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He is also recognized as the Killer Clown, due for his enjoyment of entertaining children in a clown outfit. The time the bones were established to be those of human beings, forensic anthropologists Charles Warren and Clyde Snow came in on the investigation and viewed the bones. The anthropologists started organizing and sorting out the bones, inspecting them carefully for any specific structures that may help validate the victims. However, some of their anthropology work was not successful because nine of the victim's bones could not be identified because they were not able to build the faces.
In the case study of a serial killer Robert Pickerton, it was even harder to remember the victims. From 2002 till 2007 the largest serial killer crime province in Canada was excavated by Forensic anthropologists (Lesson 1- Forensic Anthropology, 2009). His possessions were exposed to substantial hole by forensic anthropologists and bulky gear,…
Case Study: John Wayne Gacy. (2002). Retrieved October 1, 2011, from Forensic Science Central: http://forensicsciencecentral.co.uk/johnwaynegacy.shtml.
The Body Farm. (2005, September 1). Retrieved October 1, 2011, from Crime Library: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/criminal_mind/forensics/bill_bass/2.html
Lesson 1- Forensic Anthropology. (2009). Retrieved October 1, 2011, from Magic of Forensic Science HOL: http://sites.google.com/site/advancedmagicofforensicscience/lesson-1
Ancestry And Forensic Anthropology. (2205). Retrieved October 1, 2011, from http://encyclopedia.jrank.org/articles/pages/6243/Forensic-Anthropology-and-Race.html
(Bartelink, iersema & Demaree, November 2001) (Croft & Ferllini, November 2007) (Jones, January 2008) Actual cut marks in bones are often found on rib bones, or within skulls, and often postmortem dismemberment done near the time of death creates tell tale signs of such trauma on the skeleton, often at the joints.
The new emphasis in law enforcement and forensics in general to solve old murders or locate and identify victims of traumatic death has made the science of forensic anthropology much more important. Years of work in forensics and anthropology in general is often compiled to train and assist in this process. The forensic anthropologist is also often asked to form an opinion on cause of death, and even time of death in addition to many other bits of information that can be gleaned from skeletal remains. Forensic anthropologists do this when they can with an extensive knowledge of…
Lenore T. Barbian,1 Ph.D. And Paul S. Sledzik, March 2008. Healing Following Cranial Trauma, Journal of Forensic Science, 53 (2) 263-268.
Bartelink, E.J. Wiersema, J.M. & Demaree, R.S. November 2001. Quantitative analysis of sharp-force trauma: an application of scanning electron microscopy in forensic anthropology. Journal of Forensic Sciences 46 (6) 1-6.
Croft, A.M. & Ferllini, R. November 2007. Macroscopic Characteristics of Screwdriver Trauma, Journal of Forensic Science, 52 (6) 1243-1251.
Evans, C. 2004. Murder Two: The Second Casebook of Forensic Detection. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
But on the other hand, a reader who is also interested in the subject doesn't have to necessarily enjoy the idea of decomposing human corpses - or have really thick skin - to get educated regarding the forensic science / anthropologic value of this book.
Being a student in Forensic Anthropology in fact makes it easier to get through the potentially offensive parts of the book, because there are many things to be learned from the novel. This book reflects real-life issues pertaining to forensic research and crime-related applications to forensic science. The book is dedicated to "All victims of murder, all those who mourn them, and all who seek justice on their behalf."
Bass's "Body Farm" is designed so that cases where bodies are found in similar circumstances may have a foundation in terms of the forensic police personnel being able to know how and when - if not…
Bass, Bill; & Jefferson, Jon. (2003). Death's Acre: Inside the Legendary Forensic Lab the Body
Farm Where the Dead Do Tell Tales. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Burns, Karen Ramey. (2006). Department of Anthropology Faculty. Retrieved July 29, 2007, at http://www.anthro.uga.edu/people/burns.htm.
Cornwell, Patricia Daniels (1990). Postmortem. New York: Charles Scribner's Son.
