Fema Essays (Examples)

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Federal Legislation and Agency on Emergency

Words: 1868 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25381733

FEMA & obert T. Stafford Act of 1988

Disaster relief has been an issue of significant focus for the federal government through the Federal Emergency Management Agency was not created until 1978. The significance of disaster relief for the federal government is evident in the creation of the earliest piece of federal legislation in 1803. The federal government created the Congressional Act of 1803 as its earliest legislative attempt to address disaster relief. Since the enactment of this first piece of legislation, the federal government has prioritized disaster relief and management since the country has been characterized by increased incidents of natural and man-made disasters. Some of these efforts undertaken by the federal government include the enactment of obert T. Stafford Act of 1988 and the establishment of the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

easons and Events that Lead to Creation of FEMA

The Federal Emergency Management Act was established in…… [Read More]


Bazan, E.B. (2005, September 16). Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act: Legal Requirements for Federal and State Roles in Declarations of an Emergency or a Major Disaster. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State -- Foreign Press Centers website: http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/53688.pdf

Emergency Management Institute. (n.d.). Chapter 1 -- Introduction to Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management Concepts. Retrieved from Department of Homeland Security - Federal Emergency Management Agency website: https://training.fema.gov/hiedu/docs/chapter%201%20-%20intro%20to%20crisis,%20disaster%20and%20risk%20mgmt%20concepts.doc

Federal Emergency Management Agency. (2015, January 31). About the Agency. Retrieved from Department of Homeland Security - Federal Emergency Management Agency website: http://www.fema.gov/about-agency

McCarthy, F.X. (2011, June 7). Federal Stafford Act Disaster Assistance: Presidential Declarations, Eligible Activities, and Funding. Retrieved December 10, 2015, from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL33053.pdf
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Responses to Crisis and Disaster With Housing

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19232143

FEMA's (2009) National Disaster Housing Strategy reveals the complexities surrounding housing recovery support functions (SF) and their attendant agencies. One of the core goals of disaster response is meeting the needs of affected populations especially with regards to housing, which can be extremely difficult in times when resources are limited or cut off and when infrastructure has been damaged or demolished. Due to the range of issues facing effective disaster recovery, multiple agencies will be involved with the housing SF.

Local governance, insurers, FEMA and other federal agencies, small business organizations, and long-term non-governmental recovery groups may each play a role in post-disaster housing strategies (Phillips, 2009). These same groups, agencies, and stakeholders may be involved in disaster prevention efforts. The list of agencies that may be involved in housing SF shows that needs and interests are generally focused on similar recovery goals, but that competing interests are inevitable. At…… [Read More]


Bang, H. N., & Few, R. (2012). Social risks and challenges in post-disaster resettlement: the case of Lake Nyos, Cameroon. Journal Of Risk Research, 15(9), 1141-1157. doi:10.1080/13669877.2012.705315.

FEMA. (2009). National Disaster Housing Strategy. {pgs 24-28 and 50-85}.

Phillips, B.D. (2009). Excerpt from Disaster Recovery.

Zhang, Y., & Peacock, W. G. (2010). Planning for Housing Recovery? Lessons Learned From Hurricane Andrew. Journal of The American Planning Association, 76(1), 5-24. doi:10.1080/01944360903294556.
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Words: 493 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9568107

DHS: FEMA 2010 Compared to 2011

The objective of this study is to compare what happened within FEMA in 2010 and 2011. Toward this end, this study will conduct a review of literature in this area of inquiry.

The United States Congress appropriate more than $34 billion in grant funding for homeland security preparedness from fiscal year 2002 through fiscal year 2012. It is additionally reported that between 2002 and 2012 that Federal Emergency Agency (FEMA) administers grew "from 8…to 17…as the result of congressional and executive branch actions." (Government Accountability Office, 2013, p.1)

The Government Accountability Office reports that FEMA fails to "compare and coordinate grant applications across its preparedness programs to identify potential duplication." (Government Accountability Office, 2013, p.1) Additionally reported is that FEMA has failed to establish "…measurable goals or performance measures for preparedness capabilities to assist in effectively prioritizing national investments through preparedness grant programs." (Government…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Homeland security/Law enforcement (2012) Government Accountability Office. Retrieved from: http://www.gao.gov/modules/ereport/handler.php?1=1&path=/ereport/GAO-11-318SP/data_center/Homeland_security -- Law_enforcement/FEMA_needs_to_improve_its_oversight_of_grants_and_establish_a_framework_for_assessing_capabilities_to_identify_gaps_and_prioritize_investments

FEMA's Efforts To Recoup Improper Payments in Accordance With the Disaster Assistance Recoupment Fairness Act of 2011 (6) Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from: http://www.oig.dhs.gov/assets/Mgmt/2013/OIG_13-100_Jun13.pdf
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Small Business Recovery

Words: 1309 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21193576

ecovery From Disaster

There can be occurrence of incidences in a small business that prevent the business from its normal operations. These incidences can be such as floods, fires or even serious malfunctioning of the computers or incidences of information security. It is the responsibility of business management to help the business recover from these incidences in the least time possible, with the least disruptions and minimal cost. Small business owners should therefore be interested in best practices in disaster planning so that they can reduce risks in case of the occurrence of a disaster (Walzer, 2009). Every business ought to have a disaster plan that is comprehensive, it is quite unfortunate that most businesses view developing disaster plans as being tedious and time consuming. It is very important for any business to have a disaster plan so that incase disaster strikes they have a framework of bouncing back into…… [Read More]


Beal, V.(2012). How a Disaster Recovery Plan can Save your Business. Retrieved April 23, 2013 from http://www.smallbusinesscomputing.com/tipsforsmallbusiness/how-a-disaster-recovery-plan-can-save-your-business.html

Walzer, J., (2009). Disaster Recovery. Retrieved April 23, 2013 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/10/business/smallbusiness/10disaster.html?_r=0
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Analysis Hurricane Sandy and Katrina

Words: 3679 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29065220

Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Sandy

Tropical cyclones can badly destroy settlements and structures along the coast. ecent destructive tropical cyclones such as the 2005 Katrina and the Sandy which happened in 2012 affirm that the destruction caused by a land-falling tropical cyclone is not merely dependent on its categorization on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale. The hurricane Sandy of 2012 caused a lot of destruction. Only the hurricane Katrina which happened in 2005 has caused more damage than Sandy. To reduce casualties from such calamities, the public needs to react promptly to any pre-storm decisions made by authorities (Kantha, 2013).

Government's esponse to Hurricane Katrina

Hurricane Katrina was indeed an out of the ordinary occurrence that brought with it great tragedy. Destroying a vast area of land, approximately 90000 square miles, it is the natural disaster that has caused most destruction in the history of America. Consider the fact that the…… [Read More]


Adamski, T., Kline, B., & Tyrrell, T. (2006).FEMA Reorganization and the Response to Hurricane Disaster Relief. Retrieved from  http://www.asu.edu/mpa/FEMAReorganization.pdf 

ABC News (2005).Who's to Blame for Delayed Response to Katrina?. Retrieved from  http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/HurricaneKatrina/blame-delayed-response-katrina/story?id=1102467 

Associated Press (2011).In Book Nagin tells very different Katrina Story. Retrieved from  http://www.today.com/id/43696734/ns/today-today_books/t/book-nagin-tells-very-different-katrina-story/#.VGyxAPmUf9U 

Cash, J.T. (2014).Political Failures of Hurricane Katrina. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20140708194346-192858373-political-failures-of-hurricane-katrina
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Inter-Agency Collaboration to Facilitate Cross-Departmental

Words: 4891 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30329379

S. history such as Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake. Post-9/11 infrastructure protection investments have focused on increasing the security of infrastructure, not in increasing its resilience." (p. 258)

Certainly, these breakdowns are an indication that many of the interagency strategies brought to bear in the discussion on public administration had not been executed effectively, especially those intended to coalesce under the roof of the Department of Homeland Security. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here. Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…… [Read More]


Agnos, a. (1998). Single Family Loan Production and Servicing. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (USDHUD).

Associated Press (AP). (2005). FEMA knew Katrina response was 'broken,' MSNBC.

Brown, a.D. (2004). Authoritative Sensemaking in a Public Inquiry Report, Organization Studies, 25(1), 95-112.

Brown N., Vega S., Dupree a., Hartong R. (2010). DHS' Progress in Federal Incident Management Planning, Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General
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Disaster Recovery Centers Hurricane Ready

Words: 2778 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3432154

("About FEMA," 2007)

The method followed by FEMA is to lead the country in cases of a disaster, in a risk-based comprehensive emergency management system that would have as its important tenets preparedness, protection, response and recovery, and finally, mitigation of the losses that the people have suffered. These are some of the plans that FEMA has in place, and for which it recruits trainees: the National esponse Plan, strategic Plan, and Annual Agency Performance Plan. The National esponse Plan encompasses a sort of a complete and all hazards approach to the management of domestic incidents. Some of the protocols that the National esponse Plan have established are: to save lives and also to effectively protect the lives and the health and safety of the public, the responders to the calamity, and to the health care and rescue workers at the scene, while at the same time making sure that…… [Read More]


Auerhahn, Elliot. (2006, Jun) "Broward's new Hurricane Ready Decal

Program Helps Residents Identify Businesses That Will Be Open after a Hurricane" Retrieved 12 October, 2007 at http://bcegov2.broward.org/newsrelease/viewscreen.asp?MessageID=1168

Brunelli, Mark. (2003, Jun) "Data Center Futures: More companies seeking to create internal disaster recovery centers" Retrieved 12 October, 2007 at http://searchwebservices.techtarget.com/tip/0,289483,sid26_gci905212,00.html

Hickey, Andrew R. (2006, Oct) "Disaster Recovery centre focuses on network management" Retrieved 12 October, 2007 at http://searchtelecom.techtarget.com/originalContent/0,289142,sid103_gci1222603,00.html
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Role of Federal Emergency Management and Critical Response Agencies

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99548455

Federal Emergency Management Agency FEMA is primarily charged with ensuring that the Americans are all safe in case of any emergency. This is the basis of all their engagements and departments that exist therein. The range of emergencies that are included in the FEMA field of operation are natural disasters like floods, hurricanes, wild fires, earthquakes and man made (both internal and external aggression) disasters that can adversely affect the lives of the Americans.

