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France Essays (Examples)

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French Colonialism in Western Africa
Words: 4744 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88899622
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By the second night, a group of men had mutinied and attempted to kill the officers and destroy the raft, and by the third day, "those whom death had spared in the disastrous night […] fell upon the dead bodies with which the raft was covered, and cut off pieces, which some instantly devoured" (Savigny & Correard 192). Ultimately, the survivors were reduced to throwing the wounded overboard, and only after they had been reduced to fifteen men, "almost naked; their bodies and faces disfigured by the scorching beams of the sun," were they finally rescued by the Argus, which had set sail six days earlier to search for the raft and the wreck of the Medusa (Savigny & Correard 203).

Theodore Gericault's the Raft of the Medusa captures the moment on the 17th of July when the Argus first became visible to the survivors, and his choice to reflect…

Works Cited

Alhadeff, Albert. The raft of the Medusa: Gericault, art, and race. New York: Prestel, 2002.

Athanassoglou-Kallmyer, Nina. "LEtat Et Les Artistes: De La Restauration a La Monarchie De

Juillet (1815-1833) / Salons." The Art Bulletin 85.4 (2003): 811-3.

Blair, J.A. "The Possibility and Actuality of Visual Arguments." Argumentation and Advocacy

Nation States the Formation of
Words: 883 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23854205
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Thus, German nationalism and the German nation-state came into being, an entity that existed well into the 19th century.

Similarly, the nation of Italy was highly influenced by the events of the French Revolution of 1789 and the outbreak of war between France and Austria in 1793. During this time, a number of important changes occurred within Italy, most of which like Germany were filled with violence and destruction, all in the name of nationalism and national sovereignty. Following Napoleon's military triumphs in late 1796, various northern Italian cities attempted to organize themselves into republics, cities like Bologna, Milan and Genoa, but with the Peace of Campo Formio with Austria in 1797, France gained control of all northern Italy with the exception of Venice which experienced the collapse of its independence and liberty.

Under the influence of Napoleon and his generals, much of Italy was re-structured into a form of…

Mills Decisions About International Business Take Into
Words: 2411 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55186592
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Mills

Decisions about international business take into account a wide range of different factors, including political, economic and social environments, in addition to firm-specific issues such as where to produce, what the company makes and how easy it is to ship the company's product. In this report, the case of General Mills in Europe will be considered. General Mills is a major producer on consumer consumables, and the countries in question are going to be France and Greece. The paper is going to discuss the key issues with respect to each country, keeping in mind the General Mills context.

General Mills produces food under a number of common household brands -- Cheerios, Betty Crocker, Pillsbury, Haagen-Dazs, Old El Paso, Yoplait and Nature Valley. The company is based in Minneapolis and began in 1860 with two flour mills, hence the name. The company would change its name to Gold Medal Flour…

Works Cited:

ABC. (2012). Brain drain: 120,000 professionals leave Greece amid crisis. Der Spiegel. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from  http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/unemployment-and-recession-in-greece-lead-to-brian-drain-a-893519.html 

General Mills.com (2013). History & brand heritage. General Mills. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from  http://www.generalmills.com/Company/History/Brand_heritage.aspx 

2012 General Mills Annual Report.

Hofstede, G. (2013). France. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from  http://geert-hofstede.com/france.html

Marshall Executive Brief 3 Trade Policy Greece
Words: 1315 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93076358
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Marshall Executive Brief #3 Trade Policy Greece and France

This brief will discuss critical issues of trade policy, including global trade, global currency exchange, business strategy and operations, R&D, human resources, accounting and finance.

Global Trade and Currency Exchange

Global Trade

Free trade is a system where the governments of two countries do not discriminate between the imports and exports of the other country. In particular, free trade in the modern sense applies to tariffs and other trade barriers, or the non-existence thereof. Ricardo described free trade in terms of absolute and comparative advantage. Usually, this concept is described using a simplistic, fictional world in which there are two countries and maybe only two goods. In this example, countries should produce the good in which they have comparative advantage, and in doing so the two countries combined with have a higher aggregate output than if only the country with absolute…

Works Cited:

2012 General Mills Annual Report. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from http://phx.corporate-ir.net/External.File?item=UGFyZW50SUQ9MTQ5MTc4fENoaWxkSUQ9LTF8VHlwZT0z&t=1

EC. (2013). What is the common customs tariff? European Commission. Retrieved April 18, 2013 from  http://ec.europa.eu/taxation_customs/customs/customs_duties/tariff_aspects/ 

Formiani, R. (2004). David Ricardo: Theory of free international trade. Economic Insights. Retrieve April 18, 2013 from  http://www.dallasfed.org/assets/documents/research/ei/ei0402.pdf

Guinevere Depictions of Guinevere in
Words: 4674 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24662124
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The French tradition of the Arthurian legends, however, are far less overtly political in their approach to the tales and to Guinevere in particular, and though politics and loyalties are still important elements of these stories the aspects of romance, love, and sexuality are far more prominent. Beginning with the poet Chretien de Troyes, Guinevere began to take on a more active role that at once justifies the feminine and begins to suggest the degradation and un-holiness of the female body and intent. Though Man might still be the more active and potent partner, Woman can corrupt and influence Man, these tales suggest, and the character of Guinevere seems a brand new creation given her immensely increased prominence when compared to all known earlier forms of the legends (Fulton, 3).

