German Unification Essays (Examples)

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Reunification on the German State

Words: 7928 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51740385

In this regard, artee (2000) points out that the Leipzig protest of January 15, 1989, was a good example of how social protest in the East was becoming more sophisticated and organized, with thousands of activists distributing leaflets calling for attendance at the rally all over Leipzig around midnight of January 11-12, 1989: "The leaflets boldly called for an open demonstration the next Sunday afternoon in front of Leipzig's old Rathaus (City Hall). The occasion, the 70th anniversary of the murders of Rosa Luxemburg and Karl Liebknecht, offered the opportunity to publicize Luxemburg's famous statement that 'freedom means always freedom for those who think differently'" (artee 2000, 121). This author adds that the efforts by the activists during January 1988 to join the official parade with banners of their own clearly inspired the Leipzig protestors: "The Leipzig event would be different, however; it would be independent of any official ceremonies.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bartee, Wayne C. 2000. A time to speak out: The Leipzig citizen protests and the fall of East Germany. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.

Berger, T. 2001. German unification and the Union of Europe. German Politics and Society 19(1):80.

Conradt, D.P. 2002. Political culture in unified Germany: The first ten years. German Politics and Society 20(2):43.

Edwards, Vincent, Gennadij Polonsky, Danijel Pucko, Malcolm Warner and Ying Zhu. 2004. Management in transitional economies: From the Berlin Wall to the Great Wall of China. New York: Routledge.
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How Did Otto Von Bismarck Achieve the Unification of Germany

Words: 2441 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21512322

Otto Von Bismarck achieve the unification of Germany?

Del Delosandro T. Dugeon

Western Civilization II History 1102

It is proven by many centuries of international relations' history that some strong country appeared every century and was able to change the traditional system of international relations according to own values in this sphere. For example XVII century can be characterized as a period of French influence when French monarchs considered the main priorities of their foreign policy to be fighting for national interests of their mono-national country. XVIII century is famous for British equilibrium conception which meant that no European country should be stronger that any other state, particularly Britain. And the same occurred in 19th century when Germany led by Bismarck created new order in Europe, which meant that the major factor of international relations was military and economical strength. So, French theory of "raigon d'etat" (which meant using any…… [Read More]

References:

1. Zieger, Michael The Iron Chancellor J& QPublishers 1979.

2. Geiss, Imanuel Bridgham, Fred The Question of German Unification: 1806-1996 University of California Press 1999

3. Schneider, Bruno German Empire Pacific Press 2000

4. Eyck, Erich Bismarck and the German Empire W.W. Norton & Company 1964
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Historical Relationship and Differences Between Western and Eastern Europe From German Perspective

Words: 2655 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86422213

Germany West East

In the post-unification Germany of the present, the country seems to be caught between two worlds. Certainly, reservations about German power have tapered off. Germany has not become an irredentist nationalist power in European Union attire. In its relations with Western Europe, Germany has been successful in dispelling such fears. In Eastern Europe, the perception and the actual role of Germany is not bathed as much in the warm light of multilateralism. The challenge is not just for Germany to work harder to convince the East that it is well-intentioned. The deeper challenge however is to confront the fact that historical and structural constraints converge to create a situation of asymmetric dependence, rather than asymmetric interdependence, complicated further by the process of European integration and globalization. As being the land in between ussia and Germany, one can understand their nervousness. However, Germany is part of the West…… [Read More]

References

Adebahr, Cornelius. The Comprehensive Approach to Crisis Management in a Concerted Weimar

Effort. Genshagen: Genshagen Foundation, 2011. 1-18.

"Berlin's European Recession." German-foreign-policy.. German-foreign-policy., 16 March 2012. Web.

22 Mar 2012.
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Pre World War One German Nationalism

Words: 1878 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74479719

Nationalism was a global trend by the time the Great War broke out. Each nation state developed its own national identity via the use of myths, symbols, and ideology that ranged from ethnic solidarity to political values. Nationalism in Germany became especially potent after the Franco-Prussian War, during which Bismarck wielded his political and military prowess in formidable ways. Crucial to winning the war campaign was a sense of national pride and identity, which Otto von Bismarck promoted through an idealized unity between disparate religious and cultural groups within the various German-speaking states. In addition to promoting a sense of regional identity, Bismarck also championed the vision of an epic, legendary, heroic German state grounded in a sense of power and prestige. Also characteristic to German nationalism was a sense of pride in the act of struggle itself, another point that Bismarck promoted through his speeches. German nationalism had been…… [Read More]

References

Bismarck, Otto von. The Imperial Proclamation, January 18, 1871

Otto von Bismarck: Letter to Minister von Manteuffel, 1856

Otto von Bismark: Nationalist Speech. April 1, 1895. Retrieved online: https://kquazza.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/blood-and-iron-nationalist-speech.pdf

Johann Gustav Droysen: Speech to the Frankfurt Assembly, 1848
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Protestant German Christian Church Around the Time of the Nazis

Words: 3304 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67648507

orld ar I and orld ar II, a great deal of interest has been paid to the German Christian Church and Movement. The focus of this discussion will be on the German Christian Church and movement, specifically the protestant Church (people's church), after I and through II and the Nazi movement. The purpose of this discussion is to illustrate that the protestant German Christian church's ideology was not a product of Nazi orders or a response to Neo-Pagan influences, but in fact, was derivative of the post I culture of German.

Background Info

According to a book entitled Twisted Cross: the German Christian Movement in the Third Reich, the German Christian Movement was composed of Protestants, both clergy and lay people. The author asserts that people that were a part of this movement believed that Nazi Rule was a prime opportunity to spread Christian ideology.

Members of the movement believed…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=95163662

Baranowski, Shelley. "The 1933 German Protestant Church Elections: Machtpolitik or Accommodatlon?." Church History 49, no. 3 (1980): 298-315. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26215709

Barnett, Victoria J. Bystanders: Conscience and Complicity during the Holocaust. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1999. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=79117010

Barnett, Victoria. For the Soul of the People: Protestant Protest against Hitler. New York: Oxford U.S., 1998. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97937045
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Development and Composition of German Government

Words: 2756 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98222432

GERMANY & COMPOSITION OF GOVERNMENT. The research focus CURRENT ( year ) developments composition government. Preferred Resources: 1)The Economist 2) BBC News .

Development and Composition of German Government

Federalism is a key feature of the political system of Germany and its governance. Federalism dates back in the period after orld ar II when Germany was under the leadership Prussians. At this time, "Germany" consisted of a patchwork of states. These states formed the "Old Empire" (Altes Reich) with a common institution, the so-called Immerwahrender Reichstag in Regensburg (1663 -- 1806), composed of representatives of the respective territories. Its key features were power-sharing, bargaining and compromise-seeking (Kitschelt and olfgang 16).

Following the dissolution of that Empire in 1806, 39 territories formed, under Napoleon's protectorate, the Rheinbund (Rhine-Confederation) which was unwieldy and inefficient. The Vienna Congress in 1815 established, the confederal Deutscher Bund, as successor of the Old Empire and with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kitschelt, H., and S. Wolfgang. "Germany: Beyond the Stable State (Special Issue),, 26:4." West European Politics 26.4 (2010): 12-26. Print.

Scarrow, Susan. "Party Subsidies and the Freezing of Party Competition: Do Cartels Work?" West European Politics 29.4 (2010): 619-39. Print.

Streeck, Wolfgang, and Thelen. Kathleen. . Beyond Continuity: Institutional Change in Advanced Political Economies (Eds). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Print.

The Economist. "Ready for a Bush Hug " The Economist 2006: 15-19. Print.
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Luchino Visconti Is a Well-Known

Words: 2045 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43632584

The naked man causes Ludwig to feel odd and in his desperation, pleads to the heavens to help him signifying his other rebellion, his dormant homosexuality. The wedding follows and Elisabeth steals the show with Sophie falling to the background. What happens later is a failed rendezvous with a prostitute and other failed attempts of Ludwig to behave like a heterosexual. His desires to be around Wagner vs. Sophie and the subsequent scene with the valet demonstrate more and more Ludwig increasing desire to seek the company of men. This leads then to a deteriorating condition in which a bandage is over his eyes. He is fooling around in a Bavarian inn implying he yet again gives in to his homosexual tendencies much like the SA revelry in the previous movie, The Damned. The film ends with the government planning to depose him much like what happened in reality and…… [Read More]

References

Bacon, H. (1998). Visconti: explorations of beauty and decay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Blunt, W. (1970). The Dream King, Ludwig II of Bavaria. New York: Viking Press.