The roles of FEMA in a situation of emergency are conventionally grouped into the following categories as indicated by FEMA (2010a);

Life safety: this is usually the first and most important priority of FEMA since it is the sole reason for the existence of the agency and the agenda for their response to any emergency situation.

ecovery and restoration; this involves ensuring that the businesses run normally and that the population is employed once again after…… [Read More]


Church World Service, (2011). Responding to Emergencies-Our Approach. Retrieved August 1,

2011 from http://www.churchworldservice.org/site/PageServer?pagename=action_what_emerg_approach

FEMA (2010a). Emergency Management Guide. Retrieved August 1, 2011 from http://www.fema.gov/business/guide/section2g.shtm

FEMA (2010b). FEMA's Organization Structure. Retrieved August 1, 2011 from http://fema.eyestreet.com/about/structure.shtm
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Principal Directorates of Department of Homeland Security DHS

Words: 1465 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31292423


Principal Directorates of Department of Homeland Security

Border and Transportation Security

The largest component of the Department of Homeland Security is the Directorate of Border and Transportation Security (BTS). This division is responsible for maintaining the security of the nation's borders and transportation systems. BTS employees about 58% of DHS's total employees, has nearly half of its operating budget, and includes what was formerly TSA, Customs, the border security functions of INS, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and FLETC. Just like the other directorates of DHS, it is managed by an undersecretary of homeland security (United States Department of Homeland Security, 2012).

This department brought together several agencies from such departments as the Treasury Department, the Department of Justice, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Agriculture. The mission of this directorate is to secure the borders and transportation systems of the United States and to…… [Read More]


About the Directorate for Management. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/structure/editorial_0096.shtm

About the Science and Technology Directorate. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/structure/editorial_0530.shtmUnited States Department of Border and Transportation Security. (2010). Retrieved from http://homelandsecurity.uslegal.com/department-of-homeland-security/components-


Department of Homeland Security. (2012). Retrieved from  http://www.gov.com/agency/dhs/
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Issues of Public Health

Words: 1257 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22049723

Public Health Emergencies

When it comes to public health, there are two main issues: basic control of general public health concerns, and what takes place during an emergency. The United States and other countries have recently made some changes in how public health emergencies are handled, mostly in response to disasters that have been seen on their home soil or in other areas of the world. A public health emergency can come from a natural disaster, a terrorist act, or in other ways, but being prepared for it is important. It can also be difficult, because it is unpredictable and cannot be accurately planned for in many cases.

esponse to Japan Disasters

Japan has experienced its share of public health emergencies in recent years. The tsunami created a massive issue for a significant number of people (CDC, 2011). Additionally, the nuclear radiation that began leaking added fuel to the fire,…… [Read More]


Brandt, A.M., & Gardner, M. (2000). Antagonism and accommodation: Interpreting the relationship between public health and medicine in the United States during the 20th century. American Journal of Public Health, 90(5): 707 -- 715.

CDC responds to earthquake, tsunami and radiation release in Japan (2011). Retrieved November 18, 2012 from:  http://blogs.cdc.gov/publichealthmatters/2011/03/cdc-responds-to-earthquake-tsunami-and-radiation-release-in-japan/ 

Christodouleas, J.P., Forrest, R.D., Ainsley, C.G., Tochner, Z., Hahn, S.M.,and Glatste, E. (2011). Short-term and long-term health risks of nuclear-power-plant accidents. New England Journal of Medicine, 10(10), 56. Retrieved November 18, 2012 from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1103676

DeLia, D., & Wood, E. (2008). The dwindling supply of empty beds: Implications for hospital surge capacity. Health Affairs, 27(6), 1688-94. Retrieved from: ProQuest.
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Emergency Preparedness Planning Denver Colorado Emergency Preparedness

Words: 1367 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59174969

Emergency Preparedness Planning: Denver, Colorado

Emergency Preparedness: Denver

The City of Denver is located in the state of Colorado, on the western edge of the Great Plains and the eastern boundary of the ocky Mountains (City-Data.com, 2009). The city is 5,332 feet above sea level and covers 153 square miles. The climate is sunny, semiarid, and the mountains to the west protect it from most severe weather events.

The Denver-Aurora Metropolitan area is much larger, encompassing 8,387 square miles (U.S. Census Bureau, 2010). The population has rapidly increased between 2000 and 2008 (30.7%) and the most recent estimate suggests 2.5 million people make the Denver Metropolitan area their home. By comparison, the City of Denver had close to 600,000 residents in 2010 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). In terms of residents with special needs, close to 10% of the metropolitan population was over the age of 65 in 2008, 252,000 had…… [Read More]


City-Data.com. (2009). Denver: Geography and Climate. City-Data.com. Retrieved 22 Mar. 2013 from  http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-West/Denver-Geography-and-Climate.html .

OEMHS (Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security, City and County of Denver). (2010). Mayor's Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security 2010 Recap Report: City and County of Denver. Office of Emergency Management and Homeland Security, City and County of Denver. Retrieved 22 Mar. 2013 from http://www.denvergov.org/Portals/428/documents/OEMHS_2010RecapReport.pdf.

FEMA (U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration). (2010). Developing and Maintaining Emergency Operations Plans: Comprehensive Preparedness Guide (CPG) 101, Version 2.0. U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration. Retrieved 22 Mar. 2013 from http://www.fema.gov/library/viewRecord.do?=&id=5697.

U.S. Census Bureau. (2010). State and Metropolitan Area Data Book: 2010, 7th Edition. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.
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Disaster Recovery Emergency Planning and Disaster Recovery

Words: 864 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76462573

Disaster ecovery

Emergency Planning and Disaster ecovery: Technological and Managerial Solutions

Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is a body that is entrusted with alerting, evacuation coordination and managing disaster situations. Their website http://www.fema.gov/emergency-alert-system-eas deals with emergency issues and how response to disasters are usually undertaken by the agency. This portal in particular covers the use if technology to advance alert systems to the general public during and impending disaster. The alert system that is used by the agency and several other bodies will be focus of the paper and a detailed look at how successful these alert systems described in the FEMA website are and how they can be improved to ensure a much higher success rate in the future.

The approaching disaster alert system described in the FEMA website is known as the Emergency Alert System (EAS). This is a system that is used by the alerting authorities to…… [Read More]


FEMA, (2012). Emergency Alert System. Retrieved July 21, 2012 from http://www.fema.gov/emergency-alert-system-eas
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Criminal Justice -- Homeland Security

Words: 1362 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78058178

Specifically, the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) is one of the premier law enforcement organizations in the world. However, it was conceived, designed, and structured more for the purpose of investigating past crimes and apprehending and prosecuting criminals. For example, the FBI is, by design, a decentralized agency so that field offices in different states can pursue independent investigations. In the field of counterterrorism, the exact opposite structure is required: the counterterrorism mission demands a highly centralized structure whereby intelligence collected from many different locations and by many different agencies and entities is funneled into an integrated analysis center (Larsen, 2007). In many respects that deficiency still pervades the national homeland security mission, as evidenced by the failure of authorities to identify the perpetrator of the Northwest 253 plot on the basis of information that had previously been made available to the national counterterrorism and intelligence infrastructure.

Weapons of Mass…… [Read More]


Dershowitz, A. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York:

Little Brown & Co.

DHS-FEMA. (2006). Fundamentals of Emergency Management: Introduction to Emergency Management. Accessed online December 28, 2009, from:

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Emergency Communications

Words: 1651 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62946650

Awareness Campaign

Every individual in this community will face an emergency or disaster that may result in the loss of life, property, or business. Being prepared to react and respond to a natural disaster or emergency is in everyone's interest and that of their community. Emergency management distinguishes the two. Emergencies are " 'routine' adverse events that do not have communitywide impact or do not require extraordinary use of resources…to bring conditions back to normal….what constitutes a disaster depends on…the jurisdiction's size, its resource base, and its experience with a particular hazard….a precept of emergency management that each community establish distinct levels…that define the progression from an emergency to a disaster" (Drabek, xviii). Different disasters have different impacts upon people's responses to them. The "death and devastation of disaster represent the worst of human fears….many costs involved in the various stages of disaster response: the preparatory and preventative, counterdisaster, rescue…… [Read More]


Drabek, Thomas E. Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association. 1991.

Raphael, Beverly. When Disaster Strikes: How Individuals and Communities Cope with Catastrophe. New York: Basic Books, Inc. 1986.

Sylves, Richard T., and Waugh, William L., Jr. Disaster Management in the U.S. And Canada. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, Publisher, Ltd. 1990.

"Community Emergency Response Team." Online Posting. 25 January 2002. http://www.fema.gov.
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Weaknesses in the National Incident Management System

Words: 530 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81343242

National Incident Management System (NIMS)

eaknesses in the National Incident Management System

There is much controversy with regard to the contemporary idea of terrorism and concerning the actions that are being taken in order to discourage and generally prevent terrorist threats. The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the orld Trade center have influenced the masses to have a completely new understanding of terrorism in general. The Department of Homeland Security designed the National Incident Management System (NIMS) as a concept that would address a series of flaws in the way that the U.S. tried to cope with potential terrorist threats. Even with the fact that it was especially effective in preventing a series of terrorist acts, NIMS is essentially built as a constantly improving mechanism -- it is meant to discover weaknesses and make sure they are not used with the purpose of harming the public.