Often, bones have different shapes and/or sizes depending on whether they belonged to a male or female individual, and age also plays an important factor in the way bones look (Maples, 142). hereas doctors usually specialize in a certain branch of medicine, as in pediatrics or gerontology, forensic anthropologists must retain a broad range of knowledge because they might be called in to identify bones or other remains from any individual of any age or pathology. If they only knew a small portion of the type of details that could aid them in such identification, that particular forensic anthropologist's usefulness would be severely limited. Throughout his book, Dr. Maples demonstrates quite clearly how vital it is that observation, research, and learning continue throughout one's career as a forensic anthropologist, especially in the area of biology. As medical and biological knowledge grows, the forensic anthropologist must stay up-to-date or run the…
Maples, William R. Dead Men Do Tell Tales. New York: Random House: 1994.
Dahmer Forensic Analysis
Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer
Crime Scene and Discovery
Never before has egregious police incompetence hindered the apprehension of a serial killer as in the case of Jeffrey Dahmer. When police were called to investigate an alleged domestic disturbance between Konerak Sinthasomophone and Jeffrey Dahmer on May 27, 1991. Although two women came to the aide of Sinthasomophone and urged police to look further into the alleged dispute, the police ignored their pleas and Dahmer was able to convince them that Sinthasomophone was his 19-year-old lover; if police had bothered to check Sinthasomophone's identification they would have seen that he was in fact only 14 years old (ardsley, n.d.). Having convinced the police that Sinthasomophone and he were in the midst of a lovers' quarrel, Sinthasomophone was released into Dahmer's custody and by the end of the night, Sinthasomophone would become Dahmer's 13th victim (ardsley, n.d.). Dahmer would proceed…
Bardsley, M. (n.d.). Jeffrey Dahmer. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from TruTV: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/dahmer/index.html
Benedict, J. (2004). No Bone Unturned: Inside the World of a Top Forensic Scientist and His Work on America's Most Notorious Crimes and Disasters. New York: Harper Collins .
Copeland, L. (2002, May 31). Skeleton Keys: Smithsonian Anthropologists Unlock Secrets in Bones of Ancestors and Crime Victims. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from Washington Post: http://911research.wtc7.net/cache/planes/evidence/washingtonpost_skeletonkeys.html
Crime and Investigation Network. (n.d.). Jeffrey Dahmer. Retrieved June 25, 2012, from http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/jeffrey-dahmer/crime.html
John Wayne Gacy, Jr.
Crime Scene and Discovery
When the police were called to search John Wayne Gacy's home in Des Plaines, Illinois on December 13, 1978, they were not aware that their investigation into the disappearance of fifteen-year-old Robert Piest would lead them to uncover some of the most grisly murders committed in the United States (Evans, 2007). Piest was last seen leaving a pharmacy where Gacy, then working as a contractor, had recently completed a remodeling job (Office of the Clark County Prosecuting Attorney, 2012). Three hours after his disappearance, his mother, Elizabeth Piest, notified the Des Plaines Police Department and Lt. Joseph Kozenczak was tasked with leading the investigation (Sullivan & Maiken, 1983, p. 7; ell & ardsley, n.d.). During his initial investigation, Lt. Kozenczak learned that Gacy had recently offered Piest a job and proceeded to go to Gacy's home, located at 8213 Summerdale Ave, to…
Associated Press. (2011, October 13). Detectives exhume bodies of eight unknown victims of 'Serial-killer Clown' John Wayne Gacy in bid to identify remains. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Mail Online: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2048363/John-Wayne-Gacy-Detectives-exhume-bodies-8-unknown-victims.html
Bell, R., & Bardsley, M. (n.d.). John Wayne Gacy, Jr. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from TruTV.com: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/notorious/gacy/8.html
Crime and Investigation Network. (2005). John Wayne Gacy: Killer Clown. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Crime and Investigation Network: http://www.crimeandinvestigation.co.uk/crime-files/john-wayne-gacy-killer-clown/arrest.html
Donovan, D. (2011, November 29). Another Gacy victim identified thorugh DNA evidence. Retrieved June 9, 2012, from Daily Herald: http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20111129/news/711299790/
The case mentions that petitioners, plus two small minor children and their parents, made the allegation in their suit that was against respondent that the children's very serious birth deficiencies were basically caused because the mothers' had prenatal ingestion of Bendectin, which is a prescription drug that is marketed by respondent. The District Court basically decided respondent summary judgment founded on a well-credentialed expert's affidavit coming up with the conclusion, upon going through the wide-ranging published scientific literature on the issue, that maternal which was utilized of Bendectin has not been exposed to be a risk issue for human birth deficiencies. Even though petitioners had replied with the testimony of eight other well-credentialed specialists, who founded their assumption that Bendectin has the possibility of causing the problem of birth defects on animal studies, chemical structure evaluations, and the unpublished "reanalysis" of formerly issued human statistical studies, the court made…
Gavil, A.I. (1997). AFTER DAUBERT: DISCERNING THE INCREASINGLY FINE LINE BETWEEN THE ADMISSIBILITY AND SUFFICIENCY OF EXPERT TESTIMONY IN ANTITRUST LITIGATION. 65(3), 663-711.