Erec and Enide is the tale of one of Arthur's knights and the peasant maid he loves and marries, but…

References

Bruce, J. Douglas. The Development of Arthurian Romance in Medieval France. The Sewanee Review 13(3)(1905): 319-35.

Chretien de Troyes. Erec and Enide. Accessed 5 June 2012.  http://omacl.org/Erec/ 

Chretien de Troyes. Lancelot or, the Knight of the Cart. Accessed 5 Juen 2012.  http://omacl.org/Lancelot/ 

Fulton, Helen. A Woman's Place. Quondam et Futurus 3(2)(1993): 1-25.

Bisclavret the Werewolf
Words: 1228 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98231780
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Bisclavret by Marie De France

The short work Bisclavret (The Werewolf) within Marie De France's Lais is a telling picture of the definitions of civility and even a glimpse into the chivalric ideal. Within the piece are many mentions of the definitions of the ideal of the positions, which the characters themselves are expected to uphold. Within the work there are many mentions of the definition of civility and responsibility. Bisclavret, defines duty and seeks only a return of his loyalty. It is clear that the mystery and magic of Brittany has encompassed his life. Defining his role as a nobleman is not only his honorable actions but also his appearance and both literally and metaphorically his clothing.

Bisclavret is the picture of the responsible knight, "a fine, handsome knight who behaved nobly...close to his lord...loved by all his neighbors." (Marie De France 92) He and his wife had mutual…

Milau Viaduct Stepping Out on
Words: 2289 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 45433070
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To put this in better perspective, the average driveway requires between six and seven meters of concrete, meaning there is well over twelve-thousand driveways' worth of concrete stretching out for two-and-a-half kilometers over the valley of the iver Tarn, at times higher than the Eiffel Tower and most of the buildings in New York City (BridgePros 2010). All of this material went to good use, creating not only the tallest vehicle bridge in the world, but also one of the safest and most assuredly long-lasting (BridgePros 2010).

Yet despite the football-stadium's worth of concrete and steel somehow suspended in the skyline of southern France, there is a tremendous and awe-inspiring beauty to the Milau viaduct bridge that defies the massive scale of the project. From this plan's initial design phases, the bridge was meant to be an epic and lasting work of art, and it was incredibly successful in attaining…

References

ArchInform. (2010). "Dr. Michel Virlogeux." Accessed 27 April 2010.  http://eng.archinform.net/arch/55763.htm 

BridgePros. (2010). "Milau Viaduct Project." Accessed 27 April 2010. http://bridgepros.com/projects/Millau_Viaduct/

Discovery. (2010). "Milau Viaduct." Discivery. Accessed 27 April 2010.  http://www.yourdiscovery.com/machines_and_engineering/water_engineering/millau_viaduct/index.shtml 

Foster + Partners. (2010). "Chief executive." Accessed 27 April 2010.  http://www.fosterandpartners.com/Team/SeniorPartners/11/Default.aspx

Mass Politics in Europe at the End
Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37859780
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Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…

WORKS CITED

Burns, Michael. France and the Dreyfus Affair: A Documentary History. Bedford/St. Martin's, 1999.

Schorske, Carl E. Fin-de-Siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture. NY: Vintage Books, 1981.

Trace the Events That Led Up to
Words: 913 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66928749
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race the events that led up to the War of 1812 and be very specific in describing those events.

Chapter 7 begins with background review of how (in the late 18th century) the young nation began to be concerned with education. Medicine, too, was beginning to actually define diseases and help heal people, and Americans were inventing technologies (like the cotton gin by Eli Whitney) including Whitney's machine "…to make each part of a gun according to an exact pattern" (192). In fact the development of Whitney's system of making weapons was important due to the fact that the U.S. was preparing for war with France; "Americans were deeply troubled by their lack of sufficient armaments for the expected hostilities" (192).

In 1789 Congress passed laws that gave preference to American ships in U.S. ports; moreover, between 1789 and 1810, the U.S. had "more ships and international commerce" than any…

The House of Representative elections of 1812 were pivotal to the launching of war with England as voters "…elected a large number of representatives of both parties eager for war with Britain" (210). Among those war-mongering elected officials were Henry Clay (Kentucky) and John C. Calhoun (South Carolina). Clay, as Speaker, appointed members he knew to be eager for war -- in particular, war to seize Canada from England -- to the Committee on Foreign Affairs (211). On June 18, President Madison "…gave in to the pressure" from the House and approved a declaration of war against Britain (211). Madison was very concerned about the threats to American vessels engaged in trade with Europe, and since Britain was hostile to the idea of Americans trading with France -- and of Americans gaining power on the high seas -- Madison reluctantly agreed to go to war.