One of the…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Hess, K., Orthmann, C., & Cho, Henry, "Police Operations: Theory and Practice," (Cengage Learning, 1 Jan 2013)

United States. Federal Emergency Management Agency, "National Incident Management System," (FEMA, 2011)
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Responding to Terrorism

Words: 827 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46455349

Terrorist Incident

There are a plethora of different agencies that have different organizational priorities that respond to disasters. The different command positions will vary by the timeframe that is in question. For example, the local authorities may have full responsibility for a response to an event initially. However, as time progress and more organizations have a chance to mobilize then this can change the power structure. Coordinate the different agencies can be a complex endeavor that is dynamic and changes in real time. As a result, conflicts and confusion is a likely outcome. However, as the terrorism response programs become more integrated and their roles become better defined, much of the confusion has been mitigated.

Response Agencies

President Jimmy Carter created FEMA by executive order in 1979, and the new agency absorbed over one hundred other agencies that existed beforehand. FEMA took on a wide range of responsibilities that included…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Red Cross. (N.d.). Disaster Relief. Retrieved from American Red Cross: http://www.redcross.org/what-we-do/disaster-relief

Grabianowski, E. (N.d.). How FEMA Works. Retrieved from How Stuff Works:  http://people.howstuffworks.com/fema1.htm 

Perry, R., & Lindell, M. (2003). Understanding Citizen Response to Disasters with Implications for Terrorism. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 49-60.

Sanderford, D. (N.d.). WMD Terrorism and the Role of First Responders. Retrieved from Asanltr:  http://www.asanltr.com/ASANews-99/993FirstResp.htm
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Financial Concepts Used to Execute

Words: 3131 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25602705

As per IC Sec. 1033(h), the tax rules for the replacement of those properties destroyed or converted in such cases are eased and the overall replacement period extended as well. "Some rules were also revised like the 'ev. ule 95-22' which considers the funds received for the primary residence as well as scheduled property such as jewelry, pieces of art, coins, etc. which had been insured, as funds for a single item of property." (IS, Tax Law Changes elated to Hurricanes Katrina, ita and Wilma) These funds were to be considered as a "common pool" of proceeds from which the gains realized by the taxpayer could be to the extent of the amount exceeding the expenses after meeting a suitable replacement property. This revised rule also clarifies that the replacement property could refer to the residence being replaced or any scheduled private property "in any proportion." (Kess, Hurricane Katrina tax…… [Read More]


Agnew, Christine, L. Come Hell and high water: Can the tax code solve the post-

Katrina insurance crisis?

Brown, D.M. Hurricane Katrina: The First Seven Days of America's Worst Natural

Disaster. Kessinger Publishing. 2005.
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Government in Continuity Planning

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71981214

Government in Continuity Planning

Since the 1950s, continuity planning has been a major part of U.S. government policy. This is because there were concerns that some kind of nuclear attack or natural disaster could have an adverse impact on entire regions of the country. When this happens the odds increase that there could be various forms of lawlessness in these areas. To mitigate these kinds of situations, continuity planning was created to ensure that vital resources and personnel are dispatched to these kinds of areas. (Daleo, 2009, pp. 919 -- 925) ("Continuity Guidance Circular," 2009)

After September 11th, is when these ideas were once again revisited. In this case, National Security Presidential Directive-51 (NSPD-51) and Homeland Security Presidential Directive-20 (HSPD-20) were enacted to provide a strategy for dealing with disasters. Taking the lead in this area is the Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA). They have created the Continuity Guidance Circular.…… [Read More]


Continuity Guidance Circular. (2009), FEMA. Retrieved from: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/about/org/ncp/cont_guidance1.pdf

Daleo, E. (2009). State Constitutions and Legislative Continuity. DePaul Law Review 58, 919 -- 925.
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Sar Teams That Responded to

Words: 1135 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2385884

Personal freedoms and choice to say is all well and good, but forced evacuations should have been done and the parking lots full of empty buses prove that this can and should have been done had anyone had the temerity to do it. The state of Louisiana and the city of New Orleans should fully implement the NF/NP frameworks so as to prepare for the next storm, which will come.

Two Concerns

One issue that predates 9/11 and has gotten both better and worse since then is airport security. Some of the screening tactics and procedures engaged in by the TSA are reassuring but some of them are head-scratching. When grandmothers and infant children are being poked and prodded for bombs or weapons, that is lunacy. Israel is widely condemned for their unapologetic racial profiling, but they simply point to two facts. The first is that most airplane-oriented terrorists are…… [Read More]


Barbera, J.A., DeAtley, C., & Macintyre, a.G. (1995). Medical aspects of urban search and rescue. Fire Engineering, 14888-92.

Currah, P., & Mulqueen, T. (2011). Securitizing Gender: Identity, Biometrics, and Transgender Bodies at the Airport. Social Research, 78(2), 557-582.

Edmonson, J.W., Keeton, M., & Vernon, M. (1995). Rescue command. Fire Engineering, 14848.

Fagnoni, C.M. (2006). Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Coordination between FEMA and the Red Cross Should Be Improved for the 2006 Hurricane Season: GAO-06-
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Homeland Security

Words: 910 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48009046

Evolution of the Incident Command System (ICS)

Out of concern for the lack of a uniform protocol for emergency management, the concept of the Incident Command System (ICS) was developed in combined effort by Federal, State, and local governments during the 1970s (Dudfield, 2008, p. 31). This system was developed in response to the catastrophic wildfires that occurred during 1970 in South California by fire agencies at the federal, state, and local levels (Cardwell, 2000, p. 10). The intent of ICS is to provide an organizational structure to use to coordinate response efforts to incidents of any scope ranging from minor to large-scale incidents such as natural disasters, fires, accidents, or attacks. The original ICS system has evolved into what is known today as the National Incident Management System (NIMS) that still utilizes the tenets of ICS.

According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA),

ICS is a standardized, on-scene,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beckering, D. (2005). National Incident Management System (NIMS) Update. Minnesota Fire Chief, 41(3), 20. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip, uid&db=f5h&AN=16261367&site=ehost-live

Cardwell, M.D. (2000). Nationwide Application of the Incident Command System. (cover story). FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 69(10), 10. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip, uid&db=f5h&AN=3696140&site=ehost-live

Dudfield, M. (2008). THE INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM -- A FOUNDATION FOR INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION. Fire Management Today, 68(4), 31. http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip, uid&db=f5h&AN=36500830&site=ehost-live

FEMA. Incident Command System. Retrieved from http://www.fema.gov/emergency/nims/IncidentCommandSystem.shtm#item5
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Zoning and Development Case Study The Natomas

Words: 1807 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55406554

Zoning and Development Case Study: The Natomas Joint Vision Project Area

The Natomas Joint Vision Project Area is a land area of approximately 20,000 acres within the Natomas Basin and located in the unincorporated northwestern area of Sacramento County. Consisting of relatively flat terrain, the Basin includes approximately 55,000 acres, with approximately 17,000 acres in Sutter County. The plan to develop the Natomas area involves eight stakeholders: County North, County South, Downtown City, FEMA, Advocacy groups such as the Habitat Conservation Plan Conservancy, Landowners, Airport planners and Developers. The competing interests of these stakeholders require the use of relevant land-use planning methods and provisions for economic equity among all stakeholders, ideally using a in-in approach to conflict resolution.

A. hat is the decision problem involved in this case and what are the relevant factors necessary to understand the situation?

There are several competing interests and concerns:

I. "County South" wants…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aspen Environmental Group. (2010). Energy Aware: Facility Siting and Permitting Guide. Retrieved from California Energy Commission Web site:  http://www.energy.ca.gov/2010publications/CEC-600-2010-007/CEC-600-2010-007.pdf 

Callihan, D., Kleiman, D., & Tirnauer, J. (2009). An Independent Evaluation of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service's Habitat Conservation Plan Program. Washington, D.C.: Management Systems International.

City of Sacramento, CA Planning Department. (2009, June 22). Natomas Joint Vision. Retrieved from City of Sacramento Web site: http://www.cityofsacramento.org/planning/projects/natomas-joint-vision/

Granicus. (2008). 2030 Sacramento General Plan: East Sacramento Community Plan. Sacramento, CA: Granicus.
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National Fire Academy Established in 1971 the

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90186490

National Fire Academy

Established in 1971, the purpose of the National Fire Academy is to provide up-to-date training in fire service coursework, including a 4-year executive-level course. In addition, the Academy collaborates with other federal agencies, including the Fire esearch Laboratory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology's Building and Fire esearch Laboratory, the International Association of Arson Investigators, the United States Fire Administration, and the National Fire Protection Association to develop improved investigative, prosecutorial and training methodologies (Donahue, 2002). The responsibilities for the administration of the National Fire Academy fall to Academy Superintendent, Dr. Denis Onieal and the stated mission of the Academy is to, "Promote the professional development of the fire and the emergency response community and its allied professions" (National Fire Academy, 2013). In addition, the Academy is also tasked with developing, delivering and managing educational and training programs with a national focus that transcends state and…… [Read More]


Application forms. (2013). U.S. National Fire Academy. Retrieved from http://www.usfa.fema.


Donahue, M.L. (2002, January). The ATF Fire Research Laboratory: A new forensic resource for fire-scene investigations. Forensic Science Communications, 4(1), 37-39.

