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ut if there five or ten, along with other forensic evidence, it is enough to say that an individual committed a crime "beyond a reasonable doubt."
The glove that didn't fit O.J. Simpson at his trial for the murder of his wife and another man is an example of forensic evidence that cleared someone who was falsely accused. Whether that was the correct verdict, we will never know for certain. Forensic evidence that does not "fit" an individual can just as easily remove him or her as a suspect.
The glove alone did not bring a verdict of not guilty to Simpson, but it was certainly a keystone in the defense. If he was supposed to have worn that glove when he committed the crime, and the glove is too small to fit his hand, how could he have committed the crime? It would be the same with DNA, or…
Bibliography innocence project. (2010, February 9). Cameron Todd Willingham: An innocent man executed in Texas. Retrieved March 25, 2010, from innocenceproject.org: http://www.innocenceproject.org/Content/2170.php
Kiely, T. (2001). Forensic evidence: Science, and the criminal law. Cleveland: CRC Press.
Layton, J. (2005, December 2). How crime scene investigation works. Retrieved March 23, 2010, from howstuffworks.com: http://science.howstuffworks.com/csi.htm#
Merriam-Webster, Inc. . (n.d.). forensic. Retrieved March 22, 2010, from Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/forensic
PSCA International. (2009, November 11). Forensics play a 'significant' role in crime fighting. Retrieved March 23, 2010, from publicservice.co.uk: http://www.publicservice.co.uk/feature_story.asp?id=11684
Chain of Custody and Preservation of Evidence in the Jonenet Ramsey Murder Case
The objective of this study is to discuss how criminalists protect evidence from contamination and to demonstrate appropriate techniques for handling evidence. This study will differentiate between latent and visible evidence and advocate for the necessity of proper procedures to uphold evidence findings. Specifically, this study will review a known criminal case involving chain of custody and preservation of evidence and will answer as to how significant the physical evidence was in the criminal investigations of this case. As well this study will answer what type of evidence was involved in the case, latent, visible, or both and if the secure chain of custody was followed. Finally this study will answer whether the legal integrity of all evidence was upheld through proper possession, handling, storing, and documentation and answer why it is important and necessary…
Bardsley, M and Beliamy, P. (2012) Murder of JonBenet Ramsey. True Crime Library. . Retrieved from: http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/notorious_murders/famous/ramsey/index_1.html
EVIDENCE HANDLING & LABORATORY CAPABILITIES GUIDE (2010) Virginia Department of Forensics. Feb 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.dfs.virginia.gov/services/evidencehandling/EvidenceGuide.pdf
Collecting Forensic Evidence as a Corporate Controller for Apollo Shoes
Procedures for Collecting Forensic Evidence as a Corporate Controller for Apollo Shoes
Dealing with fraudulent practices within accounting is a daunting process. Evaluating massive amounts of data over a very short period of time must be done systematically in order to provide irrefutable evidence that either supports or denies allegations of fraud within financial reporting. Thus, it is important to effectively map out the design process of the investigation, gather data efficiently through the appropriate channels, and then evaluate data based on presumed categorical differences in order to make clear assumptions about possible financial fraud that can hold up in a court of law.
Before embarking on the actual investigation of Apollo Shoe's irregular financial presentation, it is important to clearly define the process used. Thus, before the investigation even begins, it will be crucial to set goals to frame…
Castillo, Joan Joseph. (2009). Systematic sampling. Experimental Research. Experiment Resources. Web. http://www.experiment-resources.com/systematic-sampling.html
Kessler, Michael G. (2011). Accountants look at the numbers: Forensic accountants look behind the numbers. Kessler International. Web. http://www.investigation.com/forensic_accounting.htm
Silverstone, Howard & Sheetz, Michael. (2007). Forensic Accounting and Fraud Investigation for Non-Experts. John Wiley & Sons.
Efficacy of Handwriting Analyses as Forensic Evidence
Humankind has been writing for millennia, but it has only been in the last 100 years or so that individual handwriting samples could be distinguished by forensic document examiners to the extent that their testimony was deemed admissible as evidence in a court of law. In recent years, this analysis has been augmented by sophisticated handwriting analytical devices that are being used by national and international law enforcement authorities to identify clues that might otherwise go otherwise undiscerned. To gain some fresh insights into these issues, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning the efficacy of handwriting analyses as forensic evidence, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
ackground and Overview
According to lack's Law Dictionary, forensics means "belonging to courts of justice."
The term forensics relates to…
Bibliography of Handwriting Articles for the Forensic Document Examiner.' Forensic Science Communications, vol. 5, no. 1, p. 37.
Harrison & Seiger, p. 37.
Harrison & Seiger, p. 37.
Harrison & Seiger, p. 38.
Harrison & Seiger, p. 38.
Define the physical properties of the evidence collected
The physical properties of the impression and pattern evidence include fingerprints (National Institute of Justice, 2016). Fingerprints can be attained from multiple places within a burglarized location. It is perhaps best to obtain them in close proximity to where items were stolen. These properties are mostly defined optically, since they can be seen. The physical properties of the trace evidence include fiber from some sort of clothing. This evidence can be gathered from places at the crime scene where the criminal spent the most time. It includes characteristics such as color and texture. The physical properties of the forensic biology evidence pertain to hair. These include characteristics such as DNA, in addition to the color and texture of hair found.
Explain what information can be found from this evidence
A fair amount of information can be found from the evidence gathered. The…
National Institute of Justice. (n.d.) Forensic Science. www.nij.gov Retrieved from http://www.nij.gov/topics/forensics/pages/welcome.aspx .
National Institute of Justice. (2016) Trace evidence. www.nij.gov Retrieved from https://www.nij.gov/topics/forensics/evidence/trace/pages/welcome.aspx
National Institute of Justice. (2016) Impression and pattern evidence. www.nij.gov Retrieved from https://www.nij.gov/topics/forensics/evidence/impression/pages/welcome.aspx
Using forensic medical evidence in court
It is a requirement by the International law for all states to carry out investigations for all allegations of torture and bring to book the culprits. The victims of such torture also need to be compensated adequately by the state. Many torturers perform their heinous acts in the dark, and try to conceal all possible evidence, but still aim at inflicting as much pain as possible. There is therefore need for comprehensive documentation that will expose the perpetrators in such a way that they cannot dare deny their crimes against humanity. The challenge here remains in proving that so and so committed such and such a crime (Wheeler, 2016). Failure to provide evidence of torture may foster a culture of impunity, where torturers can continue carrying out their acts knowing well that they will never be arrested, prosecuted and punished. This essay seeks to…
American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.
Augustin, Y.S., Birch, M. and Bodini, C., 2011. Preventing torture: The role of physicians and their professional organisations: principles and practice.
Daubert v. Merrell Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (1993). 509 U.S. 579.
Garrie, D.B., 2014. Digital forensic evidence in the courtroom: Understanding content and quality. Nw. J. Tech. & Intell. Prop., 12, p.i.
International Rehabilitation Council for Torture Victims (IRCT), 2013. Getting the evidence Countering torture through medico-legal documentation. Retrieved 1 November 2018 https://irct.org/assets/uploads/pdf_20161120160546.pdf
Juárez, M.A.P., 2001. Legalized Injustice: Mexican Criminal Procedure and Human Rights. Lawyers Committee for Human Rights.
McColl, H., Bhui, K. and Jones, E., 2012. The role of doctors in investigation, prevention and treatment of torture. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 105(11), pp.464-471.
Mostad, K. and Moati, E., 2008. Silent healers: on medical complicity in torture. Torture: quarterly journal on rehabilitation of torture victims and prevention of torture, 18(3), pp.150-160.
2005, one file sent by the BTK killer to a Wichita television station led police to investigate Dennis ader, a church president, and ended the 30-year murder spree of this serial killer. What evidence was pivotal in this case?
