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For many years gang violence has plagued cities in the United States and around the world, causing disruptions and chaos in communities, and bringing grief and grieving to families in those communities. There seems to be no end to the killings and gang members appear to have access to unlimited numbers of weapons. Lately Chicago Illinois, in particular, has been the scene of numerous deaths due to gang violence. This paper reviews and critiques an article in The Atlantic in which noted University of Chicago Crime Lab scholar Dr. Harold Pollack is interviewed by Ta-Nehisi Coates. The interview took place in Chicago around the time that Hadiya Pendleton was shot and killed in a drive-by shooting in a Chicago park on January 29, 2013. Pendleton was a member of a marching band that played at the inauguration of President Obama. At the time of her murder, she was…
Carlson, Lois. (2012). Toward stopping violence in Chicago: why there is hope. The Christian
Science Monitor. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://www.csmonitor.com .
Coates, Ta-Nehisi. (2013). The Social Trends Driving American Gangs and Gun Violence. The Atlantic. Retrieved February 17, 2013, from http://www.theatlantic.com .
Reynolds, Larry T, and Herman-Kinney, Nancy J. (2003). Handbook of Symbolic
As we use this literature review to explore such issues, it is with the understanding that said issues have contributed to an overall intensification of the problems which are the consequence thereof. That is, the argument will tend to suggest, gang violence is getting worse and more widely spread, due both to the increasing severity of many of America's social problems and to the increased degree of organization and syndication committed by gang members.
The evidence of this is stark and compelling according to recently available data on the subject. In 2006, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) -- invested as a matter of demonstration that this is considered a national and, to some extent, international law enforcement issue -- published the findings that "there are almost 30,000 gangs, 800,000 members in America, and over 2,500 areas of America are affected. This gang violence is not limited to the United…
Associated Press (AP). (2007). Alberto Gonzalez: Youth Gang Violence Blamed for Countrywide Crime. FoxNews. Online at http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,272424,00.html
Craig, C. (2007). Gang violence in America. Associated Content. Online at http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/154465/gang_violence_in_america.html
DeMelo, Diane. (2005). Merton's Strain Theory. Criminological Theory. Online at http://home.comcast.net/~ddemelo/crime/mert_strain.html
Kouri, J. (). Illegal Alien Gang Violence. Law Enforcement Examiner.
gang violence in Canada
Though gang violence is not a new phenomena in Canada, the number of gangs and the dynamics within these gangs has changed. It has been reported that the four most common types of gangs found within the Canadian provinces are street gangs, outlaw motorcycle gangs, mafias and organized crime organizations, and hate gangs. Increasing gang membership -- and the rising number of girls joining gangs, gun violence, and aboriginal gangs have contributed to the rise of gang activity and violence in Canada.
It has been reported that most gang related crimes are based on creating an atmosphere of fear within the community. The most prevalent gang related crimes in communities include extortion, intimidation, and assault ("Victims of Violence"). Other destructive gang activity also includes the "defacement of property, impediments to the population, intimidation of local business, presence of community fear and anxiety, and the general destruction…
Andrews, Nathan. "Canada's Gang Violence: Racialized Crime?" The Brock Press Online
Edition. 23 March 2010. Last accessed 10 January 2011.
Bolan, Kim. "Interior Struggles to Curb Big-City Violence." The Vancouver Sun. 6 March
2010. Last accessed 10 January 2011.
(Hagedorn, 1997). These studies suggest a co-relation between drug and alcohol use and violence, and that most violence occurs when one or both (the victim and the perpetrator of the crime) are high on alcohol or drugs.
However, it is important to consider the fact that most "drug-related" violence is actually drug trade related. In an analysis of New York City's homicides in 1988, Paul Goldstein and his colleagues concluded, "74% of drug-related homicides were related to the black market drug trade and not drug use." Goldstein's study further notes that the leading crack-related homicide cause was shown to be territorial disputes between rival dealers, and not crack-induced violence or violence (predatory thieving) to obtain money for crack purchases (Goldstein, 1989).
Now we will briefly look at some measures that can prevent drug-related gang violence. As we have seen previously, most drug-related crimes are done for economic gains. Hence effective…
Gang Awareness." Memphis Police Department Organized Crime Unit Website. February 13, 2002. http://www.lunaweb.com/memgang.htm
Goldstein, Paul, J., Henry H. Brownstein, Patrick J. Ryan and Patricia a. Bellucci. Crack and Homicide in New York City: A Conceptually-Based Event Analysis: Contemporary Drug Problems. (1989) 16(4):651-687
Hagedorn, John. Final Report of the Drug Posse and Homegirl Studies. Findings October 9, 1997. February 13, 2002. http://www.uwm.edu/Dept/CUIR/3Research/Gangs/final.html
Swan, Neil. NIDA Refocuses Its Research on Drug-Related Violence. Nida Notes: Violence and Drug Abuse. March / April, 1995. February 13, 2002. http://www.nida.nih.gov/NIDA_Notes/NNVol10N2/Violence.html
Corrections Issue of Gang Violence in the State of Georgia
Current critical and prevalent corrections issue and its history
Community mobilization is one of the current critical and prevalent corrective issues in the United States of America. Community mobilization involves the creation of awareness and knowledge over the issue at hand so that people are warned on how to make a judgement over their behaviours and interactions with it. Community mobilization involves a number of steps that are directed at influencing the community to make decisions and assumptions within a given periphery of direction. Violence is a critical thing that has harmed the U.S. community in general. Measures to alleviate insecurity and violence involve reaching out to members of the society. Moreover, the measures are letting them come to the knowledge of the consequences and possibilities that are likely to happen when some people take a direction irrespective…
Clear, T.R. (2012). American corrections in brief. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage
Farrington, D.P., & Loeber, R. (1999). Serious & violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Fleisher, M.S., & Krienert, J.L. (2003). Crime and employment: Critical issues in crime reduction for corrections. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press.
Dropout rates of Latinos in U.S. And their effect on gang violence (or vice versa)
Hispanic gang violence and high school drop-out rates
Hispanic teens have the highest dropout rates of any demographic group in the United States. Gang membership amongst Latino adolescents is also increasing, rising 50% from 1999 to 2002, according to one estimate (MacDonald 2004). While rates of juvenile delinquency and gang affiliation have always been highest amongst the children of recent immigrants, the most sobering aspect of recent findings is that risk of becoming a gang member increases rather than decreases, the longer a Hispanic family remains in the U.S. (MacDonald 2004). Dropout rates for second-generation Hispanic students are higher than that for first-generation Hispanic youths, who tend to be less immersed in gang culture "a growing gang culture that offers them an identity and an outlet for their alienation, according to researchers" (We were pretty…
Gratteau, Hanke. (1984). Study ties gangs, drop-out rates. The Chicago Tribune. Retrieved May
7, 2011 at http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1985-03-25/news/8501160811_1_dropout-rate-gang-violence-chicago-public-schools
Hispanic-dominated L.A. school grapples with worst dropout rate and gang problems. (2008).
Immigration watch. Retrieved May 7, 20011 at http://jonjayray.wordpress.com/2008/08/22/hispanic-dominated-la-school-grapples-with-worst-dropout-rate-and-gang-problems/
Gang Prevention Programs in Chicago
ubrin, C. E. (2015). Chicago Hustle and Flow: Gangs, Gangsta Rap, and Social Class. American Journal of Sociology, 121(3), 999-1001.
According to ubrinb (2015), Chicago has stood as one of the serious places when it comes to gangsters, armed and not armed. Much has to be done to alleviate this rising crime rate; otherwise, something not good might happen. The society, especially the youth are becoming radicalized to the contents and universality of gangsters and crime. There is a need for an immediate action in the form of legal processes and programs that will end gangsters in Chicago. The author expresses the need to have stiff measures and programs, like the one on drugs control programs that will run deep into soliciting for individualized aspects of living that will end such crimes in the society (ubrin, 2015).
Binder, J. J., & Eghigian, M.…
Kubrin, C. E. (2015). Chicago Hustle and Flow: Gangs, Gangsta Rap, and Social Class. American Journal of Sociology, 121(3), 999-1001.
Lindsay, G. (2012). Jeanne Gang. Wall Street Journal Magazine (WSJ), 31-32.
Page, C. (2012, February 16). A virus of violence. Caribbean Business. p. 20.
Alignment helps keep both qualitative and quantitative research studies cohesive, meaningful, and valid. The purpose of the study and its implications for policy or practice should be aligned with the research questions, design, and method. Research by Forster, Grigsby, Unger, et al. (2015) illustrates the concept of alignment in a quantitative study. The research focuses on the links between exposure to violence in the community, social ties with gangs or gang members, social self-control, and aggressive behavior. Based on prior research, the authors hypothesize that exposure to violence in the community would be associated with aggressive behaviors. The authors also hypothesize that having friends or family members in gangs was positively correlated with aggressive behavior, and that lower levels of self-control were also correlated with aggressive behavior. All of these hypotheses have the same dependent variable (aggressive behavior exhibited over the past week). These hypotheses and related research questions are…
Gang Violence Interventions: Pulling Levers Programs
Over two decades of studies have shown partnerships between institutions and communities are required for effective and sustainable interventions to reduce gang violence, but the majority of intervention strategies have taken a reactionary approach, such as increasing policing efforts without addressing the underlying causes of gang violence (Gebo, Boyes-Watson, and Pinto-Wilson, 2010, p. 166). The lack of investment cognitive-behavioral interventions is evident by the prevalence of poorly designed studies investigating the effectiveness of such strategies, which makes drawing conclusions about their value difficult if not impossible (Fisher, Gardner, Montgomery, 2008).
A popular intervention strategy, at least among the law enforcement community, is the 'pulling levers' strategy (Braga, 2008). This strategy is essentially a problem-oriented approach to policing that involves choosing a crime problem, assembling an interagency working group, conducting research on the offender population, and coming up with a list of possible…
Braga, Anthony A. (2008). Pulling levers focused deterrence strategies and the prevention of gun homicide. Journal of Criminal Justice, 36, 332-343.
Fisher, Herrick, Gardner, Frances, Montgomery, Paul. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons.
Gebo, Erika, Boyes-Watson, Carolyn, and Pinto-Wilson, Sayra. (2010). Reconceptualizing organizational change in the comprehensive gang model. Journal of Criminal Justice, 38, 166-173.
Gang Violence Prevention
Study of each and every society around the world gives us a phenomenon, which indicates at a certain graph related to organized crime. American society has long been associated with such a vice, and there have been many unearths made in this direction. There has been a lot of study and research associated with fact that how these gangs formed and what is the major motivational factor behind such activities. Several studies in this regard have brought forward certain phenomenon which forms the basis of gang formations and majority of which is related to unsatisfied social structure. These gangs are formed in the societies, which are highly disintegrated and have developed into individually functioning micro units. Extensive liberalization of political policies and the general promotion of individualistic approach towards life in most countries have motivated certain individuals in direction of organized crime, and this is…
Alleyne, E., & Wood, J. (2010). Gang involvement: Psychological and behavioral characteristics of gang members, peripheral youth and non-gang youth. University of Kent. Retrieved from: https://kar.kent.ac.uk/27523/2/Gang_involvement_-_Revised2_ACCEPTED_by_Aggressive_bevhavior.pdf
Donnellan, M.B., Trzesniewski, K.H., Robins, R.W., Moffitt, T.E., & Caspi, A. (2005).Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 16, 328-355.
Dukes, R.L., Martinez, R.O., & Stein, J.A. (1997).Precursors and consequences of membership in youth gangs. Youth and Society, 29, 139-165.
Esbensen, F-A., Winfree, L.T., Jr., He, N., & Taylor, T.J. (2001). Youth gangs and definitional issues: When is a gang, and why does it matter? Crime and Delinquency, 47, 105-130
Thrasher (1927) correctly identified the reasons for existence and persistence of gangs: "The gangs… offer a substitute for what society fails to give… it fills a gap and affords an escape….thus the gang, itself a natural and spontaneous type of organization arising through conflict is a symptom of disorganization in the larger social framework." (p. 13)
To prevent the youth from getting into the ills of society parents, teachers, the community and the entire nation should get together and contribute their part to it. Parents and teachers should guide the teens and explain to them about the dangers of becoming a part of a gang. The nation should provide their people with more opportunities so as to better their living conditions. Law enforcing agencies should increase their efficiency to create deterrence among the youth such that they would not indulge in delinquency. It is about time that everyone should recognize…
Winters, Clyde a. "Learning Disabilities, Crime Delinquency, and Special Education Placement." Adolescence 32.126 (1997): 451.
Hagan, J. And H. Foster. "Youth violence and the end of adolescence." American Sociological Review, 66.12 (2001):874.
Jeffery, C.R. "An Interdisciplinary Theory of Criminal Behavior." In Advances in criminological theory (1989):69.
Curry, G.D., & Spergel, I.A. "Gang involvement and delinquency among Hispanic and African-American adolescent males." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 29 (1992): 273.
Call for backup before attempting pursuit into unsecured potential gang situations
5.. Examples of gangs deploying military weapons and tactics against law enforcement:
2005: Contract assassination attempt against corrections officer in Lakewood, Wash. By United Blood Nation gang member in active service from Bremerton Navy Station (10)
2005: Ceres, California: Active-duty, U.S. Marine Iraq combat veteran gang member shoots two police, killing one, using military tactics (11)
2006: Verbal testimony by several gang members suggests veterans training gangs for combat (12)
2010: U.S.Marine Corps veterans charged with selling assault weapons to gangs (13)
2011: Twenty-seven AK-47s stolen from California's Fort Irwin Army base (14)
2011: National Gang Threat Assessment report: "Gang members are acquiring high-powered, military-style weapons and equipment, which poses a significant threat because of the potential to engage in lethal encounters with law enforcement and citizens alike" (15)
6. ACTION: If you believe you may encounter military-level threat…
References: All sources peer-reviewed, government or considered reliable.
Blankenstein, A. "Marines sold military assault weapons to L.A. gang members, authorities allege." Los Angeles Times L.A. Now, 9 Nov. 2010. 26 Dec. 2011 (4, 13)
Cooley, S. "Findings and proposals from the District Attorney's Office." L.A. County District Attorney. April 2008. 26 Dec. 2011 < da.co.la.ca.us/pdf/LADA_Gang_Crime_&_Violence_APR_2008.pdf > (9)
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "The Continuing Gang Threat." National Gang Threat Assessment 2011 Key Findings, National Gang Intelligence Center. 21 Oct. 2011 (15)
L.A. County District Attorney's Office. "Gang Crimes." Hardcore Gang Division, 1 Nov. 2011. 26 Dec. 2011 (16)
violence in the public schools. Teen violence in general has become a major concern in America today. One of the reasons for the issue being so prevalent is the number of school shootings in the last few years, especially the shooting at Columbine High in Littleton, Colorado. hile the welfare of young people is always of concern, much of the fear being generated at the present time is excessive. For one thing, teen violence is not the new phenomenon many people seem to think it is, and an analysis of our history shows that violence in the schools has always been a problem and that in fact it is diminished at the present time. In truth, though, any school violence is too much, and ways of eliminating it and protecting students in school must be found. Several "solutions" to the problem have been offered.
One such recommendation is school uniforms,…
Access Control & Security Systems Integration Facility Systems Staff. "Devising an effective school security plan." Access Control & Security Systems Integration (1 July 2000).
Bowman, Darcia Harris. "Federal Study Stresses Warning Signs of School Violence."
Education Week 21(15)(12 Dec 2001), 12.
Clinton, Bill. "Memorandum on the School Uniforms Manual." Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents (March 4, 1996), 368-369.
George Knox, director of the National Gang Crime esearch Center, teaches law enforcement officers how to search WebPages to pick up on gang member's lingo, territories, and rivalries. He also asserts it is crucial for officers to learn how to "read between the lines" when searching gang members' WebPages. Time on the Web, similar to time on the streets, gives gang investigators the ability to read the hieroglyphics of wall graffiti, and understand Web clues. In addition, "gang identifiers, such as tattoos, graffiti tags, colors and clothing often are embedded in each site" (Gutierrez, 2006, ¶ 27). According to Gutierrez, by studying gang blogs for several hours, one can pick up on subtle word choices, which the gang members consider to be almost holy words. Knox contends that some gangs use the Internet to recruit new members.
Other Efforts to Deal with Gangs
Suppression techniques may be one of the…
ARISE as a gang prevention program. (2007). ARISE Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2009
from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Gangs.aspx ARISE foundation. (2009). Retrieved November 6, 2009 from http://www.ariselife-skills.org/Home/Home.aspx
ARISE life-management skills program. A five-year evaluation. (N.d.). University of Miami.
Retrieved November 10, 2009 from http://www.ariselifeskills.org/docs/pdf/5yearevalexecsummary.pdf
Hybrid Gangs in South Florida
On Public Policy towards Volatile Movements
South Florida has an increasing prevalence of criminal gangs in their communities and it is posing a growing threat to their security and safety. It is clear that in that region criminal hybrid gangs are spreading violence and fear in their neighborhoods making places like their parks unusable, and even bringing corrupt behavior passages to work and school, stopping legitimate businesses consisting of tourism, and bringing down property values. Right now, there are more hybrid gangs in Florida than ever before, with approximately 400 in South Florida alone, as stated by the latest state study. Hybrid gangs are not a new threat, nevertheless the most recent state study displays the problem is getting worse especially in South Florida. In 1991, there were 160 gangs in the south Florida region, but by 2007 the number jumped to beyond 1,500 with…
The community fails to acknowledge the fact that a hybrid gang is an organized group with a recognized leader whose activities are either criminal or, at the very least, threatening to the community in South Florida. They are not being educated enough to understand. Communities lack acknowledgment of understanding the characteristics of hybrid gangs. They do not understand that Hybrid gang show their uniqueness and unity in obvious ways for instance jewelry, colored clothing, jargon, and signals (Crews, 2014). The lack of acknowledging the problem in South Florida, has caused people to not realize that their key source of income for most hybrid gangs is narcotics which fuels a lot of the violence.
Communities fail to acknowledge Hybrid gang members of all ages and that they are used by the gang in the unlawful sale of narcotics and other illegal actions. It is a wrong belief that hybrid gang only function in less wealthy districts. Hybrid gang exist in virtually every community in South Florida and the communities want to ignore the elephant in the room. South Florida does not acknowledge that the gangs belong to one of two alliances, either "People" or "Folks." They do not even realize that both associations are alive and well on South Florida's streets, and in most circumstances are unpleasant rivals. The "Individuals" hybrid gang all wear their identifiers to the left side, while the "Folks" hybrid gangs wear their identifiers on the right (Roles, 2013). Not knowing these characteristics have caused the community to be in ignorance.
They also do not acknowledge that firearms and gang violence go hand in hand. In one study based on responses from 835 male inmates in 6 juvenile correctional facilities in 4 States, researchers found that movement from nongame membership to gang membership brought increases in most forms of gun-involved conduct. Forty-five percent described gun theft as a regular
20, California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act, STEP Act California 186.20 (http://www.streetgangs.com/laws/stepact.html)," as well as any community that has a disproportionate juvenile arrest rate, or a high percentage of gang related criminal activity or a high number of gang affiliated acts of violence.
The Act hopes to reduce crimes of violence committed by gang members by alerting local law enforcement to their identity thereby reducing their feelings of anonymity in committing those crimes.
The Act also supports funding for the purpose of education and offering counseling and other services to current and past gang members in the hopes they will decide to leave the gang and become a productive member of society.
The gang problem is a serious one in which the dynamics create a cycle of feeling alone, finding a "family" in the gang membership, committing acts of violence for the gang and becoming incarcerated. The legislative…
California 186.20, California Street Terrorism Enforcement and Prevention Act, STEP Act California 186.20 (Accessed 11-04-06)
California 213. Punishment for Robbery (accessed 11-04-06)
gang development, research and reduction strategies as outlined by Klein and Maxson in their 2006 study Street Gang Patterns and Policies. It incorporates additional research beyond Klein and Maxson, but focuses on the basic analysis of the problem offered in their study. The specific focus of the paper is on finding solutions that work, as distinguished from the numerous failed solutions examined by Klein and Maxson -- with an emphasis on the reasons for failure given in their assessment.
Klein and Maxson's Street Gang Patterns and Policies (2006) offers a sharp critique of existing paradigms of dealing with the problem of street gangs, and in its place offers informed suggestions based on over three decades of research and observation for revising the overall approach to handling this persistent problem. The problem of street gangs is, of course, very old: one of the first-ever sociological studies, written as the discipline of…
Coughlin, BC and Venkatesh, SA. (2003). The urban street gang after 1970. Annual Review of Sociology 29. 41-64.
Howell, JC. (2010). Gang prevention: An overview of research and programs. Washington DC: U.S. Department of Justice.
Howell, JC and Egley, A. (2005). Moving risk factors into developmental theories of gang membership. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice 3: 334-354.
Klein, MW and Maxson, CL. (2006). Street gang patterns and policies. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gangs: Coercion and Prevention
The community problem of gangs and related violence is prevalent all over the United States. Young people join gangs for a variety of reasons. Some may feel isolated from their general school or social communities and search out the connections and community affiliation offered by gangs. Others are seduced by the importance attached to generally laudable qualities like loyalty and honor. In a gang setup, however, these are generally proven by violent or criminal activities. Some young people could also be somewhat seduced by the romantic notion of belonging to a group of people who all stand for the same thing and would give their lives for the cause and each other. To curb the danger related to gangs and gang violence and to protect young people from being coerced into gangs, parents, educators, and government officials need to be aware of the various reasons why…
Carlie, M.K. (2002). Into the Abyss: A Personal Journey into the World of Street Gangs. Retrieved from: http://people.missouristate.edu/MichaelCarlie/SOLUTIONS/PERSONAL/creating_healthy_families.htm
Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (AJJDP, 2013). Why Do Youth Join Gangs? Retrieved from: http://www.ojjdp.gov/jjbulletin/9808/why.html
Gang Prevention Programs in Los Angeles
The issue of gangs and the gang related deaths and violence has been a thing of concern across the nation and in Los Angeles in particular due to the alarming high levels of gang activities within the city. Los Angeles City has been described severally as the "gang capital" of the nation, due to the numerous gangs that are in existence as well as the long history of these gangs, going back to 50 years ago. Los Angeles Police Department (2016) there are approximately 450 active gangs in Los Angeles with a membership exceeding 45,000 members. The membership of these gangs has continued to increase over the last five years due to the lucrative narcotics trade. Over the last three years, it is documented that 16,398 violent crimes were associated to gang activities, 491 of these being homicides and 7,0478 being felony assaults, 98…
A Better LA, (2016). Funded Programs: R.A.C.E. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from http://www.abetterla.org/programs/
Basheer A., (2016). B.U.I.L.D. Brotherhood for Independent Leadership through Discipline. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from http://www.streetgangs.com/homicides/build.html
H.E.L.P.E.R Foundation, (2016). HELPER: Our Mission. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from http://www.helperfoundation.org/
Los Angeles Police Department (2016). Gangs. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from http://www.lapdonline.org/get_informed/content_basic_view/1396
However, some gang members specialize in multiple criminal activities such as street robbery, human trafficking and drug trafficking.
Street gangs are the major concern to parents, school administrators and the communities because they recruit students and the youths across the United States to enhance the growth of gang memberships. Street gangs are the most prevalent type of gangs in the United States because they influence a strong control in the large geographical regions. Typically, street gangs are characterized with criminal activities, which include brutality and drug trafficking. Presence of street gangs is broadened with their special relations with DTO (Drug Trafficking Organization) in Mexico, Canada, Columbia and other Central American countries. Type of street gangs includes regional-level street gangs specially known for their drug dealing. Functional regional-level street gangs include Latin Disciples, Florencia, Fresno Bulldogs, Tango Blast and United Blood Nation. Local street gangs also known as neighborhood-based…
Esbensen, F., and Osgood, D.W. (1999). Gang Resistance Education and Training
(G.R.E.A.T.): Results from the national evaluation. Journal of Research in Crime
and Delinquency 36(2):194 -- 225.
Esbensen, F.A. (2000). Preventing Adolescent Gang Involvement. Youth Gang Series.
In the end, the capacity for gangs persist throughout history has shown that they are not merely one-dimensional juvenile delinquents, as they are often portrayed in media. They are also well-organized groups that have the ability to serve social purposes. This also shows that a reason why society still allows them to exist is because of these social functions (Branch 1997).
Nevertheless, media is also responsible for glamorizing the life of the gangsta, which may be a factor in getting adolescent and vulnerable teenagers to join gangs for the sake of being accepted and being part of a family. The outcome of which, if not death or imprisonment, is even if a gangsta decides to become a regular citizen, he will be held with contempt and suspicion by the community.
Branch, C. (1997). Chapter 1: Since the Days of Knights: Historical and Psychological Overview of Gangs. pp. 9-27. Perseus…
Branch, C. (1997). Chapter 1: Since the Days of Knights: Historical and Psychological Overview of Gangs. pp. 9-27. Perseus Books, LLC. Retrieved August 24, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.
Branch, C. (1997). Chapter 2: Developmental Aspects of Gang Membership. pp. 28-43, Perseus Books, LLC. Retrieved August 24, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.
Gibbs, Jewelle Taylor. (2000). Gangs as Alternative Transitional Structures: Adaptations to Racial and Social Marginality in Los Angeles and London. Journal of Multicultural Social Work, 8(1/2): 71-99. Retrieved August 24, 2009, from Education Research Complete database
Ruble, Nikki M. & Turner, William L. (2000). A Systematic Analysis of the Dynamics and Organization of Urban Street Gangs. The Americal Journal of Family Therapy, 28(2): 117-132. Retrieved August 25, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.
As they repeatedly say, especially Graff, they are doing what they have to do, and although there may have been other tactics that would have worked, there was no way of knowing whether or not the human race could be saved without violent action against the buggers. The buggers themselves, though they do not really appear as character until the very end of the novel, in the dream they send to Ender on the new world, are actually stuck in the same bind as the humans. hat the human experienced as violence in the First and Second invasions was not actually violence to the buggers -- they had no idea that they were killing sentient beings. They had tried to communicate with the humans, but because the two species communicate so differently, this was impossible. Violence became necessary for them to ensure their own survival, and although eventually they succeed…
Card, Orson. Ender's Game. New York: Tor, 1991.
To summarize, research on gangs has shown the gang problem to be increasing dramatically. Gang members list many reasons for joining a gang, including protection, peer pressure, economic needs, social needs, power, because relatives are members, a lack of parental or community support, and social status. According to the research, gangs tend to exist in greater numbers in low-income populations, and in single-parent households. Additionally, research has shown that while there certainly are Caucasian gang members, the majority are Hispanic or African-American.
The purpose of this study was to determine why teenage males join and participate in gang activities. The independent variables were socio-economic status, peer influence, lack of family support, self-esteem, and protection. The subjects studied were from a high population area near Houston, TX, where the majority of residents were of Hispanic decent. This study examined the relationship between gang activities and the independent variables. This section…
Arthur, R., and Erickson J. (1992). Gangs and schools. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications.
Aumair, M.(1995). Characteristics of juvenile gangs. Youth Studies, 13, 40-48.
Bowker, L., and Klein, M. (1993). The etiology of female delinquency and gang membership: A test of psychological and social structure explanations. Adolescence, 8, 731-751.
Fleischer, M.(1998). Dead end kids. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
When Santano looks back on his old life in prison he comments that Fulsom was the "big time." He had more power there. Before the gang, if someone wanted something from him, "They just took it" because he was weak, but being in the gang stopped that because he became strong. He looks back on prison life with a certain sense of nostalgia and tells his girlfriend, "I loved it in there."
The gang allows him to be competent under horrible circumstances. He has been deprived of all the ordinary, normal experiences we take for granted, such as dancing, learning to drive a car, going to the beach, standing in the moonlight with a girl, and making love. All he has ever known is violence and the need to keep others afraid of him in order to protect himself. He's more or less ruined for life on the outside by…
The presence of gangs has always been of concern to society, largely owing to their criminal behavior. The solution to the problem, however, lies not so much in police and legal action, but in addressing, the social causes of gang development. In other words, society has to change social conditions such as poverty, family abuse and neglect, the educational system, the Criminal Justice system, employment opportunities and the nature of social programs in order to prevent the development of criminally oriented gangs. Indeed, society would probably benefit a great deal if it could stop punishing such behavior and, instead, focus on the creation of a social environment that could prevent the development of criminally oriented gangs.
The primary cause of gang development, it has been well established, is poverty. This is because poverty causes economic and social pressures that lead to youth developing a poor image of self and…
3. Structuring and enforcement process to respond to offenders, crime crews and/or gangs that includes various sanctions, i.e., pulling levers, to stop them from continuing their violent behavior.
4. Offering social services and specific resources to offenders to help them change their lives: Those who are open to the process are assisted in completing their education, finding employment, and providing for their basic human needs.
5. Communicating with the offenders to make them aware that they are under scrutiny: To emphasize the consequences of continued live of crime, offenders are told what has happened to other groups who have committed certain violent crimes such as shootings, and that the same enforcement awaits them should they engage in unlawful actions (Kennedy, 155-159).
One means fro communicating this information is through a call-in or notification meeting in which offenders and persons who love them are invited to a meeting with law enforcement…
Braga, A.A., Pierce, G.L., McDevitt, J., Bond, B.J, & Cronin, S. The strategic prevention of gun violence among gang-involved offenders. Justice Quarterly, 2008, 25(1), 132-162.
Goldstein, H. Improved policing: A problem-oriented approach. Crime and Delinquency, 1979, 25, 236-258.
Goldstein, H. Problem-oriented policing. 1990. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
Kennedy, D.M. Old wine in new bottles: Policing and the lessons of pulling levers. In D.Weisburd & A.A.Braga (Eds), Polic innovation: Contrasting perspectives, 2006. (pp. 155-159). Cambridge University Press.
Part I Research Process
Using the Internet Explorer search engine, "ergen County Passaic County" was typed in. It returned no results for any gang issues. The search terms, "ergen county Passaic County gang issues in local community" was entered. It returned the results on an article, "State police survey shows gang activity in all N.J. counties" (Fabiano, 2011). The article named ergen County as one in nine counties with higher than average gang presence. The article also talked about law enforcement officials questioning the results of the survey based on the results not adding up to the number of arrests that were gang related. And, another problem of a significant population of illegal immigrants staying isolated from police and being a breeding ground for gangs.
The search terms, "New Jersey gang statistics" was entered. It returned the 2007 State police survey that compared data to the 2004 survey…
New Jersey Announces Gang Suppression Initiative Through Stepped Up Enforcement and Awareness Efforts. (2001, Nov 16). Retrieved from New Jersey's Online Gang Free Community: http://www.njgangfree.org/gang-news/launch1116.htm
Gangs in New Jersey: Municipal Law Enforcement Response to 2007 NJSP Gang Survey. (2007). Retrieved from New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety: http://www.state.nj.us/njsp/info/pdf/njgangsurvey-2007.pdf
Gangs in New Jersey: Municipal Law Enforcement Response to the 2010 NJSP Gang Survey. (2010). Retrieved from New Jersey Department of Law and Public Safety: http://www.njsp.org/infor/pdf./gangs_in_nj_2010.pdf
Fabiano, G. & . (2011, Jan 28). State police survey shows gang activity in all N.J. counties. Retrieved from NewJersey.com: http://www.northjersey.com/news/012811_State_police_survey_shows_gang_activity_in_all_NJ_counties.html
Since gang-related crimes fall within the jurisdiction of state, this research will give an insight on the need to find solutions that increasingly include all levels of government. Congress needs to pass legislation that will change immigration enforcement laws and make more aliens deportable. In addition, the federal government should take a more active participation in helping local and state jurisdictions develop anti-gang responses. The local, state and federal governments must take a stand, and combine forces to combat the immigration problem that continue to plague this country into the next generation.
Importance of the Study
The die has been cast, there is no turning the clock back now and the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang have established themselves in the United States and far beyond. The origins of the current situation with MS-13 and the 18th Street Gang date back to the late 1980s and early 1990s…
Armstrong, W. (2009, February 16). 'Sanctuary cities' protect murderous illegal aliens. Human Events, 64(37), 8.
Bansal, M. (2006) Chertoff: Street Gangs a Threat to National. Retrieved November 12,
2006 from http://www.CNSNews.com .
Barber, B. (1996). Jihad vs. McWorld: How Globalism and Tribalism are Reshaping the World. New York: Ballantine Book.
MS-13 -- the focus of a nationwide crackdown by FBI and federal immigration agents -- has become known in recent years for home invasion robberies, drug dealing and machete attacks on its enemies. however, after the sweeping chaos across America, the FBI has heightened concerns that MS-13 could be far more dangerous than thought.
Mara Salvatrucha, or MS-13, continues to expand its influence in the United States. FBI investigations reveal that it is present in almost every state and continues to grow its membership, now targeting younger recruits more than ever before.
To counteract this growth, the FBI formed the MS-13 National Gang Task Force in December 2004. Based at FBI Headquarters, this intelligence-driven task force combines the expertise, resources, and jurisdiction of federal agencies that investigate this violent international street gang. It focuses on maximizing the flow of information and intelligence, coordinating investigations nationally and internationally, and helping state…
Electronic visa application begins for visa waiver countries. (2009). Foreign Policy Bulletin, 19(1), 40-57. doi:10.1017/S1052703609000525
Boatright, L.R. (2006). "Clear eye for the state guy": Clarifying authority and trusting federalism to increase nonfederal assistance with immigration enforcement*. Texas Law Review, 84(6), 1633-1674. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203710946?accountid=34899
Donohue, L.K. (2006). Anglo-american privacy and surveillance. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 96(3), 1059-1208. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/218394830?accountid=34899
Hamm, M.S. (2009). Prison islam in the age of sacred terror. The British Journal of Criminology, 49(5), 667-685. doi:10.1093/bjc/azp035
Girls and Gangs
When people think of gangs and gangsters, they often think of young males. While females may be part of gang culture, they are often viewed as being in the periphery. In many ways, this view of female gang membership is correct. For example, females that are affiliated with gangs have oftentimes been reduced to sexual objections, being used for the gratification of gang members, as a way to lure new recruits (Firmin 2009, p. 15). Furthermore, female sexuality has traditionally been seen as a way to ensnare rival gang members, so that female gang members and females associated with gangs have often acted as spies infiltrating rival gang networks (Aabbad 2012, p.272). However, the traditional view of girls as sexual accessories and playthings for gang members does not reflect the reality of the modern-day gang situation. While women still face significant marginalization and sexual violence within the…
Contemporary Wales, vol. 22, no.1, pp.178-195.
Young, T. 2009. 'Girls and gangs: Shemale gangsters in the UK?', Youth Justice, vol. 9, no.3,
After receiving such pressure, a huge scandal broke within the ranks of the LAPD based on charges of corruption and misconduct. Although the LAPD still maintains a heavy presence within these streets, they are not as vehement as seen in the case of the HAMME era.
Many of those affected by L.A. street life are actually not gang members themselves. The aftermath of gang violence has proven to be too much for many Los Angeles residents, including former gang members, to handle. Many former members are left questioning the idea that the gang life is truly a family atmosphere. Former gang members all over the United States have begun to take action as to prevent future generations from making the same mistakes, (andle, 2003). Many of these former criminals also believe that being open with children about gang violence will help open up dialogue about the negative aspects of gang…
Alonso, a. (2008). A brief history of the Los Angeles-based Crips. Retrieved April 2, 2008, from Street Gangs: http://www.streetgangs.com/crips/
Crips. (1995). What we celieve in. Nationwide Rip Ridaz. Quality Records.
Davis, Mike. (1992). City of Quartz. Vintage Books.
Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence (2006). Gangs. Find Articles Retrieved April 2, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_g2602/is_0002/ai_2602000260
Domestic violence is a significant source of violence in the U.., much of which goes unreported. Domestic violence includes physical abuse between spouses as well as physical abuse of children by parents in connection with what some parents believe is merely disciplining their children. By today's social and legal standards, many parenting practices that were once commonplace and even condoned now fit the formal criteria of criminal violence. Just last week, a video captured by a home video camera surfaced on the Internet in which a family court judge viciously beat his (then) 16-year-old daughter with a belt in a manner that will, according to news reports, soon result in criminal charges filed against the judge for domestic violence.
ubstance abuse causes violence in various different ways. First, there is the vicious competition among rival drug dealers for customers. econd, drug abusers tend to become involved…
Schmalleger, F. (2009). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st
Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall.
S. Senator Dianne Feinstein. The legislation makes the provision of over $ billion in funding "for gang prevention, intervention and law enforcement programs over five years and establishes new crimes and tougher penalties to deter and punish members of illegal street gangs." (Feinstein, 2007) the legislation proposed by Feinstein would make illegal participation in a criminal street gang a federal crime. The legislation criminalizes violent crimes in furtherance or in aid of criminal street gangs and creates a new criminal offense for murder and other violent crimes committed in furtherance of a drug trafficking crime. Under the present law, "a felon's criminal street gang involvement can be treated at most as a sentencing enhancement, adding no more than 10 years to a sentence. This bill establishes far higher penalties for violent gang crimes, including the possibility of life imprisonment without parole for murder, kidnapping, aggravated sexual abuse, or maiming. If…
Matthews, D. And Ruzicka, K. (2000) Proposition 21: Juvenile Crime. Capital Center for Government and Law Policy - California Initiative Review. March 2000 initiatives - Proposition 21. Pacific McGeorge School of Law. Online available at http://www.mcgeorge.edu/government_law_and_policy/california_initiative_review/march_2000/ccglp_cir_march2000_prop_21.htm .
McKim, J.B. And Rhor, Monica (2007) Justice by Geography (Orange County Register) 3 June 2007. Online available at http://dist08.casen.govoffice.com/index.asp?Type=B_PR&SEC=%7BE917F382-8B46-4C4E-976E-64261965F209%7D&DE=%7BCA01ACE7-2B51-4E14-8DE4-3C7CC3E4DDFB%7D
Governor Scwarzenegger Endorsees Senator Feinstein's Comprehensive Gang Legislation. (2007) United States Senator Dianne Feinstein California. 20 March 2007. Online available at http://feinstein.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=NewsRoom.PressReleases&ContentRecord_id=7189577e-cc9b-d379-16f3-c9194d249b56&Region_id=&Issue_id=
Velasquez, N. (2007) L.A. City Attorney Delgadillo Establishes New Policy Regarding Gang Injunction Violations: New Policy Enables Check of Convicted Gang Injunction Violators' Residency Status. 5 April 2007. Online available at http://www.lacity.org/atty/index/attyindex56044369_04052007.pdf .
Jamaican Posse Violence / Organized Crime
Jamaican Posse Violence
Violent Jamaican posses are not new. They have been around since shortly after Hurricane Charlie struck Jamaica, back in 1951 (Gunst, 1996). Jamaicans with gang violence in mind came to the United States in 1971, and began their activities in that country as early as 1976 (Gunst, 1996). Gun battles with police and drive-by shootings with rival gangs were common, generally based on arguments over drugs and territory. In 1984, the posses started to attract the attention of law enforcement. Southern Florida was one of the most common places to find them, with the Shower Posse and the Spangler Posse being the most notable of the gangs at that time (Gunst, 1996). Those two gangs are still the most prominent today, and they have a bitter rivalry with one another. Anyone who happens to get caught up in their violence, even…
Gunst, L. (1996). Born fi' dead: A journey through the Jamaican posse underworld. NY: Holt.
Schatzberg, R. & Kelly, R.J. (1997). African-American organized crime: A social history. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
Risk factors are often found in clusters and their cumulative effect may lead to a greater probability that youth will become involved in crime (Garbarino, 1999). As a result then, there are not one or two factors that could cause someone to join a gang, but rather a collection of factors (Garbarino). It is possible then, by eliminating even one factor among the cluster, that programs could reduce gang involvement.
According to Esbensen (2000), many major cities have introduced gang prevention programs throughout the United States over the past 60 years. Community groups, social workers, and law enforcement personnel manage the different prevention programs in a variety of formats. he national government has also addressed the seriousness of gangs; President George W. Bush has proposed that funding be used for a three-year project to help keep youth out of gangs. First Lady Laura Bush will lead the new effort, Helping…
The approaches to gang prevention for youth have been developed using a wide variety of methods. Individual counseling can be used for behavior modification to decrease aggression, impulsiveness, and inflexible behaviors (Lipsey, M.W., Wilson, D.B. And Cothern, L. 2000). Family involvement using counseling and providing parental training techniques such as modeling, role-playing instruction, and story-reading have been found to be effective (Seitz and Apfel, 1994). School-based programs are offered across the country, which often follow a rigid curriculum over varying amounts of time. Community-based organizations provide a variety of programs using supervised mentors (McGill, Mihalic, and Grotpeter, 1998) and curriculum designed to teach social skills and problem solving techniques (Wong, Catalano, Hawkins, and Chappell 1996).
Utilizing incarcerated or former gang members can also provide a powerful means to reach out to youth. The Gang Violence Reduction Program of East Los Angeles draws on former gang members to influence and prevent youth gang involvement, which was also reported to be successful (National Youth Gang Suppression and Intervention, 1994).
Types of Prevention
violence and aggression. First, different aspects of violence, such as diversity and culture, gender and psychosocial aspects are discussed. And, the ethical and legal dimensions of mandatory reporting of child and elder abuse are looked into. The emerging technologies in the field of psychology are also discussed in relation to the topic of violence and other forms of deviant behavior. Lastly, correlations of the causality and violence prevention interventions are given.
MFT: Psychology of Violence
The history of the world is mired with incidences of violence. Violence traces its origins back to prehistory, and there is barely a community, society or individual that has never experienced or witnessed some form of violence. A single incidence of violence can be powerful and unbearable whether it is terrorism, war, suicide, homicide or even systemic injustices (structural violence -- whereby there are access barriers to health care, social justice, or some other type…
Anderson, C., & Bushman, B. (2002). Human Aggression. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 27-51.
Duxbury, J., & Wright, K. (2011, March 7). Should nurses restrain violent and aggressive patients? Retrieved from Nursing Times: http://www.nursingtimes.net/nursing-practice/specialisms/mental-health/-should-nurses-restrain-violent-and-aggressive-patients/5026793.article
EIGE. (2015). What is gender-based violence. Retrieved from European Institute for Gender Equality: http://eige.europa.eu/gender-based-violence/what-is-gender-based-violence
Felson, R., Deane, G., & Armstrong, D. (2008). Do theories of crime or violence explain race differences in delinquency. Social Science Research, 624-641.
Boyz in the Hood to Gangs of New York
John Singleton's directorial debut Boyz n the Hood was released to critical acclaim in 1991, depicting with gritty realism the violence awaiting an entire generation of young men living in sprawling cities that were struggling under the weight of endemic urban decay. Starring Cuba Gooding Jr., Laurence Fishburne, Morris Chestnut and Angela Basset, Boyz n the Hood managed to capture the visceral reality of gang-related violence from a truly modern perspective, portraying the story of a vulnerable young man named Tre Styles. The concept of youthful abandonment preceding a life of gang affiliation, criminality and violence is integral to the thematic structure of Boyz n the Hood, as Tre's positive decisions throughout the film are largely influenced by his patient father Furious Styles -- while his friends from the neighborhood lack such steady parental guidance and are increasingly drawn toward the…
Rap Music: The Result of Violence
Rap music is a phenomenon that is unparalleled in America, at no other time has a music form risen in such a way and gripped a nation as fully. While, rap music has its roots in the ghettos of the U.S.A. And black culture, it is now a full scale industry that caters to the disenfranchised youth of America and bridges all gaps of culture and social level. Indeed, one of the currently most famous rappers, and relevant to this topic, is white, as are most of the current buyers and listeners to rap music. Violence and rap music are interwoven in such a way that it is impossible to completely untwine them but looking at the cause and results of violence is a different topic that needs going into as it has far reaching implications, including the government control of the music industry.…
Villani, Susan. "Impact of Media on Children and Adolescents: A 10-year review of the research," Publication: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, April 1, 2001.
The National Media Violence Study, Federman, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1995 "Preventing and Producing Violence: A Critical Analysis of Responses to School Violence." Harvard Educational Review.
Bayles, Martha. Hole In Our Soul: The Loss of Beauty and Meaning in American Popular Music, by, New York: The Free Press, 1996.
Doherty, Brian. Listen up! Eminem gives a voice to his generation, February 18, 2001, issue of the Detroit News
..This perspective is from the U.S.A.; in Europe, violence in school and the concern about violence may not be at similar levels, but it is undoubtedly a topic of major concern (Smith, 2003, p. 1).
This article also makes the important point that school is intended as a developmental and educational environment and that violence in its various forms negatively effects and detracts from the goals of education.
Another general work that adds to the underlying body of knowledge on this topic is Stealing the Show? Crime and Its Impact in Post-Apartheid South Africa by Mark Shaw and Peter Gastrow (2001). Among others, this study makes a cogent assessment of the way that crime and violence is measured and reported in South Africa.
Most researchers assume that official crime statistics -- that is, those collected and released by the South African Police Service -- provide a poor indication of levels…
Abbink, J. & Kessel, I.V. (Eds.). (2005). Vanguard or Vandals: Youth, Politics, and Conflict in Africa. Boston: Brill. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=114080610
Bility K.M. (1999) School Violence and Adolescent Mental Health in South Africa: Implications for School Health Programs. "http: Sociological Practice, Vol. 01, No, 4, pp. 285-303 www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Carton, B. (2003). The Forgotten Compass of Death: Apocalypse Then and Now in the Social History of South Africa. Journal of Social History, 37(1), 199+. Retrieved January 3, 2009, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002024684
Center for Justice and Crime Prevention. Retrieved January 2, 2009, at http://www.cjcp.org.za/
excess of five million U.S. healthcare employees from numerous professions execute a wide selection of responsibilities. They're subjected to numerous safe practices risks, such as violence. Current records point out that hospital personnel are at high-risk for encountering violence at work. A number of reports say that violence normally takes place during periods of higher activity as well as communication and interaction with individuals, for example at meals and throughout visiting hours along with patient transport. Attacks can happen whenever services are rejected, whenever a client is involuntarily accepted, or whenever a healthcare employee tries to set limitations on consuming, drinking, or even tobacco or alcohol consumption (USDOL, 2001).
isks for Workplace Violence
Patient risks consist of those intoxicated by alcohol and drugs, prior reputation of violence, psychological diseases for example schizophrenia, gang member, use of firearms, and city youthful male of lesser socioeconomic position.
Environmental risks such as…
Allen, P. (2009). Violence in the Emergency Department: Tools & Strategies to Create a Violence-Free ED. Springer Publishing Company.
Emergency Nurses Association (ENA) (2010). Emergency Department Violence Surveillance Study.
Janocha, J.A. And Smith, R.T. (2010). Workplace safety and health in the health care and social assistance industry, 2003-2007. Bureau of Labor Statistics. http://www.bls.gov/opub/cwc/sh20100825ar01p1.htm
NIOSH. (2002). Violence: Occupational Hazards in Hospitals. April 2002. http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/pdfs/2002-101.pdf
ather than the all-or-nothing strong social constructivist extremes described above, a more balanced view is presented by Kuper and Kuper who suggest that it is the meaning of violence that is social constructed rather than violence itself. According to these authorities, "Public debates, as well as criminal trial defences, revolve around the use, meaning and consequences of violent actions. Often the subjective meanings of violence, and the social and political contexts within which violence arises, are contested and contestable. The meanings of violence are socially constructed" (emphasis added) (Kuper & Kuper 2004, p. 1048).
While these socially constructed explanations are clearly important to understanding violence, including how it can affect those involved and what may cause it, they do not come face-to-face with the issue of whether violence per se would continue to exist in a world without humans around to create the social constructions that strong social constructivists…
Burstyn, J.N., Bender, G. & Casella, R. et al. 2001 Preventing Violence in Schools: A Challenge
to American Democracy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Fish, S. 1995 Professional Correctness: Literary Studies and Political Change. New York:
Goldman, a.I. 2002 Pathways to Knowledge: Private and Public. New York: Oxford
gang crime in Boston. I would ask what impact spiritual community involvement has on this crime rate and how can spirituality be used to lower violence.
Ron, I tend to agree with much of what you have written in response to the Boston crime case study. I agree that the spiritual factors and relationship to God are important factors in the human treatment of one another. Criminology seems reluctant to address the impact of religious and spiritual involvement within the community due to the ability to free one's mind. By incorporating stress theory, you seem to link your arguments in a cohesive manner that convinces me that you have compiled a compelling argument.
Valerie, your points about recidivism bring up great ideas in approaching this problem from a different angle. It seems that the criminal justice system is over eager in punishing people, but an appropriate system seems…
The Issue of Gangs
History of Gangs in the United States of America
Northeast egion (specifically New York City
Midwest egion (specifically Chicago)
West egion (specifically Los Angeles)
South egion First period
Current Status of Gangs in the United States of America
Types of Gangs in the United States of America
Factors Triggering Indulgence in Gangs
Impacts of Gang Activities on United States of America
ecommendations for Community esponse
This paper will analyze the nature of gang membership within the United States of America by delving into the historical trends and current status of gang membership in the nation. Moreover, the paper will also discuss the factors that trigger the formation of gangs in the state. In addition, it will also put light on the types of gangs that exist in the U.S.A., and the impacts that these entities have on the nation. Furthermore, it will also propose recommendations…
Howell, J., Egley, A., Tita, G., & Griffiths, E. (2011). U.S. Gang Problem Trends and Seriousness, 1996-2009, pp. 1-14. Tallahassee: Institute for Intergovernmental Research. Retrieved from http://www.nationalgangcenter.gov/content/documents/bulletin-6.pdf
Howell, J., & Griffiths, E. (2015). Gangs in America's Communities. [S.l.]: Sage Publications.
Madden, V. (2013). Understanding the Mental Health Needs of Young People involved in Gangs, pp. 3-26. London: Westminster Joint Health and Wellbeing Board. Retrieved from http://www.mac-uk.org/wped/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Mental-Health-and-Gangs-Report-2013.pdf
Pappas, C. (2001). U.S. Gangs: Their Changing History and Contemporary Solution, pp. 1-14. Washington, D.C: Youth Advocate Program International. Retrieved from http://yapi.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/report-gangs.pdf
Schools have more esponsibility to Prevent School Violence than ever before
Issues related to school violence have become an increasingly salient issue in modern society. This issue affects schools on many levels. On one level, there rise in the number of tragedies such as mass shootings have increased and these incidents clearly illustrate the need for safer educational environments for children and adolescents. However, there are also more subtle examples of violence that can occur in school environments such as bullying. The evidence that bullying is severe physical and psychological detriment to students has become increasingly clear. Furthermore, technology has also offered new platforms in which violence can occur between students. For example, there have been many cases of online bullying that have occurred on social networks. This analysis will provide a brief overview of different types of violence that can occur in schools as well as a…
Adelman, H., & Taylor, L. (2002). Building Comprehensive, Multifaceted, and Integrated Approaches to Address Barriers to Student Learning. . Childhood Education, 261-268.
Beccerra, S., Munoz, F., & Riquelme, E. (2015). School violence and school coexistence management: unresolved challenges. Procedia, 156-163.
Crews, G. (2014). School Violence Perpetrators Speak: An Examination of Perpetrators Views on School Violence Offenses. Jouranl of the Institute of Justice and International Studies, 41-62.
deviance relates to the American Dream
In his book, Always unning: La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A., Luis J. odriguez uses his own experience and writing talents to tell the story of lives that are caught in the fire of bad luck. Children who happened to be born in some of the poorest neighborhoods of LA in the 1960's, 70s or 80s, as odriguez, were condemned to contamination from the gang life that was going in the streets, around their homes, even creeping into their porches. The U.S. was marching on its way to become a world leader while huge urban areas like those of LA or Chicago were infested and ruled by a way of life that had little or nothing to do with the "American dream." Prostitution, drugs, alcohol and extreme violence, were the four main driving forces of "progress" in the "barrios." Life had little to…
Rodriguez's account of his own life is, as underlined before, a story that makes one think outside one's own little universe. He does not use pathos in his writing, he would rather present the facts as they are, as painful as that might be. Because of his frankness, he writes, some schools have banned his book from their library shelves or taken it out of their reading lists. Those he is writing about are too real and too close to the students who might come across this book. Is it possible that some school officials were afraid that the experiences described here could be harmful for those young minds and sous they were supposed to train for life? Were they afraid the children might get contaminated by its lecture? In fact, the question is: is it possible that the people populating this book could be harmful for the entire American society because they are a part of it and not a separate entity, as they would like to keep it?
Conley, Dalton. 2013. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking Like a Sociologist (Core Third Edition). W.W. Norton. New York. London Rodriguez, Luis J. 2012. Always Running: La Vida Loca: Gang Days in L.A, Open Road Media, Jun 12, 2012
Pacheco, Juan. 2009. March 12 forum at UCLA on "Global Perspectives on Youth & Violence." Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLCjpX9aDmY
Gangs in Public School
Many schools especially in urban and suburban areas continue to register gang-related activities within their premises and involving their students. This study appreciates the dangers associated with such gangs to the schools and other stakeholders around them. Various laws and regulation have been passed in different states in the U.S. allow parents to withdraw their children from certain public schools. Schools reputed for gang-related problems stand to lose students. This paper provides the scope of action steps in which schools take to intervene, prevent, and suppress the scope of violent gang activity while establishing crisis response plans. The strategies are developed to address potential actions of school violence including gang activity.
Gang members bring in their attitudes, behaviors, and conflicts to the school compounds. The dangerous gang issues and activities of a given community take place within local schools. Gang members take on each other within…
Branch, C., (2013). Adolescent Gangs: Old Issues, New Approaches. New York: Routledge.
Garot, R. (2010). Who You Claim: Performing Gang Identity in School and on the Streets. NYU Press
Kinnear, K.L. (2009). Gangs: A Reference Handbook. New York: ABC-CLIO.
Macnab, N. (2012). Uncle Sam's Schoolhouse: Bullying, Predators, and Students. New York: Dog Ear Publishing
gangs of New York film
Gangs of New York" is a chronological film directed by Martin Scorsese. It is film that blend well with the novel "The Gangs of New York," written by Herbert Asbury (Asbury). The film narrates using commended historical precision, the Five Points district of New York City during the mid-19th century (Gilfoyle 620). This film includes, among other issues, a precise depiction of the grueling socio-political environment of the Five Points; at the same time accentuating on the extensive injustices and harassment caused by this society.
Gangs of New York - Executive summary
The film Gangs of New York has a high level of racism, war, and political corruption. The production of this film occurs between 1846 and 1862. The story narrates about the issues surrounding the Irish immigrants and the Americans citizens who take the name of the Native Americans. Amsterdam Vallon comes back to…
Gangs have been thorns on the flesh of the citizens of the United States no wonder they have occupied a prominent position in American criminological literature. Gang wars between the Crips and the Bloods in Los Angeles are testament to the gang culture among certain communities in the United States. As opposed to the Dutch youth who are interested in music and romance of the West Side Story, especially the video clips and compact disc with gangster rap, the Americans juveniles appear to have negative associations (Klein, 2001). The language of the youngsters perceived to be engaging in juvenile gang activities is characterized by hyperbole and contains refers to competition and violence. The youth style personified by rappers like Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G. who appeared to talk about the hard life in their neighborhoods referred to juvenile gangs. This research paper seeks to review literature on criminal…
Defleur, L.B. (1967). Delinquent Gangs in Cross-Cultural Perspective: the Case of Cordoba.
Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 4(1), 132-141.
Flores, J.R. (2006). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED495786.pdf
Klein, M. (2001). The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. And Europe. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
(St. Lawrence). Delivering the intervention while housed in correctional facilities has the advantages of minimizing attrition, maintaining attendance at sessions, successfully delivering greater intervention dosage, and controlling for both the assessments and the intervention delivery. The disadvantages, as indicated above, are twofold: First, incarcerated girls will not have real-world opportunities to practice newly acquired skills between sessions; second, potential concerns exist regarding whether content acquired from an intervention delivered during their incarceration can
be expected to generalize from the institutional setting into their daily lives after they return to their homes (St. Lawrence).
. It is the behaviors of the youth in the gang that are viewed by the larger community as disruptive and harmful to the gang members themselves as well as to the community. Ironically, the sense of solidarity achieved from sharing everyday life with similarly situated people has the unintended effect of drawing many youth into behaviors…
Belknap, Joanne, and Kristi Holsinger. "The Gendered Nature of Risk Factors for Delinquency." Feminist Criminology 1.48 (2006). Print.
Murrish, Helen. "Youth Gang Membership: Gender Difference and Gang Participation." La Follette School of Public Affairs (2001). Web. 15 July 2010.
St. Lawrence, Janet S., Edward C. Snodgrass, Angela Robertson, and Connie Baird-Thomas. "Minimizing the Risk of Pregnancy, Sexually Transmitted Disease and HIV among Incarcerated Adolescent Girls." Criminal Justice and Behavior 35.1500 (2008). Print.
Wingood, Gina, Ralph DiClemente Jr., Rick Crosby, Kathy Harrington, Susan L. Davies, and Edward W. Hook, III. "Gang Involvement and the Health of African-American Females." Pediatrics: Office Journal of the American Academy of Pediatricians 110 (2002). Print.
prison gang is a select group of inmates with an organized chain of command and an established code of conduct. They operate in secrecy with a view to controlling their prison environment through intimidation and violence meted on non-members. Some of the oldest prison gangs in the U.S. were formed as early as 1950s. Some notable example is Gypsy Jokers that operated in Washington State prisons (Fleisher & Decker, 2001). Violence in correctional facilities in the United States is something that has been with us for quite a while. Prisoners and prison officers have both fallen victims to this violence.
Think of the San Antonio, Texas incident where 281 prisoners were stabbed and 13 slain (The Ledger, 1984). There was divided opinion on what motivated such heinous acts with some prison officials opining that prison gangs who were divided along racial lines were responsible. Some attacks were thought to be…
Fleisher, M.S. & Decker, S.H. (2001). An overview of the Challenge of Prison Gangs.
Corrections Management Quarterly, 5(1), 1-9.
Knox, G.W. (2005). The Problem of Gangs and Security Threat Groups (STG's) in American
Prisons Today: Recent Research Findings From the 2004 Prison Gang Survey. Retrieved from http://www.ngcrc.com/corr2006.html
Deglamorizing American Street Gangs
Social researcher and author Deborah Lamm eisel (2002) says that the glamorized image of the American street gang as drug dealers is not the image that is consistent with historical research (Lamm eisel 75).
The drug gang} is certainly not a typical street gang... They didn't even grow out of a street gang. These kids started out to make money by pedaling crack and that is a very different phenomenon than street gangs (Knox 66) (Lamm eisel 75)."
Lamm eisel has gone back to the essence of the historical gangs that go back to the earliest immigrants who carved out sections of neighborhoods for themselves using coercion and violence to maintain territorial boundaries. However, it is easy to disagree with Knox, because for decades now street gangs have been associated with the violence and trafficking of illegal drugs.
In a journal article by John M. Hagedorn…
Contemporary Gangs: An Organizational Analysis. New York: LFB Scholoarly Publishing, 2002. Questia. 14 May 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=111541620 .
Coppola, Francis Ford (dir). The Godfather, motion picture. Paramount Pictures (1972), USA.
S. And maintain approximately as many members (both domestically and abroad) as the Hell's Angels. Their criminal activities are more focused on the manufacturing, distribution, and sales of cocaine, marijuana, and methamphetamines. The banditos use "puppet" or minor affiliate clubs who are not themselves Banditos but operate with the Banditos' authority and conduct some the parent club's criminal activities on their behalf.
In the modern era, widespread crackdowns and joint operations initiated by state and federal law enforcement authorities and legislative tools such as the federal acketeer Influenced and Corruption Organizations (ICO) Act have greatly reduced the influence of the Italian Mafia/LCN in American society but organized crime still persists, even if on a much smaller scale than half a century ago. However, whereas the power and reach of LCN has been greatly reduced, a significant influx of newer criminal enterprises has filled much of the gap vacated in…
Henslin, J. (2002). Essentials of Sociology: A Down-to-Earth Approach. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Macionis, J. (2003). Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., and Miller, C. "Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin,
September 2007: 1-7.
In fact, when it comes to terrorism, strangers are, generally, the ambit of their activities.
There have been some activities, however, that have targeted innocent civilians and the motives and actions, in these cases, have ominously paralleled terrorist stratagems and motivations. A case in kind occurred in December, 2004, when an intercity bus in Honduras, Central America was intercepted and sprayed with machine gunfire and 28 passengers, mainly women and children, were killed first by the gunfire then by the assailants climbing abroad the bus and methodically executing the passengers17. The objective was a protest against the Honduran government who had recently reinstated the death penalty.
Another similarity is in their pattern of operation where, like al-Quida, they operate in a form of loose, unstructured cells that form a global dispersed network. Similarly, too, their individual ceils are devoted to similar activities and some are quite sophisticated. These include activities…
Bunker, R. J. 'Epochal Change: War over Social and Political Organization', Parameters, vol. 27, no. 2, Summe, 1997
Derbeken, Jaxon Van."Widow pleads for death penalty." San Francisco Chronicle. June 27, 2008.
Del Barco, M. "The International Reach of the Mara Salvatrucha." NPR.org (May 2, 2011). http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4539688
Elkus, a. Foreign Policy in Focus "Gangs, terrorists, and trade" (April 12, 2007)
Monkey Wrench Gang," by Edward Abbey [...] issue, where does Monkey Wrenching (the type of political activity in the Monkey Wrench Gang) fit into protest politics as a bridge to mass movement politics? Is Monkey Wrenching a part of the fabric of participatory democracy? Monkey Wrenching is clearly extraordinary politics, but does it have a place in our participatory representative democracy?
THE MONKEY WRENCH GANG
Participation in America may seem like a dying art, but every day, thousands of Americans participate in their communities, take care of others, and spout their political beliefs for the betterment of all. From grandmothers who read to children in their local library, to college student protesting the war in Iraq, citizens in America have the right to change the world, one person at a time. Edward Abbey's "The Monkey Wrench Gang" is a novel of participation at its best. The motley gang of four…
Abbey, Edward. The Monkey Wrench Gang. New York: Perennial Classics, 2000.
In album after album, women are referred to as *****es, hoes, gold diggers, and chickenheads, and this representation of women as sexual objects for men's use is a common trope within this genre (Crossley 2005). The sex act is openly portrayed as being about the body and the availability of the body, and the use of neuter pronouns heightens its alleged objectivity and divorces it from personal significance (Crossley 2005). For example, lyrics in Snoop Dogg's "Bring it on," include, "I'm qualified to knock a hoe, "Got it cracking with my hoe" (Crossley 2005).
Gangsta rap music is essentially the vocalization of sentiments that have lived long within the political environment of the African-American community. To feel empowered, African-American males attempt to keep women subordinate.
Cheney, Charise. (2005 June 22). In search of the "revolutionary generation":
en) gendering the golden age of rap nationalism. The Journal of African-American…
Cheney, Charise. (2005 June 22). In search of the "revolutionary generation":
en) gendering the golden age of rap nationalism. The Journal of African-American History. Retrieved December 17, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Crossley, Scott. (2005 December 22). Metaphorical conceptions in hip-hop music.
African-American Review. Retrieved December 17, 2006 from HighBeam
al, 1994). Furthermore, the role of police in a community has to change from merely trying to suppress gang activity to actively trying to prevent gang activity. (Spergel, et. al, 1994).
The proliferation of gangs is one of the most pressing social problems facing modern America. While the primary purpose of gangs may be to engage in criminal activity, they serve other social functions that attract teens as gang members. Each teen who becomes involved in a gang runs a significant risk of not being able to participate in normal, non-criminal society. Therefore, it is important to understand how teens become involved in gangs and to focus efforts on prevention. Although no one theory seems capable of entirely explaining how and why teens become involved in gangs, the various criminological theories and the social disorganization theory are capable of giving insight into why children feel attracted to gangs. These theories…
Cantillon, D., Davidson, W., & Schweitzer, J. (2003). Measuring community social organization: sense of community as a mediator in social disorganization theory.
Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 321-339.
Jones, D. et al. (2004). Street gangs: a review of theory, interventions, and implications for corrections. Ottawa: Research Branch Correctional Service of Canada.
National Youth Gang Center. (2006). National youth gang survey analysis. Retrieved November 2, 2006 from National Youth Gang Center
urban violence as it relates to a significant family stressor. The author examines the causes of violence as related to family stressors and applies a program to it to affect change. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
The problem with urban violent is not just a problem for those who are involved. The occurrence of urban violence impacts the local business, schools, and families of those who are near the area. When urban violence begins to appear several things begin to happen. Businesses are affected because the consumer does not want to go into the area to shop. This causes economic problems for the businesses and they close down. Once they close down this means a loss of jobs, which can contribute to the poverty level that has been documented as a contributing factor to urban violence. It is a vicious circle that perpetuates itself. The schools…
Adolescent development: challenges and opportunities for research, programs, and policies.
Segregation and crime: the effect of black social isolation on the rates of black urban violence.
Lerner JV, Lerner RM. 1983. Temperament and adaptation across life: theoretical and empirical issues. In Life-Span Development and Behavior, ed. PB Baltes, OG Brim Jr., 5:197-230. New York: Academic. 411 pp.
Lerner RM. 1995. America's Youth in Crisis: Challenges and Options for Programs and Policies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 147 PP.
Young people growing up in Compton, East Los Angeles, and other communities with high rates of poverty, social disorganization, and anomie are exposed to a number of risk factors that are conducive to gang membership. Those risk factors include "poverty, immigration, discrimination, social isolation, limited educational opportunities, low parental monitoring, drug use," and some degree of positive reinforcement for gang membership (Freng & Taylor, n.d., p. 135). Moreover, gangs have historically been entrenched in Los Angeles, and some contemporary gangs can trace their historical roots to the early 20th century, which imbues those social organizations with a relatively high social status coupled with nostalgia and family pressures. esearch has shown that tradition plays an important role in multigenerational gangs in that "the long history of multigenerational gangs, coupled with parents' former involvement with the same neighborhood gangs, brings a sense of tradition to the gangs," ("Gangs, Family, and the Gang…
Cahill, et al. (2015). Evaluation of the Los Angeles Gang Reduction and Youth Development Program. Retrieved online: http://www.urban.org/sites/default/files/alfresco/publication-pdfs/2000622-Evaluation-of-the-Los-Angeles-Gang-Reduction-and-Youth-Development-Program-Year-4-Evaluation-Report.pdf
Freng, A. & Taylor, T.J. (n.d.). Race and ethnicity: what are their roles in gang membership? United States Department of Justice. Retrieved online: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/243474.pdf
"Gangs, Family, and the Gang as Family," (n.d.). Retreived online: http://family.jrank.org/pages/674/Gangs-Family-Gangs-Gang-Family.html
Hoover, M. (1999). Where all the madness began. 28 May, 1999. Retrieved online: https://web.stanford.edu/class/e297c/poverty_prejudice/gangcolor/madness.htm
The authors do not state that public perceptions of severity should be discounted, but merely that these should not be over-emphasized, as was the case in previous literature.
Another existing mode of measuring crime severity is that of economic models. Economic measures of costs may seem more objective, but given that they also involve speculative losses (such as lost productivity), they are not universally agreed upon. One widely-used model to estimate crime severity is the Bradley-Terry continuum which posits that stealing something less than $5 is less severe than stealing "something worth $5 -- $50, which itself is less severe than trying to steal something worth more than $50. Additionally, stealing or trying to steal a car is ranked more severe than the other theft items. Selling marijuana is also ranked less severe than selling harder drugs such as heroin, cocaine, or LSD" (amchand et al. 2009: 143). The authors…
Perry, B. (2003). Where do we go from here? Researching hate crimes. Internet Journal of Criminology. Retrieved: http://www.internetjournalofcriminology.com/Where%20Do%20We%20Go%20From%20Here.%20Researching%20Hate%20Crime.pdf
Merl, J. (2013). Victims of 1999 hate-crime shooting endorse Mike Feuer. LA Times. Retrieved:
Career Development Program Juveniles in Gangs
The intervention plan provides various professional and organizational insights on the program and facilitation service. The program recognizes the relevance of initiating capacity, professionalism and skills of the persons involved while contributing towards the achievement of the strategic priorities and goals. The programs provide consultative information and services for the units of planning, team development and implementation of change processes (Bradshaw, et al., 2013). The system coordinates training in the correctional units. The medium-term goals of the project include providing advice and support for the application and development of staff and organizational development initiatives. The suite of program components will build on professional capabilities, leadership and management skills, organizational knowledge and team performance and development.
Various authors have literature on correctional systems. The practical approaches in gang situations include the need to address service delivery problems. The programs involve different stakeholders and…
Anonymous, (2004). Gangs and Delinquency in Developmental Perspective. Adolescence, vol. 39, (153): 187
Bradshaw, C. P. et al., (2013). Bullies, Gangs, Drugs, and School: Understanding the Overlap and the Role of Ethnicity and Urbanicity. J Youth Adolescence. Vol. 42:220-234
Holder, Jr., E. H., Robinson, L. O. & Slowikowski, J. (2010). Best Practices to Address community Gang Problems: OJJDP's Comprehensive Gang Model. National Gang Center
Koffman, S., et al., (2009). The impact of a Comprehensive Whole Child Intervention and Prevention Program among Youths at Risk of Gang Involvement and Other Forms of Delinquency. Children & Schools, vol. 31(4):239-244