Should FEMA remain a part of the DHS
The issue that will be addressed in this thesis is whether the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) should remain a part of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). uried among the legislation passed in the aftermath of the September 1 lth terrorist attacks was a provision of H.R. 5005, the Homeland Security Act of 2002, which mandated that the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) be absorbed by the newly created Department of Homeland Security (DHS). It is important to determine whether this adjustment to public policy, made in conjunction with an overall merger of 22 federal agencies under the auspices of the DHS, has had an impact on the way the government responds to natural disasters, terrorist assaults, and other emergency situations.
Rationale/Significance to the field of Public Policy:
FEMA existed as an independent agency from 1979 until the passage of…… [Read More]
Create a team that helps facilitate the design of the full-scale exercise program.
Achieve realism via the recruitment of personnel and the development of specific sites.
Use fake victims to simulate the emergency
Coordinate technologies used in the rescue effort
Create and distribute communications related to the full-scale exercise.
Arrange for and distribute funding
Survey full-scale exercise locations
Back-up planning for needed funding or alternative locations
Apply available funds
Set date and execute
Formal evaluation, involving quantitative surveys
Qualitative analysis, performed by qualified personnel
Observations and recordings
Summary reports and press releases
5. Future planning.
FEMA (2010). "Community Hazards Emergency esponse-Capability Assurance Process (CHE-CAP) Fact Sheet." etrieved online: http://www.fema.gov/plan/prepare/cher_capfs.shtm
FEMA (2010). "The Full-Scale Exercise." Unit 7. etrieved online: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:ipX8BxuFZzMJ:training.fema.gov/emiweb/downloads/is139Unit7.doc+fema+full+scale&hl=en&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShjZyZU7B8OhFQrCgF_hD2EwytJP -- TDFNQFNfQ4vBFVV1q83jm4HriKO0AqkLSoaAk1K0S-nlnKnh6fBXuWoWQxeA71yfMoO4tT2ocfJyrNHapQu6LtglbCirPsOV2fnhzzAnC&sig=AHIEtbTJ4SgMzI9doGpa9nrIFX-jv4Bfew… [Read More]
The most effective decision-making style a leader can adopt, the one most likely to boost morale especially in stressful or highly charged work environments is sometimes an autocratic style, where the leader maintains control and ownership over all decisions made so that outcomes within an emergent environment are more likely to be predictable (Olmstead, 2002). In cases like this a leader must demonstrate strength, charisma and act in the best interests of all parties involved when problem-solving. Outside of this context, in an ordinary environment when decision-making and problem-solving are important, a leader may also benefit by adopting a more collective leadership style, where members of a group are encouraged to provide their input or ideas about a given situation; however I still believe in the environments we reviewed in this self-study course, even if a leader were to adopt this style and collect information from his or her…… [Read More]
This three-phased approach can prevent many usual emergency situations, reduce the impact of actual disasters and speed return to normal.
2) Disasters such as Hurricane Katrina reinforced miscommunication that occurs when a dedicated incident management system based on the Incident Command System (ICS), is not used throughout the event. Barko (2005) states that National Incident Management Systems (NIMS) recognize that a well-planned and effective emergency response is not completely dependent on the cause, such as natural disasters vs. terrorism, but rather on all-hazards principles of span of control and operational designation of leadership for operations, planning, logistics and finance. A concise, mutual understanding of operational leadership and responsibilities permits integration of different assets to combine in a seamless response package that can save lives, protect property and mitigate additional damage. Implementation steps of a NIMS consist of: Incorporate NIMS into existing training programs and exercises; Ensure that federal preparedness…… [Read More]
Response Partner Guide and the Emergency Support Function Annexes from the NRF
Transportation (e.g., trains, planes, ships)
Through the Emergency Support Function (EFS), the role of transportation and it's support to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is to monitor and manage transportation systems and infrastructure during domestic threats and any responses to an actual incident (Homeland Security, 2008)
Communications supports the restoration of the communications infrastructure, facilitates the recovery of systems and applications from cyber attacks, and coordinates Federal communications support to response efforts during incidents requiring a coordinated Federal response (Homeland Security, 2008). The telecommunications partners must also provide support for communication for the response team.
3.Utilities (e.g., water, electricity, waste disposal)
Public works and Engineering will assist the DHS by monitoring and coordinating capabilities regarding utilities as well as facilitate the delivery of services, technical assistance, engineering expertise, construction management, and other support…… [Read More]
Role of FEMA in the Event of a National Grid Outage
The objective of this study is to examine the role of FEMA in the event of a national grid outage. This will be accomplished through a review of literature in this area of inquiry.
A national grid outage could occur for various reasons including CME flares of the Sun, terrorists attack damaging the grid or weather events that shut the grid down for days, weeks, months, or even longer than a year's time. Should any of these events occur resulting in a national grid outage, FEMA has a critical role to play in responding to such a situation.
FEMA is reported to be charged with providing support to both first responders and U.S. citizens in the event of a disaster and to make sure that "as a nation we work together to build, sustain and improve our…… [Read More]
non-governmental organizations (NGO) provide support during times of emergencies. Your task is to research the various NGOs (at a minimum three such organizations) that provide this support and post your results and cite the source(s) of your information.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is the world's largest humanitarian network and this movement claims to be both neutral and impartial, and provides protection and assistance to people affected by disasters and conflicts through 100 million members, volunteers and supporters in 190 National Societies (IFRC, N.d.). This organization supports various disaster relief and other humanitarian causes such as various development projects by working with governments, other NGOs, disaster survivors, and many other groups. Figure 1 - IFRC Operations (IFRC, N.d.)