Computer evidence has become increasingly pivotal in demonstrating the guilt or innocence of a suspect. This has recently been seen in the so-called BTK case. The case is testimony to the value of using computer evidence in modern forensic science. The BTK (Bind, Torture, Kill) killer was linked to eight murders in the 1970s and '80s and then resurfaced in 1991 and later in the 21st century. But when the killer Dennis ader "came to his pastor in January with a floppy disk, saying he had the agenda of a church council meeting and needed to run off copies on a printer," the electronic imprint in the disk linked ader to…
Computer trail led To BTK suspect. (2009). CBS. Retrieved August 27, 2011 at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2005/03/04/national/main678013.shtml
Lewis, Mike. (2003). Government 'intelligence' report on Iraq revealed as plagiarism.
fas.org. Retrieved August 27, 2011 at http://www.fas.org/irp/news/2003/02/uk020603.html
A piece of plagiarism. (2003). BBC. Retrieved August 27, 2011 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/2736149.stm
Forensic Case Study
The abduction of Enrique Camarena
The abduction of Enrique Camarena presents numerous interesting and unusual features regarding the gathering of forensic evidence. Many of obstacles that arose over the course of the investigation can be traced to the fact that the DEA Special Agent was apprehended in Mexico, where U.S. laws about preserving evidence did not apply. The Mexican police force (at least at the time of the abduction in 1984) was much more prone to corruption and bribery by persons engaged in illegal drug trafficking than U.S. law enforcement. ather than seeing to assist the DEA in bringing the murderers of Camarena to justice, the Mexican police often acted as obstacles, not assistants.
The real perpetrators of the murder of Camarena concocted a scheme with certain select members of the Mexican policy whereby Camarena's body (and the body of Capt. Alfredo Zavala, a Mexican…
Collecting evidence from human bodies. (2001). CA Department of Justice. Retrieved:
Gaensslen, R.E., & Larsen, K. (2013). Introductory forensic science. San Diego, CA:
Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Forensic Pathology: Forensics and DNA
DNA is part of the building blocks of human life and individuality: "DNA is present in nearly every cell of our bodies, and we leave cells behind everywhere we go without even realizing it. Flakes of skin, drops of blood, hair, and saliva all contain DNA that can be used to identify us" (Norrgard, 2008). DNA has long been a major part of forensics testing used in criminal cases for over forty years. "At its inception, DNA testing could only be performed by laboratories with molecular diagnostic capabilities" (Calaluce, 2010, p.2). The controversy surrounding DNA testing that made it more heavily scrutinized when it first debuted largely revolved around the fact that it was considered a "soft science" and that DNA evidence was viewed as simply not as reliable as other types. However, this controversy has since been eliminated: and there is absolutely no valid…
Calaluci, J. (2010). Guide to Forensic Pathology. New York: CRC Press.
Dvorsky, G. (2012, October 1). How forensic pathologists used maggots to identify an "unrecognizable" body. Retrieved from io9.com: http://io9.com/5947925/how-forensic-pathologists-used-maggots-to-identify-a-badly-burned-body
Norrgard, K. (2008). How ethical is it to keep a database of convicted felons' DNA profiles? Can we rely on DNA fingerprints for conviction? Many ethical issues surround the use of DNA in forensic technology. Retrieved from Nature.com: http://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/forensics-dna-fingerprinting-and-codis-736
Rosner, D. (2004, May 20). How does DNA Fingerprinting Work. Retrieved from thenakedscientist.com: http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/articles/article/dalyacolumn8.htm/
atchen (2005) defines the components of the nursing process as the client, the environment, the definition of health, and the definition of the nurse's role. Another trend in healthcare to be addressed is the reduction of enrollment in Registered Nurse (RN) programs, which has led to a shortage of trained nurses. This trend is important because the role of the forensic nurse has changed as a result of the increase in a nurse's range of function, with the rise in the number of the elderly due to improved healthcare systems and the introduction of community-based preventive projects.
In the future, the role of the forensic nurse may become more specialized and considered a separate profession from the registered nurse. According to the Federal ureau of Health professions, in 2000, the National supply of registered nurses was estimated at 1.89 million, while the demand was projected at 2 million, a shortage…
Allert, L. & Becker, M. (2003). Death investigation: Nursing on the cutting edge.
Retrieved March 26, 2007, from: http://www.forensicnursemag.com/articles2811lifedeath.html .
Batchen, M. (2005). Forensic Nurse Death Investigators. Retrieved March 25, 2007 at http://www.lifeloom.com .
Hufft, a.G. & Peternelj-Taylor, C. (2000). Forensic nursing: An emerging specialty. Nursing now: Today's issues, tomorrow's trends (pp. 427-448).
Forensics is a very important part of a crime scene investigation. There used to be a time when murders or crimes were left unsolved due to the lack of evidence. However with the advances in technology and research in forensics, crime solving has become a lot easier. The branch of science, which helps out in finding out important evidence, is known as Forensics Chemistry. Forensics Chemistry employs methods, which help in finding clues, which couldn't be found in any other circumstances. We can simply call it the application of a brand of chemistry at the scene of a crime. This is a science which helps us investigate chemical substances and can help trace the cause of the death of a human being by finding useful evidence. However it's not important that the crime scene may be a site of murder or theft. It could also be due to…
Neufeld, Peter L. & Colman, Neville 1990, 'When Science Takes the Witness Stand', Scientific American, vol. 262, no. 5, May, pp. 46-53
Coelli, Andree 1989, 'One Chance in 165 Million', Australian Law News, September, pp. 22-6
Scutt, Jocelynne 1990, 'Beware of New Technologies', Legal Service Bulletin, vol. 15, no1, February, pp. 9-12.
Introduction to Forensic Chemistry
Forensic Toxicology in the 21st Century Courtroom
Innovations in forensic technologies in recent years have introduced a wide array of powerful law enforcement tools that can be used to help identify criminal perpetrators and establish the credible evidence needed to convict them. As a result, today, forensic toxicologists play an increasingly vital role in the criminal justice system where the need for accurate and valid evidence is paramount. To determine the precise role and importance of the forensic toxicologist today, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and significant findings concerning these issues in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
By definition, forensic toxicology is focused on providing scientific evidence for the courts. For example, Anderson and Volker (2008) report that, "The term 'forensic' is effectively a synonym for 'legal' or 'related to courts' and in Latin means 'before…
Anderson, S.J. & Volker, J.X. (2008, Winter). The forensic marketing case study methods.
SAM Advanced Management Journal, 73(1), 4-9.
Buker, H. (2012). Fraudulent forensic evidence: Malpractice in crime laboratories. El Paso,
TX: LFB Scholarly.
Forensic and Clinical oles and Assessment
While psychologists and psychiatrists may engage in both clinical and forensic practice, it important to recognize that clinical and forensic practice are distinct areas of practice. This means that the role of the forensic and clinical practitioner differs in several ways: "who the client of the psychologist is the nature of the relationship between the psychologist and the individual being evaluated, and the psychologist's approach to the material provided by the individual" (Packer, 2008). Moreover, it also means that the professional assesses the individual differently. These differences include: the purpose of the assessment, the goal of the intervention, and psycho-legal vs. psychological assessment. While the differences may seem clear, the reality is that even forensic evaluations can lead to the establishment of the type of relationships that develop in clinical practice, making it difficult for health care professionals and for their clients to differentiate…
American Psychological Association. (2011). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists.
Retrieved September 8, 2013 from American Psychology-Law Society website: http://www.ap-ls.org/aboutpsychlaw/SGFP_Final_Approved_2011.pdf
A fruit of the poisonous tree means any evidence that has been obtained through illegal manner. If a search of a home is conducted illegally and the murder weapon is found during that search the gun would be considered fruits of a poisonous tree because it was obtained by "dirty hands." And as fruits of the poisonous tree the defense would have a right to ask that the gun be banned from introduction as evidence.
If the entire trial is going to rest on evidence that the judge believes is fruits from a poisonous tree the judge may dismiss the entire case at that time.
If the evidence in question is allowed to be introduced at trial there are other ways to challenge it. If it is forensic evidence the defense can hire its own forensic experts who can testify that the testing done on the evidence may have been…
Duret, Daphne (2006) EVIDENCE to BE EXCLUDED in RAPE CASE
The Palm Beach Post;
Young, Cathy (2002) Excluded evidence: The dark side of rape shield laws.
