Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
The participants aren't given the right to access the records of forensic scientists. The consent of the concerned party is needed first. A fee is charged for recording keeping purposes.
Accessing the third party evidence requires approval of the attorney and concerned party.
The forensic professionals should be able to protect the identity of the confidential individuals and present the information in a balanced manner. The information concerned is of importance hence.
Methodologies and procedures
Using viable methods
The forensic professionals should use methods and procedures which are legal. The forensic professionals should view a matter from all angles while conducting treatment, examinations, scholarly work and consultation. They should be able to discard all plausible theories pertaining to a case.
Using many sources for checking
The forensic professionals should form an opinion after confirming from multiple sources. They should mention otherwise the limitations and weaknesses in a theory.
American Bar Association & American Psychological Association. (2008). Assessment of older adults with diminished capacity: A handbook for psychologists: In Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology: accessed from https://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/forensic-psychology.aspx
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education (in press). Standards for educational and psychological testing (third edition): In Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology: accessed from https://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/forensic-psychology.aspx
American Psychological Association (in press). Guidelines for psychological practice with gay, lesbian, and bisexual clients: In Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology: accessed from https://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/forensic-psychology.aspx
American Psychological Association (2003). Guidelines on multicultural education, training, research, practice, and organizational change for psychologists: In Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology: accessed from https://www.apa.org/practice/guidelines/forensic-psychology.aspx
This assessment addresses forensic psychological assessment. This question addresses some of the differences in forensic psychological work and clinical work. Most forensic psychologists are clinical psychologists who specialize in forensic work. These clinicians bring their clinical skills to the forensic assessment; however, there are unique circumstances in the forensic assessment that the clinician must consider. For example, it is infrequent that a client would lie, malinger, or withhold information in a clinical setting.
Differentiate between forensic assessment and clinical assessment.
The critical distinction between forensic assessment and clinical assessment is its juncture with law ("ABFP," 2009). Clinical assessment is focused on determinations of the mental, physical, and functional states of an individual, and on a determination of what -- if any -- interventions are needed to assist the person with adaptation ("ABFP," 2009). Forensic assessment is located in the intersection between clinical assessment -- the necessary basis for…
American Board of Forensic Psychology (ABFP). (2009) Forensic psychology. Found online at http://www.abfp.com/brochure.asp
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, 509 U.S. 579, 113 S.Ct. 2786, 125 L.Ed. 2d 469, (U.S. Jun 28, 1993) (NO. 92-102)
Dixon, Lloyd, and Brian Gill. (2001). Changes in the Standards for Admitting Expert Evidence in Federal Civil Cases Since the Daubert Decision. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation.
Forensic Science and Standards Act (July 12, 2012). House Bill 6106. Retreived http://aafs.org/sites/default/files/pdf/Forensic_Science_and_Standards_Act_2012.pdf
Forensic Psychologists in Determining the Award of Child Custody in Divorces
For a long time, children have been treated as personal property during divorce proceedings. This meant that the children were subject to subdivision amongst the parents like any other property the couple owned. According to Emery and Wyer (1987a), all personal property would revert to the husband. For this reason, children would become the property of the father. In the 1800s, the law started to change and begun awarding custody of children based on analysis of both parents. The tender years doctrine was adopted, which was used to award younger or tender children to the mother instead of the father (Gunsberg & Hymowitz, 2013). This was because the young children would still need their mother more, and she was considered a better parent due to her maternal nature. This preference was not cast in stone. If the father could…
Ballard, R.H., Rudd, B.N., Applegate, A.G., & Holtzworth-Munroe, A. (2013). Hearing the voice of the child in divorce. Psychology, Law, and the Wellbeing of Children, 121.
Blais, J., & Forth, A.E. (2014). Prosecution-retained vs. court-appointed experts: Comparing and contrasting risk assessment reports in preventative detention hearings. Law and human behavior, 38(6), 531.
Bollen, K.N., Verbeke, A.-L., & Euwema, M.C. (2013). Money or children? Power sources in divorce mediation1. Journal of Family Studies, 19(2), 159-173.
Drozd, L., & Flens, J.R. (2014). Psychological testing in child custody evaluations. New York, NY: Routledge.
Usually, it is more likely that the ruse is discovered by a forensic psychologist, and/or that there is simply too much evidence pointing to the fact that the criminal knew what he or she was doing when the crime was being committed (Adler, 2004).
The Likelihood of eoffending
Whether a criminal is likely to reoffend is something else that has to be considered by forensic psychologists. They are often asked to give their opinion on this issue when inmates are coming up for early release or when they are eligible for parole. There are other factors and opinions that are taken into account, of course, but having a professional, psychological opinion about whether a criminal has been "cured" of his or her behavior or will be likely to repeat it is very significant (Adler, 2004; Dalby, 1997). It can be difficult to determine what goes on in the mind of…
Adler, J.R. (Ed.). (2004). Forensic Psychology: Concepts, debates and practice. Cullompton: Willan.
Dalby, J.T. (1997) Applications of Psychology in the Law Practice: A guide to relevant issues, practices and theories. Chicago: American Bar Association.
Duntley, J.D., & Shackelford, T.K. (2006). Toward an evolutionary forensic psychology. Social Biology, 51, 161-165.
Forensic and Clinical oles and Assessment
While psychologists and psychiatrists may engage in both clinical and forensic practice, it important to recognize that clinical and forensic practice are distinct areas of practice. This means that the role of the forensic and clinical practitioner differs in several ways: "who the client of the psychologist is the nature of the relationship between the psychologist and the individual being evaluated, and the psychologist's approach to the material provided by the individual" (Packer, 2008). Moreover, it also means that the professional assesses the individual differently. These differences include: the purpose of the assessment, the goal of the intervention, and psycho-legal vs. psychological assessment. While the differences may seem clear, the reality is that even forensic evaluations can lead to the establishment of the type of relationships that develop in clinical practice, making it difficult for health care professionals and for their clients to differentiate…
American Psychological Association. (2011). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists.
Retrieved September 8, 2013 from American Psychology-Law Society website: http://www.ap-ls.org/aboutpsychlaw/SGFP_Final_Approved_2011.pdf
Forensic Psychological Evaluation
Confidential Psychological Evaluation
Gender: Male Date of Report: 05/07/2012
Date of Birth: 10/01/1981 Age
Marital Status: Single Occupation: Unemployed
Race: Caucasian Education: GED
Referred by: Dr., B. Wynter
REASON FOR REFERRAL:
A Psychiatric Evaluation on May 19, 2006 by Barbara Wynter, License psychologist who is
Clinical administrator of Central Treatment Facility ward 1, 2, 3, was requested to further assist in diagnosis.
LIMITS OF CONFIDENTIALITY:
DR, B. Wynters
MMPI (Spell out the name Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory)
Is a depressive component of scale 6. The items connote extraordinary emotional sensitivity or vulnerability that is dysphonic in tone. These items have a "poor little me" flavor, portraying the self as meek and innocuous, emotionally fragile, incapable of being a threat to others, and perhaps as being entitle to special concern and consideration for one's tender sensibilities. There is an implicit theme of resentment…
I believe I possess a number of personality traits that are relevant to my career goals of becoming a lead forensics psychologist and earning a PhD in clinical psychology. Foremost among these is the fact that I am hard-working in both the intellectual and physical sense of the term. As a result of my solid work ethic, I am goal oriented and extremely driven to succeed in my aforementioned aims. I am also honorable, and have the best of intentions to better the quality of my life for my immediate family, which includes my husband and children.
This program at Walden is an excellent match for me because it is compatible with the timeline that I would like to accomplish my goals in. Furthermore, I am convinced that this institution can offer me an education that will suitably prepare me for the future career and educational…
altenative appoach to Computeized Tomogaphy in foensic pathology.
Thomsen, A.H., Juik, A.G., Uhenholt, A.G., Vesteby, A. (2009).
Jounal: Foensic Science Intenational.
Publication Infomation: 2008, 183, 87-90.