Cardullo, B. (2009). After neorealism: Italian filmmakers and their films: essays and interviews. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.

Landy, M. (2000). Italian film. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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British Reluctance to Join Euro

Words: 4316 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20386970

" (Risse, 1998) First, the "Euro is about European union rather than just lowering transaction costs" and secondly "intuitionalists arguments about path dependent processes offer significant insights if they are linked to the more constructivist reasoning" which Risse develops in his work. (1998) Third stated is the primary argument is that "the visions about European order which give political meaning to EMU, need to be understood in the framework of identity politics." (Risse, 1998) Risse states that the controversial nature of relationships of political elites in the 'big three' as well as the various attitudes "can be explained by differences in the construction of national collective identities and their relationship to European order." (Risse, 1998) Risse note that historically, money "...has been closely linked to state- and nation-building." (1998) There is no exception when it comes to the Euro and while the Euro has been "incorporated into their (Germany and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Pettinger, R. (2007) Why the UK Will Never Join the EURO. 1 Mar 2007 Economics Essays. Online available at  http://www.economicshelp.org/2007/03/why-uk-will-never-join-euro.html 

Jones, Alistair (2007) Britain and the European Union. Edinburgh University Press. Online available at http://books.google.com/books?id=TPIVYIO4NsoC&pg=PA175&lpg=PA175&dq=british+reluctance+to+join+the+eu&source=web&ots=LSnWPXcjXM&sig=nEaqcfIyPijSiJofXJ8Y02DQEck&hl=en#PPT1,M1

To Euro or Not to Euro: The EMU and Identity Politics in the European Union. ARENA Working Papers WP 98/1. 15 Jan 1998. Online available at http://www.arena.uio.no/publications/wp98_1.htm#Note4+5

Buller, Jim (2003) the Disadvantage of Tying One's Hands: The Rise and Fall of the Europeanization of the British Monetary Policy. In University of Sheffield, Department of Politics, ESRC/UACES Series of Seminars on EBPP 19 Sept 2003. Online University of Pittsburg available at  http://aei.pitt.edu/1717/
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ECB Can Be Successful at Emulating the

Words: 16733 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36972206

ECB can be successful at emulating the stategic model set foth by the Geman Bundesbank. The discussion will focus on the fact that the ECB is facing diffeent poblems as it is still in the developmental phases. The investigation will seek to detemine whethe the tools of the Bundesbank can povide suppot fo the ECB in achieving economic stability in the Euopean Monetay Union.

Reseach about this paticula topic is impotant because the Euopean Union is expected to expand in the yeas to come. In addition, many membes of the Euopean Union have opted to have a single cuency. This means that economic stability is even moe essential in ensue that the Euopean Monetay System is economically efficient.

The methodology fo this eseach will encompass seveal foms. Fistly, the eseach will contain backgound infomation about the ECB and the Bundesbank. In addition, the eseach will contain a liteatue eview to…… [Read More]

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The Challenges and Prospects in

Words: 2209 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85036027


And though there are many who will view the Clinton administration's
disruption of ethnic tensions in Kosovo as one of the first examples of the
Marshall Plan template in a post-Cold ar atmosphere, Buchanan (2002)
speaks of the 1999 invasion by noting that "for the first time, NATO, a
defensive alliance, took offensive action against a country putting down an
insurrection inside its own territory." (Buchanan, 29) This description of
the struggle in Kosovo as an 'insurrection,' is one that of course fails to
acknowledge the multitude of Yugoslavia's state level crimes against the
ethnic-Albanians which, in spite of their majority population in Kosovo,
had been reduced to an ethnic-minority with few state rights. The abuses
which had created hundreds of thousands of refugees would have, under
Buchanan's purview, continued unabated as, likely, ethnically driven
responses to aggression on either side would certainly have produced some
level of genocide. Thus,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bass, G. (2003). Milosevic in the Hague. Foreign Affairs, 82(3), 82-96.

Buchanan, Pat. (2002). A Republic, Not An Empire: Reclaiming America's
Destiny. Regnery Publishing, Inc.

Kunz, D. (1997). The Marshall Plan Reconsidered. Foreign Affairs, 76
(3), 162-170.
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US Foreign Policies During 1920's and 1930's

Words: 381 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5551719

U.. Foreign Policies during 1920s and 1930s

The United tates was at a crucial point in its international relations after WWI. ome scholars say that the U.. pulled out of world affairs, that it didn't actively participate in post-war reconstruction of Europe, and that it failed to behave as a powerful nation should. They most often cite the enate's failure to ratify the treaty establishing the League of Nations as evidence of this unwillingness to participate in world affairs (Constitutional Rights Foundation 1).

Other scholars, however, say that in the post-war period "the U.. emerged as world's most respectable country," (Howard 1). They note that the U.. became more involved economically, that it joined in enforcing penalties against Axis powers and that it contributed immeasurable amounts of influence on world cultures.

One answer to this difference might be that the U.. did participate in world affairs, but that it did…… [Read More]

Sources

Hampton, Mary. The Wilsonian Impulse: U.S. Foreign Policy, the Alliance, and German Unification. Westport:Praeger, 1996.

Lake, David. Entangling Relations: American Foreign Policy in its Century. New Jersey:Princeton University Press, 1999.

No author, "The Evolution of U.S. Foreign Policy," Howard University AFROTC notes, Powerpoint, available online at http://www.howard.edu/howardlife/AFROTC/files/sld407_policy.ppt

No author, "War in Iraq," Constitutional Rights Foundation, 18 paragraphs, available online at http://www.crf-usa.org/Iraqwar_html/Iraqwar_foreignpolicy1.html
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Olmec Although Scientists Found Artifacts and Art

Words: 5404 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63467824

Olmec

Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."

At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…… [Read More]

References:

1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf

2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website:  http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf 

3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website:  http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf 

4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
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Nazis' Rise to Power One

Words: 3165 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76659854

In his study of the camp doctors, he noted,

The willingness to blame Jews for Germany's troubles, making them "arch enemies of Germany." The nation was itself reduced to an abstract essence, threatened by its enemies and in need of sacred renewal and purification, through blood sacrifice if necessary. One's identity as a German, as the Nazis defined it, crowded out other possible roles. As the embodiment of this "holy, divine Reich," the Fuhrer, and not the doctors, was responsible for all that happened in the camps. Yet "even the Fuhrer could be painted as 'helpless': because the Jew's evil forced the Fuhrer to act or make war on him."

So nefarious was this hidden enemy - the Jew - that he or she was quickly seen to be responsible for every conceivable social ill, real or imagined. "Jews -- or the concept of 'the Jew' -- were equated with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65194469

Bailer-galanda, Brigitte. "8." In Antisemitism and Xenophobia in Germany after Unification, edited by Kurthen, Hermann, Werner Bergmann, and Rainer Erb, 174-188. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103409458

Bosworth, R.J.B. Explaining Auschwitz and Hiroshima: History Writing and the Second World War 1945-1990. New York: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103664388

Crew, David F. Nazism and German Society, 1933-1945. London: Routledge, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=33602574
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Strengths and Weaknesses of Italian Nationalism

Words: 1768 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16000140

Italian Nationalism

In the mid-nineteenth century, Italy had faced a great number of obstacles that would have impeded a united Italy, but for the movement of the leaders and the fighters who banded together under the same ideal. Prior to the beginning of the nineteenth century, Italy itself was split into many states and kingdoms, in accordance to the different ethnic peoples of the country. Through the political activism engaged by such celebrated names as Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour, Pallavicino and Victor Emmanuel II, and the people's enthusiasm to see their kingdoms united, Italian nationalism was not just a dream shared by many. In all respects, Italian nationalism also became a reality.

The Leaders of Italian Unification

Of the proponents regarding Italian unification, perhaps one of the most vocal of the group would be revolutionary activist Giuseppe Mazzini. As many nationalists believed, the strength of a nation came not from the…… [Read More]

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Bye Lenin the Film Good-Bye

Words: 1957 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30807551

It is a farce, founded on dishonesty: like the old regime itself. And Alex has become the neurotic, control-freak prime minister, acting on behalf of an ageing, debilitated monarch" notes Peter Bradshaw, the film reviewer of the Guardian. A real-life parallel might be that of a child in a nursing home who carefully controls his or her parent's visitors, diet, and lifestyle. Politically, Bradshaw's implication is that the love parents and children feel can mirror a kind of tyranny. The love of an old parent can distort the feelings that the young have a changing world as they become dependant upon propping up the lies of parents. This suggest that love the young for elderly people can inhibit and even unconsciously prevent the ability of the world to change, as they live for a dying, rather than a new ideal.