Forensic Fabric Analysis
Some of the basic tools that a fabric examiner should at least have at any given moment include a stereomicroscope, along with a composite light microscope that is fitted with polarized light capability, and a comparison microscope. When examining both questioned and known fabric, the examiner must do this side by side, and within the same magnifications in terms of visible light. Alternative lighting, which includes fluorescent lighting and polarized light, is not necessary but when the equipment used allows, is highly recommended. In certain types of analyses, such as when testing for solubility, you may need to examine the questioned and known fabric near each other, and on one slide, or in the spot plate's wells that are adjacent to each other. However, you need to exercise extreme caution where loose fabric is concerned not unless you have no problem with identifying the source of each…
Innes, B. (2000). Bodies of Evidence. Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest Press.
Lyle, D.P. (2004). Analyzing Trace Evidence. Forensics for Dummies. Chapter 17, pgs. 269-275. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.
Saferstein, R. (2004). Hair Fibers, and Paint. In Criminalistics, An Introduction to Forensic Science. (8th Ed.) Chapter 8. Pgs. 194-219. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Bartos, L. (2012). No Forensic Background? No Problem. Pro-Publications.
Assets in the investment portfolio were overvalued. Financial transactions were structured to report smaller amounts of debt and create the appearance of greater cash flow. Financial results were represented in a false and misleading manner.
Forensic accountants also played an important role in the Enron case by doing audits and investigating accounting practices to gather evidence of how the fraud was performed. They played vital roles in the court room in presenting the evidence against cross examination and scrutiny. The forensic accountants were highly valued for their objectivity in the way evidence was presented.
Accounting, auditing, investigation, business, and understanding human behavior enabled forensic accountants to gather evidence for prosecution of fraud in court cases involving fraudulent accounting practices. These are vital skills forensic accountants are required to maintain. Forensic accountants must maintain competency, due care, objectivity, integrity, confidentiality, and proper conduct at all times, whether working with a client…
Code of Professional Ethics. (2012). Retrieved from Institute of Certified Forensic Accountants: http://www.forensicglobal.org/ethics.html
Homan, P. (2006, Mar - Apr). Fraud Buster. Retrieved from CPA Magazine: http://www.utoronto.ca.difa/PDF/Articles/FraudBuster.pdf
Jury Finds Former Master Graphics, Inc. CEO Liable for Securityies Fraud Arising From Accounting Scheme. (2008, Sep 8). Retrieved from SEC: http://www.sec.gov/litigation/litreleases/2008/li20705.htm
Shields, a. (2010, Mar 29). The role of forensic accountants. Retrieved from dolmanbatemen.com: http://www.dolmanbateman.com.au/1323/the-role-of-forensic-accountants
Forensic Pathology as Scientific Evidence
Forensic Pathology is generally understood as having to do with the investigation of causation of injuries or death as a legal requirement. In the pursuit of this, pathologists usually investigate injury or death scenes and other relevant records to ascertain the cause of death.
Practically, forensic pathology incorporates the performance of post-mortem examination, which is an examination of body tissues and organs as well as investigations such as X-rays and toxicology testing. Forensic pathology makes it possible to interpret such results and reveal cause of end point of death as required by the law.
The results driven from forensic pathology are bound to be subjected to interpretations. The body can transform during the process of death or after, this transformation or changes are referred to as post-mortem changes or "artefacts," these changes can be misinterpreted as ailment or injuries that took place when…
Goudge, S.T. (2008). Inquiry into Pediatric Forensic Pathology in Ontario. Qubec: Ministry of the Attorney General.
Hickman, M., Hughes, K., Ropero-Miller, J., & Strom, K. (2007). Medical Examiners and Coroners Offices. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics.
National Research Council of the National Academics. (2009). Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward. washington DC: The National Academies Press.
R. v. Sherret-Robinson,  O.J. No. 5312 . (n.d.).
Forensic crime labs are important institutions within the criminal justice system and each lab must be up to standard in order for this system to operate at a high and fair level. A good crime lab begins with a good design based on solid fundamentals and thorough planning. The purpose of this essay is to design a digital forensic crime lab that can be used in a university setting. In order to this, the essay will explain the budgeting process while keeping business objectives in mind. The next step of the design will introduce how the physical controls can be used to implement this design. Criteria for success will also be discussed as well as a suggested floor plan to house the lab.
The setting for this digital forensic lab is within a university setting which denotes that funds could most likely be attained for these purposes.…
Al Falayleh, M. (2013). Building a Digital Forensic Laboratory For an Educational Institute. American University in the Emirates, 2012. Retrieved from http://sdiwc.net/digital - library/web-admin/upload-pdf/00000357.pdf
Mount, M. & Denmark, A. (nd). Digital Forensics: Architectural and Engineering Facility Design Requirements. AIA, . Retrieved from http://www.aia.org/aiaucmp/groups/ek_members/documents/pdf/aiab092706.pdf
Taylor, M. (2012). NIST Offers Guidance on Building 21st Century Forensics Labs. NIST Law Enforcement Standards. Retrieved from http://www.nist.gov/oles/forensics/facilities_forensics.cfm
Vacca, J. & Rudolph, K. (2010). System Forensics, Investigation and Response. Jones & Bartlett Learning; 1 edition (September 24, 2010)
According to Elvidge (2014), the first record of the use of forensic entomology is Song Ci (Sung Tz'u), in 13th century China. However, using insects and arthropods like arachnids to aid in forensics investigations is a relatively new field, and one ripe with potential. The most notable applications of forensic entomology are in the identification of time elapsed since death, and the geographic location of death. When applying forensic entomology to homicide and other death studies, the specialist will take into account the various stages of decomposition. Forensic entomology can also be used to elucidate other types of crimes in which any type of decaying organic matter is a clue, in cases of human or animal abuse in which wounds have festered, in analyzing dried blood samples, in the investigation of botanical drug trafficking, and when detecting the presence of drugs in the deceased. Less glamorous but equally as…
Anderson, G.S. (n.d.). Forensic entomology: the use of insects in death investigations. Retrieved online: http://www.sfu.ca/~ganderso/forensicentomology.htm
Byrd, J.H. (2014). Forensic entomology. Retrieved online: http://www.forensicentomology.com/info.htm
Byrd, J.H. & Castner, J.L. (2009). Forensic Entomology. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Byrd, J.H., Lord, W.D., Wallace, J.R. & Tomberlin, J.K. (2010). Collection of entomological evidence during legal investigations. Retrieved online: http://www.esf.edu/efb/parry/fsc%20lectures/sampling.pdf
Usually, it is more likely that the ruse is discovered by a forensic psychologist, and/or that there is simply too much evidence pointing to the fact that the criminal knew what he or she was doing when the crime was being committed (Adler, 2004).
The Likelihood of eoffending
Whether a criminal is likely to reoffend is something else that has to be considered by forensic psychologists. They are often asked to give their opinion on this issue when inmates are coming up for early release or when they are eligible for parole. There are other factors and opinions that are taken into account, of course, but having a professional, psychological opinion about whether a criminal has been "cured" of his or her behavior or will be likely to repeat it is very significant (Adler, 2004; Dalby, 1997). It can be difficult to determine what goes on in the mind of…
Adler, J.R. (Ed.). (2004). Forensic Psychology: Concepts, debates and practice. Cullompton: Willan.
Dalby, J.T. (1997) Applications of Psychology in the Law Practice: A guide to relevant issues, practices and theories. Chicago: American Bar Association.
Duntley, J.D., & Shackelford, T.K. (2006). Toward an evolutionary forensic psychology. Social Biology, 51, 161-165.
"The criterion for the admissibility of a confession has thus evolved into the quality of voluntariness. The aim of admitting into evidence only voluntary confessions is to prevent the introduction of unreliable evidence. & #8230; the result is that judges may exclude confessions where the coercion is blatant and obvious but not exclude confessions where the coercion" is more subtle -- the jury is left to decide the confession's veracity in this case (akefield & Underwager 20009).
Discuss and provide examples pertaining to the waiver of privilege against self-incrimination.
The protection against self-incrimination does not apply to "non-testimonial evidence" such as giving examples of one's voice, police line-ups, blood samples or fingerprints (Lesson 12, 2009, Slide 4)
The principal restriction of impeachment by the use of evidence of misconduct can result in a conviction of a witness. Explain this concept and give examples.