Grove, W.M., & Barden. (2010). Protecting the integrity of the legal system: The admissibility of testimony from mental health experts under. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 1(12), 224-242.
KUMHO TIRE CO LTD., et al. Vs. CARMICHAEL ET AL. (1998, December 7). United States Supreme Court. .
M.S., C.R. (2014). Kumho, Daubert, and the Nature of Scientific Inquiry: Implications for Forensic Anthropology*. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 23-45.
Forensics and Michel Eyraud
When Toussaint-Augustin Gouffe was missing on July 27, 1889 in Paris, France authorities did not give much credence to his disappearance, however, when Gouffe still had not shown up three days later, the case was referred to Marie-Francois Garon, who resolved to find out what happened to Gouffe (Owen, 2008, p. 34). Three weeks later, a body was found near Millery, south of Lyon, and a few days after that, snail gatherers found a broken wooden trunk bearing a shipping label from Paris and smelling of death (Starr, 2010). It was only a matter of time before the victim's body would be identified and his killers were brought to justice, but only after a second autopsy was performed.
Gouffe was described as being 49-years-old, standing at 5'8," and having chestnut hair. However, after the initial autopsy, Dr. Paul Bernard concluded that despite the fact that the…
Owen, D. (2008). The Little Book of Forensics: 50 of the World's Most Infamous Criminal Cases
Solved by Science. New York: Harper Collins.
Starr, D. (2010, Oct 14). Murder in 19th century France and the birth of forensic science.
Gizmodo.com. Accessed 21 July 2013, from http://gizmodo.com/5662454/murder-in-19th-century-france-and-the-birth-of-forensic-science
To some, that suggests that college is a more viable alternative for many of those who would otherwise have sought jobs in the manufacturing sector previously.
However, there are at least two reasons that such a conclusion may be invalid. First, while many manufacturing jobs have disappeared, many other types of technical jobs opportunities have emerged from numerous new technologies (Klein, 2012). Many of them require vocational degrees and certifications but no college degrees. For many people without specific interests in vocational applications of any college degrees being considered, training programs for these types of jobs is much less expensive, quicker, and more likely to lead to satisfying employment options than a college diploma in a random academic area or one of great intellectual value but few employment prospects outside of academia (Klein, 2012).
Second, vocational training, in general, has changed significantly in the last several decades. Specifically, whereas vocational…
Coy, P. (2009). "The lost generation." Business Week (October 19, 2009): 33-35.
Ewing, J. (2009). "Germany's answer: The apprentice." Business Week (October 19,
Hay, J. (2013). Question of 'Is college worth it?' weighs on local students. The Press
More than 98% of respondents had heard of the term "brain death," but only one-third (33.7%) believed that someone who was "brain dead" was legally dead. Using a utilitarian approach, organ donation does provide good for others; and, when managed appropriated, can provide a greater good for society at large. However, utilizing a population for organ harvesting, or changing the model so that organ donation is seen as a profit-center as opposed to a humanitarian endeavor, certainly muddies the waters a bit.
Barbas, M.P. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom to Hyperspace. Educational Media International. 43 (1): 65-73, 2006. etrieved from: tp://www.eric.ed.gov/EICWebPortal / search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&EICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ729235&EICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ729235.