Volunteers of America -- this organization is a NGO that includes 16,000 paid staff and 64,000…… [Read More]
Manmade or natural disasters frequently require a timely and coordinated response that may include federal, state and local resources. When a disaster rises to the level of a threat to the national interests, the Federal Emergency Management Agency's Emergency Support Functions are activated. This paper provides a discussion concerning Public Safety Security Annex (ESF-13), including its origin and scope, as well as participants and the operational response to a critical incident of federal interest. Finally, a discussion concerning the respective roles of state and local agencies is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning ESF-13 in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
Origin of ESF-13
The Emergency Support Functions (ESFs) originated as part of the National esponse Framework (NF) and represent the main operational-level mechanisms that are used to organize and deliver assistance in times of need (Emergency Support Functions (ESF) #13, 2015). According to the Federal…… [Read More]
Hurricane ecovery PSA
While governments and authorities try to advise effectively, and take all possible measures to prevent and avoid human casualties and loss of property, they also lay emphasis on the process of recovery after a natural disaster. The recovery process is important to prevent human loss and disease and to again set up their lives.
In this aspect, the National Disaster ecovery Framework provides a flexible structure which helps in the formation of strategies and enables disaster recovery managers to know what they need to do exactly in a collaborative manner. The aim of such disaster recovery efforts is to the finding out of the ways and means that are best to restore, redevelop the health and the social, economic and natural fabric of the community affected by the disaster ("National Disaster ecovery Framework k," 2016).
The National Disaster ecovery Framework has also developed a format that includes…… [Read More]
Earthquake Crisis in Haiti
A country such as Haiti is vulnerable to natural disasters. Following the 2010 earthquake, they have already instituted the necessary capabilities to plan and mitigate such disaster. For instance, they have already upgraded their seismic surveillance networks. Although it is impossible to predict earthquakes where identifiable precursor events precede very few, the networks could speed up emergency response and offer early warnings to the tsunami-prone region. This is achieved by providing the location and intensity of the tremors.
Following a major earthquake in 2010, various local and regional warning system centers have been established (Gursky et al. 2012). The UNESCO's Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission coordinates these centers by setting up regional coordinating teams for Haiti and the adjacent regions. This initiative has been hailed as the most effective warning capacity for the Haiti because the successful response to a disaster entails early warning and timely information of…… [Read More]
Finance and Budgeting
Mission and Goals of the Organization
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is an agency within the Department of Homeland Security. FEMA's stated mission also encompasses its goals. The mission statement is "to support our citizens and first responders to ensure that as a nation we work together to build, sustain and improve our capability to protect against, respond to, recover from and mitigate all hazards" ("About the Agency," 2016) This mission is fairly sweeping, allowing the organization substantial scope to handle a wide range of issues. From a budgetary perspective, there are several implications of this mission. First, there are preventative measures, which implies that FEMA will have certain ongoing programs regardless of whether any emergencies arise. There will also need to be an infrastructure in place to handle disasters, and this infrastructure will need regular funding. The mission also specifically addresses the need to respond…… [Read More]
Scale Emergency Exercise
Full Scale Emerency Exercise
The objective of this study is evaluate the requirements in a full scale emergency.
Emergency response has been at issue for many years. Formerly the agency known as civil defense is now known as the Emergency Management Agency or EMA in local counties of each state. On the federal level the agency appointed to respond to full scale emergencies is known as FEMA.
According to FEMA there are five key principles to the doctrine of response including: (1) an engaged partnership; (2) response that is tiered in nature; (3) response that is "scalable, flexible, adaptable in terms of operational capabilities; (4) a unity of effort through "unified command; and (5) a readiness to act. (FEMA, 2013, p. 8) It is stated specifically that "esponse doctrine is rooted in America's Federal system and the Constitution's division of responsibilities between Federal and State…… [Read More]
Emergency Response Plan- Non-Government Entities
FEMA makes it very clear in their National Readiness Report that the Red Cross plays a critical role in assisting communities during a disaster. Not only are funds donated and distributed to aid families, but the Red Cross further aids by providing medical care, food, clothing, and housing to disaster victims. Even during some of the greatest disasters, including September 11th and some of the most recent destructive earthquakes, the Red Cross has been permitted to step in and aid victims in a much faster way then the government ever could have. It is because of this response time and quality that the Red Cross has received its high level of clearance for responding to emergencies. This paper will detail the Red Cross's role in dealing with a large passenger airplane crash and their role within the emergency response team. The two primary areas where…… [Read More]
Hypothetical Disaster: Hurricane in Jacksonville, FL
NIMS Component: Communications and Information Management
Central Question: How would NIMS ensure application of the concepts of interoperability, reliability, scalability, and portability, as well as the resiliency and redundancy of communications and information systems if a hurricane hit Jacksonville, FL?
National Incident Management Systems (NIMS) depend on effective communications, which in turn rely on information systems and technology. If Jacksonville were hit by a hurricane, communications and information management would ensure that local, state, and federal resources would be effectively managed, coordinated, and dispersed. ecovery and relief efforts would likewise depend on effective communications and information management.
A core component of communications and information management is interoperability. Interoperability refers to the ability for different agencies, stakeholders, and jurisdictions to communicate with each other and with any external or ancillary support systems including the media. According to FEMA (n.d.), interoperability consists of three main areas:…… [Read More]
Coordination of Disaster Preparedness
Who was in command of that incident? Explain whether or not you think the right organization and individual/s were in command.