Eligibility. (2013). National Fire Academy. Retrieved from http://www.usfa.fema.gov/nfa/about / attend/eligibility.shtm.
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Media Relations and Disaster Scenario

Words: 2435 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17942481

measures taken by governments and concerned authorities in disseminating information about impending natural calamities is a laudable gesture. It shows the care of the authorities towards its subjects appreciably. These communiques passed on through the many media are useful to not only take preventative measures and warding off more casualties when forewarned but also undertake rapid rescue actions where a calamity has struck. Natural calamities have both immediate as well as long-term effects. The personnel manning such communication facilities have to take split-second decisions in choosing the most effective way of passing on the risk situations that they receive. The issue discussed here is "what are the constituents of natural risk communication and also how such information should be meaningfully, economically, and securely delivered (Ahmad, et al., 2011).

In recent times, the environmental disaster is not a thing in passing. They are occurring with increasing frequency worldwide. It has started…… [Read More]


Ahmad, F., Mustafa, N., Rahim, S., Basri, F.K., Ahmad, A.L., & Aziz, J. (2011). Confronting Environmental Risk via Communication. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC Learns from Katrina, Plans for Pandemic. 22nd November, 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/news/2006_11/katrina.htm

Department of Homeland Security. Plan and Prepare for Disasters. 27th December, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.dhs.gov/topic/plan-and-prepare-disasters

Facebook.2011. "Statistics."Retrieved December 29, 2011, from www.facebook.com/press/info.php?statistics
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Public Education Campaign Designing a Public Education

Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71424580

Public Education Campaign

Designing a Public Education Campaign

Public education anti-terrorist campaign concerning new hazards

Unlike a hurricane or a tornado, the aftereffects of a terrorist event can be very difficult to predict. The methods of terrorists are always changing, as they constantly strive to outwit law enforcement officials, inspire fear, and generate destruction. Almost every recent terrorist action has been unique in its impact and approach. While it is advisable that all members of the public have a contingency plan for disasters, such designating a place for family or friends to meet; having working flashlights on hand in the event of a power outage, and having stores of canned food and water, there is no guarantee that such methods can protect against all possible repercussions.

During incidents such as the World Trade Towers bombing, a number of unplanned circumstances were generated by the fallout. The health consequences for workers…… [Read More]


Bioterrorism overview. (2010). The Centers for Disease Control. (CDC).

Retrieved March 8, 2011 at http://www.bt.cdc.gov/bioterrorism/overview.asp

General information about terrorism. (2010). The Federal Office of Emergency Management

(FEMA). Retrieved March 8, 2011 at http://www.fema.gov/hazard/terrorism/info.shtm
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Cert Official What Specific Training

Words: 1691 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71138756

The other categories of biological weapons which need dispersal devices are regarded as having lower risk due to the sensitivity of the biological agents to heat, light and shock. (Unit 8: Terrorism and CET)

5. Effectiveness of the Training:

The training is effective on the grounds that team learns about (i) Disaster Preparedness: Under this team members are instructed to ready themselves and their neighborhoods for the various hazards which might catch them unaware (ii) Team organization & Disaster Psychology: Dealing with organization and management principles needed for a CET to function effectively covering critical incident stress for the victims as also workers. (Starting a CET Program - Step 7: Delivering Training)

The various reasons are (i) CET Training support a collaborative effort between emergency services and the people inside the community. The CET program equips people with practical knowledge regarding disaster preparedness for hazards which may strike their areas…… [Read More]


Nuclear Power Plant Emergencies. Retrieved at http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/downloads/12-NuclearPowerPlants-IG-Rev2.doc. Accessed 4 September, 2005

Rimer, Deb. Teamwork Counts; Anticipating the Best, Preparing for the Worst. Sedgwick County Newsletter. 10-12, August, 2004. Retrieved from www.rbcertaa.org/NL%207-03.pdf" http://www.sedgwickcounty.org/cert/CERTIssue%2001.pdf. Accessed 4 September, 2005

Starting a CERT Program - Step 7: Delivering Training. Retrieved at  http://www.cert-la.com/manuals/Delivering-Training.pdf . Accessed 4 September, 2005

Unit 8: Terrorism and CERT. Retrieved at http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/downloads/IG-CERT-Unit8Rev2.doc. Accessed 4 September, 2005
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Fictional Terrorist Attack Terrorist Attack on Edinburgh

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33717011

Fictional Terrorist Attack

Terrorist Attack on Edinburgh

The FEMA CONPLAN is a publically available document that details the nation's priorities and strategies for a terrorist attack. The document list the protocols, mitigation strategies, and also the acknowledged considerations of what is typically defined as a terrorist attack There are many notable differences in the assumptions made for a terrorist attack, including that the attack will be large scale and intended to take out large amounts of people. After studying the FEMA CONPLAN and the materials detailing the differences between the county's natural and manmade disaster protocols, there is only one clear idea that comes to mind for a fictitious terrorist attack on Edinburgh, Scotland.

The fictional attack would be each of the historical castles in and around Edinburgh. These sites would include, but not be limited to the royal palace and other castles. The attack would happen simultaneously so as…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Beltane (2006). BBC Religions. Accessed on 2 Oct 2012 at  http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/paganism/holydays/beltane_1.shtml 

Edinburgh Festivals Calendar. Edinburgh Days Out. Accessed on 2 Oct 2012 at http://www.edinburghdaysout.com/festivals/
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Mass Evacuation it Is a

Words: 1149 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76525118

The building's safety officials or the specialized units connected with the government or even with the police officials will be able to direct the people regarding their next shelter or place to evacuate. It should be noted that (Mass Evacuation, 2006):

Designating an area for shelter is necessary if there is a significant disruption to transportation and going to other place could expose the people to more threats or risk.

Evacuation and designation of shelter is detrimental if:

Safety is at risk for continuing threat (such as further volcanic eruptions, aftermaths of earthquakes and/or tsunami, etc.)

Properties within the area are "classified as unsafe or unsanitary or both and there is a lack of suitable shelter or alternative accommodations

Public health is at risk, which is normally the result of long-term trouble to water supplies or sewerage systems

Unavailability or contamination of food and water supply

Evaluating the time needed…… [Read More]

Reference List

Guide for All-Hazard Emergency Operations Planning, State and Local Guide" (1996). (SLG Federal Emergency Management Agency. Online:


Mass evacuation." (2006). http://www.mcdem.govt.nz/memwebsite.nsf/Files/National%20CDEM%20Plan%202005/$file/Section23.pdf

Partnership for a Safer Future: Strategic Plan for FY 1998 - FY 2007." (1998). Federal Emergency Management Agency. Online:
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Disaster Situation Effective Media Relations Campaign --

Words: 1111 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54979846

Disaster Situation

Effective Media elations Campaign -- Particularly since the events of 9/11, Emergency Management and Disaster elief organizations are in clear view of the media and public. People have viewed first-hand the actions of New York City Fire Fighters and Police; they saw numerous agencies work the Katrina disaster, and they have certain expectations of transparency and information during crisis situations. While Emergency Management has been a part of urban civilization for thousands of years, most people in the United States grew up during the Cold War Era, in which Emergency Management was based on the Civil Defense paradigm, even though it dealt with natural disasters, weather and other civil issues. Emergency Management is visible when events occur (hurricanes, flooding, bombs, etc.) but is really only as powerful and effect as its pre-Crisis planning and risk reduction management allows (Haddow, 2004, 2-4).

A Media elations plan for a disaster…… [Read More]


Boyes, J. (2010). How to Put Together a Crisis Management Plan. Suite101.com. Retrieved from: http://suite101.com/article/how-to-put-together-a-crisis-management-plan

Devlin, E. (2006). Crisis Management Planning and Execution. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach Publications.

Fink, Steven. (2002). Crisis Management: Planning for the Inevitable. Lincoln, NE: IUniverse Publishers.

Haddow, George. (2007). Introduction to Emergency Management, 3rd ed. New York: Butterworth.
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Relevance of Academic Knowledge to

Words: 5016 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63570089

It needs to be well understood because just like knowledge, ingorance cannot be talked about without basing on some individual or group. It should therfore be negotiated soically because it is socially constructed. Ignorance is treated indiscriminately and unitary whereby terms like uncertainity, ambiguity and vagueness are considered synonymous by most writing on disaster.Turner together with several other writers in the fields of disasters and hazards refer to about three ignorance senses consisting of distortion which he also calls misinformation, incompleteness and irrelevance whereby relevant information is discounted and overlooked. In order to prevent disasters, there are various ways in information which would be need is classified. The things which are not known; what is known but not entirely appreciated; something which someone knows but does not present it collectively with other information in a timely manner when there will be realization of its significance and action of its message…… [Read More]


Auf der Heide, E. (1989). Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination. St.

Louis: C.R. Mosely.

Britton, N. (1999). Whither the emergency manager?" International Journal of Mass

Emergencies and Disaster, 17(3), 223-36.
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Managing Volunteers Course Reflection Developing

Words: 347 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90298651

Building a volunteer program before such a disaster takes place, so volunteers can be trained under calmer conditions is the ideal situation. It is essential to inform the potential volunteers of the challenging situations they will face, and to provide them with accurate job descriptions of the sorts of duties they must perform. Organizations often must 'advertise' for volunteers similar to the way that employers advertise for paid jobs, and recruiting young, idealistic workers seeking job experience or who desire to put their convictions into actions are ideal candidates, as are retired persons seeking to retain a sense of connection to their communities. Volunteers will be increasingly necessary to relief efforts in the future, in an era of tight government budgets, but training the right people effectively for the work they will perform as well amassing large numbers of volunteers is critical to assembling an effective volunteer force.

orks Cited…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Developing and Managing Volunteers." (2006, Feb). FEMA. Retrieved 10 Sept 2007 at http://www.training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/is244.asp
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Emergency Communications

Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10039455

Memoir of a Public Information Officer: When an Earthquakes Strikes: The First Five Days

On Thursday the 15th of last month, at 7:31 A.M., an earthquake of 5.9 Moment Magnitude struck Southern California. The epicenter was near Santa Clarita, a small suburban community about twenty miles north of Los Angeles along the I-5 freeway. I am the Public Information Officer for the Emergency esponse Office for the City of Santa Clarita. The following is an account of the five days following that earthquake.