Guo, G., et.al. The VNT 2-eteap in MAOA and Delinquient Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Associations. European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (5): 626-34. etrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~gguo/papers/08%20MAOA %202%20aggression%20EJHG.pdf
Kurth, J. eligion and Globalization. The eview of Faith and International Affairs. 7(2): 15-21, 2009.
Barbas, M.P. Expanding Knowledge: From the Classroom to Hyperspace. Educational Media International. 43 (1): 65-73, 2006. Retrieved from: tp://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal / search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ729235&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ729235.
Guo, G., et.al. The VNTR 2-Reteap in MAOA and Delinquient Behavior in Adolescence and Young Adulthood Associations. European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (5): 626-34. Retrieved from: http://www.unc.edu/~gguo/papers/08%20MAOA %202R%20aggression%20EJHG.pdf
Kurth, J. Religion and Globalization. The Review of Faith and International Affairs. 7(2): 15-21, 2009.
Nilsen, D., Kowske, B., Anthony, K. Managing a Diverse, Global Environment is Critical. HR Magazine Review. 50 (8): 41-9. Retrieved from: http://www.shrm.org/Publications / hrmagazine/EditorialContent/Pages/0805tools.aspx
In this instance then, the face and politeness phenomena become of crucial importance. Since the conversations in phone call centers are not conducted face-to-face, the most important aspect becomes the politeness (Stembrouck, 2006). This is vital for complete customer satisfaction and can be identified and corrected through discourse analyses.
All in all, the employees at the call center have the ultimate purpose of transferring data to the customers in a way that is both polite and informative. The discourse analysis conducted on the pre-recorded phone calls is a useful means of monitoring the communication between employee and customer. It allows the corporate management to identify any shortages in communication, resulting in customer dissatisfaction. The conversational analysis is a helpful approach to identifying internal problems and resolving them in a way that increases customer satisfaction and organizational revenues.
4. Types of Discourse Analyses and their Applications
As established in the previous…
Bielski, L., 2000, E-Business Models Stress Putting the Customer First, ABA Banking Journal, Volume 92
Buttle, F., 2003, Customer Relationship Management, Elsevier Science and Technology Books
Chimombo, M., Roseberry, R.L., 1998, the Power of Discourse: An Introduction to Discourse Analysis, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Cook, G., 1990, Discourse, Oxford: OUP
Trepanning in archeological and historical societies and what these surgeries tell us about the biological/medical beliefs of the people who did them
Trepanning is the procedure to create the whole in the skull of a human being. This procedure has had long historical background. Trepanning is performed not only for the medical purpose but archeological evidences also reflect the fact that it was also used as the capital punishment and for other religious issues.
Different scholars have different opinions about this particular procedure: trepanning. Some medical experts believe that the skulls which were trepanned when examined in the laboratory have shown the signs of recovery after the occurrence of the procedure. However still other specialists suggest that the harmful aspects of trepanning are more in comparison to the benefits of trepanning. Medical doctors suggest that opening the skull and operating the human brain will certainly cause some damage to the…
rown, in her biographic article for World of Forensic Science, states,
She views investigative criminal profiling as a dynamic process that does not conclude until a suspect is arrested and convicted. She deems it a support process for the criminal investigative team, made up of a combination of four skills: investigation, forensic analysis, psychological assessment, and the application of cultural anthropology. rown considers this type of profiling to be a real-time, speculative process requiring ongoing checking to avoid missing any significant data, and should never be done in isolation, but rather as one piece of the entire criminal investigative process (rown, ¶4).
rown works 'pro bono' on several cold case file crimes, trying to be closure for the family.
The profilers use a variety of known characteristics to start the profile. The years of research done by early profilers such as Douglas has enabled the profilers to obtain clearer pictures…
Brown, Pat. World of Forensic Science. Thomson Gale. 2005. HighBeam Research. 22 Jun.
Cooper, Greg. The Violent Criminal Apprehension Program. The Forensic Examiner.
American College of Forensic Examiners. 2007. HighBeam Research. 22 Jun. 2010
Genomes and Comparative Genomics
Over the last decade we have achieved rapid strides in the field of genetic engineering. The study of molecular biology has been fairly advanced mainly aided by the unprecedented growth in information technology. Today bio-informatics has opened new vitas for us and we are already progressing in investigating and in the comparative study of genomes. This has shed new light up on our knowledge of the evolutionary process and the important concepts such as protein folding and selective expression, which have so far eluded our understanding, are beginning to unfold. Let us have a brief overlook of the subject.