What were the major outcomes of the war? As a result of Treaty of Ghent, the British gave up their demand for an "…Indian buffer state in the Northwest" and in time through additional negotiations the British agreed to allow full trade with American ships (213). The Treaty of Ghent also supposedly provided that the Native Americans would get back their tribal lands (that had been taken during the war); albeit, the Indians never did get their land back. The Treaty also called for a "mutual disarmament on the Great Lakes" and in time the Canadian-American boundary became the "…longest 'unguarded frontier' in the world" (213).

In conclusion, the War of 1812 did not go well for the new American nation, and it was a terrible blow to Native Americans who witnessed the killing of their peoples and the stealing of their ancient tribal lands. Still, with the addition of the Louisiana Purchase, America was now a much bigger nation, with new lands to populate and new challenges to face as well.

Judgment in Managerial Decision Making
Words: 728 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75004413
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Some of that came from the sunk costs, but much of it also came from the escalation of commitment between the countries, as well (Beniada, 2006). In other words, if there are two entities working on a project and one of them says it will not back down and will finish the project, the other entity will often do the same to save face and to keep its commitment. That is an important way that companies and individuals continue with the commitments they have made to one another, but it can also be problematic when it leads to an overzealous belief that a project must be completed no matter what, and that both entities working on the project have to focus their entire beings on the project at hand. The Concorde was very expensive, took longer to build than expected, and cost both Britain and France much more than the…

References

Beniada, F. (2006). Concorde. Minneapolis, MN: Zenith Press.

Napoleon Although There Are Some Elements of
Words: 1735 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24673777
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Napoleon

Although there are some elements of Napoleon's domestic and foreign policies that would suggest he was extending Enlightenment idealism through his autocratic regime, his coming to power is more accurately framed as marking an end to the French Revolution. Some of the French Revolution's core principles did emerge during Napoleon's rule. For example, Napoleon's legal and judicial reforms offered a more egalitarian model than the ancien regime had due to the doing away with a two-tiered system treating aristocracy and peasantry differently under the law (Lecture Notes, p. 8). Napoleonic law dismantled the feudalism of the ancien regime, and established in its place a code of Enlightenment legal principles (Lecture Notes, p. 8). In spite of the promising legal reforms Napoleon implemented as the supreme leader of France, his rule can be deemed nothing but a dictatorship. The means by which Napoleon seized, maintained, and wielded power were purely…

Works Cited

Ellis, Geoffrey. Napoleon. Essex: Pearson, 1997.

Lecture Notes.

Professor emails.

Ottoman Decline European Great Powers
Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51778833
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165)

But it was the British who would have the greatest impact on the decline of the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Gaining control of Egypt during the Napoleonic Wars, Britain administered Egypt as an independent province of the Ottoman Empire. However, it was World War One that gave Great Britain the opportunity to directly expand into the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans allied themselves with the Central Powers, enemies of France, ussia, and, most importantly, Great Britain. By first fomenting a revolution among the Arabs, the British were able to destabilize the Turks in the Middle East, which then led to the conquest of Palestine and Syria. While the British had promised their Arab Allies independence, the Sykes-Picot agreement actually split the Middle East into four "mandates," and "recognized long-standing French claims to Syria." (Cleveland, 2009, p 164) Three of the four "mandates" were controlled by the British, one by the French,…

References

Cleveland, William, and Martin Bunton. (2009). A History of the Modern Middle East.

Westview Press, Harper Collins. Print.

Goldschmidt, Arthur. (2006). A Concise History of the Middle East. Colorado: Westview

Press, Harper Collins. Print.

Western Enlightenment
Words: 1691 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64281599
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Ideology in France 1848-1849: eflections on Nationalism and Liberalism

The ideology adopted in France between 1848-1849 has been described in many different ways by historians and theorists. The predominant body of research available however suggests that a liberal and nationalistic ideology reigned supreme during this time, where the middle class became much more influential. The idealisms of the romantic era are also evident in France during this period of time, and may have influenced the nationalistic state of affairs in France at the time.

The liberal and nationalistic idealisms adopted by the middle class led many people to experience struggles and hardships, but a majority of these were in the process of discovering their own form of leadership and sense of pride. These ideas are explored in greater detail below.

Ideology in France

Karl Marx describes the France of 1848-1849 as filled with Class struggles. From primary accounts of the…

References:

Dunham, A.L. "The industrial revolution in France, 1815-1848." New York: Exposition

Press: 1955.

Evans, D.O. "Social romanticism in France, 1830-1848." Oxford: Clarendon Press: 1951.

Hemmings, F.W.J."Culture and society in France, 1815-1848." New York: Peter Lang,

Economic and Trade Development the
Words: 2664 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 3379747
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(Buchanan, 72)

The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's…

References

Bathelt, Harald; Wiseman, Clare; Zakrzewski, Guido. Unit 1: Post-war development and structure of the German economy.

Buchanan, Tom. Europe's troubled peace, 1945-2000.

Wiley-Blackwell, 2006.

DeLong, J. Bradford. Grasping reality with both hands: A Fair, Balanced, Reality-Based,