Impeaching the testimony…
Exceptions to the hearsay rule. (2009). Everything2.com. Retrieved May 28, 2009 at http://everything2.com/title/Exceptions%2520to%2520the%2520Hearsay%2520Rule
ELMO evidence presentation. (2009). Middle District of Pennsylvania. Retrieved May 28, 2009
Evidence. (2009). eNotes. Retrieved May 28, 2009 at http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/evidence-chain-custody
It is thus that technologies which work to yield that crucial data from the memory store of any such device have become so valuable to law enforcement in the age of terrorism. According to the Computer Forensics Tool Testing Program (CFTT), "a cellular forensic tool shall have the ability to logically acquire all application supported data elements present in internal memory without modification" (Ayers, 15)
This is to indicate that such technology should be able to hack into mobile communication devices without detection by the subject, making it a valuable tool in investigating crimes and preventing suspected crimes. The evaluate of its requirements is produced by the CFTT, which is an organization that "provides a measure of assurance that the tools used in the investigations of computer-related crimes produce valid results." (Ayers, 6)
A major drawback of such technologies, and one that invokes a yet far more complex discussion concerning…
Ayers, R. (2008). Mobile Device Forensics-Tool Testing. National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Bourque, L. (2008). Five Essential Computer Forensics Tools. Enterprise it Planet.
Online at http://www.enterpriseitplanet.com/security/features/article.php/3786046
Are Fingerprint Identifications Such that Can be Considered Valid Evidence
Fingerprint identification is a means of personal identification that is infallible and this is the reason that fingerprints have replaced other methods of identification of criminals. The science of fingerprint identification is stated to stand out among all other forensic sciences for the following reasons: (1) fingerprint identification has served governments across the globe for more than 100 years in the provision of accurate identification of criminals. In billions of human and automated computer, comparisons there are no two fingerprints found to be alike. Fingerprints are the basis for criminal history in every law enforcement agency worldwide; (2) the first forensic professional organization, the International Association for Identification (IAI) was established in 1915; (3) the first professional certification program for forensic scientists was established in 1977; (3) fingerprint identification is the most commonly used of all forensic evidence…
Cherry, Michael and Imwinkelreid, Edward (2006) How we can improve the reliability of fingerprint identification. Judicature. Vol. 90, No.2. September-October 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.ajs.org/ajs/publications/Judicature_PDFs/902/Cherry_902.pdf
Fingerprint Identification (2012) FBI. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/fingerprints_biometrics/fingerprint-overview
Leo, William (2005) What are the Effects of the Daubert Decision on Fingerprint Identification? e Southern California Association of Fingerprint Officers, The Print, July/August 2005, Vol. 21, #4
William Daubert, et Ux., Etc., et Al., Petitioners V. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 509 U.S. 579; 113 S. Ct. 2786; 125 L. Ed. 2d 469; 1993 U.S. LEXIS 4408; 61 U.S.L.W. 4805; 27 U.S.P.Q.2D (BNA) 1200; CCH Prod. Liab. Rep. P13,494; 93 Cal. Daily Op. Service 4825; 93 Daily Journal DAR 8148; 23 ELR 20979; 7 Fla. L. Weekly Fed. S 632.
DNC Forensics Workgroup Planning
It is the duty of this committee to set up sufficient security and forensic measures, while still ensuring "that the event continues safely and at the same time respect Constitutional rights, including freedom of speech and assembly" (Connors, 2007). Because of the highly controversy own nature of politics in the United States today, this will be a calculated effort. Undoubtedly, there will be issues with law enforcement dealing with protesters. The forensics task force must then be fully equipped to investigate any crimes committed sufficiently to produce evidence that can convict individuals later in a court of law.
To get started, it is important to understand what agencies are per feeding and how they will need to contribute their services at the time of the event. For planning purposes, it is important to set these responsibilities as early as possible to ensure that those responsible for…
Backus, W.D., & Chapian, M. (2000). Telling yourself the truth (20th ed.). Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers.
Adams, J.E. (1986). How to help people change. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House.
Forensic Sciences in the USA and the United Kingdom
Over the last two decades, the forensic science has assisted in producing valuable evidence that has contributed to a successful conviction and prosecution of criminals and exoneration of innocent citizens. Typically, an advanced in forensic science and DNA technology have been a great assistance for law enforcement agency for an identification and prosecution of criminals. In the United States and the UK, many cases that have been formally unsolved have now been solved based on the great assistance of the forensic science investigators. (National esearch Council, 2009). Forensics or forensic science is a field of investigation drawing different scientific disciplines in law, criminal and civil services. This practice requires an application of scientific knowledge, quantitative, qualitative and empirical skills to collect and analyze data that will assist in presenting evidence in a tribunal or court of law. However, the method the…
Butler, J.M. (2015). U.S. initiatives to strengthen forensic science & international standards in forensic DNA. Forensic Sci Int Genet. 18: 4 -- 20.
Goulka, J.E. Matthies, C. Steinberg, P. (2010). Toward a Comparison of DNA Profiling and Databases in the United States and England. Technical report (Rand Corporation).
House of Common (2013). Forensic Science. House of Commons Science and Technology Committee.
Mallett, X. & Evison, M.P. (2013). Forensic Facial Comparison: Issues of Admissibility in the Development of Novel Analytical Technique. J Forensic Sci, 58 (4):859-865.
In the same way that traditional techniques of criminal identification have enabled law enforcement authorities to establish national fingerprint information databases for the purposes of connecting evidence to possible previous offenders, DNA-based forensic evidence has allowed the creation of similar databases greatly expanding the types of forensic evidence used to increase the security of sensitive facilities and restricted areas.
When combined with the ever-increasing power of modern computer technology to cross reference and match different types of physical evidence, law enforcement authorities have already developed the ability to establish terrorist watch lists incorporating forensic evidence of previous acts of terrorism with uniquely identifying features of perpetrators still at large. The continued evolution of such marriages between criminal forensics and identification techniques will greatly enhance homeland security, both at checkpoints and in terms of tracking the possible whereabouts and activities of persons of interest in connection with possible terrorism.…
Johns, L.G., Downes, G.F., Bibles, C.D. (2005). Resurrecting Cold Case Serial Homicide Investigations; the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 74 No. 8). Kobalinsky, L., Liotti, T.F., Oeser-Sweat, J. (2005). DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.
Markey, J. (2007). After the Match: dealing with the New Era of DNA;
The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 76 No. 10). Yost, J., Burke, T. (2007). Veterinary Forensics: Animals Curtailing Crime; the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. (Vol. 76 No. 10).
In 2002 the crime lab in the state of Mississippi found that the semen in the victim's body belonged to two different men and neither of them was Kennedy rewer. alko concludes by stating: "Forensic scandals have been troublingly common of late, with phony experts, fake results, and incompetent testing recently uncovered in Virginia, Maryland, Kansas, Illinois, and Texas, to name just a few. Courts need to take a more active role in weeding out the Michael Wests of the world before they ever take the witness stand. ut professional organizations also need to be more vigilant about policing their own. Dr. West's peers should more vocally have questioned his methods long before he was permitted to testify more than 70 times in courts across the country. One would think they'd step up their standards to protect the integrity and reputation of their profession. ut these continuing scandals suggest another,…
Danger to Society: Fooling the Jury with Phony Experts (nd) Chapter Three. State of Texas Law Review.
Bite Mark Evidence Dispute in Murder Cases (2008) CNN.com Crime. 29 Feb 2008. Online available at http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/02/29/bite.marks.ap/
Bowers, C. Michael and Johansen, Raymond J. (2001) Digital Rectification and Resizing Correction of Photographic Bite Mark Evidence. Forensic Science Communications. July 2001. Vol. 3 No. 3. Online available at;
altenative appoach to Computeized Tomogaphy in foensic pathology.
Thomsen, A.H., Juik, A.G., Uhenholt, A.G., Vesteby, A. (2009).
Jounal: Foensic Science Intenational.
Publication Infomation: 2008, 183, 87-90.
The main pupose of this aticle is to see whethe o not CT scans ae necessay as a means of augmenting autopsies. The eseach question is: do the benefits of CT scans match the effot equied to implement this technology? Thee is no hypothesis fo this aticle; the authos wee cetainly non-patisan in thei appoach and assumptions. The sample was 20 dead bodies (including 15 males) with CT scans pefomed by the Depatment of Radiology at Aahus Univesity Hospital. I eviewed this aticle to ascetain the elevance of CT scans to foensic pathology.