The film at its best shows how love, perhaps too…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bradshaw, Peter. "Good-bye Lenin." The Guardian. 25 Jul 2003. 1 May 2008. http://film.guardian.co.uk/News_Story/Critic_Review/Guardian_Film_of_the_week/0,1005279,00.html

Good-bye Lenin." Directed by Wolfgang Becker. 2003.
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New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination European

Words: 7020 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96921841

New Pattern of Integration Through Governmental Coordination: European Perspective

The beginning of the European Union was with the coalition of six nations (namely France, Germany, Italia, Belgium, Holland, and Luxembourg) who entered into a treaty back in the year 1951 to determine the ECU Coal and Steel Community. The next signed treaty was in the year 1957 to determine the ECU Economic Community. The Coal and Steel Community were also built with a firmer incentive to improve political stance as oppoed to the economic goals: to attain a peace settlement mainly between the countries of France and Germany. The treaty creating the ECU Economic Community was more motivated towards the achievement of the economic objectives, on the other hand, but had strong political stance as well. It basically aimed to determine a typical or single market by which goods, capital, services, amongst other things could move freely inside the European…… [Read More]

References

Begg, Iain et al., 2001, Social Exclusion and Social Protection in the European Union: Policy Issues and Proposals for the Future Role of the EU, South Bank University Working Paper, http://www.sbu.ac.uk/euroinst/policyreport.pdf

Ben-Gera, M. (2009). Coordination at the centre of government for better policy making. Conference Paper for Conference on Public Administration Reform and European Integration. SIGMA.

Biagi, Marco, 2000: -- The Impact of European Employement Strategy on the Role of Labour Law and Industrial Relations --, International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations, vol. 16, No. 2, Summer 2000, 155-73

Browne, Matthew, 2003: -- La methode ouverte de coordination et la Strategie europeenne pour l'emploi: Modele ou faux-semblant ? -- in Renaud Dehousse (ed.), L'Europe sans Bruxelles ? (forthcoming)
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Austria Which Influenced Hitler and

Words: 5425 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6458210

During this period, Austria also continued industrial expansion, but at a slower pace than Germany.

With growth came further instability. Investment and founding of new organizations exploded since 1867, with over 400 new corporations being founded (Pulzer 1964) from 1867 to 1872. This was the age of the Gruender, which meant "entrepreneur," but also came to be associated with financially shaky schemes which resulted in the bursting of a speculative bubble in 1873.

The period of the Liberal government spanned from 1867 to 1879, a period during which Austria lost its power and prestige, unemployment and economic insecurity reigned, and newly-vociferous minorities were exerting their rights to equality in language and culture. In the meantime, Germany seemed to be growing from success to success, as its liberalization engendered national unity and a growth in wealth and military power.

Conservative Ascendancy in Austria

The nature of the conservatives in Austria was…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burant, S.R. Hungary: A Country Study. Washington: Library of Congress, 1989.

Campbell, D.P. The SHADOW of the HABSBURGS: MEMORY and NATIONAL IDENTITY in AUSTRIAN POLITICS and EDUCATION 1918-1955. PhD Thesis, College Park: University of Maryland, 2006.

Grandner, M. Conservative Social Politics in Austria, 1880-1890. Working Papaer 94-2, Vienna: University of Vienna, 1994.

Habe, H. Our Love Affair with Germany. New York: Putnam, 1953.
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Hitler Was Able to Win

Words: 3030 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53814859

Conservatives and socialists splitted society and failed to create a functioning coalition. After years of authoritarian monarchic control, proportional system of election led society to political chaos, as nearly 20 parties with different political programs from communist to right radicals were represented in eichstag. None of country's politicians was successful either in diplomacy or in the art of achieving compromise. The experience of political pluralism led to political and economical disorientation in society, as in a period of 1919-1933 Germany witnessed several temporary coalitions in parliament and twelve governments, which were unable to stabilize country's economy.

Haffner describes that political crisis was a common attribute of Weimar republic's pluralism: "From 1914 to 1923 all governments had been weak" German parliamentarians of Weimar republic faced a common problem of all young political parties. Being one of the most popular parties in the country with wide support in society and even being…… [Read More]

References

Gay, Peter Weimar Culture: The Outsider as Insider W.W. Norton & Company 2001

Haffner, Sebastian Defying Hitler: A Memoir Picador 2003

Eyck, Erich History of the Weimar Republic Macmillan Pub Co 1970

Eyck, Erich
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Weimar Republic

Words: 5507 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11107001

Nervous Conditions

After World War I, the German nation and its people were devastated. The public was led to believe that Germany was going to win the war, and it looked forward to a much- improved socio-economic climate. Instead, the war was lost and the country was facing a very dreary future. As a result, the government established the Weimar epublic under the leadership of Friedrich Ebert, a past leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and a supporter of the war efforts. Some historians believe it was fate that Weimar Germany did not succeed. From the beginning the challenges were too great, the situation too grim and the individuals involved too unprepared. As a result, Weimar Germany had a short and bumpy ride that combined the best with the worst: Culturally, it remains one of Germany's most creative periods of time in art, literature and thought. Politically and economically,…… [Read More]

References

Delmar, Sefton. Weimar Germany. New York: American Heritage, 1972.

Gay, Peter. Weimar Culture. New York: Harper & Row, 1968.

Kracauer, Siegfried. From Caligari to Hitler: A Psychological History of the German Film. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1947.

Library of Congress. Library of Congress. "Country Studies, http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.htm. Updated 6 February 2004. Visited 11 March 2004.
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Western Civilization European Statesmen Cavour's

Words: 327 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10698903

Many say he was the ultimate realist, who would declare war only after every other option failed, but who unified Germany with a series of wars that ultimately led to the fall of Paris and a unified and extremely powerful German state. He was a shrewd negotiator who realized that he could gain power over other countries by allying with them and then isolating them. He was adept at pitting one country against another for his own political gain, and he would promise territory and expansion to get what he wanted.

Germany definitely had more potential for leadership after the unifications took place. Germany had industry, a strong military, and a perceptive leader who would wage war when necessary and negotiate when necessary. Germany was the most powerful nation on the European continent after it unified.

eferences

Spielvogel. Jackson J. Western Civilization. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing…… [Read More]

References

Spielvogel. Jackson J. Western Civilization. St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Company, 1997.
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Rise of Germany Began in

Words: 785 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32136279



ussia that had once been a major power in Europe was significantly weakened in the middle of the 19th century and "From the end of the Crimean war in 1856 to the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, the question of which of the Great Powers would take its place was wide open" (Sperber, p. 6). The question was finally answered by the outcome of Franco-Prussian war.

The Franco-Prussian war brought the fragmented German nationality into a solid mould. It helped in achieving the national coherence that Germany had been looking for. Instead of being divided into various blocs, German people were finally united under one union and this had a huge impact on power and dominance of Germany on the world scene. "Close political union with Austria meant close political union with that section of German nationality within Austria. Complete political unity of the German nationality had been…… [Read More]

References

Wells, H.G. (2006) A short history of the World. Penguin Publishing.

Benedict, B. (1919) A History of the Great War. Bureau of National Literature Inc.

Sperber, J. (2008) Europe 1850-1914: Progress, Participation and Apprehension. Longman, 1st edition.
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Western Civ V The Philosophes

Words: 1913 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57432668

) and towards the more practical needs for Aryan survival.

c. hy did a growing number of Germans support Hitler and the Nazi Party in the years leading up to his appointment as chancellor?

There are many arguments to this question, but one that surfaces more often than others focuses on economics and self-preservation. The German people were humiliated by the Treaty of Versailles -- their military and economic system had been stripped away, their debt unbearable, and their economy was being controlled by other countries. The ideas of National Socialism were attractive to many: unification of the German Volk, reestablishing the German lands as a country dedicated to certain ideals, focusing on ethnic and linguistic similarities, the overthrow of Versailles, the idea of German self-determination, lebensraum (room for Germans to live, grow and prosper), and an improvement over the crippling inflation and economic woes of the eimar Government, seen…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Primary Source

Documents, History 100.

Hitler, a. Mein Kampf. Primary Source Documents, History 100.

Marx, Karl and F. Engels. The Communist Manifesto. Primary Source
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Human Condition Transcends the Esoteric

Words: 3896 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82626823

The world would now be required to accept socialism, Leninism, and eventually Stalinism, as part of the European landscape.