The May 4, 2013, severe flooding and tornadoes in the central United States necessitated an urgent need for food supplies, overnight shelters, and disaster support. The incident command in this scene, the American ed Cross deployed mobile feeding vehicles, opened shelters and coordinated over one thousand tornado disaster relief employees. Participants of the ed Cross Annual Disaster Giving Program helped offer the funds to rush relief to residents; however, the need for additional donations was still great because of the enormous devastation storms caused across the central U.S.. This was among the deadliest tornados ever since 1988 so I believe the ed Cross was the most suitable organization. It continued to mobilize volunteers and supplies, such as clean-up kits, into the affected areas. ed Cross…… [Read More]
Today, the Caribbean island and unincorporated U.S. territory of Puerto Rico is still struggling to recover from the devastation wrought by Hurricane Maria in September 2017. This category 5 storm was considered to be the most destructive natural disaster in the island’s history. The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic discussion concerning the planning, response, stakeholders, recovery, cost/loss and social impact of Hurricane Maria. In addition, an analysis of the after action/mitigation/changes made following this natural disaster to reduce the impact should similar incidents recur. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the emergency management response and after action changes regarding Hurricane Maria are provided in the conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Preparation and Response to Hurricane Maria
Prior to Hurricane Maria, the Puerto Rican government commissioned a study by an emergency management response team from Harvard in order to identify weaknesses and opportunities to…… [Read More]
The problem with the response to Hurricane Katrina was not that a National Response Plan (NPR) was not in place or that a National Incident Management System (NIMS) did not exist. It was that the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) had been in decline for years, was suffering from significant turnover among top leaders, and the individuals who were in charge lacked the appropriate leadership experience and knowledge to oversee an effective response to a natural disaster like Hurricane Katrina (Lewis, 2009; Select Bipartisan Committee to Investigate the Preparation for and Response to Hurricane Katrina,2006). This paper will 1) describe 3 major examples regarding the leadership demonstrated in regard to preparing for and responding to Hurricane Katrina, give an assessment of each and explain why each was pivotal in the response’s outcome. It will also give an assessment of how each could have been improved. 2) It will describe…… [Read More]
Loss of local control in emergency management is a legitimate concern. Yet access to state and federal resources is critical for effective emergency response. The most effective emergency response involves carefully coordinated roles between local, state, and federal agencies. Local agencies are always first responders, and therefore have a great deal of authority and responsibility in emergency management. States may have significant resources and distinct responsibilities to work with local officials. Yet the primary role of state agencies is “to supplement local efforts before, during, and after incidents,” (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2008, p. 6). States in many ways play the least visible role in emergency management, often working as liaisons between local governments requesting additional support and the federal government needing more information about the situation. Not all incidents require state or federal intervention and assistance, and city councils should not be concerned about losing control. Compliance…… [Read More]
FEMA & obert T. Stafford Act of 1988
Disaster relief has been an issue of significant focus for the federal government through the Federal Emergency Management Agency was not created until 1978. The significance of disaster relief for the federal government is evident in the creation of the earliest piece of federal legislation in 1803. The federal government created the Congressional Act of 1803 as its earliest legislative attempt to address disaster relief. Since the enactment of this first piece of legislation, the federal government has prioritized disaster relief and management since the country has been characterized by increased incidents of natural and man-made disasters. Some of these efforts undertaken by the federal government include the enactment of obert T. Stafford Act of 1988 and the establishment of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
easons and Events that Lead to Creation of FEMA
The Federal Emergency Management Act was established in…… [Read More]
FEMA's (2009) National Disaster Housing Strategy reveals the complexities surrounding housing recovery support functions (SF) and their attendant agencies. One of the core goals of disaster response is meeting the needs of affected populations especially with regards to housing, which can be extremely difficult in times when resources are limited or cut off and when infrastructure has been damaged or demolished. Due to the range of issues facing effective disaster recovery, multiple agencies will be involved with the housing SF.
Local governance, insurers, FEMA and other federal agencies, small business organizations, and long-term non-governmental recovery groups may each play a role in post-disaster housing strategies (Phillips, 2009). These same groups, agencies, and stakeholders may be involved in disaster prevention efforts. The list of agencies that may be involved in housing SF shows that needs and interests are generally focused on similar recovery goals, but that competing interests are inevitable. At…… [Read More]
DHS: FEMA 2010 Compared to 2011
The objective of this study is to compare what happened within FEMA in 2010 and 2011. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of literature in this area of inquiry.
The United States Congress appropriate more than $34 billion in grant funding for homeland security preparedness from fiscal year 2002 through fiscal year 2012. It is additionally reported that between 2002 and 2012 that Federal Emergency Agency (FEMA) administers grew "from 8…to 17…as the result of congressional and executive branch actions." (Government Accountability Office, 2013, p.1)
The Government Accountability Office reports that FEMA fails to "compare and coordinate grant applications across its preparedness programs to identify potential duplication." (Government Accountability Office, 2013, p.1) Additionally reported is that FEMA has failed to establish "…measurable goals or performance measures for preparedness capabilities to assist in effectively prioritizing national investments through preparedness grant programs." (Government…… [Read More]
ecovery From Disaster
There can be occurrence of incidences in a small business that prevent the business from its normal operations. These incidences can be such as floods, fires or even serious malfunctioning of the computers or incidences of information security. It is the responsibility of business management to help the business recover from these incidences in the least time possible, with the least disruptions and minimal cost. Small business owners should therefore be interested in best practices in disaster planning so that they can reduce risks in case of the occurrence of a disaster (Walzer, 2009). Every business ought to have a disaster plan that is comprehensive, it is quite unfortunate that most businesses view developing disaster plans as being tedious and time consuming. It is very important for any business to have a disaster plan so that incase disaster strikes they have a framework of bouncing back into…… [Read More]
At its simplest and most succinct, the mission of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA, 2018a) is “helping people before, during, and after emergencies,” (p. 1). To fulfill this mission, FEMA engages in a variety of related actions including strategic planning, intelligence gathering, communication, and coordination. FEMA conducts risk assessments, helps communities build resilience, and helps to protect or recovery essential services. FEMA (2018b) also outlines its five core mission areas, which include prevention, protection, mitigation, response, and recovery. FEMA remains active at each of these stages of emergency management and does not discriminate against any one type of emergency, playing as integral a role in natural disaster management as in technological, cyber, and terrorist-related incidents.