Abstact: This aticle denotes the boons and the detiments associated with using CT scans as compaed to, and augmenting the usage of conventional autopsies fo foensic pathology. Oiginal eseach…
references to certain applications dating back to the 1980s. In this respect the article was extremely comprehensive in its scope, although perhaps it may have been better suited focusing on more contemporary applications. Still, for the variety of knowledge it covered and the degree of insight it shed, it is certainly an excellent starting point for research into this field, and helps to synthesize the various points of relevance of the other articles explicated within this assignment.
Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology
Author(s): Burney, I., Pemberton, N.
Journal: Medical History
Publication Information: 2011, 55, 41-60.
At the time that yrd was tried in 1985 DNA technology was not capable of forensic analysis of biological evidence however; in 1997 a comparison was conducted of yrd's DNA with the bodily fluid in the rape kit that had been collected at the time of the incident resulting in yrd's exoneration for this crime. The importance of proper preservation of biological evidence is highlighted in this case and not only for the purpose of obtaining a conviction but also for the purpose of ensuring that the wrong individual is not charged, found guilty and sentenced to prison for a crime that they did not commit.
VI. Most Common Applications of lood Evidence
The work of George Schiro entitled: "Collection and Preservation of lood Evidence from Crime Scenes" states that prior to the documentation and collection of blood evidence the value of the evidence must be recognized by the crime…
Catalin, Marian; Andrei, Anghel, and Mitrasca, Oana (nd) Modern Methods of Collection and Preservation of Biological Evidence for Human Identification by DNA Analysis. Biochemistry Department, "Victor Babes" University of Medicine and Pharmacy from Timisoara. Online available at: http://www.oglethorpe.edu/faculty/~k_aufderheide/Forensic_Science/Web_Documents/Catalin_Andrei_Mitrasca.pdf
Jones, Cynthia E. (2005) Evidence Destroyed, Innocence Lost: The Preservation of Biological Evidence Under Innocence Protection Statues. The American Criminal Law Review. 1 Oct 2005. Online available at: http://www.allbusiness.com/legal/laws/1047368-1.html
Ladd, HC and Ladd, C. (2001) Preservation and Collection of Biological Evidence. Croat Med J. 2001 Jun;42(3):225-8. Online available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11387627
Schiro, George (nd) Collection and Preservation of Blood Evidence From Crime Scenes. Louisiana State Police Crime Laboratory. Online available at: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/blood.html
They prepare a holding statement for the media if necessary. They must record everything they survey and assess. They assume interim control of investigation. They should take photos of the scene. Following investigation, they then contact all necessary officials and make a report.
Explain fingerprints and palm prints, the three possible findings, and their value person can be positively identified through their fingerprints. Fingerprints and palm prints are relied on for (1) verifying a person's identity and linking them to a criminal history or other background check records. Fingerprints and palm prints are (2) collected as evidence at crime scenes and used as evidence. They are also used in (3) processing persons through the criminal justice system, as a fingerprint is unique and cannot be passed to another, or assumed, as a name may be. Fingerprints may positively identify a person taken into custody when the person arrested claims to…
Hair is also in contact with chemicals in shampoos, and any dyes, gels, sprays or other cosmetics that may be placed on the hair (11).
Since there is no standardized method for cleaning these external contaminants off of the hair prior to analysis, the potential for inaccurate results from external contamination is widespread. There is no way to tell in the laboratory if a chemical is contained within the hair, and therefore came from with in the body, or if it is on the surface of the hair and did not come from within the body (12). An enormous amount of scientific research studies have indicated that hair analysis is unreliable as a diagnostic tool in crime solving. For example, in one study, the researchers took hair from the head of a single individual and sent portions of the sample to six laboratories; the results varied widely from laboratory to…
43. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
44. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
45. Lee, H. 2004. Advances in Forensics Provide Creative Tools for Solving Crimes. Bulletin of the Council of Science and Engineering, 19(2).
, 2007, p. 153).
The research showed that DNA evidence can be a valuable tool for the criminal justice system, but the effectiveness of such evidence depends on a number of factors. Among the more salient of these factors was the need to ensure that the DNA sample is collected and stored properly, and that it is transported to a testing facility in a timely and appropriate fashion. Other issues that emerged from the research included the need to maintain a strict chain of custody for all DNA evidence, as well as the need to ensure that the results of DNA testing were interpreted in an informed manner. Finally, the research was consistent in emphasizing that although DNA evidence can help prove innocence and guilt, the accuracy of such evidence depends on the type of DNA testing protocol that is involved and how these results are used in the…
Black's law dictionary. (1999). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bridges, a. (2007). Falsely accused: DNA evidence proves rape accusation was a lie. The Forensic Examiner, 16(4), 83.
Dann, B.M., Hans, V.P. & Kaye, DH (2007). Can jury trial innovations improve juror understanding of DNA evidence? Judicature, 90(4), 152-153.
Gahn, L. (2005, March). DNA evidence collection procedures. Law & Order, 53(3), 72-73.
Thus, the relationship between investigative psychology and forensic psychology is fairly lucid. Investigative psychology largely provides the means of identifying suspects and eventually indicting them. The mechanics of investigative psychology are multi-fold. For instance, in the case of the so-called "D.C. Sniper" in 2002, investigators were able to gain forensic evidence regarding ballistics and fingerprints. The former enabled them to identify the type of weapon that was repeatedly used during the attacks; the latter was used to procure a suspect in this particular case (Federal, 2007).
However, the true value of this sort of methodology becomes manifest in court during subsequent trials. In the previously mentioned sniper case, two suspects were convicted largely due to the evidence gathered against them. It is important to note that this sort of evidence is empirically based and confirms to scientific methodology. Without such convincing evidence, of course, there could have been a greater…
Knox, D., Limbacher, J., & McMahan, K. (1993). "Thomas Dillon, hunter of humans." Akron Beacon Journal.
Retrieved from http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/767482/posts
Federal Bureau of Investigations: Headline Archives: A Byte Out of History: "The Beltway Snipers, Part 1." Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2007/october/snipers_102207
This is because inorganic evidence is mostly based upon running the data through an a central database like the FBI's CODIS to see if there is a match (Schoester, 2006, 31-42)
The Strengths/eaknesses of Inorganic Evidence
A major strength of this type of evidence is it involves the physical collection of crime scene evidence. Evidences such as broken furniture or windows or are picked that is able to be positively identified in court. Inorganic evidence is also effective in solving a criminal case than organic evidence. This is due to the fact that inorganic evidence is based upon an individual's judgment to make it possible to eliminate possibilities give a crime investigator a chance to be more in touch with the crime scene. Such judgment is vital when dealing with a crime scene in the initial stages of an investigation where possibilities need to be narrowed down (Brown & Davenport,…
Brown, T., & Davenport, J. (2011). Forensic science: Advanced investigations. Belmont, CA: Cengage.
Maithil, B.P. (2008). Chemical, physical and biological microtraces: Unnoticed vital evidentiary clues in crime investigations. The Indian Police Journal, 15(1), 23-31.
Schoester, M.V. (2006). Forensics in law enforcement. New York, NY: Nova Science Pub Inc.
Matthew Baker Murder Case
In aco, Texas former pastor Matthew Baker was convicted of the murder of his wife in early 2010. In 2006, Baker's wife Kari was found dead in what looked like a suicide. However, it soon became apparent that Baker's accounts of his and Kari's movements during the day of her death were inconsistent with the forensic evidence discovered at the scene. It took some time before prosecutors had enough evidence to reach an indictment. Once the trial finally commenced, it became obvious that if nothing else Baker had been inconsistent with his various explanations for discrepancies and had outright lied about certain aspects of the case. One of the things Baker was found to have lied about was the object of his potential reason for committing the crime. The motive according to prosecutors was that Baker was having an affair with a Vanessa Bulls and wanted…
"Former Texas Minister Matt Baker Found Guilty of Killing Wife and Faking Her Suicide
Note." New York Daily News. January 2010.
Opfer, Chris. (2011). "Case Profile: Matthew Baker." Investigation Discovery. Discovery Communications: San Antonio, TX. http://investigation.discovery.com/tv/true-crime/cases/matt-baker.html
Talbert, Sara. (2010). "Breaking News: Matt Baker Sentenced to 65 Years in Prison." ABC
The authors of the article determined that by directing children into a specific line of questioning regraind a certain action "gives the child material that might appear in subsequent play or narrative" (Gilstrap and Cici, 2001).