The main pupose of this aticle is to see whethe o not CT scans ae necessay as a means of augmenting autopsies. The eseach question is: do the benefits of CT scans match the effot equied to implement this technology? Thee is no hypothesis fo this aticle; the authos wee cetainly non-patisan in thei appoach and assumptions. The sample was 20 dead bodies (including 15 males) with CT scans pefomed by the Depatment of Radiology at Aahus Univesity Hospital. I eviewed this aticle to ascetain the elevance of CT scans to foensic pathology.
Abstact: This aticle denotes the boons and the detiments associated with using CT scans as compaed to, and augmenting the usage of conventional autopsies fo foensic pathology. Oiginal eseach…
references to certain applications dating back to the 1980s. In this respect the article was extremely comprehensive in its scope, although perhaps it may have been better suited focusing on more contemporary applications. Still, for the variety of knowledge it covered and the degree of insight it shed, it is certainly an excellent starting point for research into this field, and helps to synthesize the various points of relevance of the other articles explicated within this assignment.
Bruised witness: Bernard Spilsbury and the performance of early twentieth-century English forensic pathology
Author(s): Burney, I., Pemberton, N.
Journal: Medical History
Publication Information: 2011, 55, 41-60.
Instead, a representative sample is used. The larger the sample the better, obviously, because the larger the sample the less wiggle room there is going to be between the sample looked at and the entire body.
Perhaps another explanation for the margin of error in this study is noted in the abstract of the document, whereby it is acknowledged that they questionnaire looked at forensic psychologists that were retained or secured by the court as well as situations where one of the child custody parties in question retained the forensic psychologist. It is not immediately clear whether that figured into the margin of error because that would certainly affect the motives and even the outcome of the study in general but whether/how much of an impact was had was not immediately made clear.
In short, the margin of error in this study accounts for the fact that only a…
Arch, M., Jarne, a., Pero, M., & Guardia, J. (2011). CHILD CUSTODY ASSESSMENT:
A FIELD SURVEY of SPANISH FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGISTS' PRACTICES. European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, 3(2), 107-128.
The authors of the article determined that by directing children into a specific line of questioning regraind a certain action "gives the child material that might appear in subsequent play or narrative" (Gilstrap and Cici, 2001).
The true relationship between both of these issues is that ultimately, Hewitt also engaged in leading children through the use of imagery, by asking them to draw how they would feel if something sexual did happen to them. Finally, the last problem identified with using clinical techniques in a forensic setting is related to relying on aspects of behavior as being congruous with abuse. Without properly attributing for the base rate of sexual abuse in the world or the population in which the children are, the propensity for gaining false positives is very real -- and problematic.
Thus, there are many different important concepts a forensic psychologist could take away form this particular article.…
Gilstrap, L.L., Ceci, S.J. (2001). "Difficulties inherent in integrating clinical wisdom with empirical research in forensic interview." PsycCRITIQUES. 46 (2). Retrieved from http://ehis.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/eds/detail?vid=6&sid=e8439b61-401f-4d44-b03d-9552b26c9259%40sessionmgr115&hid=107&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmUmc2NvcGU9c2l0ZQ%3d%3d#db=pvh&an=cnt-46-2-159
Litwack, T.R. (2001). "Actuarial vs. clinical assessments of dangerousness." Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 7(2), 409-443. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?sid=87617533-0386-4c21-a27f-bfc6df2dbdb5%40sessionmgr104&vid=1&hid=122&bdata=JnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d#db=pdh&an=2001-17852-005
Insanity evaluations represent the most challenging forensic assessments in the criminal domain" (ogers, 2008, p.126). This is due to the fact that insanity evaluations require the psychologist to assess whether a defendant had a mental illness at the time that an offense was committed, and, whether that mental illness was related to the commission of the crime in a way that would make the defendant "insane" under applicable state laws. First, whether or not the defendant is presenting as mentally ill at the time of the assessment is often not relevant to the assessment; most defendants, processed and in the jail system, have access to medications and treatment that they may have lacked at the time of the crime. Therefore, it is important to realize that a defendant's competency to stand trial is a different issue than whether a defendant is not guilty by reason of insanity. If a defendant…
Bonnie, R.J. (1992). The competence of criminal defendants: A theoretical reformulation.
Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 10(3), 291-316.
Frontline. (2013). Instanity defense FAQs. Retrieved September 30, 2013 from PBS website:
Alter the Forensic Dynamics during an Interviewing Process
In this paper, we reveal how professional's attitudes, views, and knowledge do not necessarily match forensic research findings. Witness issues will then be discussed concerning research community. The study identifies some of the key factors that can alter or improve forensic dynamics during the interviewing process. This study focuses primarily on forensic dynamics relating to the interviewing young children and the associated challenges.
Expert knowledge and attitudes
It has been proven that professionals and social researchers (biased) towards information confirming their initial beliefs by refuting established opinions. Once established, beliefs and impressions challenged to contrary proof. Thus, belief systems and generalization can create a confirmation prejudice that may result in faulty understanding and wrong presentation, adversely affecting important decisions. egarding child victimization situations, such prejudice may result in dramatic repercussions presenting a serious risk to a person's legal rights or presenting a…
Bull, R., Valentine, T., & Williamson, T. (2009). Handbook of psychology of investigative interviewing: Current developments and future directions. Chichester, UK: Wiley and Sons, Inc.
In "The role of the Violence isk Appraisal Guide and Historical, Clinical, isk- 20 in U.S. courts: A case law survey," Vitacco et al. discuss the use of the psychological forensic assessment in predicting future dangerousness. The authors are very critical of the use of psychological assessments for these purposes because of their belief, which is affirmed by investigation into case law, that psychologists often get their predictions wrong. In other words, psychologists are not necessarily able to predict future dangerousness, which can make an assessment of future dangerousness little more than guesswork.
One of the cases mentioned by Vitacco et al. was the seminal case of Barefoot v. Estelle, 463 U.S. 880 (1983). The defendant, Thomas Barefoot, was convicted of murdering a police officer. He was charged with a capital offense and the jury had to determine whether or not Barefoot was eligible for the death penalty.…
Barefoot v. Estelle, 463 U.S. 880 (1983).
Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). Introduction in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). The nature and evolution of forensic mental health assessment in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Heilbrun, K., Grisson, T., & Goldstein, A.N. (2009). Relevant sources of authority for developing best-practice standards in Foundations of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Oxford University Press.
oles of a Police Psychologist in an Investigation
The following paper describes the roles played by a police psychologist in an investigation of a situation in which a former police officer has been killed. The police force constantly takes risks to save the lives and belongings of the people they serve. This force is known for its bravery and courage but when a situation involves the homicide of a former member of their own group, they are faced with extra trouble as their own safety becomes a concern for them. In addition to that, the pressure from media exacerbates the problem for the police force. In this case, the police force needs psychological support which is given to them by a police psychologist.
Police offers face severe stress in their day-to-day routine. They risk their lives and their families in order to fulfill the duty assigned to them. Their…
CR, V. (2010). Psychological Autopsy -- A Review. Journal of Punjab Academy of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 10 (2), 101 -- 103.
Mayhew, C. (2001). Occupational Health and Safety Risks Faced by Police Officers. Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology. pp. 1-2. http://aic.gov.au/documents/E/D/9/%7BED946A67-E4C8-4C46-A294-9B982325EF4D%7Dti196.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].
Mitchell, J. (n.d.). Critical Incident Stress Debriefing. College Park: University of Maryland. pp. 1-3. www.info-trauma.org/flash/media-e/mitchellCriticalIncidentStressDebriefing.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].
Scrivner, E. (1994). Controlling Police Use of Excessive Force: The Role of the Police Psychologist. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Justice. pp. 1-10. https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/Digitization/150063NCJRS.pdf [Accessed: 24 Dec 2013].
Despite the fact that the field of forensic psychology was formally recognized by the American Psychological Association (APA) as a "subset" in 2001 (Salfati, 2009), aspects of this science have influenced law enforcement long before that. One of the most salient ways it does so is in terms of interviewing people for certain positions -- whether they be formal positions such as an appointment to a law enforcement position or informal ones such as witness and eyewitness testimony.