I was attending a breakfast meeting with City and County officials discussing items in the proposed budget for our Emergency esponse Office. Over danishes, bagels, coffee, and juice, we were itemized the needs required by my office. The main sticking point was the cost to training more CET (Community Emergency esponse Team) graduates. It is an 18-hour course taught by U.S. FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency). Our…… [Read More]


Drabek, Thomas E. Emergency Management: Principles and Practice for Local Government. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association. 1991.

Sylves, Richard T., and Waugh, William L. Jr. Disaster Management in the U.S. And Canada. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd. 1996.
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Hurricane Andrew

Words: 1610 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87715680

Hurricane Andrew is a storm that originated from a tropical wave over the central Atlantic in 1992. It first started as a low-pressure system off the coast of Africa and seemed no different from many other atmospheric ripples that form every summer in this part of the world (Pimm, Stuart & Gary 19). However, the seemingly innocent weather system slowly gained enough strength and by August 16, 1992 Hurricane Andrew had grown into a significant tropical storm and officially given the name: "Andrew."

Shear from strong wind prevented intensification of the storm at first. However, the following day saw a decrease in shear, which allowed the strengthening of the depression thus becoming Tropical Storm Andrew. On August 18, convection associated with the storm diminished due to increase in wind shear. Andrew later headed westward due to the effect of a high-pressure system. It then increased rapidly before crossing Bahamas (Pimm,…… [Read More]

Work cited

Pimm, Stuart L., and Gary E. Davis. "Hurricane Andrew. (Cover Story)." Bioscience 44.4 (1994): 224-229. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

Zhang, Yang, and Walter Gillis Peacock. "Planning For Housing Recovery? Lessons Learned From Hurricane Andrew." Journal Of The American Planning Association 76.1 (2010): 5-24. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

Tilmant, James T., and Richard W. Curry. "Hurricane Andrew's Effects On Marine Resources. (Cover Story)." Bioscience 44.4 (1994): 230-237. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.

Smith, Stanley K., and Christopher Mccarty. "Demographic Effects Of Natural Disasters: A Case Study Of Hurricane Andrew." Demography 33.2 (1996): 265-275. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Apr. 2013.
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Weapons and First Responders First Responder Personnel

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4305727

Weapons and First esponders

First responder personnel encounter scene management challenges while responding to disasters suspected to have been occasioned by chemical, biological and radiological weapons. This occurs as a result of uncontrolled access to and from the incident scene, uncontrolled movement of contaminated victims and lack of safe working methods for the first responders (NATO, 2007). The first responders also find it extremely difficult to contain the release of any substances. To mitigate this challenge, the scene should be isolated to mitigate consequences. Effective scene management is imperative to control access to and from the incident scene. Movement of contaminated victims should also be controlled (Shea, 2004). Authorities should provide safe working methods for responders and contain the release of any substances. First responders are also faced with the challenge of saving and protecting lives. Saving lives is the top priority of all responding agencies. Contamination of victims and…… [Read More]

Reference List

Federal Emergency Management Agency (2013). A How-To Guide to Mitigate Potential

Terrorist Attacks against Buildings. Retrieved from http://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/4608?id=1938

NATO (2007). Guidelines for First Response to a CBRN Incident. Retrieved from http://www.nato.int/docu/cep/cep-cbrn-response-e.pdf

Shea, D.A. (2004). Terrorism: Background on Chemical, Biological, and Toxin Weapons and Options for Lessening their Impact. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/irp/crs/RL31669.pdf
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Support for the Reformation of the Stafford Act

Words: 1233 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33225960

Stafford Act can rightly be considered the principle legislation governing emergency and disaster management in the U.S., spelling "out - among other things - how disasters are declared, the types of assistance to be provided, and the cost-sharing arrangements between federal, state, and local governments" (Moss & Shelhamer, 2007, p. 3). FEMA is, essentially, charged with implementing the Act and overseeing its two incident levels - major disasters and emergencies. However, despite the fact that it is put into place several times every year, during declarations of catastrophes and emergencies, the Stafford Act is not without its critics who have outspokenly called for an overhaul to some of is fundamental provisions. The author posits that in its present state, the Stafford Act lacks standardized mitigation procedures, and ought, therefore, to be "reformed to aggressively encourage the reconstruction of improved infrastructure, in addition to providing funding for mitigation projects" (Moss &…… [Read More]


Bea, K. (2003). Federal Disaster Policies after Terrorists Strike: Issues and Options. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Publishers.

Hunter, N.D. (2009). The Law of Emergencies: Public Health and Disaster Management. Boston, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann

Moss, M.L. & Shelhamer, C. (2007). The Stafford Act: Priorities for Reform. New York University Library. Retrieved 4th July 2014 from http://www.nyu.edu/ccpr/pubs/Report_StaffordActReform_MitchellMoss_10.03.07.pdf
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Medical Public Health Components and Disaster Responses NIMS

Words: 1073 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15306197

NIMS Medical/Public Health Components and Disaster Responses

The objective of this study is to discuss the NIMS medical and public health components and disaster responses in terms of its logistics, inventory, personnel credentialing, emergency operations center and ICS 206, Medial Plan.

Incident Management

Incident management is reported to include on-site incident management and multiagency coordination using the Incident Command Systems (ICS) structure which involves maintaining 'a continuation flow of critical information among multijurisdictional and multidisciplinary emergency responders, command posts, agencies and the governmental officials for the duration of the emergency response operation in compliance with National Incident Management System (NIMS)" and to "coordinate activities above the field level by prioritizing demands for competing resources, thereby assisting with coordination of operation in the field." (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2009, p. 24) Also requires during incident management operations is communication among responders that is timely in nature so that…… [Read More]


National Incident Management System (2008) U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Dec 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nims/NIMS_core.pdf

National Health Security Strategy of the United States of America (2009) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dec 2009. Retrieved from:  http://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/planning/authority/nhss/strategy/Documents/nhss-final.pdf 

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2010-2015. Retrieved from: http://www.hhs.gov/strategic-plan/stratplan_fy2010-15.pdf
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Managing Homeland Security You Were

Words: 2062 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48708261

S. DHS "Strategic Plan," 2008, http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/strategicplan/) ealistically acts of terrorism, domestic or foreign are exceedingly rare, though slightly more common than they have been in the past and at least marginally more violent in nature, they occur very, very rarely. (Lewis, 2000, p. 201) Though maintaining serious preparedness the mitigation of natural disasters, most which cannot be avoided is an issue needed to be addressed almost yearly, on both small and large scales, across the nation and is much more likely to directly effect people and resources on an intimate level and should be the Emergency Management system's first and primary concern! Though worst possible case scenarios, regarding the use of WMDs is important it is not where all the resources should go.

(5. In the course, you have been introduced to the various responsibilities of different levels of government in the homeland security effort. What level of government do…… [Read More]


Daniels, R.S. (2007). Revitalizing Emergency Management after Katrina: A Recent Survey of Emergency Managers Urges Improved Response, Planning, and Leadership and a Reinvigorated FEMA -- the Federal Government Has Responded by Making Most of the Recommended Changes. The Public Manager, 36(3), 16.

Department of Homeland Security Website www.dhs.gov

Depoorter, B. (2006). Horizontal Political Externalities: The Supply and Demand of Disaster Management. Duke Law Journal, 56(1), 101.

Hulnick, a.S. (2004). Keeping Us Safe: Secret Intelligence and Homeland Security. Westport, CT: Praeger.
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Local Team Response Communication Hitches

Words: 1340 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82333334

There were incidences of the army having supplies but no requests came in for the supplies from FEMA which was supposed to be initiating that.

The lack of the CIA activation also meant there was no unified command on the ground hence the delay of the arrival of the active duty-federal troops in New Orleans. Even though there were in excess of 50,000 troops sent with resources from over 49 states, the operations did not proceed efficiently due to lack of the command from federal Northern Command, which was overseeing the large-scale deployments and operations of the active-duty military (Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, 2006:Pp11).

3. Politics and decision making process

In the event of any disaster, be it natural or an act of terrorism, there is always an attempt to politicize the process of making decisions particularly relating to the search and rescue and general response…… [Read More]


Department of Homeland Security, (2004). Catastrophic Incidence Annex. National Response

Plan. Pp1. Retrieved October 2, 2012 from  http://www.uscg.mil/hq/cg5/cg534/nsarc/Catastrophic_Incident_Annex.pdf 

Homeland Security, (2005). Catastrophic Incident Supplement to the National Response

Plan. Retrieved October 2, 2012 from http://publicintelligence.net/catastrophic-incident-supplement-to-the-national-response-plan/
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Demographics of Social Vulnerability Paragraphs Requested in

Words: 395 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25800466

Demographics of Social Vulnerability

Paragraphs equested)

In principle, social vulnerability is a component of hazard vulnerability that reflects the impacts of hazards on the ability of individuals and communities to deal with adversity in the forms associated with hazards and disasters (Lindell, Perry, & Prater, 2006 p. 155). More particularly, social vulnerability comprises the subcomponents of demographics, economics, politics, and psychology. With respect to demographics, social vulnerability is no different from its influence, because the susceptibility of any person, family, community, or society to social consequences of difficult circumstances depends substantially on demographic factors (Lindell, Perry, & Prater, 2006 p. 155). Just as physical, economic, and system vulnerability must be assessed and considered by emergency planners, so must the social vulnerability of the individuals living in at-risk communities.