With the defeat of Germany, Austro-Hungary, and the Ottoman Empire; the shift in the balance of power moved toward the only major participant not devastated on its own soil by war -- the United States. The U.S. grew in economic power after Versailles, assisting not only its former allies in rebuilding, but also a crucial and profitable effort to help finance Germany's rebuilding and aid the new Weimar epublic. However, because of the failure of the war to achieve the ideals of peace and unity promised by President Woodrow Wilson, America shifted to an isolationist foreign policy -- it was deemed acceptable to be economically aggressive, but politically neutral. Until the stock market crash of 1929 and resultant Depression, the U.S. enjoyed a decade of relative prosperity and limelight due to…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

The Holocaust - Orchestras. (2009, January). Retrieved August 2010, from Holocaust - Lest We Forget:  http://www.holocaust-lestweforget.com/orchestra.html 

Banks, J. (2006). Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education. New York: Allyn and Bacon.

Bowker, J. (2006). World Religions: The Great Faith;s Explored. New York: DK Books.

Carruthers, P. (2006). The Innate Mind: Culture and Cognition. New York: Oxford University Press.
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World War I And Related

Words: 624 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62380097

All European nations suffered devastating postwar economic consequences, which further increased the reluctance to use military force to subdue Hitler. The United States enjoyed a postwar boom, given that none of the battles had been waged upon its own territories. But the Republican-dominated Senate refused to allow the U.S. To become a member of the League of Nations, and the absence of strong American leadership made the League ineffective as a peacekeeping force. Germany was also stripped of all of its colonies: the fact that many new nations were created in the redrawing of the map of Europe meant that many of the recently evolved national identities and infrastructures of new countries were quite fragile.

Although they were 'older' nations, Germany and Russia were particularly politically unstable, as a result of the conditions spawned by orld ar I. Despite its early exit from the ar, Russia's economy was undergoing an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"German Revolution." Spartacus Schoolnet. April 14, 2010.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/GERrevolution.htm

"Wars and Battles, World War I." U.S. History. April 14, 2010.

 http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1334.html
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Global Outsourcing Is the Strategic

Words: 1227 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45933020

To be sure, serious obstacles still remain in Europe -- most notably, the rigid labor laws that make relocating jobs a long and costly process. For example, while it's relatively easy for companies in the U.S. To fire employees whose jobs they want to outsource, to lay off an employee in Germany, a company first has to justify its decision to the union and then give its worker a notice period of four weeks to seven months.

The difference in attitudes goes back to the way both regions developed, says ichard Hill, an intercultural consultant with Europublic, a Brussels-based agency that advises companies in international business. "America was based on a can-do mentality, which is a reflection of the first Europeans who got to a huge, open, immensely rich country and were able to exploit it without any inhibitions," Mr. Hill says. On the other hand, Germany became a nation…… [Read More]

References

____. 1997. Exporter, skills upgrading, and the wage gap. Journal of International Economics 47:3-31.

____. 1999. Exceptional exporter performance: Cause, effect, or both? Journal of International Economics 47:1-25. Leach, Peter T. (2004). A developing market. Journal of Commerce. 2. 1

Bernard, a., and Jensen, J.B. (1995). Exporters, jobs, and wages in U.S. manufacturing: 1976-1987. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics, 67-119. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.

Business: More gain than pain; Offshoring; the Economist. London: Jul 17, 2004.Vol.372, Iss. 8384; pg. 60
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Is the European Union a State or What Else Distinguishes it From Other International Organizations

Words: 9068 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99365197

European Union a state, or what else distinguishes it from other International Organizations

The primary question concerning global organizations as a medium of global governance relates towards the quantity and excellence of this governance within an era where we now have an overdeveloped global economy as well as an under-developed global polity (Ougaard and Higgott, 2002). There's a powerful disconnect amid governance, being an efficient and effective collective solution-seeking process within a given problem-area, and governance being the democratic legitimacy of policy formation. It has made possible the debate regarding 'legitimacy shortfalls' in main global organizations. Furthermore, governance has turned into a hosting analogy determining non-traditional performers (non-condition performers for example NGOs and their local and international associations) that participate as portable agents extending and expanding policy understanding, which is far more advanced and sophisticated than the traditional, elitist, government activities. The interest in global (as well as the regional)…… [Read More]

References

Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. ( 1996) Introduction: dilemmas, contradictions and the future of European democracy, in: Andersen, S., Eliassen, K. (eds.) The European Union: how democratic is it?, London: Sage, 1-11.

Aziz, M (2006) 'Chinese whispers: the citizen, the law and the constitution', Chapter 10 in D. Castiglione et al.: The Convention Moment: An Experiment in European Constitutional Politics, Basingstoke: Palgrave-MacMillan, forthcoming.

Aziz, M. (2004) 'Mainstreaming the Duty of clarity and Transparency as part of Good Administrative Practice in the EU', European Law Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 282-95.

Bacchus, James (2005). A Few Thoughts on Legitimacy, Democracy, and the WTO: in Ernst-Ulrich Petersmann (ed.), Reforming the World Trading System. Legitimacy, Efficiency, and Democratic Governance (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 429-436.
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Country Leave the EU or

Words: 2858 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94149322



The UK needs to build good economic relationships with emerging markets even more than with its EU neighbors. China is already highly competitive in manufacturing and is gaining competitiveness in high-technology manufacturing. India is a leader in Information Technology and, being an English speaking country, also has the ability to be globally competitive in Professional Services. Latin American and Southeast Asian economies, such as Brazil or Indonesia, will become increasingly competitive in agriculture and energy. The WTO and various other bilateral free trade agreements are reducing the barriers to these types of goods, making them increasingly attractive to the European consumer.

Considering the competition for European markets, the EU's greatest value and likely greatest priority will be the protection of European markets, not the opening of global markets. The UK, because of its focus on global finance and professional services, has little to gain from the protection of its own…… [Read More]

Vicarelli, Claudio & De Santis, Roberta & De Nardis, Sergio, 2008. "The Single Currency's Effects on Eurozone Sectoral Trade: Winners and Losers?," Economics - the Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy, vol. 2(17), pages 1-34. P. 13

http://europa.eu/index_en.htm

http://www.fas.usda.gov/itp/policy/nafta/nafta.asp  http://www.mercosur.int/
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Bauhaus Movement Refers to the

Words: 1077 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14816830

" (Nora FitzGerald, 2002)

Bauhaus popularized functional design, a technique that focused specifically on the major functions of everything including buildings, textiles, tables, lamps etc. To make them more easily accessible and usable. Bauhaus artists were the first to understand the needs of the new urban breed of workers who were looking for cleaner and sleeker design in everything in order to make better use of space without feeling cramped. Gropius decided to combine Academy with the Weimar Arts and Crafts School to provide new and more comprehensive training in design. Two persons trained each student: an artist and an expert craftsman to develop "creative ambidexterity." (2)

While cubism, expressionism and Dadaism inspired early Bauhaus designs, the later designs rarely ever bore any resemblance to these art movements. The reason being that Bauhaus took birth in highly chaotic times and it took some time for the movement to gain momentum…… [Read More]

References

Frank Whitford, Bauhaus -- the world of Art, Thames & Hudson; (April 1984)

G. Naylor, the Bauhaus (London: Studio Vista, 1968), p. 50.

Gerhard H. ndler. German Painting in Our Time. Rembrandt-Verlag. Berlin: 1956

Herbert Bayer, Ise Gropius, Walter Gropius. Bauhaus, 1919-1928: Museum of Modern Art. New York. 1938.
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Federal Plans for Post War European Order Within Anti-Fascist Movements During World War Two

Words: 3766 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2276224

European Federalism: Historical Analysis

Fascism is considered to be a political belief and concept, which is based on the principle that social, economic and cultural and traditional beliefs of a country must be used in order to increase nationalism. In Europe, fascist movements had emerged in twentieth century. The goal of these fascist movements was to promote fundamentalist and fanatic beliefs in order to deal with the social and political turmoil that occurred in the European region after the end of World War I. Federalism is considered to be the theory, which is based on the principles of federation, which seeks to create a balance of power by dividing it among the member of the same institution. The aim of this paper is to historically analyze the rise of European Union from 1918 to the end of World War II in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Furthermore,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Boka Eva (2005): The Democratic European Idea in Central Europe, 1849-1945 (Federalism contra Nationalism) Specimina Nova, University of Pecs,2005. 7-24

2. Boka Eva (2006): In Search of European federalism. Society and Economy (The Journal of the Corvinus University of Budapest), 28. 2006. 3. 309-331.