Prevention involves strategic planning, information gathering, intelligence sharing, threat detection, and any other activity that would involve stopping a problem before it manifests. Protection is a phase during which a disaster may be unpreventable,…… [Read More]
S. history such as Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake. Post-9/11 infrastructure protection investments have focused on increasing the security of infrastructure, not in increasing its resilience." (p. 258)
Certainly, these breakdowns are an indication that many of the interagency strategies brought to bear in the discussion on public administration had not been executed effectively, especially those intended to coalesce under the roof of the Department of Homeland Security. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here. Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…… [Read More]
("About FEMA," 2007)
The method followed by FEMA is to lead the country in cases of a disaster, in a risk-based comprehensive emergency management system that would have as its important tenets preparedness, protection, response and recovery, and finally, mitigation of the losses that the people have suffered. These are some of the plans that FEMA has in place, and for which it recruits trainees: the National esponse Plan, strategic Plan, and Annual Agency Performance Plan. The National esponse Plan encompasses a sort of a complete and all hazards approach to the management of domestic incidents. Some of the protocols that the National esponse Plan have established are: to save lives and also to effectively protect the lives and the health and safety of the public, the responders to the calamity, and to the health care and rescue workers at the scene, while at the same time making sure that…… [Read More]
Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA is primarily charged with ensuring that the Americans are all safe in case of any emergency. This is the basis of all their engagements and departments that exist therein. The range of emergencies that are included in the FEMA field of operation are natural disasters like floods, hurricanes, wild fires, earthquakes and man made (both internal and external aggression) disasters that can adversely affect the lives of the Americans.
The roles of FEMA in a situation of emergency are conventionally grouped into the following categories as indicated by FEMA (2010a);
Life safety: this is usually the first and most important priority of FEMA since it is the sole reason for the existence of the agency and the agenda for their response to any emergency situation.
ecovery and restoration; this involves ensuring that the businesses run normally and that the population is employed once again after…… [Read More]
Principal Directorates of Department of Homeland Security
Border and Transportation Security
The largest component of the Department of Homeland Security is the Directorate of Border and Transportation Security (BTS). This division is responsible for maintaining the security of the nation's borders and transportation systems. BTS employees about 58% of DHS's total employees, has nearly half of its operating budget, and includes what was formerly TSA, Customs, the border security functions of INS, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and FLETC. Just like the other directorates of DHS, it is managed by an undersecretary of homeland security (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2012).
This department brought together several agencies from such departments as the Treasury Department, the Department of Justice, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Agriculture. The mission of this directorate is to secure the borders and transportation systems of the United States and to…… [Read More]
Public Health Emergencies
When it comes to public health, there are two main issues: basic control of general public health concerns, and what takes place during an emergency. The United States and other countries have recently made some changes in how public health emergencies are handled, mostly in response to disasters that have been seen on their home soil or in other areas of the world. A public health emergency can come from a natural disaster, a terrorist act, or in other ways, but being prepared for it is important. It can also be difficult, because it is unpredictable and cannot be accurately planned for in many cases.
esponse to Japan Disasters
Japan has experienced its share of public health emergencies in recent years. The tsunami created a massive issue for a significant number of people (CDC, 2011). Additionally, the nuclear radiation that began leaking added fuel to the fire,…… [Read More]
Emergency Preparedness Planning: Denver, Colorado
Emergency Preparedness: Denver
The City of Denver is located in the state of Colorado, on the western edge of the Great Plains and the eastern boundary of the ocky Mountains (City-Data.com, 2009). The city is 5,332 feet above sea level and covers 153 square miles. The climate is sunny, semiarid, and the mountains to the west protect it from most severe weather events.
The Denver-Aurora Metropolitan area is much larger, encompassing 8,387 square miles (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). The population has rapidly increased between 2000 and 2008 (30.7%) and the most recent estimate suggests 2.5 million people make the Denver Metropolitan area their home. By comparison, the City of Denver had close to 600,000 residents in 2010 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). In terms of residents with special needs, close to 10% of the metropolitan population was over the age of 65 in 2008, 252,000 had…… [Read More]
Emergency Planning and Disaster ecovery: Technological and Managerial Solutions
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is a body that is entrusted with alerting, evacuation coordination and managing disaster situations. Their website http://www.fema.gov/emergency-alert-system-eas deals with emergency issues and how response to disasters are usually undertaken by the agency. This portal in particular covers the use if technology to advance alert systems to the general public during and impending disaster. The alert system that is used by the agency and several other bodies will be focus of the paper and a detailed look at how successful these alert systems described in the FEMA website are and how they can be improved to ensure a much higher success rate in the future.