The Role of DNA
One of the greatest achievements of the twentieth century has been the unraveling of the mysteries behind the DNA and the mechanism of protein synthesis. Genes are the fundamental units of biological inheritance and are made up of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Genes are…
Mullis, KB (1990), Scientific American, April 1990, 56
Hecht, J., 19 May 2003, Chimps are human, gene study implies, New Scientist
Cohlan, A., 30 May 2002, "Just 2,5% of DNA turns mice into men," New Scientist
TK Attwood & DJ Parry Smith, "Introduction to bio Informatics," Published by ADDison Wesley Longman Ltd., 1999
The work of literature authored by Scott et al., They Died with Custer: Soldiers' ones from the attle of Little ighorn is a niche piece of literature within the overall scope of U.S. history and that pertaining to Westernized relations with indigenous peoples in this country. The focus of the book is not so much on the battle in which Custer, the five companies of his Seventh Cavalry and numerous civilian bystanders were slaughtered, but rather about very specific aspects of these people. These aspects include who they were, how old they were, where exactly on the battlefield they were when they perished, and in what sort of way they died. In this regard, the work is more a forensic study of the bones which the authors believe "have individual tales to tell" (1) of those that died than a historical accounting of this martial encounter. Granted, the…
Scott, Douglas., Willey, P., Connor, Melissa. They Died with Custer: Soldiers' Bones from the Battle of Little Bighorn. Norman, OH: University of Oklahoma Press, 1998.
1. Scott, Douglas, Willey, P., Connor, Melissa. They Died with Custer: Soldiers' Bones from the Battle of Little Bighorn (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press,1998), 172.
2. Scott, P., Connor, 17.
Once again, time is an indicator. When a significant amount of evidence for a theory is readily available, the theory tends to be older and concomitantly more accepted by the scientific community. If there are significant gaps in the evidence, the theory can benefit from further investigation.
The same is true of the complexity level of the theory is not very high. More components can then be added by further investigation.
A theory can also be evaluated according to its ability to serve as an indicator of future phenomena. This makes a theory applicable to further scientific investigation, and furthermore also allow for further development in the theory itself. If the theory is for example a consistently accurate predictor of future events or phenomena, it can be viewed as valid. If it however proves inaccurate in one or some of its predictions, further evidence and modifications will be necessary.
BBC. Science and Nature: What is psychology? Oct, 2008. http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/humanbody/mind/articles/psychology/what_is_psychology.shtml
Carter, J. Stein. The Scientific Method. Nov. 4, 2004. http://biology.clc.uc.edu/Courses/bio104/sci_meth.htm
Theory Evaluation. 2008. http://arti.vub.ac.be/memos/AI-Memo-93-07/subsubsectionstar4_2_3.html
Wilson, Jerry. Scientific Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories. 2007. http://www.wilstar.com/theories.htm
Close is Too Close: What is Wrong with Incest?
This paper outlines incest as a social taboo with reference to the Jewish, Native American, and Malagasy cultures and identifies what is wrong with the practice of incest. It has 7 sources.
Definition of Incest
Incest or the sexual relations between persons to whom marriage is prohibited by custom or law because of close kingship [Kottak 2002] is a social phenomenon that differ from culture to culture and by definition too they differentiate from one group to the next. The reason being that customs, traditions and cultures all vary due to the accepted norms as well as religion found in these groups and hence the prohibition or the allowance for people to marry siblings differs greatly. Inter-marriage to close relatives in the American culture for instance is considered taboo while in the Jewish it is considered compulsory. What triggers such social…
Sander L. Gilman Sibling incest, madness, and the "Jews." Social Research Summer, 1998.
J. Shepher, Incest: A Biosocial View, New York: Academic, 1983.
Kottak, Conrad P. Cultural Anthropology, 9/e University of Michigan, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002.
Williams, Walter L. The Spirit and the Flesh, Sexual Diversity in the American Indian Culture. Boston: Beacon Press, 1986.