The true relationship between both of these issues is that ultimately, Hewitt also engaged in leading children through the use of imagery, by asking them to draw how they would feel if something sexual did happen to them. Finally, the last problem identified with using clinical techniques in a forensic setting is related to relying on aspects of behavior as being congruous with abuse. Without properly attributing for the base rate of sexual abuse in the world or the population in which the children are, the propensity for gaining false positives is very real -- and problematic.
Thus, there are many different important concepts a forensic psychologist could take away form this particular article.…
Gilstrap, L.L., Ceci, S.J. (2001). "Difficulties inherent in integrating clinical wisdom with empirical research in forensic interview." PsycCRITIQUES. 46 (2). Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?vid=6&sid=e8439b61-401f-4d44-b03d-9552b26c9259%40sessionmgr115&hid=107&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=pvh&an=cnt-46-2-159
Litwack, T.R. (2001). "Actuarial vs. clinical assessments of dangerousness." Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 7(2), 409-443. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?sid=87617533-0386-4c21-a27f-bfc6df2dbdb5%40sessionmgr104&vid=1&hid=122&bdata=JnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d#db=pdh&an=2001-17852-005
In the late 1990s, this was not a problem as the stock was continuing to climb to all-time highs. However, once the economy began to slow, is when this strategy backfired by forcing them to issues more stock to cover these losses. As shares were declining, many investors became weary of continuing to participate in these activities. (Healy, 2003)
In late 2001, these activities were brought to the attention of regulators and investors (which resulted in the eventual bankruptcy of the firm). This is illustrating how forensic accounts overlooked or ignored key areas that could have uncovered fraudulent activities. As a result, one could argue that the lack of ethics and the close relationship with company executives helped to perpetuate these abuses. (Healy, 2003)
Another type of fraud that is most prevalent is insider trading. This is when executives will have specific knowledge of the financial situation surrounding…
Albrecht, S. (2006). The Ethics Development Model. Australian Accounting Review, 16 (38), 30 -- 40.
Bettis, J. (2000). Corporate Policies. Journal of Financial Economics, 57 (2), 191 -- 220.
Golden, T. (2011). A Guide to Forensic Accounting. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Gray, D. (2008). Forensic Accounting and Auditing. American Journal of Business Education, 1 (2), 1 -- 12.
Alter the Forensic Dynamics during an Interviewing Process
In this paper, we reveal how professional's attitudes, views, and knowledge do not necessarily match forensic research findings. Witness issues will then be discussed concerning research community. The study identifies some of the key factors that can alter or improve forensic dynamics during the interviewing process. This study focuses primarily on forensic dynamics relating to the interviewing young children and the associated challenges.
Expert knowledge and attitudes
It has been proven that professionals and social researchers (biased) towards information confirming their initial beliefs by refuting established opinions. Once established, beliefs and impressions challenged to contrary proof. Thus, belief systems and generalization can create a confirmation prejudice that may result in faulty understanding and wrong presentation, adversely affecting important decisions. egarding child victimization situations, such prejudice may result in dramatic repercussions presenting a serious risk to a person's legal rights or presenting a…
Bull, R., Valentine, T., & Williamson, T. (2009). Handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing: Current developments and future directions. Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Evidence, Truth, and Order
Tagg, John. "Evidence, Truth and Order: A Means of Surveillance" From Visual Culture: The Reader. Edited by Jessica Evans and Stuart Hall. New York: Sage, 1999, pp. 244-273. Originally published as Tagg, John. "A Means of Surveillance: Photograph as Evidence in Law," in John Tagg, The Burden of Representation: Evidence, Truth, and Order. London: Macmillan, 1988, pp. 66-102.
hen confronted with an article entitled "Evidence, Truth, and Order: A Means of Surveillance," a reader unacquainted with the rest of the photographer and critics John Tagg's work or the authors' other writings on the subject of his art might assume that his written work to follow the title would center purely upon notions of the criminal justice system pertaining to evidence and the establishment of truth, viewed with the electronic eye of mechanized surveillance. However, Tagg, a photographer, is mainly concerned with the photographic art specifically of…
Tagg, John. The Burden of Representation: Essays on Photographies and Histories. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1988.
Justification of a Forensic Unit
Our Agency has just received $3 million grant from the federal government because of the efficient method that the unit employs in running the department. Additionally, the City Council has agreed to continue assisting the unit with additional funding at the end of the three years provided the department is productive and serve the citizens well. However, the department requires presenting a different budget from the previous budget. This proposal will create a new budget for the forensic unit to describe where all the funding will be allocated. The budget will consider the specialized personnel for the unit because smooth running of the unit depends on the specialized personnel.
Mission Statement of the Specialized Unit
The specialized forensic unit will deliver highest quality forensic services to all our customers, and our unit will deliver accurate service through analysis and the state of art technology. We…
Bureau of Forensic Service (2009). California Crime Laboratory Review Task Force. California Department of Justice.
Police Executive Research,(2002). Police department budgeting: A guide for law enforcement chief executives. Washington, D.C: Police Executive Research
Spence, D. Webster, B. & Connors, E.(2009). Guideline for Operating a new Police Department. U.S. Department of Justice.
forensic interviewing of rape victims. It addresses the often asked question to postpone the interview. That request comes from the victims and their families. This study provides evidence that it is important to conduct the interview with the victim within 72 hours of the attack.
On television, forensic interviewing is often dramatized to the point of being illegal. Interviewers on the big screen hit the interviewees, intimidate them, lead them and coerce them into providing the information needed to neatly wrap up the crime in the allotted hour. While this makes for good entertainment and it almost always leads to putting the bad guys away, it is far from realistic. In real life, forensic interviewing can be a tedious process that does not always bear fruit. Forensic interviewing is something that can help uncover valuable information or lead to a dead end. The key elements to how successful a forensic…
But on the other hand, a reader who is also interested in the subject doesn't have to necessarily enjoy the idea of decomposing human corpses - or have really thick skin - to get educated regarding the forensic science / anthropologic value of this book.
Being a student in Forensic Anthropology in fact makes it easier to get through the potentially offensive parts of the book, because there are many things to be learned from the novel. This book reflects real-life issues pertaining to forensic research and crime-related applications to forensic science. The book is dedicated to "All victims of murder, all those who mourn them, and all who seek justice on their behalf."
Bass's "Body Farm" is designed so that cases where bodies are found in similar circumstances may have a foundation in terms of the forensic police personnel being able to know how and when - if not…
Bass, Bill; & Jefferson, Jon. (2003). Death's Acre: Inside the Legendary Forensic Lab the Body
Farm Where the Dead Do Tell Tales. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Burns, Karen Ramey. (2006). Department of Anthropology Faculty. Retrieved July 29, 2007, at http://www.anthro.uga.edu/people/burns.htm.
Cornwell, Patricia Daniels (1990). Postmortem. New York: Charles Scribner's Son.
In "The role of the Violence isk Appraisal Guide and Historical, Clinical, isk- 20 in U.S. courts: A case law survey," Vitacco et al. discuss the use of the psychological forensic assessment in predicting future dangerousness. The authors are very critical of the use of psychological assessments for these purposes because of their belief, which is affirmed by investigation into case law, that psychologists often get their predictions wrong. In other words, psychologists are not necessarily able to predict future dangerousness, which can make an assessment of future dangerousness little more than guesswork.
One of the cases mentioned by Vitacco et al. was the seminal case of Barefoot v. Estelle, 463 U.S. 880 (1983). The defendant, Thomas Barefoot, was convicted of murdering a police officer. He was charged with a capital offense and the jury had to determine whether or not Barefoot was eligible for the death penalty.…
Barefoot v. Estelle, 463 U.S. 880 (1983).
Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). Introduction in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). The nature and evolution of forensic mental health assessment in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). Relevant sources of authority for developing best-practice standards in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Forensic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that applies the techniques and concepts of chemistry to provide evidence and testify in court. Some federal agencies such as FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and National Institute of Justice use forensic chemistry experts to investigate the crimes committed against the society, which include environmental pollution, food adulteration, and distribution of unsafe chemical substances. In the United States, cocaine and other illegal drugs can put society at risks. Thus, experts in forensic chemistry uses different processes to perform a laboratory test to identify the presence of substances. A chemical analysis carried out in the laboratory can help to detect illegal drugs, which will assist the police or other law enforcement agents to prosecute offenders in the law courts. (Drug Enforcement Administration 1).