3. Levi, Lucio (ed.) (1990): Altiero Spinelli and Federalism in Europe and in the World. Franco Angeli, Milan

4. Lindberg, Leon (1963): The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration. Stanford University Press
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Nationalism in Development of Nations

Words: 1534 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81079809

Nationalism and Its Importance in the Development of Nations in the 1900s

Nationalism is considered as the proliferation of a homogenous political identity to a community that is bounded by a territory through various means of communication. In some cases, nationalism is described as the feeling of patriotic zeal for an individual's country. Nationalism was a common factor in the development of nations in the 1900s that also contributed to the First orld ar. This concept played a crucial role in the development of nations in the 1900s by developing a sentiment that bounded large groups of people on the idea that they have certain things in common such as religion, culture, and ethnicity. However, the modern concept of nationalism is based on a sense of common national identity. Given the patriotic fervor it generates, nationalism played a significant role in the development of nations in the 1900s.

The Concept…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Best, Antony. The International History of East Asia, 1900 -- 1968: Trade, Ideology and the Quest for Order. New York: Routledge, 2010. Print.

Burke, Matthew. "Liberal Nationalism's Role in the Development of the German Nation-State." Historia. Eastern Illinois University, n.d. Web. 8 Apr. 2015. .

Lewis, Dakota. "Nationalism in Europe 1815-1900." Prezi. Prezi Inc., 31 Jan. 2013. Web. 08 Apr. 2015. .

O'LEARY, BRENDAN. "On the Nature of Nationalism: An Appraisal of Ernest Gellner's Writings on Nationalism." British Journal of Political Science 27 (1997): 191-222. Print.
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Norway and the European Union

Words: 5013 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92062204



However, since its independence in 1905, Norway has worked towards building a strong economic base for its economy, although farmers and farming, too, continue to be strong identities in the nationalistic perception of Norwegians, its fishing industry, oil production and other natural resources. Norway's fishing industry is strong, although the country has some concerns about pollution and environmental issues, they're not strong or serious enough to adversely impact Norway's fishing economy.

First Attempts to Join the EC

At its inception, in 1948, the European Union was known as has the European Community, the EC; that a fully integrated Norway would mean economic enlargement for the EU. It offered attractive benefits to the European nations, and initially those benefits were comprised of a unified security system and economic incentives. One of the most appealing benefits for Norway, certainly appealing to Norway's farmers, is a subsidized farm plan that would generate income…… [Read More]

Bibliography http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009587134

Burch, Stuart. "Norway and 1905: Stuart Burch Considers the Significance to Norway-Both in Terms of the Past and the Present-of the Anniversary of 1905, When the Country at Last Won Its Independence from Sweden." History Today, June 2005, 2+. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009587134. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110121817

Cowles, Maria Green and Michael Smith, eds. The State of the European Union: Risks, Reforms, Renewals, and Revival. Vol. 5. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=110122169. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001268517

Gonzalez, Felippe, "European Union and Globalization," Foreign Policy 28 (1999). Retrieved April 2, 2006, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001268517

Godal, Bjrn Tore. "Norway: An Outsider - for How Much Longer?" Speech before the European Union Studies Center, City University of New York, April 19th, 1999. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=77549521
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Bismarck's Impact on Foreign Policy in Germany

Words: 2861 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61220622

ismarck's Impact On Foreign Policy In Germany And On The alance Of Power In Europe

Otto von ismarck (1815-98) is unquestionably one of the dominant figures of modern German, and European, history. Much of his fame as a statesman has always rested on his handling of foreign policy and diplomacy. His consistent policy was to position Germany as a unified and dominant power in continental Europe, consolidating her territorially and diplomatically to the point where she was, to use his own term, "satiated."

ismarck pursued an aggressive policy, involving Germany in three localized wars, seeking to isolate France and build alliances with Austria, and maintaining a suspicious distance from Great ritain, but did not seek war or territorial expansion when he believed such activity would threaten German stability. His achievement was to leave Germany stable, peaceful, and at the heart of the European states system; to integrate a dynamic and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Stefan Berger, 'Historians and nation-building in Germany since reunification', Past and Present, no. 148 (August 1995), pp. 187-222.

F.R. Bridge and Roger Bullen, The Great Powers and the European States System, 1815-1914 (London: Longman, 1980).

Gordon A. Craig, Germany 1866-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978).

George O. Kent, Bismarck and his Times (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1978).
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Economic and Trade Development the

Words: 2664 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3379747

(Buchanan, 72)

The economic policy tools that were employed just after the war subsequently underwent some changes. From 1947 to 1950 direct controls on wages and distribution were eliminated followed by removal of trade controls in 1958. However, the government continued to maintain its hold over prices and credit distribution which made it different from many of its neighboring states in the postwar period. The French Ministry of Finance exerted greater control over the economy than the Bank of France. This led to a greater predilection to resort to devaluation when external equilibrium resulted due to the state failure to control incomes. In France, the period between 1945 and 1975 was known as the "thirty glorious years" because of the phenomenal economic performance. During this period, the average growth rate of GDP was around 6.8% which was quite remarkable considering that Britain's average GDP growth rate was 2.4% and Germany's…… [Read More]

References

Bathelt, Harald; Wiseman, Clare; Zakrzewski, Guido. Unit 1: Post-war development and structure of the German economy.

Buchanan, Tom. Europe's troubled peace, 1945-2000.

Wiley-Blackwell, 2006.

DeLong, J. Bradford. Grasping reality with both hands: A Fair, Balanced, Reality-Based,
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Yugoslavia the Balkan Mountains Have

Words: 1779 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67845966



NATO intervened and bombed Serbia and Montenegro for two months, influencing the Yugoslav government to remove its forces from Kosovo. The Kosovo republic declared its independence in 2008, receiving limited support from the rest of the world, as some countries refused to accept its independence.

Former Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic's power had been lost and he surrendered to security forces facing various charges relating to power abuse and genocide in former Yugoslavia. He did not live to see the final verdict that his trial would have because of his death in 2006. February, 2003, marked the ending of the Yugoslav republic, consequent to an unsuccessful attempt made by Serbia and Montenegro to collaborate.

orks cited:

1. Akhavan, Payam. Howse, Robert. (1995). "Yugoslavia, the Former and Future: Reflections by Scholars from the Region." Brookings Institution.

2. Banac, Ivo. (1998). "The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics." Cornell University Press.

3.…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Akhavan, Payam. Howse, Robert. (1995). "Yugoslavia, the Former and Future: Reflections by Scholars from the Region." Brookings Institution.

2. Banac, Ivo. (1998). "The national question in Yugoslavia: origins, history, politics." Cornell University Press.

3. Benson, Leslie. (2001). "Yugoslavia: a concise history." Palgrave Macmillan.

4. Judah, Tim. (1997). "The Serbs: The Sweet and Rotten Smell of History." Daedalus, Vol. 126.
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European Market Has Been an

Words: 1316 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31150727

" During the third and final stage, the European Central bank would be in operation. According to the agreement, this was to occur no later than 1999 and for three years thereafter Euro coins and banknotes would be issued (Eichengreen and Frieden).

By 2002, the Euro had been implemented as the single currency for member states. However, the implementation and consequent use of the Euro appeared to be a bit rocky. According to an article found in the journal Challenge, the value of the Euro had fallen slightly. The author blamed this fall on the central bank and its efforts to shore up the Euro (Bibow). The author contends that this unrelenting support stifled economic growth. According to the article

Between the start of 1999 and October 2000 the euro lost some 20% of its initial external value (even 30% vis-a-vis the U.S. dollar). After a brief rebound toward the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000762932

Bibow, Jorg. "The Euro: Market Failure or Central Bank Failure?." Challenge 45.3 (2002): 83+. Questia. 12 Oct. 2004 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=86000865

Eichengreen, Barry. "1 the Political Economy of European Monetary Unification an Analytical Introduction." The Political Economy of European Monetary Unification. Eds. Eichengreen, Barry and Jeffry a. Frieden. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2001. 1-22. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8922274

Fratianni, Michele, and Jeurgen Von Hagen. The European Monetary System and European Monetary Union. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000680555
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Culture of Germany Has a Very Unique

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32936549

Culture of Germany

Germany has a very unique culture that is shaped both by medieval realities, Cold War politics, and modern day success. Before becoming a country, Germany was made up of dozens of small fiefdoms or princeling states, territories that were German speaking but controlled by local municipal cities. Germany as a country did not exist formally until 1871 when the Prussian Kingdom defeated France, and became united with Bavaria and the West German states to form the German Empire. Otto Von Bismarck and Kaiser Wilhelm II were the leading forces behind the unification of Germany, and with the unification of Germany came great success and a rebalancing of power in Europe. The success of Germany at the end of the 19th century until the beginning of the 20th century led to power struggles that split Europe into two, causing the start of World War I in 1914. (German…… [Read More]

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Populationorder From Domains That Focus

Words: 1437 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12034643



Although being reunified in 1990, the impact of this long-lasted separation of the German's territory strongly affected Germany's politics, economy and industry and continues to influence the type of issues the country must face, even after a decade of unification. Particularly, these issues relate to the financial area and constant try of fiscal equalization, political parties and political behavior, unemployment, immigration policies and social security. German analysts and sociologists appreciate these as being the direct effect of the above-mentioned territorial division and constantly search for methods and intervention strategies.