Various branches of the law have been made cognizant of the fact that individuals who work within law enforcement have a very tenuous, difficult job. There is a significantly greater amount of work -- and psychology -- involved in working as a police officer. Therefore, within the past several years law enforcement officials have included personality tests as part of the testing for police officers (Salfati, 2009). Although these tests are far…
Huss, M.T. (2001). "What is forensic psychology? it's not silence of the lambs." Eye on Psi Chi. Retrieved from http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_58.aspx
Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2009). "Introduction to forensic psychology." Baltimore: Author. "Foundations of Forensic Psychology" with Dr. C. Gabrielle Salfati.
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…
American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
Nonetheless, Bill never hurts other people simply because he thinks that it is irrational to hurt others. He thinks that any rational person would be like him and not hurt other people. Does Bill really understand that hurting others is morally wrong? (Nichols, 2002, p. 285)."
This presents some interesting directions of thought. However, it is time to go into the relationship between serial murderers and forensic psychology as it applies to the crime scene. Ted Bundy seemed very much aware that he was committing crimes against society, certainly crimes against his victims. Berkowitz, it was argued, was more psychotic, and for that reason perhaps less aware of his actions as crimes against society or individuals. Berkowitz was known to have started more than a thousand fires, and had a history of cruelty to animals; both manifestations of deeper emotional problems (Schlesinger, 2004, p. 328). This does not make any…
Horley, J. (2003). Personal Construct Perspectives on Forensic Psychology. Hove, England: Brunner-Routledge. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=107452916 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020572304
Inside the Mind of the Mind Hunter: An Interview with Legendary FBI Agent John Douglas Criminal Profiler John Douglas Will Share His Understanding of the Criminal Mind at September's APA Conference. (2007). Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association, 10(1), 8+. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5020572304 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002475027
Nichols, S. (2002). How Psychopaths Threaten Moral Rationalism: Is it Irrational to Be Amoral *?. The Monist, 85(2), 285+. Retrieved December 10, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002475027 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99956702
Stress Before Referencing
hat are the primary points of this article or informational link? How could a forensic psychologist contribute to a positive outcome? hat type of psychological instrument could be of assistance in resolving the problems noted in this article?
Although the physical dangers of policing the community are well-documented on the evening news on almost a daily basis, the psychological difficulties police officers confront are often less publicized. Police officers, as representatives of the law, are seen as immune to the impact seeing violence and tragedy can have upon the psyche. But according to PBA psychologist Daniel Goldfarb, the 'Scrooge' effect is a dangerous one, causing officers to become cynics to the point where they are incapable of seeing the good in people. A healthy skepticism is essential and healthy to doing the job, but cynicism, defined as the corruption of skepticism, leads to burnout (Goldfarb, 2008, "Scrooge").…
Goldfarb, Daniel. (2008). "10 Reasons Cops are Different." The PBA Psychologist. Retrieved 22 Feb 2008 at http://www.heavybadge.com/10reason.htm
Goldfarb, Daniel. (2008). "Critical Incident Stress Reactions." The PBA Psychologist. Retrieved 22 Feb 2008 at http://www.heavybadge.com/cisd.htm
Goldfarb, Daniel. (2008). "The Home Front." The PBA Psychologist. Retrieved 22 Feb 2008 a http://www.heavybadge.com/wframe.htm
Goldfarb, Daniel. (1995). "In Search of the Silly Thought." The PBA Psychologist. Retrieved 22 Feb 2008 at http://www.heavybadge.com/silly.htm
Competency of Offender
Evaluating an individuals competence to stand trial can become a daunting task when hideous crimes have been committed. From a forensic psychologist's point-of-view, complete unbiased, non-judgmental, and purely scientific fact must be considered when providing such an evaluation (Greene & Heilbrun, 2011). In the given case, many things are to be taken into consideration before being able to fully judge the extent of the disturbance in the offenders state of mind.
In order to make a complete judgment about the offender's competency to stand trial, there are a couple of things that I would like to ask him or know more about in order to make a better decision about the issue. I would want to know what his actions were a couple of weeks or days before he committed his crimes. This would give me an idea of how he was behaving before committing the crimes,…
Elkins, J.R. (2010). Criminal Law. In West Virginia University: College of Law. Retrieved August 8, 2011, from
Greene, E., & Heilbrun, K. (2011). Wrightman's Psychology and the Legal System. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning: Belmont, CA.
Ewing, C.P., & McCann, J.T. (2006). Minds on trial: Great cases in law and psychology. Oxford University Press: New York, NY.
Kapardis, A. (2010). Psychology and law: A critical introduction. Cambridge University Press: New York, NY.
ETHICAL DILEMMAS IN THE PACTICE OF FOENSIC PSYCHOLOGY
Professional code of ethics regulates the behavior and practicing of individuals from different fields. Psychologists conform to the stated professional code of ethics that guide them in the provision of safe and quality services to their clients. Similarly, psychologists can practice in firms, including the law to aid in forensic examination of the convicted individuals. As such, it may require the application of the law code of ethics and psychological code of ethics, a fact that might present a significant challenge to them. Therefore, the following analysis identifies the standards of ethics psychologist (Dr. Joven) faces when practicing forensic psychology.
Dr. Joven has to follow numerous ethical standards guiding his professional practice as a future forensic psychologist. He will have to ensure confidentiality of the information of his clients. Confidentiality entails respecting one's right of privacy to the extent applicable,…
APA Ethics Code Commentary and Case Illustrations. (n.d.). http://www.apa.org. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.apa.org/education/ce/1360279.aspx
Bush, S.S., Connell, M.A., & Denney, R.L. (2006). Ethical practice in forensic psychology: A systematic model for decision-making. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Ethics Rounds -- APA's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct: An ethics code for all psychologists? (n.d.). http://www.apa.org. Retrieved May 8, 2014, from http://www.apa.org/monitor/sep06/ethics.aspx
Zapf, P.A., Hart, S.D., & Roesch, R. (2013). Forensic psychology and law. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley
Careers in Psychology
Each person possesses his or her own field of preference in psychology specialization after the basic course. The desire emanates from personal experience, passion in life, desired goals to fulfill, and the rewards accompanying each specialization. All the specialization areas in psychology remain in high demand in the society. Concisely, all that matters is the innovativeness of the person in the profession, the skills, and the approach methods in use when in the practicum field. The result after the inputs determines how successful one becomes. The societal needs are at a rampant change, therefore as one chooses a certain profession to venture in, critical analysis in of utmost importance. After detailed evaluation of the various ventures that provide the best satisfaction to a psychologist, the three topmost specializations are forensic, biopsychology and social psychologists.
Social psychologists work in environments with close relation to hospitals, clinics, mental hospitals,…
Accredited Forensic Psychology Schools and Degrees Online. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.psychologyschoolguide.net/forensic-psychology/
Biopsychology | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/biological-psychology/
Kuther, T.L., & Morgan, R.D. (2013). Careers in psychology: Opportunities in a changing world. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning.
Perception | The Psych Files. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thepsychfiles.com/category/topics/perception/
This requires weighing the pros and cons of disclosing that abuse is occurring inside the household. Under these guidelines, the forensic psychologist may be in violation of reporting them to law enforcement. However, if they do nothing (citing patient - therapist confidentiality) there is a possibility that this pattern of abuse will occur. Over the course of time, the individual can become emotionally and psychologically damaged by what is happening. (Bucky, 2009) ("Ethical Principles," 2003)
When this kind of situation arises, they must take into account what is in the best interests of the patient. This means effectively helping them to deal with their problems and the primary causes associated with them. In this particular case, they should discuss with the client the possibility of reporting this to law enforcement and the benefits that can be realized. Moreover, they can highlight the way this will impact them and how this…
Ethical Principles. (2003). APA. Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/principles.pdf
Bucky, S. (2009). Ethical and Legal Issues for Mental Health Professionals. New York, NY: Routledge.
Ward, T. (2009). Human Rights, Ethical Principles and Standards in Forensic Psychology. International Journal of Offender and Comparative Criminology, 53 (2), 126-144.
The forensic psychologist has a responsibility of ensuring that individuals are fully informed of their legal rights in regards to the anticipated forensic service and the reasons for evaluation and the nature of the procedures to be used as well as the intentions concerning the use of any product of these services. The forensic psychologist is required to obtain the informed consent of the party or their legal representative prior to proceeding with any evaluations or procedures.
Sometimes the party does not have the capacity to give informed consent and this means that the forensic psychologist must obtain the consent of the individual's legal representative before proceeding with evaluations or procedures. Confidentiality issues are of critical importance for the forensic psychologist to address with their client and where confidentiality is limited; the forensic psychologist is required to maintain confidentiality on any issue that is not directly related to the legal…
Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists (1991) Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. Law and Human Behavior, Vol. 15, No. 6. 1991. Retrieved from: http://www.ap-ls.org/links/currentforensicguidelines.pdf
Bartol (2004) Forensic Psychology: Introduction and Overview. Retrieved from: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/5136_Bartol_Chapter_1_Final_Pdf.pdf
Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists (1991) Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. Division 41. American Psychological Association. 9 Mar 1991. Retrieved from: http://www.doh.state.fl.us/mqa/psychology/info_forensicguidelines.pdf
Codes of Conduct
The APA's specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists help establish a good baseline for behavior for forensic psychologists, but states may have more stringent requirements. For example, in the state of Texas, the Texas Administrative Code has a particular chapter devoted to the specific rules of practice governing forensic psychologists. The provisions of that chapter have the force of law and failure to abide by them can not only subject a psychologist to professional censure, but may also impact civil and criminal liability.
The guideline that seems the most challenging to me is one found in the state specific Texas guidelines. Under Texas Administrative Code § 465.18(d)(3), "the role of the psychologist in a child custody forensic engagement is one of a professional expert. The psychologist cannot function as an advocate and must retain impartiality and objectivity, regardless of whether retained by the court or a party to…
American Psychological Association. (2011). Specialty guidelines for forensic psychologists.
Retrieved September 8, 2013 from American Psychology-Law Society website: http://www.ap-ls.org/aboutpsychlaw/SGFP_Final_Approved_2011.pdf
22.21 Texas Administrative Code § 465.18.
Gaining and Maintaining Competence
This standard for competence is essential given that forensic psychologists must keep abreast of developments in the field and ensure that their credentials are appropriate to the needs of the current population. Standards must be set for entrance to the profession, and once established the education of the forensic psychologist must be continual particularly given changes in understanding of mental disorders (such as the biological as well as the sociological causes of violence).
,2 Multiple elationships
Guidelines are provided as to what constitutes a 'multiple' relationship given that forensic psychologists must avoid all conflicts of interest when dealing with clients. Particularly in the field of criminal justice, aspersions upon objectivity can have serious consequences. This standard defines what constitutes a 'multiple' relationship (joint, potentially conflicting obligations such as a previous professional relationship with someone the psychologist is assessing) and the need to ensure that…
Specialty guidelines for forensic psychology. (2013). APA. Retrieved:
The other side of that coin is general competency and ability to do one's. Ignorance of how to do one's job correctly can unfairly or even irreecovactly change the lives of the people that stand to be affected by the work of a forensic psychologist and this would include children, people that have been injured, people that are at risk of violence but no actual violence has yet been proven and so forth. Being precise and adept with exquisite studying habits and attention to detail ia hallmark of any solid forensic psychologist and any of the same that are not on board with that need to find a new calling in life because forensic psychology should never be done half-way or half-you-know-what.
Finally, there is self-interest and this can be exceedingly dangerous. It is well-known that many forensic psychologists are hired by the court and they, as a result, should…
Knapp and VandeCreek (2001) is a qualitative article with somewhat of a literature review. There are no formal reports, tables, graphs, or content related to a case study or research study. There is valuable information regarding the context within which the article will consider the ethical issues in personality assessment within the field of forensic psychology. They offer valid examples and spend time clarifying definitions and jargon related to the issue. This is not a quantitative article; it is a qualitative one. Knapp and VandeCreek provide context for the research questions and conclusions in addition to offering examples and counterexamples. The article discusses why ethics should be forensic psychology overall. "Ethical Issues in Personality Assessment in Forensic Psychology" is part exposition, part qualitative research, and part literature/contextual review.
This particular piece of writing is about the evolving role of the forensic psychologist as the expert. The article seeks to identify…
Kalmbach, K.C., & Lyons, P.M. (2006). Ethical issues in conducting forensic evaluations. Applied Psychology in Criminal Justice, 2(3), 261-288.
Knapp, S., & VandeCreek, L. (2001). Ethical issues in personality assessment in forensic psychology. Journal of personality assessment, 77(2), 242-254.
According to the American Association for Correctional and Forensic Psychology (AACFP), forensic psychologists " have an obligation to provide services in a manner consistent with the highest standards of their profession and are responsible for their own conduct and conduct of the individuals under their supervision." These words suggest that a higher code of conduct from the norms of society should dictate the actions of those in this profession. This is important because it is very easy to dismiss those who have been convicted for crimes and considered wasted people and undeserving of redemption.
The aggressive legal system that profits off of the prison system in this country has created an epidemic of sorts where America imprisons more people per capita than any other developed nation on the planet. This trend encourages prisons to maintain high populations and one way of doing this is by denying prisoners their…
Bartol, C. & Bartol, A. (2010). Introduction to Forensic Psychology: Research and Application. Sage Publications, Inc.;
Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists (1991). Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists. Law and Human Behavior, 15 (6) 1991.
Legal guidelines, ethics codes, and specialty guidelines play a tremendous part in the way that practitioners conduct diagnoses and assessments in general. In addition to formal training, the aforementioned legal and ethical guidelines help to constitute the general procedures and practices that professionals must adhere to while performing their jobs. It is especially important for psychologists, not to mention forensic psychologists, to follow these mandated codes. These professionals play critical roles in interacting with the public. As such, they must be accountable to standards that play a positive or assistive role in aiding the public to deal with a number of substantial issues that can seriously impact their lives.
The main way that legal guidelines, ethics codes and specialty guidelines influence the daily operations of psychologists in terms of diagnosis and assessment is by keeping them honest. These professionals can best achieve the desired outcomes of their jobs -- assisting…
American Psychology-Law Society (AP-LS): "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists' "
Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards
Thus, the relationship between investigative psychology and forensic psychology is fairly lucid. Investigative psychology largely provides the means of identifying suspects and eventually indicting them. The mechanics of investigative psychology are multi-fold. For instance, in the case of the so-called "D.C. Sniper" in 2002, investigators were able to gain forensic evidence regarding ballistics and fingerprints. The former enabled them to identify the type of weapon that was repeatedly used during the attacks; the latter was used to procure a suspect in this particular case (Federal, 2007).
However, the true value of this sort of methodology becomes manifest in court during subsequent trials. In the previously mentioned sniper case, two suspects were convicted largely due to the evidence gathered against them. It is important to note that this sort of evidence is empirically based and confirms to scientific methodology. Without such convincing evidence, of course, there could have been a greater…
Knox, D., Limbacher, J., & McMahan, K. (1993). "Thomas Dillon, hunter of humans." Akron Beacon Journal.