The approaching disaster alert system described in the FEMA website is known as the Emergency Alert System (EAS). This is a system that is used by the alerting authorities to…… [Read More]
Specifically, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) is one of the premier law enforcement organizations in the world. However, it was conceived, designed, and structured more for the purpose of investigating past crimes and apprehending and prosecuting criminals. For example, the FBI is, by design, a decentralized agency so that field offices in different states can pursue independent investigations. In the field of counterterrorism, the exact opposite structure is required: the counterterrorism mission demands a highly centralized structure whereby intelligence collected from many different locations and by many different agencies and entities is funneled into an integrated analysis center (Larsen, 2007). In many respects that deficiency still pervades the national homeland security mission, as evidenced by the failure of authorities to identify the perpetrator of the Northwest 253 plot on the basis of information that had previously been made available to the national counterterrorism and intelligence infrastructure.
Weapons of Mass…… [Read More]
Every individual in this community will face an emergency or disaster that may result in the loss of life, property, or business. Being prepared to react and respond to a natural disaster or emergency is in everyone's interest and that of their community. Emergency management distinguishes the two. Emergencies are " 'routine' adverse events that do not have communitywide impact or do not require extraordinary use of resources…to bring conditions back to normal….what constitutes a disaster depends on…the jurisdiction's size, its resource base, and its experience with a particular hazard….a precept of emergency management that each community establish distinct levels…that define the progression from an emergency to a disaster" (Drabek, xviii). Different disasters have different impacts upon people's responses to them. The "death and devastation of disaster represent the worst of human fears….many costs involved in the various stages of disaster response: the preparatory and preventative, counterdisaster, rescue…… [Read More]
National Incident Management System (NIMS)
eaknesses in the National Incident Management System
There is much controversy with regard to the contemporary idea of terrorism and concerning the actions that are being taken in order to discourage and generally prevent terrorist threats. The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the orld Trade center have influenced the masses to have a completely new understanding of terrorism in general. The Department of Homeland Security designed the National Incident Management System (NIMS) as a concept that would address a series of flaws in the way that the U.S. tried to cope with potential terrorist threats. Even with the fact that it was especially effective in preventing a series of terrorist acts, NIMS is essentially built as a constantly improving mechanism -- it is meant to discover weaknesses and make sure they are not used with the purpose of harming the public.
One of the…… [Read More]
There are a plethora of different agencies that have different organizational priorities that respond to disasters. The different command positions will vary by the timeframe that is in question. For example, the local authorities may have full responsibility for a response to an event initially. However, as time progress and more organizations have a chance to mobilize then this can change the power structure. Coordinate the different agencies can be a complex endeavor that is dynamic and changes in real time. As a result, conflicts and confusion is a likely outcome. However, as the terrorism response programs become more integrated and their roles become better defined, much of the confusion has been mitigated.
President Jimmy Carter created FEMA by executive order in 1979, and the new agency absorbed over one hundred other agencies that existed beforehand. FEMA took on a wide range of responsibilities that included…… [Read More]
As per IC Sec. 1033(h), the tax rules for the replacement of those properties destroyed or converted in such cases are eased and the overall replacement period extended as well. "Some rules were also revised like the 'ev. ule 95-22' which considers the funds received for the primary residence as well as scheduled property such as jewelry, pieces of art, coins, etc. which had been insured, as funds for a single item of property." (IS, Tax Law Changes elated to Hurricanes Katrina, ita and Wilma) These funds were to be considered as a "common pool" of proceeds from which the gains realized by the taxpayer could be to the extent of the amount exceeding the expenses after meeting a suitable replacement property. This revised rule also clarifies that the replacement property could refer to the residence being replaced or any scheduled private property "in any proportion." (Kess, Hurricane Katrina tax…… [Read More]
Government in Continuity Planning
Since the 1950s, continuity planning has been a major part of U.S. government policy. This is because there were concerns that some kind of nuclear attack or natural disaster could have an adverse impact on entire regions of the country. When this happens the odds increase that there could be various forms of lawlessness in these areas. To mitigate these kinds of situations, continuity planning was created to ensure that vital resources and personnel are dispatched to these kinds of areas. (Daleo, 2009, pp. 919 -- 925) ("Continuity Guidance Circular," 2009)
After September 11th, is when these ideas were once again revisited. In this case, National Security Presidential Directive-51 (NSPD-51) and Homeland Security Presidential Directive-20 (HSPD-20) were enacted to provide a strategy for dealing with disasters. Taking the lead in this area is the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA). They have created the Continuity Guidance Circular.…… [Read More]
Department of Homeland Security Grants
The HSGP (Homeland Security Grant Program) for the fiscal year 2017 contributes significantly to NPS (National Preparedness System) implementation through promoting the creation, delivery and sustenance of key capabilities vital to the achievement of America’s NPG (National Preparedness Goal) geared at improving its security and resilience. The provision of key capabilities necessitates integrated community-wide efforts and not the sole, independent endeavors of a particular governmental level or agency. HSGP’s allowable expenses foster attempts at developing and sustaining key capabilities over the Protection, Prevention, Mitigation, Recovery and Response mission domains, with the following prioritized:
· Development and Maintenance of Terrorism Prevention Competences by Law Enforcers
· Development and Upgradation of Key Urban Area and State Fusion Centers
FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency)
This Homeland Security agency was first established under the 1978 Presidential Reorganization Plan III, and put into service under a couple of Executive Orders…… [Read More]
Personal freedoms and choice to say is all well and good, but forced evacuations should have been done and the parking lots full of empty buses prove that this can and should have been done had anyone had the temerity to do it. The state of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans should fully implement the NF/NP frameworks so as to prepare for the next storm, which will come.