To begin with, one must say that these issues are subject of long and numerous discussions, political posturing and legislation and, In particular cases, the debate regarding them was brought to the authorities and the court's attention and also, became subjects of constitutional amendments.

Next, one should explain the nature and causes of these issues in detail.

The first important consequence…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

1. Gunlicks, Arthur B. (2003). German Public Policy and Federalism: Current Debates on Political, Legal, and Social Issues. Berghahn Books.

2. Collins, Paul S. (2001). Community Writing: Researching Social Issues through Composition. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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Governments the World Is a

Words: 2151 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99433775

There was also an opportunity cost to the availability of such goods. There was an explosion of American companies selling American products and to an unwelcome public. It was difficult for the Russian people to accept quickly. Their pace of life was not the same as America's and yet they were expected to adjust very quickly. The economic reform took a down turn when the Russian people did not catch onto a lot of these American products. As a result consumer spending went down and many companies failed in their ventures. Another factor to this failure is found in the quick need for the new Russia to do away with the old Russia' state owned companies by introducing privatization. This concept was hard for the Russian businessperson to grasp. "For both cultural and ideological reasons, the attitude toward private business in the Soviet Union could hardly be described as friendly"…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dornberg, John. The New Germans: Thirty Years After. New York: MacMillan

Publishing Co., 1976.

Goldman, Marshall I. Lost Opportunity: Why Economic Reforms in Russia Have

Not Worked. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1994.
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Non-Pronominal Coding of Active Referents in Message Structure of Sentences

Words: 5498 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33546694

Non-Pronominal Coding of Active Referents

The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of English sentence structures with regard to non-pronominal coding of active referents. In order to do this, it is important to have a baseline definition of non-pronominal (NP) coding and active referents. e look to recent literature and case study of not only English but other languages examined to understand sentence structure. Upon reviewing the literature, it was found that definitions for the pronominal approach were plentiful and easy to understand. As a means of comparison an understanding the NP application, we are also exploring the pronominal approach that acts as a framework for literature. Once these definitions are established, we will look at active referents and their role in sentence structure. Available literature suggests non-pronominal coding is used for active referents. As part of this analysis, it is important to look at other languages…… [Read More]

Works Cited List

Andersen, Han Christian. The Princess and the Pea. Philadelphia: Courage Books, 2002.

Barwise, J. And Perry, J. Situations and Attitudes. Cambridge, Mass: Bradford Books 1982.

Baumann, Stefan. And Grice, Martine. Accenting Accessible Information. Cologne, Germany: Saarland University.

Chafe, Wallace. "Givenness, contrasitiveness, definiteness, subjects, topics and point-of-view." In: Li, Charles) (ed.) Subject and Topic. New York: Academic Press, 1976, 25-56.
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Bretton Woods System vs The Economic and Monetary Union Emu

Words: 2561 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70344045

ules and Institutions of the Bretton Woods System

The increasing popularity of the importance of monetary unions has gained much focus in the recent past. Most states consider forming monetary unions a solution to most of their financial problems. However, they fail to realize the challenges associated with its establishment and sustainability. Therefore, this research paper analyzes two different monetary unions, their policies, failures and successes and lessons learnt from their experiences for future success of the monetary unions.

The key design features of the System

The system was designed with the fundamental aim of establishing an international financial system to overcome the real and perceived financial problems. Among the problems included the competitive devaluation, subordination of the monetary policy in relation to the external bane and the need for the establishment of a system that facilitated exchange rates for different foreign transactions (Eichengreen, 2004). The design of the system…… [Read More]

References

Ardy, B., 2000. Economic and monetary union: A review article. JCMS: Journal of Common

Market Studies, 38 (7), p.667.

Avgouleas, E. 2010. The governance of global financial markets and international financial regulation: Legal framework and policy directions. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Bernstein, E.M., and Kirshner, O. 1996. The Bretton Woods GATT system: Retrospect and prospect after fifty years. Armonk, NY [u.a.: Sharpe.
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Economics Politics Trade Geopolitical Base

Words: 7721 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22923523

For the period of the late 1960s and early 1970s, West Germany strived to assist the dollar. The United States and many other nations pushed West Germany to reassess so as to make up for the dollar excess. (Germany in the World Economy)

At last, after escalating waves of conjectures, the retton Woods system had a collapse in August 1971. All through the post-retton Woods period, the deutsche mark stayed under pressure. In order to relieve strain within Europe, West Germany and other European states assented to peg their currencies to a special system of comparatively narrow exchange rate bands officially named the 'European narrow-margins agreement' but unofficially identified as the 'snake'. The United States and West Germany performed main roles in attempting to organize a new global monetary system. but, in spite of its willingness to make small exchange-rate alterations for the benefit of new currency arrangements, West Germany…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Little German Reform Would Go a Long Way" (Dec 1, 2003) Business Week. Issue: 3860; pg. 22. Retrieved from home.uchicago.edu/~gbecker / Businessweek/BW/2003/12_01_2003.pdf Accessed on 24 November, 2004

Economic Survey - Germany 2004: Main issues and policy challenges"

Retrieved at http://www.oecd.org/document/17/0,2340,en_2649_201185_33633425_1_1_1_1,00.html. Accessed on 24 November, 2004

Economy of Germany" Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Economy_of_GermanyAccessed on 25 November, 2004
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Bye Lenin When One Views

Words: 1671 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58697524

For example, Roger Ebert describes Christiane in this way, "A loyal communist named Christiane (Katrin Sass) sees her son, Alex (Daniel Bruhl), beaten by the police on television, suffers an attack of some sort and lapses into a coma" (Ebert).

hereas Stephen Jolly of the Australian Socialist Party writes, "Christiane is a socialist, loyal to the Party, but not scared to oppose the Stalinist leadership via letter campaigns and lobbying bureaucrats on issues such as the shoddy goods produced by a bureaucratically mismanaged workers' state (Jolly).

The obvious difference between the two character descriptions is one sees her as a communist and one sees her as a socialist, which begs the question, is there a difference between a communist and a socialist? hat are the implications of each label? Are there nuances? To briefly answer the question(s), yes, of course there are. And to unpack this point just a little…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Ebert, Roger. Goodbye Lenin! Chicago Sun-Times, 26 Mar. 2004. Web. 9 May 2011.

Jolly, Stephen. Goodbye Lenin. Socialistworld.net, 02 Oct. 2004. Web. 9 May 2011.

Marchant, Tim. Good by, Lenin! (2003). Movie Gazette, 26 Feb. 2004. Web. 10 May
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Stephanie's Sell Keep Decision Should Rely

Words: 1077 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1657238

There was a further explanation for this phenomenon: the European currencies, most notably the British Pound and the Italian Lira, suffered strong devaluations in a short period of time and the investors began to turn to U.S. dollar stability for help. As such, demand subsequently grew for the dollar and its rate rose as to the German Mark.

The put option that Stephanie had bought was an excellent hedging mechanism against a bearish market, as she had expected it to be and as it had manifested itself in the period between July and September. If the dollar began a period of appreciation against the Deutsche Mark, then the put hedging mechanism was no longer necessary, as the market would be bullish. The events in September all pointed out towards this. The lowering interest rates in the German space, corroborated with the tendency of growing demand for the U.S. dollar turned…… [Read More]

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Business the Company's Objective Is to Develop

Words: 3569 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80187342

Business

The company's objective is to develop capabilities in the Reseach and Development aeas as well as ensuing poducts that can be sold and distibuted in the Euopean and Ameican makets. It should be noted, howeve, that such a move must be taken with caution and cae; appoaching the Euopean business maketplace may not wok in the same manne as othe business envionments. As one expet ecently wote "appoaching the Euopean makets without ecognizing the impotance of national languages and cultues in daily life is a cucial mistake" (Robet, 2010, pg. 31). It would be wise fo the company to emembe Robet's wods due to the unique natue of the Euopean makets and Gemany in paticula; since that is the county this pape ecommends the company conducts its business.