Moreover, the forensic chemistry analyzes non-biological materials to detect a trace of evidence from the crime scenes to found unknown material…
Buffalo State SUNY. Forensic Chemistry, B.S. Program. 2015 02 December. 2015.
The Buffalo State SUNY is one of an accredited universities in the United States that offers a forensic chemistry. The university mandates all students wishing to pursue the study to have a strong background in chemistry, physics, biology and mathematics.
Bureau of Labor Statistics. Forensic Science Technicians, United States Department of Labor. 2015. 02 December. 2015. http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/forensic-science-technicians.htm
skills that a forensic accountant needs to possess and evaluate the need for each skill.
Over the last several years, the role of forensic accountants has been continually evolving. This is because there have been a number of cases surrounding their ability to identify and prevent possible frauds. As a result, various skills must be utilized in the process that will help to improve the effectiveness of actuaries. These include: good communication, the ability to work well with others, determination, the ability to simplify information and investigative intuitiveness. The combination of these factors is allowing forensic accounts to identify and detect possible fraud. When this happens, the negative impact of these activities can be limited. (Davis, 2011)
Good communication is an important skill because it requires talking with different parties during the process of conducting any kind of investigation. This means collaborating on various ideas and identifying potential red flags.…
Forensic Accountants. (2009). Accounting Today. Retrieved from: http://www.accountingtoday.com/news/Forensic-Accountants-Reconstruct-Madoff-Books-50484-1.html
Forensic Accountants. (2010). Accountant Next Door. Retrieved from: http://accountantnextdoor.blogspot.com/2010/06/forensic-accountants-roles-and.html
Davis, C. (2011). Characteristics and Skills. AICPA. Retrieved from: http://www.aicpa.org/interestareas/forensicandvaluation/resources/practaidsguidance/downloadabledocuments/forensicaccountingresearchwhitepaper.pdf
Greier, R. (2004). Bringing Figures into Focus. MDD. Retrieved from: http://www.mdd.net/us/news/forensic_insight/octnov04-1.php
Rule: Any out-of-court statement offered to prove the truth of the matter asserted is generally inadmissible as hearsay. (801-802) However, hearsay may be admitted, in a prosecution for homicide or in a civil case, if the declarant, while believing the declarant's death to be imminent, made the statement about its cause or circumstances. (804(b)(2).
Application: Here, the defense attorney's objection is premised on the fact that the deceased Sam's statements are I inadmissible as hearsay, as an out-of-court statement by a person unavailable for trial, offered to prove that the other driver was driving on the wrong side of the road. However, Trooper Jones may offer this statement because it falls under the (804(b)(2) hearsay exception, as a statement in a civil case that the declarant made while his death was imminent.
Conclusion: The basis for the defense attorney's objection is hearsay because the deceased Sam's statement is an out-of-court…
obstacles to prompt and efficient forensic investigation in major crime scenes. The presence of too many unnecessary personnel in the crime area and poor communication or reporting of the details are these obstacles. The applicable FI rules and an analysis of each issue follow. A conclusion is also provided for each issue.
Too Many Unnecessary Personnel at the Crime Scene
The presence of too many extraneous personnel is considered the biggest hindrance to effective and prompt crime investigation (Schiro, 1999). What makes it worse is that most of these unnecessary people are police officers themselves (Schiro).
The policy mandates the initial responding officer or officers to identify all personnel or persons at the crime scene and to oversee their movements (FI, 2000). Then the officer or investigator in-charge shall evaluate the scene in order to come up with a list of specialized resources needed in the investigation (FI).
FBI (2000). Crime scene investigation. Office of Justice Programs: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.fbi.gov/about.-us/lab/forensic-science-communications/fsc/april2000/twgcsi.pdf
Schiro, G. (1999). New crime scenes -- same old problems. Southern Lawman Magazine:
Forensic Science Resources. Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.forensicsciencresources.com/NewScenes.htm
Yolasite (2012). Crime scene analysis. The Investigation, Retrieved on July 3, 2014 from http://www.theinvestigation.yolasite.com/crime-scene-analysis.php
She had been struck several times in the head with a Toney Penna golf club -- so ferociously that the club had shattered into multiple pieces -- and then stabbed in the neck with the broken shaft the club's handle and part of the shaft had vanished. (Kennedy Jr., 2003, Martha Moxley section, ¶ 1)
From evidence retrieved from the autopsy, police determined Moxley's murder occurred at approximately10:00 P.M..
On July 10, 1998, 23 years after Moxley's murder, "Connecticut authorities convened a one-man grand jury consisting of Judge George Thim. The state's attorney Jonathan Benedict took over the Moxley case and began a multimillion-dollar effort to convict Michael Skakel" (Kennedy Jr., 2003, Mark Fuhrman section, ¶ 5). Until this time, Greenwich police and state investigators considered Ken Littleton as the primary suspect for the murder of Moxley (Fuhrman, cited in Kennedy Jr., Mark Fuhrman section, ¶ 7). According to prosecutors'…
Caldwell, Lori. (2004, June 8). Post-Tribune. Gun missing as evidence, so Gary man acquitted. Post-Tribune (in). Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research database.
Givens, Ann. (2006). Evidence bungled?: Blood work in DWI death trial might have been mishandled, according to testimony of troopers, others. Newsday (Melville, NY). McClatchy-Tribune Information Services. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research database.
Caldwell, Lori. (2004, June 8). Post-Tribune. "Gun missing as evidence, so Gary man acquitted." Post-Tribune (in). 2004. Retrieved November 20, 2008 from HighBeam Research: www.highbeam.com/doc/1N11032253A4EBD8A1C.html
Complete coverage: Limo crash. (2008). Retrieved November 20, 2008 at http://www.newsday.com/news/local/longisland/ny-licrashsg,0,390101.storygallery?coll=ny-linews-headlines
Opportunities abound in the forensics industry today, and the experts suggest that this trend is going to continue to increase in the future. The term "forensics," though, can be applied to a number of different fields; however, all of these disciplines share a common feature in that their work products are specifically used in courts of law or for other legal issues that can mean the difference between life and death in many cases. According to Black's Law Dictionary (1990), the term "forensic" means "belonging to courts of justice," while "forensic engineering" means "the application of the principles and practice of engineering to the elucidation of questions before courts of law" (p. 648). Genetic forensics refers to the diagnosis of otherwise unknown biological material based on analysis of proteins or DNA; this branch of forensics has resulted in hundreds of death row prisoners being freed after they were exonerated through…
Avise, J.C. (2004). The hope, hype & reality of genetic engineering: Remarkable stories from agriculture, industry, medicine, and the environment. New York: Oxford University
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Braga, M. (2004, June 10). Tracking data on dead. Sarasota Herald Tribune, D1.
After completion of standard measurements and photographs of the victim, the hands were separately bagged to preserve any evidence contained thereon. Subsequent forensic examination and analysis disclosed organic evidence in the form of human skin and blood identified as originating from the same source as the other blood and tissue samples as those not associated with the victim. Thirty-six strands of hair, subsequently positively identified with the victim were recovered from the external clothing, as well as nine strands of human hair not identified with the victim.
Inorganic Evidence Collected:
Shoe imprints were preserved in standard casts and subsequently identified as originating from a size-12 Timberland® men's workboot. Minute quantities of blood were also recovered from within the prints before casting but of insufficient quantity to determine type other than being from a human source. A ballpoint pen and a partial roll of blue tape, subsequently identified as standard "plumber's…
Kobalinsky, L., Liotti, T.F., Oeser-Sweat, J. (2005). DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken: Wiley & Sons.
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
opportunity create evaluate impression evidence. As read textbook, pattern evidence, part, examined naked eye. Select learning activities base assignment. a. Create impression patterns choice.