Ergonomics: discuss the contribution that anthropometry makes to our understanding of ergonomic interventions in the workplace?
Ergonomics discusses the science of designing how users interact within their work place as well as the many equipment they utilize in order to guarantee that they fit to the user. An effective ergonomic design plays the critical role of prevention of recurring strain injuries that may develop increasingly over a period and have a probability of leading to long-term disability (osskam, 1996). Therefore, an organization must strive to attain proper health as well as productivity through place of work interactions. Ergonomics enables doing just so. Intervention and prevention strategies can be used within the workplace to diminish the incidences and effects of diseases, syndromes, and musculoskeletal injuries. Anthropometry remains one of the disciplines greatly helping people understand use and application of ergonomic interventions (Hrdlic-ka, 1972). Henceforth, this paper commences the exploration of contribution…
Achim, A. (2014). Ergo-policing. Improving Safety and Ergonomic Requirements of Human Resources Involved in Police Duties. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 124, pp.20-26.
Hrdlic-ka, A. (1972). Practical anthropometry. [New York]: [AMS Press].
Miller, K., Benden, M., Pickens, A., Shipp, E. and Zheng, Q. (2012). Ergonomics Principles Associated With Laparoscopic Surgeon Injury/Illness. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 54(6), pp.1087-1092.
Rosskam, E. (1996). Ergonomics. Geneva: ILO, Bureau for Workers' Activities.
Collaboration among researchers in multiple disciplines is the essence of interdisciplinarity and entails the collective conception, development, and pursuit of a research problem (Simon et al., 757). Doing this effectively requires time to develop a common language, resolve epistemological differences, and define research expectations. It is important that interdisciplinarians have a solid sense of their own strengths and areas for improvement in order to maximum their work in the field. Augsburg offers 21 salient traits that all interdisciplinarians should consider.
Traits I Possess:
eliability -- This trait is rooted in the quality of trustworthiness, accountability, and integrity; the mark of a constant or known variable. I would further define reliability as being available and possessing the tenacity to see even the most difficult task through to fruition. I often encounter the need for this when I find myself addressing projects with limited resources and tight deadlines.
2. Preference for…
Bruhn, John G. "Interdisciplinary Research: A Philosophy, Art Form, Artifact Or Antidote?." Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science 35.1 (2000): 58. Academic Search Premier. Web. 15 Sept. 2012.
Gregory L. Simon, et al. "A Rough Guide To Interdisciplinarity: Graduate Student Perspectives." Bioscience 56.9 (2006): 757-763. Academic Search Premier. Web. 15 Sept. 2012.
Vick, Douglas W. "Interdisciplinarity And The Discipline Of Law." Journal Of Law & Society 31.2 (2004): 163-193. Academic Search Premier. Web. 15 Sept. 2012.
Challenger Launch Decision
JOE KILMINSTE'S ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE CHALLENGE DISASTE
On January 28, 1986, the Challenger, one of the reusable space shuttle by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA, was launched off at the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida but exploded 72 seconds after liftoff. The launch was approved and ordered by the management of the Morton Thiokol, Inc., an aerospace company, that manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for big clients, including the NASA, and per NASA's urging despite the objection of Morton Thiokol's engineers that the 30-degree F. temperature was inclement to the shuttle's boosters. The launch was a publicized event as NASA's 25th mission and had a selected teacher, Christa McAulifee and six astronauts on board. All these passengers perished (Jennings 1996).
The launch was repeatedly postponed because the engineers of Thiokol notes the failure of an O. ring assembly in the…
Benner, L. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision by Diane Vaughan. Book Review, International Society of Air Safety Investigators: ISASI Forum. http://www.ipri.org/Reviews/Vaughan.html
Jennings, MM. (1996). Summary of the "Challenger" Episode. Case Studies in Business Ethics, second edition. West Publishing. http://www.calbaptist.edu/dskubik/nasa.htm
Stubley, G. (1998). Engineers and Integrity. The Objectivist Center. http://www.ios.org/tex/gstubley_engineers-integrity.asp
Vaughan, D. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture and Deviance at NASA.. Paperback. University of Chicago Press.