Generally, the ability of communities to plan for, cope with, withstand the impact of, and recover from the physical elements of hazards…… [Read More]


Lindell, M.K., Perry, R.W., and Prater, C.S. (2006). Fundamentals of Emergency

Management. Retrieved from http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/edu/fem.asp
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Worshipful Mayor Memo Regarding Building Emergency Sea

Words: 1429 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34388876

Worshipful Mayor

Memo regarding building emergency sea gate with current funds

After studying the issue, and the costs thereof, we have come to the conclusion based on the following facts:

That building a Seagate may be feasible as per the advice of the engineers. However they also opinion that such a hurricane as sandy occurs once in 25 or so years. The cost of building such a barrier would be enormous. It would result in increased taxes and the efficiency of such a measure is not guaranteed.

The second alternate is to build smaller dykes that would keep off sea erosions but would do nothing against storms like sandy.

The third alternate is to increase the existing infrastructure in such a way that flooding can be avoided. And other programs are continued in a phased manner.

With consideration to all of the above, we believe that investing in a sea…… [Read More]


Earl, Michael J. (1988) "Information Management: The Organizational Dimension" Oxford

University Press: Oxford.

L.A. County Online. "Hazard Mitigation" Retrieved 26 April, 2013 from  http://lacoa.org/hazmit.htm 

Narasimhan, Ram; Kim, Soo Wook. (2001) "Information system utilization strategy for supply chain integration" Journal of Business Logistics, vol. 22, no. 2, pp: 51 -- 75.
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Emergency Planning and Operations Methodology

Words: 1480 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96961384

Emergency, Planning and Operations Methodology

In your opinion what were the main issues expressed by the States

Concerning Homeland Security and states rights at the 2002 State Emergency esponse Commission Conference? Please justify your position.

Most of the states attending the 2002 State Emergency esponse Conference expressed an overall sentiment that in relation to security, things are going to vary from state to state based on the capabilities of the emergency response agencies in each state, as well as the types of hazards that states are likely to face in addition to WMD's i.e. For example, states have to take into consideration whether they have chemical facilities, nuclear facilities and similar hazardous materials to address. State also has to take into consideration whether or not they have highways that are used to transport hazardous or nuclear waste materials.

Colorado made the point that secrecy regarding Homeland Security measures will not…… [Read More]


Analysis for the Homeland Security Act." (2003). Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/analysis/index.html

Hall, Richard., Adams, Barbara. (1998). Essentials of Firefighting, 4th Edition. Fire Protection Publications: Oklahoma

Homeland Security Act" (2003). Retrieved November 21, 2003, http://www.whitehouse.gov/deptofhomeland/bill/index.html

Homeland Security Act of 2003." Retrieved November 22, 2003, http://www.theorator.com/bills108/hr1389.html
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Formulating a Disaster and Risk Management Plan

Words: 1733 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35317636

Lynchburg Security

Formulating a disaster and risk management is necessary for this jurisdiction. This is based on the knowledge that risk management is a demanding initiative that requires an appropriate and responsive. Satellite units are professionally trained to meet global demands. The Lynchburg, Virginia security system has met federal requirements of quality, and as a result, the system has proved suitable to respond to various hazards experienced in this jurisdiction. This report will attempt to present the Homeland Security apparatus of this jurisdiction. The report will assess the current situation of possible hazards and actual preparedness whilst presenting the elements of disaster management at Lynchburg. This section is a critical analysis of how disaster is managed within this jurisdiction compared to the critical disaster management measures in the United Kingdom.

Homeland Security stakeholders

The Lynchburg Homeland Security system is comprised of stakeholders like administrators, first responders, and the local law…… [Read More]


Agostino, D.M., & Jenkins, W.O. (2011). Catastrophic planning: states participating in FEMA's pilot program made progress, but better guidance could enhance future pilot programs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office.

Brownstein, C. (2007). Report of the DHS national small vessel security summit managing the risk. Arlington, VA: Homeland Security Institute.

Davis, B.J. (2011, November 1). Interagency Logistics Education and Training: Building Homeland Defense and Civil Support Liaisons: Disasters within the United States

Edkins, J. (2011). Missing: Persons and Politics. Cornell University Press.
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Homeland Defense Agency Identification In

Words: 4253 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52563219

(Combating Terrorism: FEMA Continues to Make Progress in Coordinating Preparedness and esponse: Participation in Interagency and Intra-agency Groups and Committees)

CIMS: The Office of Emergency Management --OEM who has been collaborating with NYPD & FDNY and other City agencies to develop the CIMS, the adoption of which was declared by Mayor Bloomberg in March, 2004. CIMS makes a uniform incident management structure for every City agency that is broadly based on the Incident Command System model. The setting up of CIMS ensures a system for management of emergencies with a universal understanding of terminologies and roles and responsibilities among all agencies. CIMS makes use of the combined lead agency/unified operations section. In case of the majority of the incidents where multiple agencies are needed to act on several emergency situations, a unified operations post is made. The core competencies of the primary agencies will establish command of authority for immediate…… [Read More]


About FEMA" Available at http://www.fema.gov/about/. Accessed 7 September, 2005

About FEMA: FEMA History" Available at http://www.fema.gov/about/history.shtm. Accessed 7 September, 2005

About FEMA: What We Do" Available at http://www.fema.gov/about/what.shtm. Accessed 7 September, 2005

About NYPD" Available at http://www.nyc.gov/html/nypd/html/mission.html. Accessed 7 September, 2005
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Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness

Words: 3869 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1180867

Hazard Mitigation and Preparedness (U.S. Federal Programs: Advantages and Disadvantages)

The confrontations and prospects for the reduction of hazards/disasters have never been greater than in the current period. In theory, the challenge is to do away with all disasters that cause the loss of life or injury to people along with the property and environment damage. On the other hand, such a goal is not possible to achieve practically. Although it is possible to avoid certain risks but the elimination of environmental hazards seems to be an idealistic task (Smith, 2004, p. 268).

The evidence signals that there is a need to do more today for tomorrow. Though investment in hazard mitigation has increased, there are few signs that show the effectiveness of the sustainability plans. In United States of America, several plans are outlined that have lessened the number of casualties and scale of destruction (Smith, 2004, p. 268).…… [Read More]


About FEMA. (2011, November 14). In FEMA. Retrieved November 28, 2011, from http://www.fema.gov/about/index.shtm

"About the National Dam Safety Program." (2010, August 11). Retrieved December 09, 2011 from http://www.fema.gov/plan/prevent/damfailure/ndsp.shtm

Bernard, E.N. (2005). The U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program: A Successful State -- Federal Partnership. Springer, 35, 5-24. Retrieved December 07, 2011 from http://www.hawaiistateassessment.info/library/Hawaii_Coastal_Hazards/Document_Library/GENERAL MITIGATION/Bernard USA Tsunami Mitigation.pdf

Edwards, F.L., & Afawubo, I. (2008). Show Me the Money: Financial Recovery after Disaster Professional Emergency Management, Physical Mitigation, Public Education, and Financial Assistance Can All Lessen the Impact of Post-Disaster Community Recovery Costs. The Public Manager, 37(4), 85+. Retrieved December 9, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5035928141
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Emergency Planning for San Diego State University

Words: 1859 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1920199

Emergency Plan for San Diego State University

Evaluation of Emergency Plan of San Diego University

San Diego State University has set out "emergency preparedness, response, and recovery guidelines for students, faculty, staff and campus auxiliary organizations so that the effects of campus emergency situations can be minimized." (San Diego State University, Division of Business and Financial Affairs, 2014, p. 1) San Diego State University has placed emergency numbers across the campus and on its webpage and includes the following:

(1) SDSU Policy (police/medical/fire) 9-1-1

(2) Environmental Health and Safety (chemical spills/toxic fumes) 46778 or [HIDDEN]

Also placed for information is the Emergency Operations Information Line 1- [HIDDEN] .

San Diego State University's Home Page is located at www.sdsu.edu and it is reported that in the event of an emergency on the campus that this webpage is updated. San Diego State University has developed a check list for what should be…… [Read More]


IS-100.SCA: Introduction to the Incident Command System for Schools (2013) FEMA. Retrieved from: http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/courseOverview.aspx?code=IS-100.sca

IS-362.A: Multi-Hazard Emergency Planning for Schools (2013) FEMA. Retrieved from: http://training.fema.gov/EMIWeb/IS/courseOverview.aspx?code=IS-362.a

National Infrastructure Protection Plan (2013) NIPP 2013 Partnering for Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience. U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved from: http://www.dhs.gov/national-infrastructure-protection-plan

National Threat Assessment Center Secret Service Safe School Initiative (2014) U.S. Secret Service. Retrieved from: http://www.secretservice.gov/ntac_ssi.shtml
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Emergency Occurring Is Inevitable Although

Words: 2130 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43545839

In February of 2006 changes to the structure of FEMA were proposed. According to an article found in the Washington Post, the proposed changes would create a fulltime response force of 1,500 and expanding 10 regional offices (Hsu). The changes to the Agency bring into question whether or not the agency should remain a response agency with a small workforce that has the primary responsibility of processing disaster claims and providing assistance in times of emergency or should FEMA be expanded to an agency that has the capacity to take charge whenever it is required.

According to the article the proposed changes which also include improving vendor databases, adding reconnaissance teams, and strengthening claims management are only the beginning of what needs to be changed to ensure that the agency operates more efficiently (Hsu). The article also asserts that a cultural change must occur as it relates to the way…… [Read More]


Brown, Sharon P., Sandra L. Mason, and Richard B. Tiller. "The Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Employment and Unemployment: After BLS and Its State Partners Made Critical Modifications to Estimation Procedures, Local Area Data Show That Hurricane Katrina Depressed Employment Levels Sharply in Louisiana and Mississippi;" the Initial Effect on Unemployment, Though Also Strong, Was Temporary." Monthly Labor Review 129.8 (2006): 52+.