One issue that predates 9/11 and has gotten both better and worse since then is airport security. Some of the screening tactics and procedures engaged in by the TSA are reassuring but some of them are head-scratching. When grandmothers and infant children are being poked and prodded for bombs or weapons, that is lunacy. Israel is widely condemned for their unapologetic racial profiling, but they simply point to two facts. The first is that most airplane-oriented terrorists are…… [Read More]
Evolution of the Incident Command System (ICS)
Out of concern for the lack of a uniform protocol for emergency management, the concept of the Incident Command System (ICS) was developed in combined effort by Federal, State, and local governments during the 1970s (Dudfield, 2008, p. 31). This system was developed in response to the catastrophic wildfires that occurred during 1970 in South California by fire agencies at the federal, state, and local levels (Cardwell, 2000, p. 10). The intent of ICS is to provide an organizational structure to use to coordinate response efforts to incidents of any scope ranging from minor to large-scale incidents such as natural disasters, fires, accidents, or attacks. The original ICS system has evolved into what is known today as the National Incident Management System (NIMS) that still utilizes the tenets of ICS.
According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),
ICS is a standardized, on-scene,…… [Read More]
Zoning and Development Case Study: The Natomas Joint Vision Project Area
The Natomas Joint Vision Project Area is a land area of approximately 20,000 acres within the Natomas Basin and located in the unincorporated northwestern area of Sacramento County. Consisting of relatively flat terrain, the Basin includes approximately 55,000 acres, with approximately 17,000 acres in Sutter County. The plan to develop the Natomas area involves eight stakeholders: County North, County South, Downtown City, FEMA, Advocacy groups such as the Habitat Conservation Plan Conservancy, Landowners, Airport planners and Developers. The competing interests of these stakeholders require the use of relevant land-use planning methods and provisions for economic equity among all stakeholders, ideally using a in-in approach to conflict resolution.
A. hat is the decision problem involved in this case and what are the relevant factors necessary to understand the situation?
There are several competing interests and concerns:
I. "County South" wants…… [Read More]
National Fire Academy
Established in 1971, the purpose of the National Fire Academy is to provide up-to-date training in fire service coursework, including a 4-year executive-level course. In addition, the Academy collaborates with other federal agencies, including the Fire esearch Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire esearch Laboratory, the International Association of Arson Investigators, the United States Fire Administration, and the National Fire Protection Association to develop improved investigative, prosecutorial and training methodologies (Donahue, 2002). The responsibilities for the administration of the National Fire Academy fall to Academy Superintendent, Dr. Denis Onieal and the stated mission of the Academy is to, "Promote the professional development of the fire and the emergency response community and its allied professions" (National Fire Academy, 2013). In addition, the Academy is also tasked with developing, delivering and managing educational and training programs with a national focus that transcends state and…… [Read More]
The other categories of biological weapons which need dispersal devices are regarded as having lower risk due to the sensitivity of the biological agents to heat, light and shock. (Unit 8: Terrorism and CET)
5. Effectiveness of the Training:
The training is effective on the grounds that team learns about (i) Disaster Preparedness: Under this team members are instructed to ready themselves and their neighborhoods for the various hazards which might catch them unaware (ii) Team organization & Disaster Psychology: Dealing with organization and management principles needed for a CET to function effectively covering critical incident stress for the victims as also workers. (Starting a CET Program - Step 7: Delivering Training)
The various reasons are (i) CET Training support a collaborative effort between emergency services and the people inside the community. The CET program equips people with practical knowledge regarding disaster preparedness for hazards which may strike their areas…… [Read More]
The building's safety officials or the specialized units connected with the government or even with the police officials will be able to direct the people regarding their next shelter or place to evacuate. It should be noted that (Mass Evacuation, 2006):
Designating an area for shelter is necessary if there is a significant disruption to transportation and going to other place could expose the people to more threats or risk.
Evacuation and designation of shelter is detrimental if:
Safety is at risk for continuing threat (such as further volcanic eruptions, aftermaths of earthquakes and/or tsunami, etc.)
Properties within the area are "classified as unsafe or unsanitary or both and there is a lack of suitable shelter or alternative accommodations
Public health is at risk, which is normally the result of long-term trouble to water supplies or sewerage systems
Unavailability or contamination of food and water supply
Evaluating the time needed…… [Read More]
It needs to be well understood because just like knowledge, ingorance cannot be talked about without basing on some individual or group. It should therfore be negotiated soically because it is socially constructed. Ignorance is treated indiscriminately and unitary whereby terms like uncertainity, ambiguity and vagueness are considered synonymous by most writing on disaster.Turner together with several other writers in the fields of disasters and hazards refer to about three ignorance senses consisting of distortion which he also calls misinformation, incompleteness and irrelevance whereby relevant information is discounted and overlooked. In order to prevent disasters, there are various ways in information which would be need is classified. The things which are not known; what is known but not entirely appreciated; something which someone knows but does not present it collectively with other information in a timely manner when there will be realization of its significance and action of its message…… [Read More]
Building a volunteer program before such a disaster takes place, so volunteers can be trained under calmer conditions is the ideal situation. It is essential to inform the potential volunteers of the challenging situations they will face, and to provide them with accurate job descriptions of the sorts of duties they must perform. Organizations often must 'advertise' for volunteers similar to the way that employers advertise for paid jobs, and recruiting young, idealistic workers seeking job experience or who desire to put their convictions into actions are ideal candidates, as are retired persons seeking to retain a sense of connection to their communities. Volunteers will be increasingly necessary to relief efforts in the future, in an era of tight government budgets, but training the right people effectively for the work they will perform as well amassing large numbers of volunteers is critical to assembling an effective volunteer force.