Retrieved from http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/news/767482/posts
Federal Bureau of Investigations: Headline Archives: A Byte Out of History: "The Beltway Snipers, Part 1." Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/news/stories/2007/october/snipers_102207
Risk factors may be static in nature. Static factors are described as "variables that increase the risk of future violence but are unlikely to change and are often fixed." (Huss, 2008, p.115) This include such as the individual's gender and race. Dynamic factors are also used to consider violence potential. Dynamic factors are inclusive of such as the individual's attitudes and psychiatric status as well as their behavioral and affective characteristics. Dynamic factors are held as being more difficult to identify than static factors. Protective factors are reported to be an aspect of risk assessment that has been overlooked. Protective factors are such that decreases the chance of the individual committing violence. Protective factors include a supportive network of friends and family with religious convictions that are strong and which "act as buffers" to reduce the risk of violence potential. This includes potential violence in the form of suicide…
Huss, MT (2008) Forensic Psychology. John Wiley & Sons. 22 Sep 2008. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=qelixoBsXyYC&dq=forensic+psychology:+assessing+violence+potential&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Webster, C.D., & Douglas, K.S. (2001). Purpose of this guide. In K.S. Douglas, C.D. Webster, S.D. Hart, D. Eaves, & J.R.P. Ogloff, (Eds.),HCR-20: Violence risk management companion guide. Burnaby, BC, Canada: Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University, and Department of Mental Health Law & Policy, University of South Florida.
Furthermore Search volumes for the terms "suicide" and "depression" were highly correlated with each other, as were "teen suicide" and "depression." McCarthy eventually concluded that "a connection between suicide and internet search activity has been supported, suggesting internet searches for suicide-related terms may predict actual self-injury and death."
This is very important for forensic psychologists who are looking for more predictive behaviors to deter suicide. Google, as a predictive tool, can now be used to understand cycles and trends within the high-risk groups that may be contemplating suicide. This article suggested that many demographic relationships can also be spotted using Google Trends. This is by no means a panacea for forensic psychologist, but this method can be used to hone in on more specific variables such as location or age, and use them to help pinpoint a more specific trend.
Although seemingly very simple, Google can really help provide quick…
McCarthy, M. (2010). Internet Monitoring of Suicide Risk in the Population. Journal of Affected Disorders, 2010 May, 122(3): 277-279. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2847052/
However, it has been found that there are many ethnic and racial differences among groups. Another study found significant differences in regards to issues such as gender identities and the types of offenses, how victims report crimes, and injury as well as other statistical difference that were present in race in anti-gay victimization crimes (Kuehnle & Sullivan, 2001). Such examples indicate that forensic psychology should fully integrate as much research results on the subject of multiculturalism as can possibly be found. Insights acquired through these means could significantly improve the likelihood that forensic psychology can provide an accurate portrayal of the criminals' psychology. Forensic psychologists would be better able to understand the motivations of criminals from different backgrounds better if they were better able to see things from their perspective.
Treatment of Multicultural Counseling in Correctional Psychology Textbooks. (1989). Psychological Reports, 521-522.
APA. (2002). Guidelines on Multicultural Education,…
Treatment of Multicultural Counseling in Correctional Psychology Textbooks. (1989). Psychological Reports, 521-522.
APA. (2002). Guidelines on Multicultural Education, Training, Research, Practice, and Organizational Change for Psychologists- American Psychological Association. Retrieved from American Psychology Association: http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/policy/multicultural-guidelines.aspx?item=8
APA. (N.d.). Guidelines for Providers of Psychological Services to Ethnic, Linguistic, and Culturally Diverse Populations. Retrieved from American Psychological Association: http://www.apa.org/pi/oema/resources/policy/provider-guidelines.aspx
Kuehnle, K., & Sullivan, a. (2001). Patterns of Anti-Gay Violence an Analysis of Incident Characteristics and Victim Reporting. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 928-943.
Even if they were in a solid state of mind during the crime itself, that does not mean that they automatically will be when the trial comes. If the trial comes and the person is not competent and/or able to assist in their own defense, there is a good chance that the trial will be delayed until the person can be treated and thus be able to assist in their own defense or it's also a possibility that such competence will never be present and the alleged offender would have to be treated as such.
The second person would not be competent because they have to be able to have the lucidity and self-awareness to answer questions and know what is going on during the trial. After all, if they are innocent yet they are not lucid, they would potentially be convicted when they should not be because they can…
Hare, R.D. (1996). Psychopathy: A clinical construct whose time has come. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 23(1), 25 -- 54.
The forensic psychology sphere can use the competency of juvenile discussion in a number of ways. First, any competency hearing of a juvenile needs to take into account that the offender's mind is still forming and finalizing and it is not the same thing as assessing a person who is, for example forty years old. That being said, younger offenders do typically know right from wrong and it is possible in a clinical sense to determine whether the offender is able to defend himself or herself. The rub is that it has to be done in a specific way and in a way that is tangibly different than with typical adult offenders. After all, though, there is not a huge difference between assessing a 17-year-old and a 18-year-old and one of those two offenders is legally and criminally an adult.
Another dimension that is going to be prevalent in a…
CBS Sacramento. (2012, July 31). Xbox Chat Leads To Violent Attack In Oakley -- CBS Sacramento. CBS Sacramento. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2012/07/31/xbox-chat-leads-to-violent-attack-in-oakley/
Harvey, A. (2011). Juvenile Courts and Competency to Stand Trial. Sociology Compass, 5(6), 439-451. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9020.2011.00377.x
This study dismisses a stereotypical view of a high-risk taking person, addicted to danger and excitement. ather this complicates the issue as it eliminates risk as a substantial motivating factor for criminal behavior. The information contained in this article forces forensic psychologists to continue to search for more new theories on behavior.
In search for causes of risky behavior, Ax et al. (2007) remarked that "brain dysfunction, principally of the frontal lobes, appears to be associated with impulsive (as opposed to purposeful predatory) aggression, " (p.899). Synthesizing these two arguments would suggest that risky behavior has more to do with brain function as opposed other influences. This would mean that prisoners are hard-wired to do risky things, even if it is out of their natural character. Forensic psychologists can incorporate this understanding into developing more accurate and precise theories that can address these types of issues.
Ax, . et…
Ax, R. et al. (2007). Innovations in Correctional Assessment and Treatment. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 34(7), 893 -- 905.
Hanoch, Y. & Gummerum, M. (2010). A Comparison of the Risk-Taking Behaviors of Prisoners and Non-Prisoners. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 24: 431-442 (2011). Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=9&sid =ccc90126-a411-45c1-b744-0bf32918e117%40sessionmgr110&hid=117
Competent to Stand Trial
The 1987 film Nuts is a film portrayal of a true story about a woman from a well-to-do family who becomes a high priced hooker and is charged with first degree manslaughter when she kills a violent customer (aka a "John"). Ostensibly in an effort to protect their daughter (and themselves) from the public embarrassment of a trial, the woman's parents encourage therapeutic institutional intervention. In the hearing to determine the woman's ability to stand trial, the woman, stunningly played by Barbara Streisand, insists that she is sane and fights -- quite literally -- for her right to stand trial. A reluctant court appointed attorney -- played by ichard Dreyfus -- eventually comes to believe that his client is sane and able to contribute to her own defense -- he is able to work past her pugnacious exterior and comes to understand and support her in…
Insanity defense. (n.d) The Legal Dictionary. Retrieved http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Insanity+Defense
Nuts. (1987) The Internet Movie Database (IMDb). Retrieved http://www.imdb.com / title/tt0093660/
Melton, GB, Petrila, J, Pytheress, NG, and Slobogin, C. (2011) Psychological Evaluation for the Courts: A Handbook for Mental Health Professionals and Lawyers (2nd ed.) Guilford Publishers. Retrieved http://www.guilford.com/cgi-bin/cartscript.cgi?page=etc./courts_updates.html&cart_id=#part_two
Roesch, R, Zapf, PA, Golding, SL, and Skeem, JL (2004, February) Defining and Assessing Competency to Stand Trial. Golding Publications. Retrieved http://www.unl.edu/ap-ls/student/CST%20assess.pdf
Keijsers, L., & Poulin, F. (2013, March 11). Developmental changes in parent -- child communication throughout adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 49(12), 2301-2308. doi:10.1037/a0032217
The science of Developmental Psychology purposes and endeavors to elucidate the change that comes about in both children and adults in the course of time. I have decided to focus and lay emphasis on this topic as the most change takes place in the course of a person's lifespan during this particular period (Mcleod, 2012). Further, the topic "Developmental changes in parent-child communication throughout adolescence," lays emphasis on the individual changes and variations in the patterns of change between the association that exists between the child and the parent in the course of adolescence. Particularly important is the fact that any individual during its infancy is largely attached to the parent and therefore communicates a lot. However, according to this topic, it is delineated that the attachment and…
instrument I selected is known as the HC-20: assessing risk for violence. It functions as a list of salient factors that can be used to indicate the propensity for an individual to commit future acts of violence. It is crucial to realize that this instrument is predicated upon using previous indicators of violence to note the likelihood of future violence (Webster et al., 1997). Using it requires individuals to know a fairly good deal of the previous history of patients or subjects.