Clayton, Richard L., and James R. Spletzer. "Worker Mobility before and after Hurricane Katrina: A Substantial Number of Workers Were Displaced from the New Orleans Metropolitan Statistical Area after Hurricane Katrina; Those Who Quickly Found Jobs in Texas Experienced a Substantial Decline in Their Short-Term Earnings." Monthly Labor Review 129.8 (2006): 11+.

Hsu Spencer S. Experts Question Proposed FEMA Changes

Washington Post. Wednesday, February 15, 2006; Page A04
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National Response Framework Incident Annexes Timely Responses

Words: 1445 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93938311

National esponse Framework Incident Annexes

Timely responses to natural and manmade disasters require the effective coordination of numerous federal, state and local resources. Indeed, effective responses can make the difference between life and death for countless citizens, and there is therefore a need for a framework to coordinate these disparate but valuable first responder resources. In this regard, the National esponse Framework provides such a framework, but given the enormous range of providers that are involved, it is not surprising that the framework is also lengthy and complex. Moreover, the NF recently superseded the National esponse Plan (NP) and provided a number of incident annexes concerning optimal contingency or hazard situation responses. To gain additional insights into the provisions of these annexes, this paper provides a summary of the annexes to the NF, followed by recapitulation of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Summary of National esponse Framework…… [Read More]


Biological incident annex. (2012). FEMA NRF Resource Center. Retrieved from http://


Catastrophic incident annex. (2012). FEMA NRF Resource Center. Retrieved from http://www.

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National Preparedness Report

Words: 972 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39053939

DHS and the NP

The National Preparedness eport was structured in a strategic manner by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). There was a great deal of scrutiny and assessment which occurred when this report was put together as much of it represented the most recent work of DHS, their theories, objectives and recent discoveries. Thus, the structure of the report was incredibly important.

One aspect of the report appears to be structured around optimism. For instance, planning is a big aspect of where the attention of the report goes. The report indeed spends time looking at ways in which the foundation of the nation could be made stronger, particularly in emergencies and in ways to better enmesh the scaffolding which is in place so that its more comprehensive. This section of the report also discusses the partnerships present for finishing the National Planning Frameworks across the preparedness mission arenas…… [Read More]


DHS. (2013, March 30). National Preparedness Report. Retrieved from Fema.gov: http://www.fema.gov/library/viewRecord.do;jsessionid=E51F4DC339F8274EE953C277F08FAC12.Worker2Public2?action=back&id=7465

Fema.gov. (2013, May 30). National Preparedness Report. Retrieved from Fema.gov: http://www.fema.gov/national-preparedness-report

Fema.gov/31. (2013). Core Capabilities. Retrieved from Fema.gov: http://www.fema.gov/core-capabilities#Longterm
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Preparedness Planning for Private Sector Business

Words: 2444 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67442991

organization is derived from the preparedness cycle developed by the National Incident Management System (NIMS) and utilized by the Federal Emergency Management Association (FEMA) of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and other disaster response / emergency preparedness organizations. A primary advantage of using this proven model is that it provides a consistently implemented and commonly understood approach to disaster preparedness. The preparedness cycle is a continuously renewing series of integrated components that enable the a state of preparedness to be achieved and maintained, and includes the following: Planning, organizing, training, equipping, exercising, evaluating, and taking corrective action ("Preparedness," 2014). The components of the NIMS preparedness cycle are shown below.

Figure 1. NIMS Preparedness Cycle

Organizational preparedness requires the coordinated effort of both internal and external individuals, and the engagement of agencies and resources external to the focus organization. These external resources are dedicated to incident response and emergency management,…… [Read More]


Business Continuity Plan. (2014, January 3). FEMA. Retrieved http://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/89510

Business Continuity Resource Requirements Worksheet (2014, January 3). FEMA. Retreived http://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/89512

National Incident Management System: Preparedness. (2014, July 24). FEMA. Retrieved https://www.fema.gov/preparedness-0

Organizational resilience: Security, preparedness, and continuity management systems -- requirements with guidance for use. ASIS. (2009, March 12). American National Standards Institute, Inc. Retrieved http://www.ndsu.edu/fileadmin/emgt/ASIS_SPC.1-2009_Item_No._1842.pdf
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The Need for a Responsive Tsunami Preparedness Program a Case Sudy of Seaside City Oregon

Words: 2048 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58447420

Seaside Tsunami Awareness Program


Saving an indefinite and undeterminable number of lives has proven to depend on effective education and emergency management in tsunami events in the U.S. -- and likely, everywhere else (NAS, 2011). Safety and survival ultimately depend on communities and individuals at risk with the precise knowledge and capability to decide correctly and act promptly and preferably before the event. This knowledge and this capability can only be gained and developed through education before the event. Prolonged shaking of the ground and the drawing down of the shoreline are the natural indications, especially in local communities. These are hints of arriving waves within minutes. No assistance is likely in the early moments or even days, so knowledge and capability are the only things to rely on. There are better opportunities for those communities and individuals at risk to distant tsunamis. Official warnings may be able to…… [Read More]


Connor, D. (2005). The city of seaide's tsunami awareness program. Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries. Retrieved on October 29, 2015 from http://www.oregongeology.org/pubs/ofr/o-95=10_onscreen.pdf

FEMA (2015) FEMA federal emergency management agency. Retrieved on October 29, 2015

from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/pso_cat_fema.pdf

---------- -- -- . Chapter 12: Standards and Evaluation. Federal Emergency Management Agency.
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Emergency Preparedness and Management in Florida

Words: 4974 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83670200

Disaster Preparedness and Emergency esponse for Natural Disasters or Terrorists Attacks in Florida

Emergency management has been described regarding the phases by using words such as prepare. Mitigate, respond and recover. For this paper, we are going to examine the underlying concepts, variation, limitations, and implications of emergency management phases. Moreover, we are going to look at the various preparedness and response strategies applied by the State of Florida when dealing with natural disasters and terrorist attacks among others. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to show the preparedness and response put in place for these crises for both researchers and practitioners. The paper will also try to give definitions and descriptions of two components, preparedness and response, of emergency management, the temporal versus functional distinctions. Moreover, it is important to understand the interrelationships and responsibilities for each of the phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery) and the diversity…… [Read More]

References List:

Adamski, T., Kline, B. & Tyrell, T. (2006). FEMA Reorganization and the Response to Hurricane Disaster Relief: FEMA Reorganization. Perspectives on Public Affairs, 3, 1-36.

Durmaz, H. (2007). Understanding and Responding to Terrorism. Washington, USA: IOS Press.

Edwards, F. L. & Steinhausler, F. (2007). NATO and Terrorism: On scene: New challenges for the first responders and civil protection. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Elders Affairs. (June 2013). Disaster Preparedness: Guide for Elders. Elder Update -- Special Edition, 24(3), 1-24.
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Progress of EMS Services

Words: 735 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62424250

governmental or non-governmental agency that focuses on disaster recovery. To that end, the author of this report has chosen the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). FEMA's mission as stated on their website is "to support our citizens and first responders to ensure that as a nation we work together to build, sustain and improve our capability to prepare for, protect against, respond to, recover from and mitigate all hazards" (FEMA, 2015). As already stated, the focus of this brief treatise will be on the recovery aspects of FEMA's job. While FEMA has often been derided and been made the butt of many jokes, they serve a vital and needed role when it comes to disaster recovery.

When speaking of recovery, this would reference what happens more than a month after a disaster occurs rather than the immediate response upon the event happening or even the immediate aftermath. As an example,…… [Read More]


Dekle, J. L. (2005). A Florida County Locates Disaster Recovery

Centers. Interfaces, 35(2), 133-139.

EMS Market Characteristics. (2015). EHS 640 - Intro to High Performance EMS.

FEMA. (2015). About the Agency -- FEMA.gov. fema.gov. Retrieved 8 September 2015,
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Analyzing Funding for Usace

Words: 4888 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52111523

USACE program funding, compliant with Federal Continuity Directive 1. It will also address processes required for continuing the business continuity plan for the Nation's Survivability and Critical Infrastructure.

The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) identifies itself with the following mission: to offer critical services in the public engineering area, during times of war and peace, for strengthening America's security, mitigating disaster risks, and energizing the nation's economy (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers -- The United States Army). Via its egulatory Program, the USACE oversees and implements CWA (Clean Water Act), Section 404, and the 1899 ivers and Harbors Act's (HA), Section 10. The latter forbids unsanctioned alteration or obstruction of any of America's navigable waters, unless one possesses a USACE permit. The term 'navigable American waters' refers to all waters subject to the tide's rise and fall, which have been in use earlier, or are currently used, or…… [Read More]


(2014). Charleston District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Guidance for Submittals to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers by Council Of Government Offices. Retrieved May 30, 2016, from http://www.sac.usace.army.mil/Portals/43/docs/regulatory/Guidance_for_Submittals

(n.d.). FEMA.gov -- Federal Emergency Management Agency. Emergency Support Function #3 -- Public Works and Engineering Annex. Retrieved May 30, 2016, from http://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/nrf/nrf-esf-03.pdf

Gibson. (2014). Department of Veterans Affairs. Army Corps identifies need for "transformative change" in VA construction process - VAntage Point. Retrieved May 30, 2016, from http://www.blogs.va.gov/VAntage/22620/army-corps-identifies-need-for-transformative-change-in-va-construction-process/

Goodeyon, S. (2013). The Official Home Page of the United States Army -- The United States Army. USACE responds to FEMA mission in aftermath of killer Okla. tornadoes -- Article -- The United States Army. Retrieved May 29, 2016, from http://www.army.mil/article/105191/
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Government Roles in Disaster Recovery

Words: 2333 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90881084

What they did not anticipate was the levees breaking nor were they aware of the level of immediate need of the people. He also says that with Hurricane Andrew, about two million residents were evacuated and only about 10% we left homeless whereas with Hurricane Katrina approximately the same number of residents were evacuated yet over 90% were left homeless (Halton, 2006). This was much more of a burden than FEMA had anticipated and it was a result of poor emergency response at lower levels of government.

Even still, FEMA should have been better prepared to handle the situation. They should have been called in earlier than they were and if this were the case they situation would have been easier to manage. Paulison says that FEMA was not fully aware of what was needed and where. This is a result of poor communication. y the time they were called…… [Read More]


Halton, B. (2006). FEMA's response to Hurricane Katrina. Fire Engineering, 159(5), 213-218.

Kelley-Romano, S. And Westgate, V. (2007). Blaming Bush: An analysis of political cartoons following Hurricane Katrina. Journalism Studies, 8(5), 755-719.

Perry, R.W. And Lindell, M.K. (2003). Preparedness for emergency response: Guidelines for emergency planning process. Disasters, 27(4), 336-350.
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Disaster Plan in the Modern Era it

Words: 816 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4811502

Disaster Plan

In the modern era, it is important that government from the federal to the local level have risk management plans in place for natural disasters, man-made issues and of course, terrorism. Generally speaking, risk management helps identify, prioritize and put plans in place regarding areas of risk that can impact the community. The overall purpose of risk management is so that agencies can be proactive in their identification and implementing plans for disasters and risks since in the modern world these plans involve numerous agencies and complex coordination. Thankfully, standards have been developed that organize risk management by looking at six general paradigms: 1) Identifying risks in the context of the area (e.g. flood planning is less important in Arizona than in Louisiana); 2) Planning a process to mitigate the situation (who is in charge); 3) Mapping the objectives of stakeholders (who will be involved); 4) Developing a…… [Read More]


Colorado Division of Emergency Management. (2013). News, Info and Preparedness.

Retrieved from:  http://www.coemergency.com/ 

Drabek, T., et.al.. (1991). Emergency Management: Principles and Practices for Local Government. International City Management Association.

Frenkel, M., Hommel, U., & Rudolf, M. (Eds.). (2005). Risk Management - Challenge and Opportunity. New York: Springer.
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Promoting Emergency Management in U S Since 1900

Words: 1464 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58586908

National Preparedness Goal

National Preparedness, the Presidential Policy Directive #8 (PPD-8), gives a description of the approach of the United States (U.S.) in the area of being prepared for threats and hazards posing the highest risk to American security. The whole national community shares the responsibility of national preparedness. Contribution and participation is required from every person including communities, individuals, faith-based organizations, and local, state and federal governments. The society will be described based on the core capabilities required in dealing with great risk. An integrated and layered approach shall be the foundation of the description. Success is used to mean a resilient and secure nation having the capabilities needed to prevent, protect against, mitigate, respond to, and ensure recovery from the most devastating of hazards.

The National Preparedness Goals shall be achieved by use of core capabilities in the following ways:

Prevention, avoidance, and halting threats or real terrorism…… [Read More]


Bea, K. (2005, March). The national preparedness system: Issues in the 109th Congress. Library of Congress Washington Dc Congressional Research Service

FEMA. (n.d.) Federal Emergency Management Agency. Retrieved June 10, 2015, from http://fema.ideascale.com/a/ideas/tag/campaign-filter/byids/campaigns/58561

Homeland security, (First Edition September 2011) National Preparedness Goal retrieved on June 10, 2015

National Preparedness Goal FEMA.gov. (n.d.). Retrieved June 10, 2015, from https://www.fema.gov/national-preparedness-goal
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Core Components of the NIMS

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15811957

Homeland Security

Two years prior to the devastating and tragic landfall of Hurricane Katrina on the Gulf Coast, President George W. Bush

Issued Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD-5) directing the Secretary of Homeland

Security to: create a comprehensive National Incident Management System (NIMS) to provide a consistent nationwide approach for Federal, State, and local governments to work effectively together to prepare for, respond to, and recover from domestic incidents, regardless of cause, size, or complexity (George W. Bush White House.gov. N.D.P.1).

Later adopted in 2004, the NIMS provided a dedicated strategic initiative to prevent the very chaos and confusion which erupted out of Katrina's fury. Yet, the system proved desultory, unwieldy, and ineffective in its response to the disaster; the vivid portraits of New Orleans citizens trapped in the Superdome "amid a frightening scene of filth, violence and despair" (MSNBC.com. September 3, 2005). Since 2005, efforts have focused on ensuring that…… [Read More]

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11th of September 2001 Two

Words: 3265 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35421423

Department of Education:

The Education Authority provided $5 million for ehabilitation Services Administration of those individuals who suffered from physical or mental disabilities as a result of collapse of WTC. The department also provided funds to help those disabled Americans who lost their jobs, rehabilitation or other support structures sue to this tragedy.

The department also provided assistance to the state schools for counseling and mental therapy of affected children. The department established 'Loan Forgiveness Scheme', under which individuals living or working in New York were provided temporary relief from student loan payments.

Department of Justice:

Legislation was introduced for expeditious payments of compensation to the families of those who lost their relatives as a result of 9/11 terrorist attacks. The program launched in this regard was 'Victims Compensation Benefit Program'.

Legislation was introduced for speedy payment of compensation to the families of the police officers, firefighters and rescuer, who…… [Read More]


Government Accounts Officer Report, 2002. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/10/20011003.html.

Henderson, DA. Defense against the bio-terrorist threat (lecture). 75th annual meeting, American Epidemiological Society, March 21-22, 2000, New York, NY. http://www.mssm.edu/cpm/wtc_health/focus_claudio/.

The New York Times, 12/Sept 2001. http://ccforum.com/content/5/6/323.

Dr Dennis Charney, Journal of National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Sept 2006 edition.
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U S Fire Problem Everyday in

Words: 1829 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52187272

aising standards and building codes makes fire prevention a priority and legal requirement that will save the government and community money and protect lives. Another critical recommendation by FEMA and the USFA is to ensure the health and safety of fire fighters. Fire departments are staffed with paid employees, and often volunteers. These individuals deserve adequate funding to invest in necessary training, equipment, and technology to make their jobs more efficient and protect their lives (Bernstein, 2002).

The fire problem in the U.S. spans across the decades and infects the entire nation. Today, in regards to both frequency and total losses of life, America has the highest total fire losses than any modern technological society, the fact of which can no longer be ignored. The tens of thousands of deaths and injuries and the billions of dollars in property losses each year to fires are a testament to the severity…… [Read More]


Bernstein, G.U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Federal Emergency Management Agency.

(2002). America at risk findings and recommendations on the role of the fire service in the prevention and control of risks in america (FA-223)

Federal Emergency Management Agency, United States Fire Administration National Fire Data

Center. (1999). Profile of the urban fire problem in the United States (FA-190)TriData Corporation.
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Post-Hurricane Criminal Justice Katrina Post-Hurricane

Words: 3289 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6403557

" The lawsuit states that the "defendants knowing paid out far less than policy holders deserved to repair flooded homes and property [Officials throughout NFIP] deliberately and fraudulently used low-balling, high pressure tactics to get people to accept pennies on the dollar of what they are entitled to. (Seid, 2005)

In an article entitled "Multiple Failures Caused elief Crisis - The Breakdown of the elief Operation in New Orleans was the esult of Multiple Failures by City, State and Federal Authorities" (eynolds, 2005 BBC News) which states: There was no one cause. The failures began long before the hurricane with a gamble that a Category Four or Five would not strike New Orleans." (eynolds, 2005 BBC News) This mistake followed with an evacuation plan that was lacking and resulted in "a relief effort hampered by lack of planning, supplies and manpower, and a breakdown in communications of the most basic…… [Read More]


Seid, Jessica (2005) Disaster strikes, lawsuits follow -National Flood Insurance Program may pay out billions, but some may choose to head to court.

CNN Money September 15, 2005:  http://money.cnn.com/2005/09/14/news/economy/katrina_lawsuit/index.htm 

La Monica, Paul R. (2005) Rebuilding the Gulf, but at what cost? - Economists say Bush's reconstruction plan is necessary; some wonder if the government can afford it.

CNN Money September 16, 2005:  http://money.cnn.com/2005/09/16/news/economy/katrinarebuild/index.htm?cnn=yes
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Katrina Children Lost Forgotten and

Words: 4667 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68383934

For children, going to school, even a new school, provided a sense of order. It also gave parents time to plan for the future. Wealthier parents were able to enroll their children in private schools. Poorer families faced a greater struggle.

In Texas, officials reported enrolling19,000 children displaced by the storm (Katrowitz and reslau, 2005). They were able to waive normal rules, such as proving residency or providing immunization records. The opportunity to start over was critical for thousands of families, including Kathy Jemison and her daughter, Sarah McClelland, 17. The night before the storm hit, they gathered their clothes, keepsakes and important documents (such as birth certificates and Social Security cards). As the storm was destroying their home, they drove 15 hours to a friend's house in San Antonio. Sarah began her senior year at San Antonio's MacArthur High School, and Kathy, who worked for a bank in New…… [Read More]


Abramson, David, and Richard Garfield. (April, 2006). On the Edge: Children and Families Displaced by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Face a Looming Medical and Mental Health Crisis. New York: Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, National Center for Disaster Preparedness.

Brown, Donal. (November 16, 2005). 1,000 Katrina Children Still Missing. Mother Jones.

Callimachi, Rukmini. (April 23, 2006). Katrina's Children Struggle With Fears. The Associated Press.

Cass, Julia. (June 13, 2006). For Many of Katrina's Young Victims, the Scars Are More Than Skin Deep. The Washington Post; A01.