orks Cited…… [Read More]
Memoir of a Public Information Officer: When an Earthquakes Strikes: The First Five Days
On Thursday the 15th of last month, at 7:31 A.M., an earthquake of 5.9 Moment Magnitude struck Southern California. The epicenter was near Santa Clarita, a small suburban community about twenty miles north of Los Angeles along the I-5 freeway. I am the Public Information Officer for the Emergency esponse Office for the City of Santa Clarita. The following is an account of the five days following that earthquake.
I was attending a breakfast meeting with City and County officials discussing items in the proposed budget for our Emergency esponse Office. Over danishes, bagels, coffee, and juice, we were itemized the needs required by my office. The main sticking point was the cost to training more CET (Community Emergency esponse Team) graduates. It is an 18-hour course taught by U.S. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). Our…… [Read More]
Hurricane Andrew is a storm that originated from a tropical wave over the central Atlantic in 1992. It first started as a low-pressure system off the coast of Africa and seemed no different from many other atmospheric ripples that form every summer in this part of the world (Pimm, Stuart & Gary 19). However, the seemingly innocent weather system slowly gained enough strength and by August 16, 1992 Hurricane Andrew had grown into a significant tropical storm and officially given the name: "Andrew."
Shear from strong wind prevented intensification of the storm at first. However, the following day saw a decrease in shear, which allowed the strengthening of the depression thus becoming Tropical Storm Andrew. On August 18, convection associated with the storm diminished due to increase in wind shear. Andrew later headed westward due to the effect of a high-pressure system. It then increased rapidly before crossing Bahamas (Pimm,…… [Read More]
Weapons and First esponders
First responder personnel encounter scene management challenges while responding to disasters suspected to have been occasioned by chemical, biological and radiological weapons. This occurs as a result of uncontrolled access to and from the incident scene, uncontrolled movement of contaminated victims and lack of safe working methods for the first responders (NATO, 2007). The first responders also find it extremely difficult to contain the release of any substances. To mitigate this challenge, the scene should be isolated to mitigate consequences. Effective scene management is imperative to control access to and from the incident scene. Movement of contaminated victims should also be controlled (Shea, 2004). Authorities should provide safe working methods for responders and contain the release of any substances. First responders are also faced with the challenge of saving and protecting lives. Saving lives is the top priority of all responding agencies. Contamination of victims and…… [Read More]
Stafford Act can rightly be considered the principle legislation governing emergency and disaster management in the U.S., spelling "out - among other things - how disasters are declared, the types of assistance to be provided, and the cost-sharing arrangements between federal, state, and local governments" (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007, p. 3). FEMA is, essentially, charged with implementing the Act and overseeing its two incident levels - major disasters and emergencies. However, despite the fact that it is put into place several times every year, during declarations of catastrophes and emergencies, the Stafford Act is not without its critics who have outspokenly called for an overhaul to some of is fundamental provisions. The author posits that in its present state, the Stafford Act lacks standardized mitigation procedures, and ought, therefore, to be "reformed to aggressively encourage the reconstruction of improved infrastructure, in addition to providing funding for mitigation projects" (Moss &…… [Read More]
Week 1 Discussion
Decision making in large organizations can be difficult to properly grasp because its characterized by numerous issues that emerge within the organization. Quantitative and qualitative decision making processes in public finance are similar in the sense that they are utilized to analyze data relating to budget management and other relevant issues. These processes in turn help in effective decision-making with respect to the desired objectives. However, quantitative decision-making process is based solely on empirical data while qualitative decision-making is based on a more holistic perspective. An example of qualitative observation is police testing of new, less lethal gun technology through consideration of the cost benefit analysis (CBS, 2015). On the contrary, an example of quantitative observation is the big budget cuts by state leaders through consideration of empirical data (News9.com, 2010).
Quantitative decision-making seemingly takes precedence in budgeting and issues affecting criminal justice agencies. Quantitative decision-making provides…… [Read More]
S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.
(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…… [Read More]
There were incidences of the army having supplies but no requests came in for the supplies from FEMA which was supposed to be initiating that.
The lack of the CIA activation also meant there was no unified command on the ground hence the delay of the arrival of the active duty-federal troops in New Orleans. Even though there were in excess of 50,000 troops sent with resources from over 49 states, the operations did not proceed efficiently due to lack of the command from federal Northern Command, which was overseeing the large-scale deployments and operations of the active-duty military (Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2006:Pp11).
3. Politics and decision making process
In the event of any disaster, be it natural or an act of terrorism, there is always an attempt to politicize the process of making decisions particularly relating to the search and rescue and general response…… [Read More]
Demographics of Social Vulnerability
In principle, social vulnerability is a component of hazard vulnerability that reflects the impacts of hazards on the ability of individuals and communities to deal with adversity in the forms associated with hazards and disasters (Lindell, Perry, & Prater, 2006 p. 155). More particularly, social vulnerability comprises the subcomponents of demographics, economics, politics, and psychology. With respect to demographics, social vulnerability is no different from its influence, because the susceptibility of any person, family, community, or society to social consequences of difficult circumstances depends substantially on demographic factors (Lindell, Perry, & Prater, 2006 p. 155). Just as physical, economic, and system vulnerability must be assessed and considered by emergency planners, so must the social vulnerability of the individuals living in at-risk communities.