Impressions: Footprints and tire marks
The first of the forensic impressions I selected for my analysis consisted of footprints. "Impressions occur when two objects come in contact with one another, and one object leaves behind distinguishing markings on or in the other" (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 213). A footprint is classified as an impression because it has depth (three-dimensional character) in material space (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 213). "A positive impression is identical to the object that made it, whereas a negative impression is its mirror image. The shoe prints left in the mud are negative impressions; they are negatives of the shoes' soles. In this scenario, the positives would be the shoes' soles" (Gaensslen & Larsen 2013: 214). In this instance, the impression of the…
Gaensslen, R.E., & Larsen, K. (2013). Introductory forensic science. San Diego, CA:
Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Murray. (n.d.). Footprints can play an important role in solving crimes. Footprint lab.
Then we would move to the individual characteristics of the evidence collected like the subjecting of the blood samples collected from both the scene and the suspect belongings to a DNA sampling to verify if the blood found on both locations has specific common characteristics. Testing the fiber of the gloves to ascertain that they belong to a pair and same manufacturer and not merely identical, (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Lab., 2010).
On the accurate collection of the evidence and their storage will require a specialized team from the forensic department so as to ensure the evidence does not lose its credibility.
On the lack of cooperation with the police and engaging the police in a two hour road chase before he is arrested, there will be need to acquire a testimony of the police themselves and the re will be need to presented the written arranged appointment…
Crain Communications Inc., (2003). Circumstantial Evidence is Sufficient to Establish Sexual
Discrimination. Retrieved June 24, 2011 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FXS/is_9_82/ai_107835615/
The Free Dictionary, (2011). Definition: Circumstantial Evidence. Retrieved June 24, 2011 from http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Circumstantial+Evidence
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Forensics Lab., (2010). The Characteristics of Physical Evidence.
The broken glass, window seal, and outlaying areas where the killer entered will be where the primary attempts to draw fingerprints will begin. Dusting and using ultraviolet black light, the glass and window pane will be thoroughly searched. The outer area will also be inspected. The knobs of the sink, where the intruder may have tried to wash away his blood, will also be investigated for prints. Dusting the flat and smooth surfaces will be best collected by dusting them and applying a negative lens to scoop the dust now fossilized with any fingerprints.
With the fossilized sample of any fingerprints, pictures and other fingerprint obtainment methods, the search for their identification match may be concluded through the national database of criminal prints that are documented and recorded in real time networking capabilities. This will prove to be the fastest and most effective method for obtaining a match. Scanning any…
That means they have to know how to locate evidence that can be traced, but they also need to know how to test it and preserve it so it can be used at a later date. They have to guard against contamination, and make sure they collect enough evidence to tie it to a perpetrator.
Ultimately, investigators at a crime scene have one purpose and goal, to solve the crime and find the perpetrator. Trace evidence is a key ingredient in solving the crime, and investigators know this, so they are always on the lookout for any type of evidence they can find. Sometimes investigations take years, but with the right crime scene collection and preservation, the trace evidence left behind can lead to conviction, and that is the ultimate purpose of the time and energy that goes into collecting trace evidence.
Digital Forensics to Capture Data ources
Prioritizing Data ources
Live ystem Data
Intrusion Detection ystem
Event Log Analysis
Prioritizing data sources
Insider File Deletion
Prioritizing data sources
Use of Uneraser program Recovers the Deleted Data
A recent advance in information technology has brought about both benefits and threats to business organizations. While businesses have been able to achieve competitive market advantages through the internet technology, the hackers are also using the opportunities to penetrate the organizational network systems to steal sensitive data worth billions of dollars. A recent wave of cybercrimes leads to the growth of forensic investigation dealing with a collection of evidence to track cyber offenders. The study investigates different data sources that can assist in enhancing digital forensic investigation. The study identifies event log analysis, port scanning, account auditing, and intrusion detection system…
Stallings, W. (2011). Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice (Fifth Edition). Pearson Education, Inc. Prentice Hall.
Vigina, G. Johnson, E. Kruegel, C. (2003). Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection: 6th International 6th International Symposium, RAID 2003, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, September 8-10, 2003, Proceedings, Volume 6. Springer Science & Business Media.
Xu, M., Yang, X. Wu, B. et al. (2013).A metadata-based method for recovering files and file traces from YAFFS2. Digital Investigation. 10 (1); 62-72.
FTK Imager, the Digital Forensic Toolkit
FTK Imager is an imaging and data preview tool used for forensic analysis. Typically, the FTK imager can create disk images for USB and hard drives. The FTK can also create forensic images (perfect copies) of data without altering the original evidence. Moreover, the FTK imager can create MD5 or SHAI hashes of files and be able to recover deleted files from ecycle Bin.
Objective of this project is to investigate the strategy of using the FTK for forensic investigation.
Use of the FTK
The first step is to install the FTK Imager, which can be accessed from the following website: http://accessdata.com/product-download/?/support/adownloads
After opening the webpage, the current releases of the digital forensic tools appear ad being revealed below:
Then, click FTK Image and Click the FTK Imager, version 3.4.2, and Click download. After completing the installation, the next section discusses the method of…
Access Data (2015).Forensic Toolkit® (FTK®). USA.
Digital Forensics and Cyber Crime Investigation
HCC Partner is the top healthcare company in the United States, and the management has noticed an intrusion in the systems based on the alerts from their IDS (Intrusion Detection System) logs that causes the management to question the reliability of the system. Analysis of their systems reveals that HCC uses the Snort IDS that is running in Linux system. Moreover, the HCC database administrator has received and downloaded the strange email from the Human Resources Department, which makes the system behaving strangely after they open the attachment.
he objective of this project is to analyze the HCC database server, the network system and other workstations suspected leading to data leakage. he project will investigate whether there is a possibility of evidence of data breach.
A: Plan for Processing the Incident Scene and Potential Crime
he study uses the staircase model for the investigation…
The next step is to develop a documentation of the evidence. The study suggests using the digital camera take the photos of all the evidence. The photo must ensure 360-degree coverage of the scene. The photo must reveal the location of all the seized computer systems. The front, back, and, side by all photos must photograph. However, there is a need for a videotaping of the active screen monitor. The photographs should reveal the position of mice, computer components, cables and other evidence.
Casey, E. (2011). Digital evidence and computer crime: forensic science, computers and the Internet. Waltham: Academic Press.
computer forensic offense. ecommendations for investigation will be addressed. Further, an example of an industrial espionage case will be cited.
This lawsuit entailed contract violation cross-claims, with the dispute between the two parties chiefly revolving around events that had transpired during the latter half of 1998. esidential Funding Corporation (FC) was requested to salvage and present related emails dated from October to December 1998, from its backup drives. The corporation's internal legal consultant discovered that the company didn't possess requisite internal resources for email retrieval from backup source in the time period allowed. Therefore, the company retained Electronic Evidence Discovery's services, for support with email retrieval. Many weeks into employing established recovery techniques, the corporation was able to present a total of 126 emails (dated between January and August 1998) as well as 2 emails dated September of the same year (Computer Forensic - Computer Forensic Case Studies…
(n.d.). Computer Forensics Services & Electronic Discovery by ACE Data Group . Computer Forensic - Computer Forensic Case Studies -- ACE Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2015, from http://legalforensics.com/case-studies.html
(n.d.). Electronic Discovery Law -- Legal issues, news and best practices relating to the discovery of electronically stored information. Court has Broad Discretion to Fashion Sanctions for Breach of Discovery Obligations -- Electronic Discovery Law. Retrieved December 16, 2015, from http://www.ediscoverylaw.com/2004/12/court-has-broad-discretion-to-fashion-sanctions-for-breach-of-discovery-obligations/
Insanity evaluations represent the most challenging forensic assessments in the criminal domain" (ogers, 2008, p.126). This is due to the fact that insanity evaluations require the psychologist to assess whether a defendant had a mental illness at the time that an offense was committed, and, whether that mental illness was related to the commission of the crime in a way that would make the defendant "insane" under applicable state laws. First, whether or not the defendant is presenting as mentally ill at the time of the assessment is often not relevant to the assessment; most defendants, processed and in the jail system, have access to medications and treatment that they may have lacked at the time of the crime. Therefore, it is important to realize that a defendant's competency to stand trial is a different issue than whether a defendant is not guilty by reason of insanity. If a defendant…
Bonnie, R.J. (1992). The competence of criminal defendants: A theoretical reformulation.
Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10(3), 291-316.
Frontline. (2013). Instanity defense FAQs. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from PBS website: