Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
In conclusion, practically everything connected to French culture and society, whether of ancient or modern origins, is protected, promoted and endorsed by the Minister of Culture, part of the French government and operated by a single cabinet member. Some of the areas included in this entity are museums, national monuments, the visual arts (movies and TV), the theatre, music, dance, architecture, literature and the French National Archives, similar to America's Library of Congress. Overall, the Minister of Culture is responsible for maintaining French identity and is currently located at the Palais oyale in the city of Paris, the heart of all French culture.
Aresty, Esther B. (2005). The Exquisite Table: A History of French Cuisine. New York:
de la Croix, Horst, ed. (2005). Art Through the Ages. 12th ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, Inc.
"French Language History." (2009). Internet. Accessed November 26, 2009 from http://www.frenchlanguageguide.com/french/facts/history.
Aresty, Esther B. (2005). The Exquisite Table: A History of French Cuisine. New York:
de la Croix, Horst, ed. (2005). Art Through the Ages. 12th ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Jovanovich, Inc.
"French Language History." (2009). Internet. Accessed November 26, 2009 from http://www.frenchlanguageguide.com/french/facts/history .
France in the Twentieth Century
The Second World War that took place between the years 1939 to 1945 involved the so called Axis Powers on one side, which were, namely, Germany, Italy, Hungary, Japan, and omania and Bulgaria, and the Allied Powers, which were France, U.S., Britain, the U.S.S.., Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, China, Denmark, Greece, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, South Africa, and Yugoslavia. (World War Two, 1939 to 1945) when the so-called 'phony war' of the year 1939 ended, and the German army started its sweep through Belgium, most of the French, as well as the British armies were at that time isolated at Dunkirk, from where they had to be rescued. This was the famous 'Dunkirk Evacuation', and soon after, millions and millions of refugees started to flee from the Nord/Pas-de-Calais towards the South, because they feared a repetition of the horrors that had been unleashed on…
Encyclopedia: French Fifth republic. Retrieved From
Accessed 12 August, 2005
Dreyfus Affair. Retrieved From
S., is used on events that require drastic recovery processes like floods (natural) or terrorist attacks (man-made). But the MOI would not be in control of the military in such cases (Lindstrom, 2004).
"Today, France has 'a pool of specialized judges and investigators adept at dismantling and prosecuting terrorist networks.'" (Perelman, 2006)
"France has a system, Vigipirate, used at moments of danger to the country. Instituted in 1978, Vigipirate has two levels, which can be activated by the president without legislative consent. The first level, 'simple,' is activated when a threat appears imminent. The government may call up reserve police and rescue personnel, and will deploy police to sensitive sites such as embassies, the subway, train stations and airports, and fuel infrastructure, including nuclear plants (approximately 50% of France's electricity is derived from nuclear power). The government activated this first level at the outset of the first Gulf War in…
Arie S, 2005. "Mafia Lessons Help Italy Fight Terror," Christian Science Monitor.
Barber T. And Michaels A, 2005. "Rome Scrutinizes Counterterror Strategy as Fear of Attack Mounts," Financial Times.
Boyer Y, 2006. "Intelligence Cooperation and Homeland Security," in Gustav Lindstron, Transforming Homeland Security: U.S. And European Approaches, Washington, p.161.
Canicule, P. 2004. Ministry of Health, Paris, p. 4-6.
France -- stability
France: Fashion in the Global Market
henever one considers the place of fashion as an industry within a specific nation, it is essential to consider several factors. Despite today's globalizing fashion industry (which is following all sectors of industry), individual "country factors," including the relative stability of the country as a whole, the nature of its political organization, administrative structure, as well as its legislative, and judiciary s systems all play a role in the health of the fashion industry within that nation. In the case of France, the country holds a unique place in the collective "imagination" of fashion. Indeed, many consider France to be the epicenter of the industry as a whole. Because of its unique and pivotal position respecting fashion, it is essential to understand the "country factors" of this nation, and how they contribute to the stability of the country.
Clem, Andrew. France: Essential Characteristics of the Political and Economic Systems. Homepage. 2001. Retrieved from Web site on 18 Feb. 2004 http://filebox.vt.edu/users/anclem/France&Italy/France.html
Microsoft Encarta. France: An Overview. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761568934_6/Europe_:_government_and_political_systems_%E2%80%93_by_country:_France.html#p167
Wikipedia org. The President of France. Website. Retrieved on 14 Feb. 2004 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/President_of_France
(West) Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium
uestion 3… Answer 1: Strong state
A conservative country
the important role of art and culture
a split country
universalism -- France's historical mission.
Lyon -- A, Rhone-Alps; Marseilles -- C. Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur; Paris -- Ile de France; Strasbourg -- Alsace; Ajaccio -- Corse; Bordeaux -- Aquitaine; Reims - Champagne
D -The euro
1A, 2C, 3B, 4D, 5F, 6E, 7G
Hundred Years' War
Prussian defeat of France
Occupation by German Forces in WWII
King Henry IV
Charles de Gaulle
x bigger than that of France
uestion 17. D. Paris
uestion 18. B. 60 million
uestion 19. D. nuclear
uestion 20. Vrai
uestion 21. C. Paris, Lyon, Marseille
uestion 22 C.I.M. Pei
uestion 23. C. Carpathians
uestion 24. A. Vrai
uestion 25. B. Between 6th and 10th…but this depends. By PPP, France is 6-10;…
Question 2. There is the stereotype of the French as elitist, which is probably not true. We think of art, wine, palaces and things like that, and determine that this country has a certain attitude. What we learned in the class should have completely dispelled such a stereotype. The first thing is that France is a rich, diverse and complex country. It has made important contributions to Western culture that today we might take for granted, especially in the area of individual liberty. France is home to a number of ethnic groups, ranging from those who have been there a long time to those who are relatively new. There is no one French person on whom a stereotype could even be based. We think about Paris, maybe, but there are many types of French people and down in Marseilles will be nothing like any stereotype we might have.
Question 3. There are many things that can be studied in France. The country is a good place to study art. Paris would be ideal for this, with its museums, art culture, churches and palaces. To learn about French oenoculture or viticulture, Bourgogne is a good place to do this, given how rich the region is with vineyards and wineries. You also need access to places to taste a lot of wines, and a good school for learning about wines. To learn about French culture in general, I would recommend going outside of Paris. This is because so much of French culture is fostered in other cities -- Lyon, Marseille and Lille especially. While some time in Paris would be required, these other cities, especially Lyon make tremendous contributions to French culture and they do so in a way that maybe cannot be found in the more worldly Paris.
Question 4. There are many things that a person could do with his/her free time in Paris. Planning a trip right now would probably point to a ski vacation in the winter. France hosted the winter Olympics in Albertville in 1992, and is a major skiing destination in the Alps in the winter. Another thing one can do in France is eat. This is a varied activity -- Paris for fine dining and ethnic cuisine (great Lao food, for example, or North African), Marseille for bouillabaisse, the ethnic cuisines of Bretagne, Pays Basque or Alsace -- one does not get bored eating in France. A third thing that can be done with free time in France is to cycle. Obviously, France loves cycling. Much of the country is flat or rolling hills. Only professionals and crazy people cycle in the Alps or Pyrenees but the rest of the country would be wonderful for the rest of us.
France has embarked on an economic and social experiment that is changing the face of employment in that country. The country has instituted a law requiring 35-hour work weeks, believing that it will stimulate the economy by decreasing unemployment and creating new jobs. It was also expected that such a law would encourage innovation in labor negotiation contracts (Trumbull, 2001). Now that the law has been in force for four years, it makes sense to consider what effects the law has had on French employment.
Since the law was passed in 1998, some companies have devised creative ways to implement the law. The result has been employment law and practice that has both pros and cons.
The move toward this law began when the French Prime Minister made the promise of a 35-hour work week an important part of his election campaign in 1997. When he first made the promise,…
Bishop, Patrick. 2001. "35-hour week proves a winner in France." The Age. Jan. 2. Accessed via the Internet 1/23/03. http://www.theage.com.au/business/2001/01/02/FFXQJJK0FHC.html
Staff writers.2002. " France's smallest firms still not ready for 35-hour week." Business: Europe. July 31. Accessed via the Internet 1/23/03. http://uk.biz.yahoo.com/010731/11/c13y.html
Staff writers. 1998. "Mixed feelings in France on 35-hour week." BBC News. January 27. Accessed via the Internet 1/23/03. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/51143.stm
Trumball, Gunnar. 2001. "France's 35-Hour Work Week: Flexibility Through Regulation." Center on the United States and France. January. Accessed via the Internet 1/23/03. http://www.brook.edu/dybdocroot/fp/cusf/analysis/workweek.htm
France, especially Paris, has a geographical feature that are of important for the people who reside in the region and even the visitors from outside for they offer a wonderful environment that is admirable as well as a platform of studies. Several departments exist in the regions that mark them but not to a limit number for a region.
Indeed, this is a reasonable goal for our class because studying different perspective of France assists Americans learn to appreciate another culture and also apart from better international relation, link liberal education directly for better understanding of our selves. For example we come to appreciate the type of food, clothing, traditions and spiritual life as we compare them with ours. These cultures tend to have similarities and differences but they all originate from a common perspective.
Our ideas regarding French civilization may have widely originated from the…
Beau Serge -- Chabrol, Quatre Cents Coup -- Truffaut; Hiroshima Mon Amour -- Resnais; Bout de Souffle -- Godard; Jules et Jim -- Truffaut; Cleo de 5 a 7 -- Varda; Le Mepris -- Godard
Shoah -- A;l Jean de Florette -- E; Au Revoir, les Enfants -- B; Nikita -- F; la Haine -- D; L'Humanite -- C
Longest Day -- A; Bourne Identity - C; To Catch A Thief -- French Riviera; Da Vinci Code -- Louvre; Marie Antoinette -- Versailles
American Film Festival -- Deauville; Short Film Festival -- Clermont Ferrand; Festival of Detective Movies -- Cognac
a, b…(c -- the number is 35, not 50).
ready to wear
Le Redoute -- mail order; Les Galeries Lafayette - traditional department store; Tati -- low budget chain store
Question 1. The…
France also has a higher education rate than Spain, meaning that its workforce is better equipped to handle complex manufacturing tasks or high-end service roles. This is also evidenced by the percentage of population below the poverty line -- France has much greater human resources than does Spain.
Both nations are net users and importers of energy. Neither has strong reserves of fossil fuels and ultimately must import the majority of their energy. This contributes to both nations having a current account deficit. Both firms are net exporters of electricity, however.
hereas Spain has been compelled to invest in its now-unemployed construction workers, France continues to invest in building its industrial capacity. The French government, for example, has a $52 strategy for investments in science and technology, in order to ensure France's continued strong position in knowledge industries.
CIA orld Factbook: France. (2010). Retrieved April 11, 2010 from…
CIA World Factbook: France. (2010). Retrieved April 11, 2010 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/fr.html
No author. (2007). Sarkozy outlines plans for economic overhaul. The Economist. Retrieved April 11, 2010 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=14509757
No author. (2009). Government and business in France. The Economist. Retrieved April 11, 2010 from http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?story_id=15176474
Howarth, D. (2008). Sarkozy's French revolution. The Journal. Retrieved April 11, 2010 from http://www.journal-online.co.uk/article/2830-sarkozys-french-revolution
France and Globalization
Video clips are here: Indigenes; French regions and globalization;
Which of the chiefs of Gauls put up a serious resistance to Julius Caesar's invading legionnaires?
Which King brought Leonardo da Vinci to France ?
What was the nickname of Louis XIV ?
The Sun King
In what year did the French Revolution begin?
Which of these Kings was guillotined after the French Revolution?
What was the family name of the Emperor Napoleon 1?
Who commissioned the construction of the Arc de Triumph?
Where did Charles de Gaulle seek refuge as he organized the French Resistance in World War II?
Which French president decided on the construction of the Louvre Pyramid?
Which mountainous region is in the center of France?
The Massif Central
Which region is famous…
Undoubtedly, France, much like Greece will need a bailout if it escalates to that point.
The ECB has also elected to provide unlimited 3-year loans to risky nations. This in essense, takes liquidity risk off the table in regards to investor concerns. With unlimited loands for the ECB and financial backing from the IMF, France will have a great possibility of avoiding calapse as long as it institutes austerity measures.
The U.S. is currently in a gridlock in Congress in an effort to raise the debt ceiling and to reduce government spending. There is the possible default on the debt and subsequent possible downgrade of the United States credit rating. This is very similar to the situation that was facing France. They also have to reduce their spending to address the growing deficit or increasing the debt ceiling will be a conversation that will have to be repeated.
1) Arends, B. (2011, May 23). QE2 was a bust. Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Market Watch: http://www.marketwatch.com/story/qe2-was-a-bust-2011-05-21
2) Capital Requirements. (n.d.). Retrieved July 31, 2011, from Partnership for Progress: http://www.fedpartnership.gov/bank-life-cycle/topic-index/capital-requirements.cfm
3) Dowd, K., Hutchinson, M., & Hinchliffe, J. (2011, July 29). Capital Inadequacies: The Dismal Failure of the Basel Regime of Bank Capital Regulation. Retrieved July 2011, 31, from http://www.cato.org/pub_display.php?pub_id=13490
4) Reinhart, C.M., & Rogoff, K. (2010, August 11). Debt and growth revisited. Retrieved 2011 July 31, 2010, from http://www.businessinsider.com/kenneth-rogoff-carmen-reinhart-sovereign-debt-2010-8
taly remained closely aligned with Germany despite resentment over the infamous non-aggression pact with Russia and the Assistance that Germany provided Russia in Finland. n face-to-face discussions between Mussolini and Hitler, the former informed the latter that taly could not commit to a prolonged war but would assist Germany once Germany's western offensive proved successful; and taly could only commit to that with three of four months of lead time.
Hitler made sure to court Mussolini further by providing updates throughout his progress in the Nazi conquest of Denmark and Norway and Mussolini decided that taly would enter the war once Germany had achieved its western objectives and after having destroyed the principal defenses of France.
Mussolini executed his plan by formally entering the war on June 10th, only four days before the formal surrender of Paris to the Nazis.
Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1995). A World at Arms:…
Ibid. p. 132
Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1995). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. p. 132
Evolution of France
It was on March 31, 1889, when France ushered in the Eiffel Tower. The aim for the Eiffel Tower and what ir represented was a prelude to the Universal Exposition and as a tribute marking the century since the French Revolution. It was only about a year later when, Clement der, increased a couple of feet on the Eiffel Tower from the groundwork based on a device that was called an avion (or more simply an airplane). It was the 19th of July back in the year 1900, when Paris initiated the function of the very first metro line and ended up thus hosting the Second Olympics for the contemporary age. This was the period of Belle Epoque when the overall structure and economy of France was doing really well for itself internationally and internally. In that exact same year, the Lumiere siblings had actually been the…
At the time that the French soldiers landed at Sidi Ferruch, in the year 1830, the region of Algeria was a nest as well and the majority of populace (native Moslems, generally Arabs and Berbers) were ruled under the supremacy of European inhabitants Spanish, Italian, Corsican, and particularly French (a bunch of Alsatians). A little percentage of the colonized populace had French citizenship or any substantial residential property rights. The populace was primarily illiterate, dealt with joblessness, bad healthcare structures, and famine. The French farmers inhabited and controlled the very fertile pieces of property, and basically experienced a monopoly within the political hierarchies as well and enforced their own instructional, financial and management designs upon the domestic populace. Algeria became an important part of France, and this developed a big issue as the native populace became an increasing number of militants who were demanding self-reliance.
Unlike providing freedom to Morocco and Tunisia, regions that were not an indispensable part of France, providing Algeria its self-reliance resembled discarding of the nation. This implied that the conflict was really dif into the French government. It was a nasty conflict that was regularly in the headings of the French and European media nearly as often as the incidents of the Vietnam War had been in 1960s-70s, or in comparison the attention that media pays to the conflicts of Afghanistan and Iraq in the current era.
The evolution of France was thus a troubled and bloody road but the French government and people came through it triumphantly in hindsight and have regained and perhaps surpassed the glory that preceded the wars and damaged their overall global stature.
Similarly in Part 5, Chapter 4, Zola shows that the main reason behind French evolution was shortage of food. In one scene, coalminers shout "Bread! Bread! We want bread!" (265)- a cry that symbolized hunger of working classes and stressed the need for better wages and more humane treatment.
The character that I liked the most was that of Catherine, daughter of an experienced miner Maheu, because of her remarkable survivor streak and for her vulnerabilities. Catherine was woman of incredible strength as she opted for harsh conditions of the mines since she found them better than starvation and working in brothels. She felt it was more respectful to push the heavy coal wagon with her body "bent forward and the arms kept stiff, so that [she] could push with all the muscles of the shoulders and haunches" (53) than starving in sub-human conditions. The author has added strength…
Carles, Emilie: A Life of Her Own: The Transformation of a Countrywoman in Twentieth-Century France, Penguin Books; Reprint edition (June 1, 1992)
Emile Zola, Germinal, 1885 Penguin Classics: 1954
French Health System
The French health care system is based off of a model of universal coverage and fee for service. This is when everyone is provided with support and must a pay a portion of the expense. Under this program the government is covering 70% of the costs. While the rest, is provided through private insurance or the individual making up these expenses. The results are that this is accounting for 11.7% of GDP growth. However, like all systems a number of criticisms are highlighting the overall problems. To fully understand what is taking place requires carefully examining the disparities and financing. Together, these elements will highlight its strengths and weaknesses. (Taylor, 2012)
Country's Health Disparities Issues
The French healthcare system is focused on preventive medicine. This means that different therapies are provided which are designed to reduce the chances of a condition becoming worse. As the costs, will…
The Awesome French Healthcare System. (2013). Reach Financial Independence. Retrieved from:
Herzlinger, R. (2004). Consumer Driven Healthcare. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Taylor, A. (2012). The U.S. Could Learn a lot from the French Health Care System. Business Insider. Retrieved from:
Rural Society in Early Modern France
The main purpose of this report is to demonstrate my ability to first understand and then analyze historical works. The historical works for this assignment each focused on the rural society of early modern French times. The report's second purpose is to compare how the two authors present French rural society in "The Return of Martin Guerre" by Natalie Zemon Davis and "After the Black Death: A Social History of Early Modern Europe" by George Huppert.
The report uses comparison to see how the two authors emphasize similar features and traits of the rural world and where each authors show important differences in their works. Each author was attempting to present their version and characteristics of early modern French rural society. Each placed different emphasis on the essential traits of family life and marriage for the peasantry and how peasants were affected by…
Davis, Natalie Zemon. "The Return of Martin Guerre" Add Journal or book publisher name (Add Year).
Huppert, George. "After the Black Death: A Social History of Early Modern Europe." Add Journal or book publisher name (add year).
I do feel that this course has utilized a transdisciplinary approach to studying France. We have studied some of the key elements of French history but also its modern popular culture as well. This paints a better picture of modern-day France, which is a combination of all of these different things. This course has given me a better sense of what it means to be French, and I think that is much more powerful and valuable than simply recounting some history. There is something in the French psyche or soul that is usually quite hard to capture, so it pays to study many different facets of Frenchness in order to get a more comprehensive view of France and the French people.
There are definitely things that I have learned about France and the French people that I did not know before. In studying another culture, I have also…
Throughout the course of history, fashion has been used as a form of expression and to define social customs / traditions. In some cases, this is occurring with it serving as a symbol of the larger ideas that are most important to specific ethnic groups, religions, nationalities and gender. The result is that numerous concepts will be interpreted differently, depending upon the perspectives that are taken. To fully understand what is occurring requires focusing on contemporary styles in France in conjunction with the most popular trends. This will be accomplished by looking at the period, designers, unique styles and its contributions to culture. Together, these elements will illustrate the long terms effects of these individuals on this society. (North, 1998) (Lazzari, 2011)
Fashion in France
In France, everyone is free to determine their own fate. During this process, is when they will give up a certain amount of freedom.…
Lazzari, M. (2011). Exploring Art. New York, NY: Cengage.
North, S. (1998). Fashion in Detail. New York, NY: Random House.
England France and Spain
England, France and Spain
If we look at the historical occurrence of the three countries, England, Spain and France; we notice that these three countries tried their best to build themselves and become recognized all over the world. What British used was the power of education, Spain used the power of war and fight where as France used its power to build itself to become stronger than others. This paper gives an insight of their cultural historical background and the ways in which business practices are performed in each countries. The culture of England, Spain and France is almost similar being in the same part of the United Kingdom however; they have acute differences in their business practices, which are enlightened by comparison with business practices of America (Tsang, 2002).
England has a long gone cultural history, which still has glimpses of the past practices in…
Knight, C. (1870). The crown history of England. Chicago: Bradbury, Evans, & Co.
Moran, R.T., Harris, P.R., & Moran, S.V. (2010). Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success. London: Routledge.
Perry, M., Chase, M., Jacob, J., Jacob, M., & Laue, T.H. (2012). Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Tsang, D. (2002). Business Strategy and National Culture: Us and Asia Pacific Microcomputer Multinationals in Europe. Cheltenham [u.a.]: Elgar.
("Air France KLM corporate social responsibility statement," n. d.)
After their agreement in the Global compact of the UN and depending upon their 'vision of long standing business management', 'AI France KLM' encourages setting 'corporate social responsibility' norms 'in the airline industry'. They perform this by exercising 'a set of' properly indicated assurances to make certain that viable development continue with 'quality of environment' as well as 'social' development. 'AI France KLM' is associated actively in fixing international norms for a liable aviation industry. They are devoted towards advancing environmental safeguard which surpass across the controlled 'compliance'. The 'Air France KLM Group' has an enduring devotion both towards safeguarding 'environment' as well as encouraging 'social values'. The group is conscious of the way its functioning influences 'environment', specifically wherein 'noise' as also 'emissions' are prominent and strive to reduce their influence to the lowest possible levels. ("Air France KLM corporate…
Doganis, Rigas. (2006) "The airline business"
Idowu, Samuel O; Filho, Walter Leal. (2008) "Global Practices of Corporate Social
Throughout his play, collective devastation is met with personal suffering. It is only when this becomes a shared suffering that it can become a collective way to redemption. The divides of a war now over would give way to this shared experience for all peoples of France, charged with the responsibility of rebuilding.
Indeed, this speaks much to the futility of war itself, as spoke by Camus when he resolves that "all a man could win in the conflict between plague and life was knowledge and memories" (Camus, 262). The viewpoint expressed here is in informed by the severity of orld ar II and the unprecedented global experience of attempting to be removed from this trauma. In the resolution instigative of this discussion, we can see that Camus holds on to some sense that man is inherently more a good creature than a bad one, and that he is to…
Camus, Albert. The Plague. 1947. NY: McGraw Hill, 1965.
Reforms in France and Germany
Divided Government and Constitutional Reform
hen it comes to government, there are many forces within the framework, which influence political change for a nation and its people. hen it comes to the governments of Germany and France each are structured and managed differently, however, the same force of divided government has resulted in profound constitutional reforms for both countries. This paper will discuss the forces that expand the potential opportunities for change to result and influence the legislative process. This issue of divided government is present in both governments and its effect on legislation has both short-term and long-term ramifications. How each country is willing to accept divided government as a part of the political machine is where each country forms its own identity and path for the future decision-making environments. It is the country's ability to embrace divided government or its ability to reject…
Buckman, Kirk. "Divided Government and Constitutional Reform in France and Germany."
French Politics 2 (2004): 25-60.
France only had Britain as its enemy between 1803 and 1805. Napoleon Bonaparte, the famous French leader and politician, after conquering Italy and Egypt had its eyes on England territory for occupation. His Grand Armee sat idly around Boulogne in the hundreds of anchored ships in the channel ports. Napoleon's naval strategies to crush the British oyal Army using his French and Spanish fleets failed at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 (Dugdale-Pointon January 07, 2006). [1: Dugdale-Pointon, T. historyofwar, "Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)." http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_napoleon.html]
The Naval Strategies of Britain and France (1803-1805)
Both France and Britain derived towards war due to a mutual misunderstanding. Both the countries were not fully prepared to conduct a renewed war against each other. There were no geo-strategic reasons that compelled the two opponents to declare a war against each other. Britain wanted to rebel against France simply because they could no more…
References" An Admirable Hero; His Radical Tactics Paved the Way for Nelson's Victory at Trafalgar. Now the Navy Is Paying Tribute to the Scot Who Saved Britain."The Daily Mail (London, England), October 11, 2010, 15. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5045378449.Clayton , T., and P. Craig. Naval Historical Society of Australia, "Trafalgar - the Men, the Battle, the Storm." Last modified 2005. Accessed December 7, 2011. http://www.navyhistory.org.au/trafalgar-the-men-the-battle-the-storm/.Dugdale-Pointon, T. historyofwar, "Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)." Last modified January 07, 2006. Accessed December 7, 2011. http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_napoleon.html Fisher, Herbert. 1913. Napoleon. New York: Henry Holt and Company. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5637802.Historyworld , "HISTORY OF THE NAPOLEONIC WARS." Accessed December 7, 2011. http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?ParagraphID=mgo .Rodger, N. BBC, "Trafalgar: The Long-Term Impact." Last modified February 17, 2011. Accessed December 7, 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/trafalgar_impact_01.shtml .Stilwell, A. The Trafalgar Companion. West way, Borley: Osprey Publishing, 2005. http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=9SPR-2qwtSgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+trafalgar+companion&hl=en&ei=glDfTt3gEIinhAeMqr3vBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=the%20trafalgar%20companion&f=falseTrafalgar, Battle Of. 2009. In The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., edited by Lagass, Paul. New York: Columbia University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=117049963 (accessed December 7, 2011).]
Lais of Marie de France
The most powerful and lasting contributions to the literature of a given era are invariably penned by bold thinkers struggling to comprehend the ever changing world in which they live. Written during the latter part of the 12th century, the lais of Marie de France were a series of Breton lais -- or short narrative poems of the French medieval style -- designed to celebrate the virtues of romantic life within the royal court. Using a distinctive octosyllabic style of verse, the poet Marie de France sought to imbue her work with a melodic tone which is suggestive of emotion and feeling, and the lais she crafted stand to this day as a testament to the moving power of romance and devotion. Crafted in the form of a narrative ballad, the lais of Marie de France were presented as a series of 12 distinctive works,…
Clothing and Culture
Clothing, in the modern definition, is considered to be fiber or textiles that are worn on humans, and one of the anthropological features of human culture and society. The type (color, style, fit) of clothing is typically dependent upon a number of variables -- geography, weather, gender, status, physical state, work activities, and even status symbols. From a practical standpoint, clothing serves as protection from external weather, or for safety reasons (constructing, cooking, hiking, sports); it may protect the wearer from flora and fauna (nettles, bites, thorns); it may insulate against hot or cold conditions; and may even provide a hygienic barrier. Often, studying the aspects of clothing and society tells scholars a great deal about the particular culture -- not just in external appearance but in the technology of textile production, weaving, and adornment (oucher & Deslandres, 1989).
Evolution of Clothing Styles: Scholars are uncertain as…
Blum, S. (Ed.). (1982). Eighteenth-Century French Fashion Plates. New York: Dover Publications.
Boucher, F., & Deslandres, Y. (1989). 20,000 Years of Fashion. New York and London: H.N. Abrams.
Delpierre, M. (1997). Dress in France in the 18th Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Doyle, W. (2001). The Ancien Regime. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Marie De France
Courtly Love, Holy Love: Lovers in a hostile world of oppressive marriages and social conventions use love as escape from oppressive material world and a way of accessing the divine in the secular sphere of feudal obligation and sexuality
According to the essay upon the "Rules of Courtly Love," an introduction to one of the Lais of Marie De France, the concept of courtly love often revolves around the image of an idealized image of a pure, untouchable young woman, usually married out of social obligation to an older lord, whom is idolized from afar by a younger, poorer, or less socially desirable man. The relationship between the married woman and the unmarried man is supposed to parallel the distanced yet intimate sensibility that exists between a human being and the divine, or more specifically within the medieval, Christian concept, between a Christian believer and the Virgin…
The wife's lie is revealed in "Bisclavet" because the inner humanity of the werewolf does shine through, albeit to another man. "This beast understands, feels like a man," says the king. (p.5) Ultimately, the king's friendship, a relationship forged in the male sphere of the hunt with Bisclavet is more meaningful and lasting than that of the marital bond, borne of a lie of concealment, first on the part of the man, then on the part of the woman. After the full truth is revealed and the werewolf becomes human again: "The king ran to hug him tight;/He kissed him a hundred times that day." (p.9) hen he learns that his friend is in fact a man, and also that the truth has set the man free, the king cannot restrain his lover-like affection. For the first time in the werewolf's life, the man has honest relationship that allows him…
De France, Marie. "Bisclavet." Translated by Judith P. Shoaf. 1991-96. [12 Oct 2006] http://web.english.ufl.edu/exemplaria/marie/bisclavret.pdf
De France, Marie. "Lanval." Translated by Judith P. Shoaf. 1991-96. [12 Oct 2006] http://web.english.ufl.edu/exemplaria/marie/lanval.pdf
Illustratively, he identified the 'hygienist movement' as the "primary mover" that highlighted and greatly recognized Pasteur's recognition to science.
As a political force, the hygienist movement, or hygienists, was described as a group of people whose self-interest lies in the extreme belief that in order to eradicate diseases, "all precautions of general hygiene" must be strictly followed (21). While this belief seems extremist today, Pasteur's time (19th century) and society has yet to achieve the medical developments that societies today are privileged to have. It is not surprising, then, that the hygienists campaigned for Pasteur and pasteurization as the solution to eradicate diseases. Fear for diseases became the main communication message of the hygienists, with Pasteur at the forefront, symbolizing the solution to cleanliness and eventually, disease control.
Latour discussed further that interestingly, during Pasteur's time, there have been breakthroughs that are at the same or even greater level as…
Latour, B. 1988. The Pasteurization of France. Harvard University Press.
This is because it was not officially ratified by the U.S. Senate. The reason why, was due to the underlying fears of the damage that it could cause to the economy. This would create the atmosphere that various provisions were unfair for the U.S., leading to its eventual withdrawal from Kyoto. (U.S. Withdraws from Kyoto Protocol 2001) When such a large country will no longer follow these different provisions, it creates an atmosphere of voluntary compliance. At which point, the other signatories will not follow the different provision of the treaty as strictly. Once this takes place, it means that any kind of efforts to address the problem is the equivalent of having no agreement at all. This will cause the various environmental issues to become worse, as the constant finger pointing and debate are only creating more problems. Evidence of this can be by looking at the total number…
Effects of Global Warming are Everywhere, 2007, National Geographic. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
Future Effects, n.d. UNFCC, Available from: . [27 September 2010].
Hurricane Katrina. 2010, Hurricane Katrina. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
NOAA Raises 2005 Hurricane Season Outlook, 2005, NOAA. Available from: . [27 September 2010].
Museums in Paris
The Louvre Museum can be categorized as one of the world's largest and most magnificent museums. It also marks a monument and an attractive sightseeing location for tourists from all over the world. Standing near the River Seine and stretching over 60,000 meters square, this museum has its own unique history.
The museum was a transformation from the Louvre Palace, built as a fortress for King Louis XIV. He considered the Palace too small for his needs and then went on to making the Palace of Versailles. He left behind this beautifully structured monument to become the museum of beautiful art. The Louvre Museum was initiated in 1793 with initially just 537 paintings. Many of these were the confiscated church paintings and the others were donations from the prestigious and powerful people of the time. Slowly and gradually, the collection of the museum started increasing under Napoleon…
Danilov, Victor J. Museum careers and training: A professional guide. Greenwood Press, 194.
Dean, David. Museum Exhibition: Theory and Practice. Routledge, 1996.
Friedlander, Max J. Early Netherlands Painting: From Van Eyck to Bruegel. Phaidon Publishers, 1956.
Greenhill, Eileen Hooper. Museum, Media, Message. Routledge, 1995.
The Golden Bull of 1356 fixed the number and identity of the electors. And while the Empire finally received an orderly method of choosing its sovereigns, the power of these sovereigns had largely passed from the center to the periphery. The old empire existed in name only.
Italy too is part of the story of the German rulers of the Holy Roman Empire. The part of Italy north of the Papal States was an actual part of the Holy Roman Empire, while Sicily, in the extreme south, was at times under the rule of the Emperors. In particular, Frederick II was famed for the glorious, and learned, court he maintained in Sicily. Italy was very strongly affected by political developments North of the Alps. The same divisions between Church and State that plagued the rest of the Empire were prominent in the Italians city states as well. For Italy, like…
Food History of French Cuisine
What is the geographical location of France and why would it have an affect on the French cuisine? (i.e., what is the weather condition in France and does that play an affect as to why they eat the foods they eat and what foods do they eat mostly?).
The geographic location of France makes it an ideal place for agriculture that can affect cuisine. Why? Because France's climate is mild, and the growing season is long. That means farmers can grow more food throughout the year, and that means that more fresh food is available for cooking and eating all year round. It doesn't often get too cold in France, and in the summer it can get quite warm, which helps food ripen and mature.
The countryside is also fairly level and has good soil, and that helps create a good growing situation, too.…
Fromkin, David. "Once upon a Time in France." New Criterion Mar. 2001: 72.
Hartman, Dr. Paul V. "Historical Origins of French Cuisine." Personal Web Page. 1996. 14 Oct. 2005.
Tannahill, Reay. Food in History. New York, Crown Publishers, 1988.
The Nature of the Book Trade between China and France
In the past, it was apparent that the Chinese government’s approach to matters culture and art did not significantly differ from its stance on a variety of other factors that involved various internal affairs of the nation. However, while it may have exercised some control on the distribution aspect of culture and art, it has largely remained ineffective as far as control on the consumption front was concerned. In general terms literature has always been an important item of culture and art. In recent times, more and more current authors are exploring modern literature. Towards this end, geographical boundaries no longer act like a limiting factor. As a matter of fact, this is increasingly becoming a competitive frontier amongst contemporary authors. Chinese authors, who have been missing in action in this particular case, are catching up. In addition to…
Obesity n France/ChildhoodOrder
Obesity in childhood in France
Obesity is a global problem that affects people early on in childhood, and many children never learn about how important their dieting habits are and when they are constantly exposed to whatever they want to especially to the high contents of sugar in soft drinks. In France, there are many families who follow a well-balanced diet because of their parenting, preference, education, or whatever the reason they may be, yet there are other families that prefer to live off a lot of junk food, high in carbohydrates, and other bad for you sugars and fats and fried food with instead of a well balanced diet. When observing the childhood obesity of France due to soft drink it was notated from France Ellisle from France's Institute of Health and Medical esearch, there is a direct link between weight gain and sugar, and the…
Obesity and Economics Department, Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs. (n.d.). Obesity and the economics of prevention: fit not fat -- france key facts Paris, France: Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/document/26/0,37469_33929_46038682_1_1_1_1,00.html
Obesity. (2010). *****, Retrieved from http://*****/print/O besity/243 9.html
Ross, E. (n.d.). Study: soft drink intake linked to childhood obesity. ABC News/Health, Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=117618&page=1
Also unlike the president, it is entitled to be part of the political party. This is an important aspect because its adherence to the party ensures its support for the political figure and for the measures to be taken throughout the mandate. This enables the administration to avoid potential situations when political support lacks.
Political accountability rests in the power of the Parliament to hold accountable the Government. In this sense, similar to the other cases, the Parliament plays a crucial role in the life of the executive branch. Given the fact that the Executive is represented by the major parties in the Parliament, the interpellations of the Government are often settled. In any case, the strong relation between the executive, the political parties, and the parliament enable a strong relation and commitment on the lines of the ruling parties.
Efficiency of the systems
It is rather difficult to consider…
French Constitution. Accessed 10 June 2010 from http://www.assemblee-nationale.fr/english/8ab.asp
Gregg, G.L. The Presidential Republic: Executive Representation and Deliberative Democracy. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 1997.
Hoffmann, V., Hellmut Wollmann (eds). State and local government reforms in France and Germany: divergence and convergence, Wiesbaden: VS Verlag, 2006.
Newton, K., Jan W. van Deth Foundations of comparative politics: democracies of the modern world. Cambridge University Press, Cambrige, 2005.
Compare similarities differences revolutions America, France, Latin America. Identify common themes present revolution. What fighting ? Who influenced revolutions? What outcome revolution? What effect revolutions world?.
evolutions in America, France, and Latin America:
Causes, ideology, and consequences
Perhaps the most notable difference between the 18th century revolution in America vs. The 18th century revolution in France was one of class: America was not, primarily, a class-driven revolution. The Founding Fathers and supporters of the American evolution came from the elites of American society. George Washington was an important British general during the French-Indian Wars and Benjamin Franklin was a prominent figure in American colonial politics before talk of revolution became common currency. The colonists' frustration at what they perceived as the British Crown's unreasonable taxation policy and their growing economic power that was not honored with political power within the Empire was at the heart of the American evolution.…
Kelly, Martin. (2012). Causes of the American Revolution. About.com. Retrieved:
Minster, Christopher. (2012). Causes of Latin American revolutions. About.com. Retrieved:
Paris actually has two Chinatowns, the 13th district in the southeast and the 19th district in the northwest. Both offer a lot in terms of history, attractions, celebrations and traditions. In fact, the Chinese offer so much that even the culture-biased French are beginning to actively embrace the Chinese in their country. This paper explains why there is so much interest.
The 13th district, on the left bank, really took off in the late 1970's and early 1980's with the arrival of the boat people from Vietnam. Parisians had shunned what they considered to be the ugly and impersonal buildings constructed in that area by the Gaullist government. However, Asians found the area attractive because it offered affordable rents and lots of space. This area has become the largest Chinatown in Europe.
In the mid-1980's, less-educated peasants from rural China began moving into the 19th district, Belleville.
"Examples of Filial Piety (14th Century CE)." Washington State University. 04 Dec. 2004. .
"Chinese Astrology History." iVillage. 04 Dec. 2004. .
"A History of Mah Jong." Mahjong.com. 04 Dec. 2004 .
Gaz De France
GDF's growth and development and the factors that have influenced its borrowing decisions.
Gaz de France (GDF) is a French company that was chartered to produce, transport, distribute, import, and export gas. Although the early 1980s were difficult moments for its growth in that large government budget deficits and trade deficits led to inflation and high interest rates and the Mittterand government refused to allow it to rise its prices, 1985 onwards were better years in that it covered some of its debts and made a profit from turning to international sources through its liability-management program. The French economy, too, with change of government, appeared to be improving; inflation and interest rates were controlled; and industrial gas prices in France were deregulated, allowing FGDF independence and flexibility in its pricing policy.
It was due to the fact that the French franc during these years appreciated against the…
Mary Cassatt and Impressionism
Mary Cassatt was an Impressionist and post-Impressionist painter covering individuals -- especially women and children -- at a time when their role in society at large was becoming more prominent and self-assured. Like herself on the world stage, Cassatt's female subjects demanded attention and investigation, and by looking at one of her works, The Boating Party, in more detail along with some critical information regarding Cassatt and Impressionism in general, it will be possible to see how her choice of subject and style reveal the changes occurring in French society at the end of the nineteenth century, especially as they relate to the representation and centrality of women.
Before considering The Boating Party in more detail, it is useful to begin with a brief examination of Mary Cassatt's earlier life and works as a means of placing this study in a historical and scholarly context and…
Cassatt, M. (1893-1894/2011). The boating party. National Gallery of Art. Retrieved from http://www.nga.gov/collection/gallery/ggcassattptg/ggcassattptg-46569.html
Lewis, R, & Lewis, S.I. (2009). The power of art. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Metropolitan Museum of Art. (1997). Mary cassatt. Retrieved from http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/cassatt/html/index.html
National Endowment for the Humanities. 'The boating party'. Picturing America Artwork,
Materials Cost Policy and eduction of Materials Costs
McDonalds seeks to improve the cost of its materials through two different means. The first is that the company uses its bargaining power to get the best prices of suppliers Typically, this means that the suppliers are very large scale operations and provide goods for a large region. Switching from buns to baguettes for the French market would jeopardize some of that scale, because the baguettes would only be produced for the French market, whereas buns might be produced from half of Europe. Where the company can drive down food costs, this can affect the bottom line (Baertlein & Klayman, 2009).
McDonalds also controls materials costs by managing its inventories carefully. The company seeks to minimize waste while maintaining adequate supplies to meet customer needs. Goods are only delivered 3-5 times per week, and this includes bread products. There is…
Baertlein, L. & Klayman, B. (2009). Cost controls boost McDonalds' profit. Reuters. Retrieved November 14, 2013 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/10/22/us-mcdonalds-idUSTRE59L2UK20091022
Gale, S. (2006). McDonald's USA: A golden arch of supply chain food safety. Food Safety Magazine. Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://www.foodsafetymagazine.com/magazine-archive1/februarymarch-2006/mcdonalds-usa-a-golden-arch-of-supply-chain-food-safety/
McDonalds. (2008). Stock control at McDonalds. McDonalds Corporation Retrieved November 14, 2013 from http://www.mcdonalds.co.uk/content/dam/McDonaldsUK/People/Schools-and-students/mcd_stock_control.pdf
Reuters. (2013). McDonald's may raise price of $1 McDouble due to rising beef costs. Huffington Post. Retrieved November 15, 2013 from http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/02/01/mcdouble-price-mcdonalds-beef-costs_n_2595696.html
Social Economic and Political Significance of the Military Establishment of New France
This paper presents an analytic review of the article titled the "Social, Economic and Political Significance of the Military Establishments in New France" by Eccles. The paper critically examines various aspects of this article including its strengths and weaknesses in addressing the main issues in addition to establishing important relationships with other scholarly articles and works in the field. The article begins by exploring the socio-economic spectrum of New France which provided the basis for the military establishments. It is perhaps prudent enough to take a general overview of New France so as to get an understanding of what the article is all about.
New France was an area in North America that was colonized by the French for a period of over two hundred years, beginning in 1534 when French explorers toured the Saint Lawrence River until…
Addall, T., Halifax Warden of the North, McClelland and Stewart; 2003
Armstrong, Frederick. Handbook of Upper Canadian Chronology; Dundurn Press.1985
Axelrod, A., Blooding at Great Meadows: young George Washington and the battle that.... Running Press, 2007
Boose, W. Over the beach: U.S. Army amphibious operations in the Korean War. Combat Studies Institute. 2008
Geographical Issues in Sixty Million Frenchman Can't Be rong: hy e Love France but Not the French by Jean-Benoit Nadeau and Julie Barlow
The French and Americans share a love for liberty and fried potatoes, but the love tends to stop there. In their book, Sixty Million Frenchman Can't Be rong, Nadeau and Barlow examine the differences between France and the United States to help explain why Americans love France but not necessarily the French people. This paper provides a brief summary of the main points of the book as well as an analysis of the authors' objective in writing it in the first section. An examination of the geographical aspects of this book, supported by comprehensive examples from the book, is followed by argument for the authors' depth and accuracy in portrayal of concepts relating to geography in the second section. Finally, a summary of the research and important…
Beament, Emily. (2004, April 14). "Vive la Difference; Are the French Really as Rude as Their
Stereotype Suggests?" Daily Post (Liverpool, England): 9.
Nadeau, Jean-Benoit and Barlow, Julie. Sixty Million Frenchmen Can't Be Wrong: Why We
Love France but not the French. Naperville, IL: SourceBooks, Inc., 2003.
City of Lights -- Paris, France
Paris, the capital of France, is one of the most visited places in the world when it comes to travel and tourism. The historic and marvelous places of the city make Paris one of the nicest places to visit in Europe. The wonders of Paris includes the Eiffel Tower, Musee du Louvre, Arc de Triomphe, Avenue des Champs Elysees, Notre Dame Cathedral, and many other historic breathtaking grandeurs of Paris.
Known as the City of Lights, Paris is located in France, at the heart of Europe's tourist destinations. Exploring Paris is almost similar to taking your self back in time in an inspiring, exquisite, magical, and romantic city one could ever imagine. The city boasts of its many tourist attractions. The most famous of which is the Eiffel Tower -- the landmark of Paris. uilt in 1889, and considered as the city's symbol of…
Rando, Michael. Paris Overview.
Paris. 29 Sept 2003.
business save New York schools?, Mike France describes New York City Michael R. Bloomberg's recent attempts to improve New York's public schools by applying business principles to public education. Bloomberg's reforms are sweeping, and focus on accountability, centralized control, revamping the culture of education, training principals, and keeping a tight rein on expenses. Among Bloomberg's reforms include a standardized curriculum, which may result in poorer education for students with special needs. Similarly, the application of business principles to education brings up some important philosophical considerations.
Bloomberg's reforms are "the most systematic effort ever to force capitalistic thinking into the insular kingdom of public education," according to education historian Michael Katz. Notes Katz, "Professional educators have been incredibly successful at fending off outside influences" (cited in France, 2003).
hile the application of business principles is not an entirely novel phenomenon, it is one of a number of progressive trends in education.…
France, Mike. 2003. Can business save New York schools? Business Week, June 9, 2003, 106- 108.
The figures of people, carriages, etc. are "washed-out," they are as small as ants are. The method of reflecting motion and dynamics of routine life by "washed-out effect" was borrowed "from a new invention of photography" (Schapiro 81). Photographic cameras of that epoch were not sensitive for picturing motion, so all objects in motion were "washed-out."
Some impressionists, for example Edgar Degas (1834-1917), were influenced by ethnic painting techniques such as Chinese and Japanese graphics, characterized by striking representation of shape and figures. Degas continued Monet's experiments with light and reflection of motion. Many of his paintings were influenced by other methods similar to photography: uncommon visual angles and asymmetric perspectives, which can be observed in such paintings as a Carriage at the aces (1872), Ballet ehearsal (1876) characterized by unusual visual solution and geometric interpretation.
Auguste enoir (1841-19191), father of Impressionism, became famous for his mass portraits. enoir's Impressionism…
Sayre, Henry M.A world of art Prentice Hall; 4 thedition 2004
Schapiro, M. 1997.Impressionism: Reflections and Perceptions. George Braziller
The Impressionists, Article from web resource: http://www.biography.com/impressionists/artists_morisot.html
Pool, Phoebe Complete Paintings of Monet. New York: Abrams,1967
Response to Question 1: The Perfect Stranger
Harun, who is effectively a proxy for Kamel Daoud himself, narrates the story of his brother’s murder in ways that pay ironic homage to Camus’s The Stranger. In fact, The Meursault Investigation would not and could not exist were it not for The Stranger, which for Daoud—and Harun—epitomizes the essence of the colonial mentality. Yet Harun and his creator also understand the paradoxical and complex relationship between Algeria and France. It is not possible to reasonably discard all elements of French culture and society; the post-colonial pride that emerges in Algeria is one that must contend with its contemporary status and identity as a former French colony. As such, the allusions to The Stranger are at once deeply admiring, almost reverential while at the same time filled with bitterness and pathos. Harun’s words lauding Camus are both literal and ironic, bearing witness to…
By the second night, a group of men had mutinied and attempted to kill the officers and destroy the raft, and by the third day, "those whom death had spared in the disastrous night […] fell upon the dead bodies with which the raft was covered, and cut off pieces, which some instantly devoured" (Savigny & Correard 192). Ultimately, the survivors were reduced to throwing the wounded overboard, and only after they had been reduced to fifteen men, "almost naked; their bodies and faces disfigured by the scorching beams of the sun," were they finally rescued by the Argus, which had set sail six days earlier to search for the raft and the wreck of the Medusa (Savigny & Correard 203).
Theodore Gericault's the Raft of the Medusa captures the moment on the 17th of July when the Argus first became visible to the survivors, and his choice to reflect…
Alhadeff, Albert. The raft of the Medusa: Gericault, art, and race. New York: Prestel, 2002.
Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "LEtat Et Les Artistes: De La Restauration a La Monarchie De
Juillet (1815-1833) / Salons." The Art Bulletin 85.4 (2003): 811-3.
Blair, J.A. "The Possibility and Actuality of Visual Arguments." Argumentation and Advocacy
Thus, German nationalism and the German nation-state came into being, an entity that existed well into the 19th century.
Similarly, the nation of Italy was highly influenced by the events of the French Revolution of 1789 and the outbreak of war between France and Austria in 1793. During this time, a number of important changes occurred within Italy, most of which like Germany were filled with violence and destruction, all in the name of nationalism and national sovereignty. Following Napoleon's military triumphs in late 1796, various northern Italian cities attempted to organize themselves into republics, cities like Bologna, Milan and Genoa, but with the Peace of Campo Formio with Austria in 1797, France gained control of all northern Italy with the exception of Venice which experienced the collapse of its independence and liberty.
Under the influence of Napoleon and his generals, much of Italy was re-structured into a form of…
Decisions about international business take into account a wide range of different factors, including political, economic and social environments, in addition to firm-specific issues such as where to produce, what the company makes and how easy it is to ship the company's product. In this report, the case of General Mills in Europe will be considered. General Mills is a major producer on consumer consumables, and the countries in question are going to be France and Greece. The paper is going to discuss the key issues with respect to each country, keeping in mind the General Mills context.
General Mills produces food under a number of common household brands -- Cheerios, Betty Crocker, Pillsbury, Haagen-Dazs, Old El Paso, Yoplait and Nature Valley. The company is based in Minneapolis and began in 1860 with two flour mills, hence the name. The company would change its name to Gold Medal Flour…
ABC. (2012). Brain drain: 120,000 professionals leave Greece amid crisis. Der Spiegel. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/unemployment-and-recession-in-greece-lead-to-brian-drain-a-893519.html
General Mills.com (2013). History & brand heritage. General Mills. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from http://www.generalmills.com/Company/History/Brand_heritage.aspx
2012 General Mills Annual Report.
Hofstede, G. (2013). France. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from http://geert-hofstede.com/france.html
Marshall Executive Brief #3 Trade Policy Greece and France
This brief will discuss critical issues of trade policy, including global trade, global currency exchange, business strategy and operations, R&D, human resources, accounting and finance.
Global Trade and Currency Exchange
Free trade is a system where the governments of two countries do not discriminate between the imports and exports of the other country. In particular, free trade in the modern sense applies to tariffs and other trade barriers, or the non-existence thereof. Ricardo described free trade in terms of absolute and comparative advantage. Usually, this concept is described using a simplistic, fictional world in which there are two countries and maybe only two goods. In this example, countries should produce the good in which they have comparative advantage, and in doing so the two countries combined with have a higher aggregate output than if only the country with absolute…
2012 General Mills Annual Report. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MTQ5MTc4fENoaWxkSUQ9LTF8VHlwZT0z&t=1
EC. (2013). What is the common customs tariff? European Commission. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/customs_duties/tariff_aspects/
Formiani, R. (2004). David Ricardo: Theory of free international trade. Economic Insights. Retrieve April 18, 2013 from http://www.dallasfed.org/assets/documents/research/ei/ei0402.pdf
The French tradition of the Arthurian legends, however, are far less overtly political in their approach to the tales and to Guinevere in particular, and though politics and loyalties are still important elements of these stories the aspects of romance, love, and sexuality are far more prominent. Beginning with the poet Chretien de Troyes, Guinevere began to take on a more active role that at once justifies the feminine and begins to suggest the degradation and un-holiness of the female body and intent. Though Man might still be the more active and potent partner, Woman can corrupt and influence Man, these tales suggest, and the character of Guinevere seems a brand new creation given her immensely increased prominence when compared to all known earlier forms of the legends (Fulton, 3).
Erec and Enide is the tale of one of Arthur's knights and the peasant maid he loves and marries, but…
Bruce, J. Douglas. The Development of Arthurian Romance in Medieval France. The Sewanee Review 13(3)(1905): 319-35.
Chretien de Troyes. Erec and Enide. Accessed 5 June 2012. http://omacl.org/Erec/
Chretien de Troyes. Lancelot or, the Knight of the Cart. Accessed 5 Juen 2012. http://omacl.org/Lancelot/
Fulton, Helen. A Woman's Place. Quondam et Futurus 3(2)(1993): 1-25.
Bisclavret by Marie De France
The short work Bisclavret (The Werewolf) within Marie De France's Lais is a telling picture of the definitions of civility and even a glimpse into the chivalric ideal. Within the piece are many mentions of the definitions of the ideal of the positions, which the characters themselves are expected to uphold. Within the work there are many mentions of the definition of civility and responsibility. Bisclavret, defines duty and seeks only a return of his loyalty. It is clear that the mystery and magic of Brittany has encompassed his life. Defining his role as a nobleman is not only his honorable actions but also his appearance and both literally and metaphorically his clothing.