There are several forensics cases for which this instrument would be of practical usage, especially since assessing violence is one of the more common assessment tools for forensic psychologists (Lally, 2003). However, the majority of the cases would probably pertain to individuals who have a history within the criminal justice system. This includes subjects who are incarcerated, those who have previously been incarcerated, or those who are facing…
Lally, S. (2003). What tests are acceptable for use in forensic evaluations? A survey of experts. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34(5), 491-498.
Webster, C.D., Douglas, K.S., Eaves, D., Hart, S.D. (1997). HCR-20: assessing risk for violence. Mental Measurements Yearbook. Retrieved from http://web.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ehost/detail?vid=5&sid=43a8a33c-582b-4ec1-80c9-ef5e7f836b50%40sessionmgr110&hid=126&bdata=JnNjb3BlPXNpdGU%3d#db=loh&AN=15092637
The science of Psychology has evolved over time and certain studies have been instrumental in that evolution. Two of the more famous studies that have revolutionized the field were the orschach inkblot study of 1942, and the study in 1962 by Calhoun on the effects of overcrowding. These two scientific studies changed the field of psychology and our understanding of human behavior.
The orschach inkblot test is one of the most famous studies in the history of Psychology. As stated in the published study, "the experiment consists in the interpretation of accidental forms, that is, of non-specific forms." (orschach, 1951, p. 15) Inkblots are created by dripping ink on a piece of paper and then folding the paper. The researchers maintain that it is important that the resulting inkblot fulfill certain requirements, but most importantly the inkblot must be symmetrical. The inkblots are then shown to the subject…
Calhoun, J.B. (1962). "Population Density and Social Pathology." Scientific American. 206, 139-48.
"Letting the Rat out of the Bag, The Cultural Influence of John B. Calhoun's Rodent Experiments." (2009) London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved from http://www2.lse.ac.uk/researchAndExpertise/researchHighlights/Environment/rats
Rorschach, Hermann. (1951). Psychodiagnostics: A Diagnostic Test Based on Perception, 2nd Ed.. Retrieved from http://www.archive.org/stream/psychodiagnostic011205mbp#page/n7/mode/2up
In order to quantify the security of a relationship, Ainsworth and her colleagues designed this system of 'Strange situation' for evaluating individual differences in children with particular emphasis on responses to several series of separations and further reunions with their mothers. The formation of this procedure has sparkled with plenty of literature subsequently, analyzing the progress of mother child attachments, the influence of attachments to other caregivers, and the correlates and effects of secure and insecure attachments. It has become recognized as the most widely accepted procedures in the research of child development. (Arcus, Doreen: Ainsworth, Mary (1913- ))
There was no prior knowledge to Ainsworth that an individual could introspectively explain the way one behaved and felt instead of concentrating on the way the external forces mould the behavior. The concept of 'Strange situation' considered family as the secure base from which a developing individual can move out to…
"Ainsworth, Mary Dinsmore Salter (1913-1999)" Retrieved from http://encyclopedias.families.com/ainsworth-mary-dinsmore-salter-1913-1999-21-23-chdv Accessed 25 October, 2005
Arcus, Doreen. Ainsworth, Mary (1913- )" Retrieved from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2699/is_0003/ai_2699000364
Accessed 26 October, 2005
'Biography: Mary D. Salter Ainsworth" Retrieved from http://www.dushkin.com/connectext/psy/ch03/ainsworth.mhtml
substances, alcohol and marijuana, which one do you believe can most likely impact the reliability of a statement given by a subject under its influence? Why?
Considering the impact of the two substances, alcohol and marijuana, it seems that the reliability of a statement given by a subject under the influence would be most impacted by consumption of alcohol. Alcohol and marijuana are both know to reduce inhibition and judgment. Naturally, the impact that marijuana or alcohol has on social perception is related to the degree of exposure to or consumption of the drug.
However, a person under the influence of alcohol is less likely to be able to accurately assess how others perceive what they say than a person under the influence of marijuana, and thereby have less concern about exaggeration or misrepresentation when making a statement.
Which personality disorder would most likely provide the least reliable information during…
Pearse, J., Gudjonsson, G.H., Clare, I.C., and Rutter, S. (1998). Police interviewing and psychological vulnerabilities: Predicting the likelihood of a confession. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 8(1), 1-21.
Sigurdsson, J.F. And Gudjonsson, G.H. (2001). False confessions: The relative importance of psychological, criminological, and substance abuse variables. Psychology, Crime, & Law, 7, 275-289.
Woffinden, B. (2002, December 16). Confessions of a forensic psychologist. The Guardian. [Website]. Retreived http://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/dec/17/law.ukcrime
strengths associated with using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. One of the foremost among these is its widespread usage and lack of ambiguity in regards to terms, as well as its authority throughout the industry. As mentioned in John Marszalek's video, this manual provides a common language with which practitioners can communicate to one another, insurance professionals, as well as to clients (No date). As such, this manual and its terms enable a uniformity of perception that can be of immense benefit in a subject such as mental disorders, which may appear nebulous to those experiencing them. This benefit should not be underestimated, since the manual provides a scale by which clients can be judged and understood by one another -- which is excellence in terms of lucidity and conveying particular aspects of patients to those who need to be aware of them.
Another fairly eminent strongpoint…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Marszalek, J. (No date). DSM. Diagnosis and Assessment.
a-to-C equation (Action-to-Characteristics)
The a-to-C equation: The profiling debate
The A-to-C equation (actions-to-characteristics) model is a critical component of investigative psychology, without which effective police investigating would be extremely difficult. The A-to-C equation presumes that certain crimes and certain crime scenes are more likely to be associated with criminals that possess certain types of characteristics vs. others. For example, serial killers tend to be male rather than female; gang-related activities associated with certain street gangs, based upon location and also gang symbolism tend to be the products of specific gangs (which often have members with very specific ethnic characteristics). The model is far from foolproof, but when the police are beginning with very few viable leads, such A-to-C profiling can help. apists and arsonists also often have very specific characteristics, depending on the subtype of these types of crimes and the specifics of the crime scene (Douglas 1986: 402).
Chapter 5: Stop, question, and frisk. (2013). Police Practices and Civil Rights in New York City.
Retrieved from NY Police: http://www.usccr.gov/pubs/nypolice/ch5.htm
Douglas, J (et al. 1986). Criminal profiling for crime scene analysis. Behavioral Science and the Law, 4 (4): 401-421, Retrieved from:
sit-down with an experience psychologist recently and a very enlightening and expansive conversation ensued. The psychologist in question did request that her name and her practice be excluded from being named within this report, but there is a bevy of great information that was gleaned during the interview and will be shared in this report. She said she wanted to be very candid and felt she should not do so if her name (or the name of her practice) are in play. At the request of the professor, topics to be mentioned in this summary include how long the psychologist has been working in the field, what orientation the psychologist was trained for and the time splits that the psychologist allocates her time to, the assessment tools she uses and the associated training engaged in to be able to use those tools, the ethical dilemmas that the psychologist has encountered…
oles in an Investigation
In this kind of investigation whereby the police psychologist is investigating the homicide of a high profile member of the community, the police psychologist plays several roles. One is that he or she will be involved in collecting and analyzing of psychological evidence that pertains to the homicide case. In this role, the police psychologist will be involved in a process that starts at the scene of the crime whereby he will use scientific principles and formulas to help in solving the crime. In this role, fingerprint collection and analysis of other identifiers of the crime scene is essential to solving the case. The psychologist will also be involved in analyzing of impressions of the crime scene to see what they match and also run the crime scene impressions and collected fingerprints with comparisons of others in the police database. Identification and analysis of…
Durand & Barlow. (2007). Essentials of Abnormal Psychology. Mason, Ohio.: Cengage Learning.