It is impotant to note that choosing a county to base the company's opeations is a delicate and time-consuming matte that…… [Read More]

references of political actors, German Politics, Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 281-300

Dickman, M.; (2003) Implementing German HRM abroad: Desired, feasible, successful? International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 14, Issue 2, pp. 265 -- 283

Dunning, J.H. & Lundan, S.M.; (2008) Multinational Enterprises and the Global Economy, London: Edward Elgar Publishing

Federal Republic of Germany (2003) Background Notes on Countries of the World 2003, pp. 1 -15

Grewal, R.; Chandrashekaran, M.; Dwyer, F.R.; (2008) Navigating local environments with global strategies: A contingency model of multinational subsidiary performance, Marketing Science, Vol. 27, Issue 5, pp. 886 -- 902
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History and Development of Sound Technologies and Sound Design in Film

Words: 11249 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80180588

sound technologies and sound design in Film

Sound in films

Experiments in Early Age

Developments

Crucial innovations

Commercialization of sound cinema: U.S., Europe, and Japan

Sound Design

Unified sound in film production

Sound designers in Cinematography

Sound Recording Technologies

History of Sound Recording Technology

Film sound technology

Modern Digital Technology

History of sound in films

Developments

Sound Design

Sound Recording Technologies

The film industry is a significant beneficiary of performing arts. The liberal arts combined with latest techniques and advancements experienced a number of stages. The introduction of films and sound in films was a significant development of its times. The introduction of first film along with sound was a unique event and it revolutionized the industry in such a way that it influenced every individual related to the industry to start thinking on creative and innovative grounds for improvements. The stages of films can be identified as silent films…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Alten, SR 2008, Audio In Media, Thomson Wadsworth, USA.

Altman, R 2004, Silent Film Sound, Columbia University Press, USA.

Ballou, G 2008, Handbook for sound engineers, Focal Press, USA.

Beck, J & Grajeda, T 2008, Lowering the boom: critical studies in film sound, University of Illinois Press.
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Comparative Justice Systems Criminal Justice

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30416166

nations, what particular historical developments may have had a major effect on their formation of criminal law and criminal justice administration?

The six model nations are China, France, England, ermany, Japan, and Saudi Arabia. The criminal law and justice systems of each of the aforementioned countries are shaped by some key developments in history.

France: French criminal law is shaped by a number of historical events, the most significant being the 1789 passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen by parliament (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). This declaration asserted several rights including the freedom from arbitrary detention, the right to equality, the right to liberty, the right to a presumption of innocence, and the need for power separation (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). It forms the basis of the principles that govern criminal law in France today (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). The rising to power of…… [Read More]

Germany: the most significant event in the history of criminal law development in Germany was the unification of the criminal code across local territories locally referred to as Lander (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). The unified code developed thereof (Reichsstrafgezetzbuch) forms the basis of German criminal law today. Like the French Penal Code, it distinguishes between crimes on the basis of seriousness such that felonies are punished more severely than misdemeanors (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). Owing to this unification, individual territories are given the discretion to handle their own affairs in relation to lower court administration, corrections, and policing; however, all their laws and provisions must be within the confines of the provisions of the unified code.

Japan: the development of the Japanese criminal code dates back to 604 AD, when the Seventeen Maxims of Prince Shotoku were developed, and the 700s, when Codes of Yoro and Taiho were established (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). The 1868 Meijji Restoration, however, marked the beginning of Japan's development of structured legal codes because it was then that the French Penal Code was adopted for use in Japanese criminal law (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). This would mark a series of a couple of other adoptions -- the German Code in the late eighteenth century and certain aspects of U.S. Law at the beginning of the 19th century (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). Today, the Japanese Criminal Code is merely a hybrid of the American, French, Chinese, and German (predominant) criminal law. It is made up of 3 integrated codes -- prison law, the criminal procedure code and the penal code (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). Unlike other countries, however, the Japanese Penal Code does not categorize crimes on the basis of seriousness, rather, it divides them as i) crimes against society ii) crimes against individuals, and iii) crimes against the state (Dammer & Albanese, 2013).

England: originally, English law did not distinguish between civil and criminal proceedings; it was not until the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 that this distinction was made (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). The legal system also became more organized after the conquest in 1066, with William the Conqueror establishing the King's Court (Curia Regis) to hear and decide criminal cases. The bases upon which these cases were
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European Muslims in Germany in the Postwar Period

Words: 2517 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38936575

Post World War One, Germany boasted a booming economy and there was a need for healthy male workers to fill the demand. Germany was in need of men who could act as laborers for both factories and mines in the period after World War Two. This period bestowed Germany with much economic blossoming and swift expansion. Turkey and Germany had a recruitment treaty, which established terms for the guest workers; after Turkey, subsequent Islamic nations formed recruitment treaties with Turkey, such as Morocco and Tunisia. For many of these workers from Islamic nations, finding employment in Germany was a wise decision as it meant that they could receive good pay and send that money home to their families. Furthermore, it also meant they could increase their skillset, making them a more competitive worker when and if they returned to their native countries. However, even though this was a win-win situation…… [Read More]

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Close Is Too Close What Is Wrong

Words: 2098 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23157076

Close is Too Close: What is Wrong with Incest?

This paper outlines incest as a social taboo with reference to the Jewish, Native American, and Malagasy cultures and identifies what is wrong with the practice of incest. It has 7 sources.

Definition of Incest

Incest or the sexual relations between persons to whom marriage is prohibited by custom or law because of close kingship [Kottak 2002] is a social phenomenon that differ from culture to culture and by definition too they differentiate from one group to the next. The reason being that customs, traditions and cultures all vary due to the accepted norms as well as religion found in these groups and hence the prohibition or the allowance for people to marry siblings differs greatly. Inter-marriage to close relatives in the American culture for instance is considered taboo while in the Jewish it is considered compulsory. What triggers such social…… [Read More]

References

Sander L. Gilman Sibling incest, madness, and the "Jews." Social Research Summer, 1998.

J. Shepher, Incest: A Biosocial View, New York: Academic, 1983.

Kottak, Conrad P. Cultural Anthropology, 9/e University of Michigan, McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2002.

Williams, Walter L. The Spirit and the Flesh, Sexual Diversity in the American Indian Culture. Boston: Beacon Press, 1986.
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Avars in Medieval Carpathian Basin and Grave Goods

Words: 5357 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92276055

Grave Goods of the Avars in Medieval Carpathian asin

The objective of this study is to examine the burial styles and grave goods of the Avars. This includes such as buried livestock and artifacts. As well the variability in the relationship between different several sites from this similar time period, and some specific burial sites of interest will be examined as well as the various traditions relating to positioning of bodies and preparation of the dead along with any possible meanings. Examined as well will be construction of the tombs and any other grave goods of interest. From this data this study will attempt to determine the traditions, individual wealth and the position of that culture and to determine what the traditions were of this culture as well as how they developed and changed over time. The difference in tribes or clans and other influences from that time period will…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Avar Rule Before 630 (nd) Retrieved from:  http://mek.oszk.hu/03400/03407/html/44.html 

Avars (2014) Migration Period between Odra and Vistula. National Science Center. Retrieved from:  http://www.mpov.uw.edu.pl/en/thesaurus/tribes-and-peoples/avars -

Balint, C. (nd) Avar Goldsmiths' Work from the Perspective of Cultural History. British Museum. Retrieved from:  http://www.britishmuseum.org/pdf/13%20Balint%20p%20rev-opt-sec.pdf 

Bordas, E. (nd) The Largest Cemetery from the Avar Period in the Carpathian Basin. Retrieved from:  http://www.sulinet.hu/oroksegtar/data/telepulesek_ertekei/Zamardi/pages/avarkori_temeto_angol.htm
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Imperialism of Europe and America

Words: 2376 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43354772

European and American imperialism from 1900-1918

Empire is the term from which the word imperialism is carved. Government implies the act of mastery of one nation by another one, with the sole intention of expanding region, power and impact. It conveys with it the thought of social prevalence from the radical, judging the lifestyle, cultures and convictions of those colonized as sub-par and in need of changeover (Encyclopedia, encyclopedia.com).

Nonetheless, Imperialism normally posits as a political control and making monetary subservience. In Europe, the time of dominion coincided with patriotism and unification when prior political units were assembled under governance that asserted the privilege to keep rule over them. "I rehash that the elite races [European] have a privilege in light of the fact that they have an obligation. They have the obligation to socialize the downtrodden races [non Europeans] (South Africa History, n.d.)"