Generally, the ability of communities to plan for, cope with, withstand the impact of, and recover from the physical elements of hazards…… [Read More]
Memo regarding building emergency sea gate with current funds
After studying the issue, and the costs thereof, we have come to the conclusion based on the following facts:
That building a Seagate may be feasible as per the advice of the engineers. However they also opinion that such a hurricane as sandy occurs once in 25 or so years. The cost of building such a barrier would be enormous. It would result in increased taxes and the efficiency of such a measure is not guaranteed.
The second alternate is to build smaller dykes that would keep off sea erosions but would do nothing against storms like sandy.
The third alternate is to increase the existing infrastructure in such a way that flooding can be avoided. And other programs are continued in a phased manner.
With consideration to all of the above, we believe that investing in a sea…… [Read More]
Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology
In your opinion what were the main issues expressed by the States
Concerning Homeland Security and states rights at the 2002 State Emergency esponse Commission Conference? Please justify your position.
Most of the states attending the 2002 State Emergency esponse Conference expressed an overall sentiment that in relation to security, things are going to vary from state to state based on the capabilities of the emergency response agencies in each state, as well as the types of hazards that states are likely to face in addition to WMD's i.e. For example, states have to take into consideration whether they have chemical facilities, nuclear facilities and similar hazardous materials to address. State also has to take into consideration whether or not they have highways that are used to transport hazardous or nuclear waste materials.
Colorado made the point that secrecy regarding Homeland Security measures will not…… [Read More]
Formulating a disaster and risk management is necessary for this jurisdiction. This is based on the knowledge that risk management is a demanding initiative that requires an appropriate and responsive. Satellite units are professionally trained to meet global demands. The Lynchburg, Virginia security system has met federal requirements of quality, and as a result, the system has proved suitable to respond to various hazards experienced in this jurisdiction. This report will attempt to present the Homeland Security apparatus of this jurisdiction. The report will assess the current situation of possible hazards and actual preparedness whilst presenting the elements of disaster management at Lynchburg. This section is a critical analysis of how disaster is managed within this jurisdiction compared to the critical disaster management measures in the United Kingdom.
Homeland Security stakeholders
The Lynchburg Homeland Security system is comprised of stakeholders like administrators, first responders, and the local law…… [Read More]
(Combating Terrorism: FEMA Continues to Make Progress in Coordinating Preparedness and esponse: Participation in Interagency and Intra-agency Groups and Committees)
CIMS: The Office of Emergency Management --OEM who has been collaborating with NYPD & FDNY and other City agencies to develop the CIMS, the adoption of which was declared by Mayor Bloomberg in March, 2004. CIMS makes a uniform incident management structure for every City agency that is broadly based on the Incident Command System model. The setting up of CIMS ensures a system for management of emergencies with a universal understanding of terminologies and roles and responsibilities among all agencies. CIMS makes use of the combined lead agency/unified operations section. In case of the majority of the incidents where multiple agencies are needed to act on several emergency situations, a unified operations post is made. The core competencies of the primary agencies will establish command of authority for immediate…… [Read More]
Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness (U.S. Federal Programs: Advantages and Disadvantages)
The confrontations and prospects for the reduction of hazards/disasters have never been greater than in the current period. In theory, the challenge is to do away with all disasters that cause the loss of life or injury to people along with the property and environment damage. On the other hand, such a goal is not possible to achieve practically. Although it is possible to avoid certain risks but the elimination of environmental hazards seems to be an idealistic task (Smith, 2004, p. 268).
The evidence signals that there is a need to do more today for tomorrow. Though investment in hazard mitigation has increased, there are few signs that show the effectiveness of the sustainability plans. In United States of America, several plans are outlined that have lessened the number of casualties and scale of destruction (Smith, 2004, p. 268).…… [Read More]
Emergency Plan for San Diego State University
Evaluation of Emergency Plan of San Diego University
San Diego State University has set out "emergency preparedness, response, and recovery guidelines for students, faculty, staff and campus auxiliary organizations so that the effects of campus emergency situations can be minimized." (San Diego State University, Division of Business and Financial Affairs, 2014, p. 1) San Diego State University has placed emergency numbers across the campus and on its webpage and includes the following:
(1) SDSU Policy (police/medical/fire) 9-1-1
(2) Environmental Health and Safety (chemical spills/toxic fumes) 46778 or [HIDDEN]
Also placed for information is the Emergency Operations Information Line 1- [HIDDEN] .
San Diego State University's Home Page is located at www.sdsu.edu and it is reported that in the event of an emergency on the campus that this webpage is updated. San Diego State University has developed a check list for what should be…… [Read More]
In February of 2006 changes to the structure of FEMA were proposed. According to an article found in the Washington Post, the proposed changes would create a fulltime response force of 1,500 and expanding 10 regional offices (Hsu). The changes to the Agency bring into question whether or not the agency should remain a response agency with a small workforce that has the primary responsibility of processing disaster claims and providing assistance in times of emergency or should FEMA be expanded to an agency that has the capacity to take charge whenever it is required.
According to the article the proposed changes which also include improving vendor databases, adding reconnaissance teams, and strengthening claims management are only the beginning of what needs to be changed to ensure that the agency operates more efficiently (Hsu). The article also asserts that a cultural change must occur as it relates to the way…… [Read More]