolescents are also believed to be at higher risk for online bullying, Internet addiction, or simply using the Internet as a frequent form of communication and social connection. The study will also refine Hall's broad definition of happiness/unhappiness by assessing student's self-esteem, locus of control, and levels of depression.
Hall R.H. (2016) Internet…
Dennis and O'Connor (2013) utilized mixed design consisting of a correlational design (a non-experimental quantitative study) and two qualitative case studies to answer the following three research questions:
Is there an association between the classroom process quality and the organizational climate?
Are there different associations between classroom process quality and the overall organizational climate vs. The relational organizational climate?
Do associations between the overall organizational climate, the relational organizational climate, and the classroom process quality vary as a function of the teacher (specifically the teacher's education and experience)?
Thus the variables in the study were measures of classroom process quality, organizational climate, relational organizational climate, and teacher's education and experience. The participants were 37 teachers and 40 directors from community-based preschool centers. Classroom quality was measured by 23 items from The Early Childhood Environment ating Scale -- evised. The survey requires raters (five were used) and inter-rater reliability was established…
Dennis, S.E., & O'Connor, E. (2013). Reexamining quality in early childhood education:
Exploring the relationship between the organizational climate and the classroom. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 27(1), 74-92.
LaForett, D.R., & Mendez, J.L. (2010). Parent involvement, parental depression, and program satisfaction among low-income parents participating in a two-generation early childhood education program. Early Education and Development, 21(4), 517-535.
If Mary wants to study the impact of background noise level on sixth grader learning in a math lesson, the independent variable is the background noise condition. Mary has decided to use a t-test, which means that she will only have two conditions that differ from one another (“T Test (Student’s T-Test),” n.d.). In this case, the experimental condition would be high background noise (measured by decibel level perhaps), and the control condition would be low background noise (also measured by decibel level).
The independent variable in this experiment would be learning in a mathematics lesson. Learning can be assessed using a number of different instruments appropriate to the specific lesson, with a simple quantifiable quiz the most appropriate. A quiz that had absolute right or wrong answers, whether by solving a math problem or answering multiple choice questions, would help to standardize the results and minimize bias.…
Interactive Tutorial Effective?
Tutorials are integral to learning new technologies or procedures, from learning how to use a new software application to learning how to speak a new language. Therefore, it is important to know what factors determine the effectiveness of a particular tutorial. Empirical evidence and experimental research can be used to assess tutorial effectiveness, as learning can be objectively measured. Tutorial designers can improve their products by using empirical research to base their user interfaces, interactivity levels, instructional exercises, length of lessons, and hardware platform flexibility.
Effective tutorial design is critical not just for the user experience, but also to the effectiveness and accessibility of the product. This proposal identifies and evaluates the factors that help determine the effectiveness of a tutorial, with the ultimate goal of helping developers design successful interactive tutorials that they can integrate into products and services. Specifically, our research will focus on interactive…
Anderson, Rozalynd P. and Wilson, Stephen P. "Quantifying the Effectiveness of Interactive Tutorials in Medical Library Instruction." Medical Reference Services Quarterly Vol. 28, Issue 1, Spring 2009, pp. 10-21.
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The centralized church, "of circular or polygonal plan, with one large central space, usually with a dome overhead" became more popular in the Middle Ages. First came Romanesque and then Gothic churches, in the form of works such as Notre Dame and the Royal Abbey of Saint Denis ("Church," Encarta, 2009). The new church designs housed a congregation within their center halls and contained high, arching ceilings that seemed to reach upwards to God. They were "roofed with arching sheets of stone, the Romanesque with arches and vaults of semicircular form, the Gothic with pointed elements" ("Church," Encarta, 2009).
However, domes and Greek crosses continue to fascinate church architects: for example, Christopher ren, the designer of St. Paul's Cathedral created "a domed church of great openness designed in a restrained style that combines elements of Neoclassical, Gothic, and Baroque architecture," marrying older and daring conceptions from antiquity with Eastern-style domes…
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It is often easier to impose this sort of control in a laboratory setting. Thus, true experiments have often been erroneously identified as laboratory studies" (Woolf, 2012). True experiments rigidly control for validity by attempting to isolate variables so that only a single independent variable is studies. The independent variable "is the variable that the experimenter manipulates in a study. It can be any aspect of the environment that is empirically investigated for the purpose of examining its influence on the dependent variable" (Woolf, 2012). Furthermore in true experiments, the subjects are randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. Finally, true experiments are double blind, which means that neither the experimenter nor the subjects know whether the subjects are in the experimental or control groups (Woolf, 2012).
True experiments differ from experimental designs in the level of control that exists in each different type of research. An experimental design,…
Brogan, R. (Unk.). Single case design and small n research. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Psychometrics website: http://www.psychmet.com/id15.html
Lund Research Ltd. (2012). Descriptive and inferential statistics. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Laerd Statistics website: https://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php
Woolf, L. (2012). Research methods. Retrieved April 9, 2012 from Webster University
Although every research setting will be unique in some fashion, there are some generalities involved in content analysis that can be followed by novice researchers. For example, according to Riffe, Lacy and Fico (2005), "Usually, but not always, content analysis involves drawing representative samples of content. The data collected in a quantitative content analysis are then usually analyzed to describe what are typical patterns or characteristics, or to identify important relationships among the variables measured" (p. 2).
Narrative analysis. This research methodology considers the narrative stories provided by narrators as representing their authentic social reality (Etherington, 2004). According to Etherington, "Narrative analysis views life as constructed and experienced through the telling and re-telling of the story, and the analysis is the creation of a coherent and resonant story" (2004, p. 81). Narrative analyses is not intended to identify commonalties or conceptual themes among narrative accounts, but rather relies on the…
Correlational research. This type of research identifies and evaluates the natural relationship that exists between different variables. According to Groat and Wang, "This characteristic means that it is particularly appropriate in circumstances when variables either cannot be manipulated for practical reasons or should not be manipulated for ethical reasons" (2003, p. 244).
Developmental designs. This type of research is used to measure changes that occur over lengthy periods of time (Developmental research, 2012). For example, a developmental design would be suitable for analyzing the differences in academic and social development in low-income vs. high-income neighborhoods. This research design is most common when working with children as subjects and can be undertaken using several methods: longitudinal, cross sectional, and cross sequential (Developmental research, 2012).
Survey research. Survey research collects data from a large number of respondents in an attempt to gain a better understanding about this sample as a whole (Grinnel & Unrau, 2005). According to Grinnel and Unrau, "It is essential, therefore, that survey research procedures produce data that is accurate, reliable, and representative so that findings can be generalized from a sample to the larger population or to different research situations" (p. 272). One of the main strengths of survey research concerns its flexibility for data-gathering purposes. De Vaus (2002) notes that, "A survey is not just a particular technique of collecting information: questionnaires are widely used but other techniques, such as structured and in-depth interviews, observation, content analysis and so forth, can also be used in survey research. The distinguishing features of surveys are the form of the data and the method of analysis" (p. 3). This main strength, though, is offset somewhat by the constraints that are inherent in the approach, but these constraints are frequently related to