Ashley Smith the journalist isolated hypotheses…… [Read More]

References

Encyclopedia. "Imperialism." Encyclopedia.com. HighBeam Research, 1 Jan. 1968. Web. 25 Jan. 2015.  http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/imperialism.aspx 

Grafs History. Word War 1: Consequences of the Great War. (2014). Retrieved from:  https://grafshistory.wordpress.com 

Humbold. Goal. The American Quest for Empire. Retrieved from:

 http://users.humboldt.edu/ogayle/hist111/empire.html
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Hitler as a Politician Hitler

Words: 1154 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90079531

This included the
annexation of Czechoslovakia. He reneged on areas in Poland which had been
ceded from German in the Versailles treaty. While Britain and the Soviet
Union were unable to come to an alliance, Germany was able to develop a non-
aggression pact with Stalin, negotiated over the partitioning of Poland.
Hitler continued to work against significant disbelief on the part of the
general European public and conquered France, the Netherlands, Luxembourg
and Belgium. Hitler took advantage of Europeans disbelief that another war
to the extent degree of World War I was possible, and certainly not
possible under the restrictions placed on Germany by the Treaty of
Versailles. Hitler's victory brought France and Italy to his side.
Hitler was unable to obtain air superiority over Britain, despite
blistering attacks on British cities. The ability of the British to hold
out against the rest of Europe was a rallying cry…… [Read More]

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Democracy and Representative Government Central Inspirations for

Words: 2479 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74626142

democracy and representative government central inspirations for European feminists in the 19th and early 20th centuries? Were there other issues that inspired the feminists?

urning in the heart of each person is the desire to be free and to be recognized as a valuable part of society while at the same time receiving recognition as an individual. This desire is not trained into us by our society, because regardless of the social organization, or culture, all men and women feel this burning desire equally. The desire to be free, independent and recognized as valuable is a part of what separated men and women from animals. We are important, and our contribution to the social order is an important process by which we make carve out our own identify, and self-worth.

However, this desire for identity and recognition should not be confused with, nor forcibly molded into a desire for sameness…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Sources of the Western Tradition: From the Renaissance to the Present, 5th edition, Volume 2 - written by Marvin Perry, Joseph R. Peden & Theodore H. Von Laue - 2003

History of World Societies: Since 1500, 6th Edition, Volume 2 - Written by John P. McKay, Bennett D. Hill, John Buckler, Patricia Buckley Ebrey - 2004
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Protestant Ethic and the Evolution

Words: 7228 Length: 23 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62928220

Any one who tried to gain enough power and wealth would be considered a threat to the power of the church and was therefore quickly deposed of their wealth.

Weber proposed that even though Catholics tolerated a greater display of outward wealth, Protestant doctrines asked the followers to concentrate on mundane pursuits. It also asks its followers to accept a lower station in life without a hierarchical structure to force the issue. There were no examples of upward mobility or examples of extravagance to follow. The Protestant faith in promoted a pride in one's work and the "work and Save" ethic. The members were self-motivated, not forced into submission by the Church. This was a key difference between these two philosophies. Weber claimed that this attitude was much more productive than the Catholic idea of wealth attainment. The Calvinists had a word which meant ones calling, or duty on earth.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ashley, D. And Orenstein, D. 1995. Sociological Theory: Classical Statements, third edition, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Baechler, J. 1988. The Cradle of Capitalism: the Case of England

John A. Hall & Michael Mann, Europe and the Rise of Capitalism (Blackwell, 1988).

Bendix, R. 1977 http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0520031946&id=63sC9uaYqQsC&pg=PA1&lpg=PA1&sig=g-kn8gtBIRvG-ss0I_-BmrBz9YE" Max Weber: An Intellectual Portrait. University of California Press.
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Risk That One Needs to Be Concerned

Words: 2127 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43954874

risk that one needs to be concerned with when selling a franchise (and this is a general case, not only the case of Germany) is that the franchiser (that is, the person who buys the franchise) may not fulfill all his contractual obligations. These include a certain quality standard and a brand image of the mother company (the franchisor). This obviously may lead to the fact that the customers will associate with the mother company a certain level of quality that is less than that agreed upon and less that the one the company actually has in the country of origin. This can cause serious prejudice to the brand image. If we think of a classical case of franchising, McDonald's, a level of quality may include a certain degree of organization, in order to avoid long lines, a certain quality of the products (for example, the franchise contract foresees that…… [Read More]

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Lisbon Treaty Democratization and State

Words: 6166 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9358526

Political legitimacy derives from the peoples of the Member States and thus from the states themselves; (b) the primacy of European law: this is not 'absolute' and the Court reserves the right to block European legislation in order to protect sovereignty and 'constitutional identity', which is, moreover, enshrined in the Lisbon Treaty itself; and (c) ring-fences certain sovereign powers for the Member States: in the areas of criminal law and procedure, policing, military matters, fiscal policy (thus precluding 'economic government') and social, cultural, religious, educational and media affairs; and (5) Emphasizes that the formal creation of a European federal state and the transfer of such powers to that state would require a change in the Constitution and therefore a referendum. (eaudouin, 2009)

eaudouin reports that the Lisbon Treaty makes the EU "considerably more powerful by merging the three pillars, endowing the Union with legal personality, extending its competences, establishing the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Beaudouin, Christopher (2009) Presentation of the German Federal Constitutional Court Judgment of 30 June 2009 on the Lisbon Treaty. Online available at: http://www.efdgroup.eu/uploads/file/German%20Federal%20Const-Court%20Judgement/788816EN.pdf

Coughlan, Anthony (2009) 13 Facts About the Lisbon Treaty. 21 Aug 2009. Corbett Report -- Open Source Intelligence News. Online available at: http://www.corbettreport.com/articles/20090821_lisbon_facts.htm

European Parliament and the Lisbon Treaty (2009) European Parliament. Online available at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/parliament/public/staticDisplay.do?language=EN&refreshCache=yes&pageRank=1&id=66

McConalogue, Jim (2009) Ireland's 100 Reasons to Vote 'No' to the Lisbon Treaty. The European Journal. Sept 2009. Online available at:  http://europeanjournal.typepad.com/my_weblog/2009/09/irelands-100-reasons-to-vote-no-to-the-lisbon-treaty.html
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Nation States the Formation of

Words: 883 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23854205

Thus, German nationalism and the German nation-state came into being, an entity that existed well into the 19th century.

Similarly, the nation of Italy was highly influenced by the events of the French Revolution of 1789 and the outbreak of war between France and Austria in 1793. During this time, a number of important changes occurred within Italy, most of which like Germany were filled with violence and destruction, all in the name of nationalism and national sovereignty. Following Napoleon's military triumphs in late 1796, various northern Italian cities attempted to organize themselves into republics, cities like Bologna, Milan and Genoa, but with the Peace of Campo Formio with Austria in 1797, France gained control of all northern Italy with the exception of Venice which experienced the collapse of its independence and liberty.

Under the influence of Napoleon and his generals, much of Italy was re-structured into a form of…… [Read More]

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Franco-Prussian War the Events Which

Words: 1031 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50011543



France paid a high price for this conflict, and the conditions demanded by the Germans were harsh (Franco). France lost Alsace and Lorraine and were forced to pay 5 billion Gold Francs in reparations (Franco). Germany entered the conflict with a total of 797,500 men, against France's 935,960 troops (Franco). France lost 150,000 men, while Germany lost only 44,000 (Franco). To add further humiliation, Bismarck insisted that France allow a German triumphal march down the Champs Elysees (Siege).

hile the Franco-Prussian ar was a war declared, it was essentially a 6-month conflict. Although the French outnumbered the Germans, they were careless and underestimated the Germans' military tactics and strategies. Emperor Napoleon III had basically played right into Bismarck's hands. Napoleon lost his power and reign, while Bismarck achieved exactly what he had set out to do, unite Germany.

The aftermath of the Franco-Prussian ar generated considerable apprehension throughout Europe concerning…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Franco-German War 1870/71. The History of Warfare. Retrieved November 30, 2006 at  http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/19cen/francoger.html 

Paris, Michael. (1993 June 01). Fear of flying: the fiction of war 1886-1916.

History Today. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Siege of Paris: 1879 Franco-Prussian War. Paris Annals. Retrieved November 30, 2006 at  http://home.eckerd.edu/~oberhot/paris/paris-1870.htm