Bisclavret is the picture of the responsible knight, "a fine, handsome knight who behaved nobly...close to his lord...loved by all his neighbors." (Marie De France 92) He and his wife had mutual…
To put this in better perspective, the average driveway requires between six and seven meters of concrete, meaning there is well over twelve-thousand driveways' worth of concrete stretching out for two-and-a-half kilometers over the valley of the iver Tarn, at times higher than the Eiffel Tower and most of the buildings in New York City (BridgePros 2010). All of this material went to good use, creating not only the tallest vehicle bridge in the world, but also one of the safest and most assuredly long-lasting (BridgePros 2010).
Yet despite the football-stadium's worth of concrete and steel somehow suspended in the skyline of southern France, there is a tremendous and awe-inspiring beauty to the Milau viaduct bridge that defies the massive scale of the project. From this plan's initial design phases, the bridge was meant to be an epic and lasting work of art, and it was incredibly successful in attaining…
ArchInform. (2010). "Dr. Michel Virlogeux." Accessed 27 April 2010. http://eng.archinform.net/arch/55763.htm
BridgePros. (2010). "Milau Viaduct Project." Accessed 27 April 2010. http://bridgepros.com/projects/Millau_Viaduct/
Discovery. (2010). "Milau Viaduct." Discivery. Accessed 27 April 2010. http://www.yourdiscovery.com/machines_and_engineering/water_engineering/millau_viaduct/index.shtml
Foster + Partners. (2010). "Chief executive." Accessed 27 April 2010. http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Team/SeniorPartners/11/Default.aspx
Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…
Burns, Michael. France and the Dreyfus Affair: A Documentary History. Bedford/St. Martin's, 1999.
Schorske, Carl E. Fin-de-Siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture. NY: Vintage Books, 1981.
race the events that led up to the War of 1812 and be very specific in describing those events.
Chapter 7 begins with background review of how (in the late 18th century) the young nation began to be concerned with education. Medicine, too, was beginning to actually define diseases and help heal people, and Americans were inventing technologies (like the cotton gin by Eli Whitney) including Whitney's machine "…to make each part of a gun according to an exact pattern" (192). In fact the development of Whitney's system of making weapons was important due to the fact that the U.S. was preparing for war with France; "Americans were deeply troubled by their lack of sufficient armaments for the expected hostilities" (192).
In 1789 Congress passed laws that gave preference to American ships in U.S. ports; moreover, between 1789 and 1810, the U.S. had "more ships and international commerce" than any…
The House of Representative elections of 1812 were pivotal to the launching of war with England as voters "…elected a large number of representatives of both parties eager for war with Britain" (210). Among those war-mongering elected officials were Henry Clay (Kentucky) and John C. Calhoun (South Carolina). Clay, as Speaker, appointed members he knew to be eager for war -- in particular, war to seize Canada from England -- to the Committee on Foreign Affairs (211). On June 18, President Madison "…gave in to the pressure" from the House and approved a declaration of war against Britain (211). Madison was very concerned about the threats to American vessels engaged in trade with Europe, and since Britain was hostile to the idea of Americans trading with France -- and of Americans gaining power on the high seas -- Madison reluctantly agreed to go to war.
What were the major outcomes of the war? As a result of Treaty of Ghent, the British gave up their demand for an "…Indian buffer state in the Northwest" and in time through additional negotiations the British agreed to allow full trade with American ships (213). The Treaty of Ghent also supposedly provided that the Native Americans would get back their tribal lands (that had been taken during the war); albeit, the Indians never did get their land back. The Treaty also called for a "mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes" and in time the Canadian-American boundary became the "…longest 'unguarded frontier' in the world" (213).
In conclusion, the War of 1812 did not go well for the new American nation, and it was a terrible blow to Native Americans who witnessed the killing of their peoples and the stealing of their ancient tribal lands. Still, with the addition of the Louisiana Purchase, America was now a much bigger nation, with new lands to populate and new challenges to face as well.
Some of that came from the sunk costs, but much of it also came from the escalation of commitment between the countries, as well (Beniada, 2006). In other words, if there are two entities working on a project and one of them says it will not back down and will finish the project, the other entity will often do the same to save face and to keep its commitment. That is an important way that companies and individuals continue with the commitments they have made to one another, but it can also be problematic when it leads to an overzealous belief that a project must be completed no matter what, and that both entities working on the project have to focus their entire beings on the project at hand. The Concorde was very expensive, took longer to build than expected, and cost both Britain and France much more than the…
Beniada, F. (2006). Concorde. Minneapolis, MN: Zenith Press.
Although there are some elements of Napoleon's domestic and foreign policies that would suggest he was extending Enlightenment idealism through his autocratic regime, his coming to power is more accurately framed as marking an end to the French Revolution. Some of the French Revolution's core principles did emerge during Napoleon's rule. For example, Napoleon's legal and judicial reforms offered a more egalitarian model than the ancien regime had due to the doing away with a two-tiered system treating aristocracy and peasantry differently under the law (Lecture Notes, p. 8). Napoleonic law dismantled the feudalism of the ancien regime, and established in its place a code of Enlightenment legal principles (Lecture Notes, p. 8). In spite of the promising legal reforms Napoleon implemented as the supreme leader of France, his rule can be deemed nothing but a dictatorship. The means by which Napoleon seized, maintained, and wielded power were purely…
Ellis, Geoffrey. Napoleon. Essex: Pearson, 1997.
But it was the British who would have the greatest impact on the decline of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Gaining control of Egypt during the Napoleonic Wars, Britain administered Egypt as an independent province of the Ottoman Empire. However, it was World War One that gave Great Britain the opportunity to directly expand into the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans allied themselves with the Central Powers, enemies of France, ussia, and, most importantly, Great Britain. By first fomenting a revolution among the Arabs, the British were able to destabilize the Turks in the Middle East, which then led to the conquest of Palestine and Syria. While the British had promised their Arab Allies independence, the Sykes-Picot agreement actually split the Middle East into four "mandates," and "recognized long-standing French claims to Syria." (Cleveland, 2009, p 164) Three of the four "mandates" were controlled by the British, one by the French,…
Cleveland, William, and Martin Bunton. (2009). A History of the Modern Middle East.
Westview Press, Harper Collins. Print.
Goldschmidt, Arthur. (2006). A Concise History of the Middle East. Colorado: Westview
Press, Harper Collins. Print.
Ideology in France 1848-1849: eflections on Nationalism and Liberalism
The ideology adopted in France between 1848-1849 has been described in many different ways by historians and theorists. The predominant body of research available however suggests that a liberal and nationalistic ideology reigned supreme during this time, where the middle class became much more influential. The idealisms of the romantic era are also evident in France during this period of time, and may have influenced the nationalistic state of affairs in France at the time.
The liberal and nationalistic idealisms adopted by the middle class led many people to experience struggles and hardships, but a majority of these were in the process of discovering their own form of leadership and sense of pride. These ideas are explored in greater detail below.
Ideology in France
Karl Marx describes the France of 1848-1849 as filled with Class struggles. From primary accounts of the…
Dunham, A.L. "The industrial revolution in France, 1815-1848." New York: Exposition
Evans, D.O. "Social romanticism in France, 1830-1848." Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1951.
Hemmings, F.W.J."Culture and society in France, 1815-1848." New York: Peter Lang,
The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's…
Bathelt, Harald; Wiseman, Clare; Zakrzewski, Guido. Unit 1: Post-war development and structure of the German economy.
Buchanan, Tom. Europe's troubled peace, 1945-2000.
DeLong, J. Bradford. Grasping reality with both hands: A Fair, Balanced, Reality-Based,