Feldman, F. (2013). A PSYCHOLOGIST'S ADVENTURES, PERSONAL AND PROFESSIONAL. The American Journal of Psychology, 126(1), 119-124. doi: 10.5406/amerjpsyc.126.1.0119
Hansen, M. (2000). Suicidal Missions: Psychological autopsies to uncover motivation in suspicious deaths are themselves now suspect. ABA Journal, 86(3), 28-29. doi: 10.2307/27841067
Hartwig, M., Granhag, P.A., Stromwall, L.A., & Kronkvist, O. (2006). Strategic Use of Evidence during Police Interviews: When Training to Detect Deception Works. Law and Human Behavior, 30(5), 603-619. doi: 10.2307/4499497
With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…
Bass, Bernard M. (1960): Leadership, Psychology and Organizational Behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Bass, Bernard M., and Pieter JD Drenth. (1987): Advances in Organizational Psychology: An International Review. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Brehm, S.S., Kassin, S. And Fein, S. (2005): Social Psychology. Boston: Charles Hartford.
Cameron, Kim S., and Robert E. Quinn. (2006): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Duties of a Correctional Psychologist
An increasing rate of violation of crimes characterizes the current global environment. Different forms of violence and aggression, including drug trafficking and abuse, robbery, and rape cases among other forms of violence necessitates the need for analyzing the roles of a correctional psychologist. he special roles played by the correctional psychologists such as providing environments that improve the safety of the staff and inmates, psychological services, inmate management, and conducting an evaluation of the inmate/prison population and its influence on inmates' health necessitated the study into the topic. In addition, the fact that the correctional psychology has numerous ethical dilemmas and conflicts makes it wanting to study the topic.
he working environment, professional and personal experiences made me interested in studying the duties and challenges facing correctional psychologist. he fact that correctional psychologists work in a simulative and challenging environment attracts my interests…
The study provides a variety of opportunities for future research. For example, it provides an avenue for conducting research on the organizational factors that influence decision-making of the correctional psychologists. Organizational factors such as structure have been predicted to affect the practicing of correctional psychologists. Therefore, this study will provide the basis for studies into the issue. In addition, the study provides opportunities for future research on the contributing factors to the transformation of the correctional psychologists and their roles. Other ways in which this study will provide opportunities for future research include studies that aim at criticizing legitimacy of studies conducted on the topic.
Corriea, K.M. (2009). A Handbook for Correctional Psychologists: Guidance for the Prison Practitioner. Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher, LTD
Goals of Psychology
Psychologists in various areas of specialty put emphasis on different behavioral aspects though often with similar goals, that of getting acquainted to the human behavior. The paper will look at these four goals of psychology as well as an example of a study created that would help elaborate on each of these four goals of psychology. These four goals of psychology are to describe behavior, to explain behavior, to predict behavior and to control behavior.
This involves the naming and classification of a behavior that is displayed by an individual or a group of people. A description is normally based on careful, systematic procedure carried out which is a contrast to the haphazard description that may be put forth without backing of well researched data. Description is important as it clarifies the phenomenon under study and it is only after a description of the phenomena…
Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2013). What is psychology ? essentials. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Analysis of the crime scene
After Jeffrey Dahmer was sentenced, he was taken to the Correctional Institution of Columbia, located in Portage; a town in Wisconsin. During his first incarceration year, Dahmer was confined separately in order to keep him physically safe in case he interacted with other prisoners. With his consent, when the first solitary confinement year was over, Dahmer was taken to a unit that was less secure. Here, he was made to work for two hours each day; he used to clean the ablution block.
Apparently, Dahmer adapted well to life in prison, although he had at first been separated from the other inmates. He ultimately managed to convince the authorities to let him interact more with his fellow prisoners. Dahmer learnt religion from photos and books he received from his father. The Correctional Institution of Columbia even allowed him to go through baptism; it was…
The field of clinical psychology emerged as a viable method through which the theoretical foundations of cognitive studies could be effectively applied within the clinical setting to prevent and treat psychological syndromes. Derived from the first clinical psychology work conducted by Lightner Witmer in the late 19th century, and expanding throughout the 20th century as diagnostic tools were refined and classification systems for mental disorders were standardized, modern clinical psychology has been adapted to fulfill a niche within a whole host of divergent fields, including criminal justice, the social sciences and gender relations. Clinical psychologists premise their work on the use of empirical analysis to accurately investigate matters of cognitive processing, psychological assessment and mental illness, with the administration of personality tests, neurological scans and clinical interviews the most frequently utilized diagnostic resources. As clinical psychology expanded the base of knowledge pertaining to the human brain's highly refined…
Blackburn, R. (1993). The psychology of criminal conduct: Theory, research and practice. John Wiley & Sons.
Donohue, J., & Levitt, S. (2001). The impact of race on policing and arrests. Journal of Law and Economics, 44, 367-394. Retrieved from http://pricetheory.uchicago.edu/levitt/Papers/LevittDonohueTheImpactOfRace2001.pdf
Fite, P.J., Wynn, P., & Pardini, D.A. (2009). Explaining discrepancies in arrest rates between
Black and White male juveniles. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 77(5), 916. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2981137/ >.
100). Much of the focus of personnel selection using psychological testing was on new troops enlisting in the military during two world wars and the explosive growth of the private sector thereafter (Scroggins et al., 2008). Psychological testing for personnel selection purposes, though, faded into disfavor during the 1960s, but it continues to be used by human resource practitioners today. In this regard, Scroggins and his colleagues advise, "Many H practitioners, however, have continued to use personality testing with an optimistic and enduring faith in its ability to discriminate between good and poor job candidates" (p. 101).
In cases where cheating is suspected (such as in the case of an teen applicant possibly using a smartphone or consulting crib notes during testing by visiting the restroom), psychologists have a professional responsibility to conform to relevant privacy laws with respect to the results of such tests, including following the decision-making model…
Barnes, F.P. & Murdin, L. (2001). Values and ethics in the practice of psychotherapy and counseling. Philadelphia: Open University Press.
Bersoff, D.N. (2008). Ethical conflicts in psychology. American Psychological Association.
Bonventre, V.M. (2005, Spring). Editor's foreword. Albany Law Review, 68(2), vii-ix.
Charman, D. (2004). Core processes in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy: Advancing effective practice. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ethics in the Practice of Psychology
Identify the problem.
The therapist must decide how to respond to several potential ethics issues that the client has brought to the client-therapist relationship. The therapist is considering options for responding that will preserve the integrity of the client-therapist relationship and that will avoid communicating any disregard for the ethnic traditions that are most likely influencing the client's actions.
Identify the potential issues involved.
While it is probable that the psychologist has reviewed the ethical guidelines that govern her work, the client has stepped outside of those bounds in several ways. Most notably, the client has not complied with the processes and constraints associated with fee payment, and the client has introduced complexity into the client-therapist relationship by making arrangements for the provision of therapy services to another family member without first discussing the matter with the therapist. In addition, the client…
Corey, G., Corey, M., & Callanan, P. (2011). Issues and ethics in the helping profession (7th ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks / Cole.
Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. (1992, December 1).
American Psychological Association. Author. Retrieved http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/code-1992.aspx [Type text]
criminal justice. Each question must be 300 words long.
Identify the requirements for the insanity plea in your jurisdiction and contrast this with the M'Naghten standard, the Brawner standard, ALI standard, and the Durham rule. Identify similarities and differences. Support you response with examples from your research and reading assignment.
In the 1843 case of the United Kingdom House of Lords Decisions of Daniel M'Naghten's, the court determined that an insanity plea to would hinge on whether the defendant knew what he was doing, or, if he did know what he was doing, did he know that it was wrong. In 1972,the U.S. v. Brawner case in the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals determined not to involve the jury in the determination of the defendant's mental state. This decision was grounded in the ALI test of a Model Penal Code. The Brawner rule overturned the Durham Rule, which was overly…
This means that the decision I make in this scenario must be guided by sincere questions concerning the validity of my practice and the importance of alternate ambitions such as my desire to make a foray into the screenwriting profession. It is thus that I have decided the costs are simply too high to maintain the current relationship which I have with my patient.
Therefore, the only appropriate measure is for me to immediately cease my counseling relationship with the patient. In order to ensure that the patient does not lose his access to the treatment which he requires, he will be referred to one of my respected colleagues. It is believed that the necessary cost of breaking from this established doctor/patient relationship will be outweighed by the benefits of removing myself from a situation in which objectivity has been lost.
Upon separating form the patient thusly, I would make…
Fisher, C.B. (2008). Decoding the Ethics Code. Sage Publications.
Holcomb, W.R. (2006). Thinking Correctly About Ethics: A Review of Ethical Practice in Forensic Psychology. Psychology Critiques, 51(48), 1554-1556.
Jordan, A.E. & Meara, N.M. (1990). Ethics and the Professional Practice of Psychologists: The Role of Virtues and Principles. Professional Psychology Resource Press, 21(2), 107-114.
Koocher, G.P. & Keith-Spiegel, P. (1998). Ethics in Psychology. Oxford University Press.
Step 3: Discuss the Precipitating Event
After relationship is recognized, the emphasis goes to the family insights of the condition, the sequence of proceedings leading up to the predicament, and the issue that started out the sequence of events (Graham-Bermann, S.A., 2002). Consultations inspect when and how the disaster happened, the causal conditions, and how the family endeavored to covenant with it.
Step 4: Assess Strengths and Needs
The Family valuation of strengths and needs start right after and the goes on throughout crisis intervention. The crisis worker will start to draws conclusions that will regard the family's needs and strengths that are related to the present disaster and, with the family, assesses the prospective for recovery (Edleson, J.L.,1999). Client strong suit are tapped in order to make self-esteem better, while also providing skills and energy that is for problem-solving.
Step 5: Formulate a Dynamic Explanation
This next step really…
Appel, a.E., & Holden, G.W. (1998). The co-occurrence of spouse and physical child abuse: A review and appraisal. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 578-599.
Babcock, J.C., Green, C.E., & Robie, C. (2004). Does batterer's treatment work? A meta-analytic review of domestic violence treatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1023-1053.
Beeman, S.K., Hagemeister, a.K., & Edleson, J.L. (1999). Child protection and battered women's services: From conflict to collaboration. Child Maltreatment, 4, 116-126.
Bragg, H.L. (2003). Child protection in families experiencing domestic violence. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved October 3, 2005, from http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/profess/tools/usermanual.cfm
epressed and recovered memory has been the topic of much debate for the past ten years. Many feel that these psychological issues have been used to create chaos in the legal system and to destroy families. Professional organizations all over the world have commented on the controversy surrounding repressed and recovered memory.
The purpose of this discussion is to examine the issues and controversies that the psychiatric community is currently facing. We will also explore the research involving repressed and recovered memory. Let's begin by defining repressed memory and recovered memory.
Definition of epressed Memory and ecovered Memory
According to the Psychology Dictionary repression is a, "Psychoanalytic Theory, the defense mechanism whereby our thoughts are pulled out of our conscious and into our unconscious." (Psychology Dictionary) Many psychologists have concluded that the act of repressing memory is usually caused by a traumatic event. (Carroll 2002) These psychologists also contend that…
Memories: true or false. (2002, Fall). Issues in Science and Technology, 19, 7+..
Psychology Dictionary (2003). Retrieved May 19, 2003, at http://allpsych.com/dictionary/r.html www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=5000917406
Alessi, H.D., & Ballard, M.B. (2001). Memory development in children: implications for children as witnesses in situations of possible abuse. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79(4), 398+.
Carroll, (2002). Repressed Memory. Retrieved May 20, 2003, at http://skepdic.com/repressedmemory.html
Table 2 -- Correlation of Character Traits with Handwriting (Hull and Montgomery)
Shape of riting
Upward Sloping Line
Upward Sloping Line
Firmness of Line
Lateral narrowness of m's and n's
Heavy bars on t's
Length of bars on t's
Length of bars on t's compensating
Closed as and o's
Now, we jump to 1954, with a study by Lorr, Lepine, and Goldner entitled, "A Factor Analysis of Some Handwriting Characteristics." Initially, the authors are open minded about the subject, citing that one of the difficulties has been the lack of proper measurement regarding graphological characteristics. In addition, since different types of pedagogy exist when teaching writing, it is difficult to compare students without solid factors.
In this study, a group of 200 right-handed graduate psychology students with a…
Bayne, R. And F. O'Neill. (1988). "Handwriting and Personality: A Test of Some Expert
Graphologists' Judgments." Guidance and Assessment Review. 4 (1): 1-3.
Beyerstein, B. (2008). "How Graphology Fools People." Qackwatch. Cited in:
The ancient philosopher Plato claimed that all immoral behavior was the result of some disorder in the soul (Gert and Culver, 2009, p. 489). Although very few people now hold this view, deviant sexual behavior is often considered symptomatic of a mental disorder. However, not all deviant behaviors fit the clinical definition. For example, if a heterosexual man becomes aroused by dressing in women's clothing, it is considered by most people to be abnormal behavior. However, his behavior may be ego-syntonic, meaning that the man is not troubled by either the impulses or by acting them out. Such an individual would not seek treatment. He is not a danger to himself or to anyone else and unless there were objections on the part of his wife or significant other, there is no compelling reason, in the man's mind, to manage his impulses or behavior. As Bhugra and McMullen (2010,…
Bhugra, D., Popelyuk, D., and McMullen, I. (2010). Paraphilas across cultures: Contexts and controversies. Journal of Sex Research 47(2-3), pp. 242-256.
Gert, B., and Culver, C.M. (2009). Sex, immorality, and mental disorders. Journal of Medicine & Philosophy 34(5), pp. 487-495.
Gordon, H. (2008). The treatment of paraphilias: An historical perspective. Criminal Behaviour & Mental Health 18(2), pp. 79-87.
Hall, Ryan C.W., and Hall, Richard C.W. (2007). A profile of pedophilia: Definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes and forensic issues.
isk of Committing Violence Among Individuals Suffering From Bipolar Disorder
Several studies argue that most psychiatric symptoms are closely correlated with criminality, since such symptoms impair judgment and violate societal norms. In this regard, several studies have been conducted regarding the risk of violence among individuals suffering from mental illnesses but few have highlighted the possibility of bipolar individuals engaging in criminal behavior. The common disorders known to be highly related to criminality include antisocial personality disorder, kleptomania, voyeurism and schizophrenia. Therefore, this study is meant to examine the possibility of bipolar individuals engaging in criminal behavior.
This paper aims at analyzing the likelihood of committing violence among individuals suffering from bipolar disorder as well as the factors that are likely to influence the degree to which these individuals are likely to commit violent acts.
Past studies have hinted that individuals suffering from bipolar disorder have…
Belfrage, H. (1998). A ten-year follow-up of criminality in Stockholm mental patients. British Journal of Criminology, 38, 145-155.
Fazel, S., Lichtenstein, P., Grann, M., Goodwin, G.M., & Langstrom, N. (2010). Bipolar Disorder and Violent CrimeNew Evidence From Population-Based Longitudinal Studies and Systematic Review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(9), 931-938.
Feldmann, T.B. (2001). Bipolar Disorder and Violence. Psychiatric Quarterly, 72(2), 119-129.
Link, B.G., Monahan, J., Ann, S., & Cullen, F.T. (1999). Real in Their Consequences: A Sociological Approach to Understanding the Association between Psychotic Symptoms and Violence. American Sociological Review, 64(2), 316-332.