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Following the ush Administration's rejection of the Kyoto Protocol in March, the United States declined to participate in these negotiations, which ended with agreement among the parties to proceed without the United States. The United States has indicated it would seek new approaches based on voluntary measures and market mechanisms, but has declined to proclaim a timeframe for a new proposal." (Justus, 3)
The policy approach has been intriguing. The fear of global warming from an increase in greenhouse gases has become a major science policy discussion during the past fifteen years. Seeking solutions to a number of questions -- How much warming is there?...How soon will it affect us?...Should we even worry? -- a growing number of lawmakers continue to argue about the advantages and disadvantages of an active government role in creating policies to address prospective climate change. How tangible is the human-created global warming threat? Another ten…
Crabb, Annabel. Blair tells U.S. To act on global climate change. The Age: Jan. 28, 2005.
Fletcher, Susan. 2001. Global Climate Change. CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Resources, Science and Industry Division.
Justus, John. 2001. Global Climate Change. CRS Issue Brief for Congress: Resources, Science and Industry Division.
Pew Center: 2004. Global Warming Basics. http://www.pewclimate.org/
2009). At the same time, a careful scientific study that attempted to account for the natural temperature cycle of the Earth, which is mainly driven by oceanic currents, found that even with natural variability accounted for the trend in the twentieth century has been an unrelenting warming trend (Swanson et al. 2009).
These results lead to varying conclusions regarding the causes of global warming and the effects it will have on both the environment and the global economy. The modeling studies seem to suggest that the economic impact of transitioning to lower carbon emission in developing countries, though still considerable, is definitely manageable and even advantageous in the long run from cost savings to rural and developing communities (Urban 2009). In addition, the economic ties between carbon emissions and the use of fossil fuels and economic growth that are stressed by many political economists appear to be less direct…
Ojekunle, Z.; Lin, Z.; Xin, T.; Harrer, G.; Martins, A. & Bangura, H. (2009). "Global Climate Change: The Empirical Study of Sensitivity Model in China's Sustainable Development." Energy sources 31(19), pp. 1777-89.
Newbrey, M.; Murray, A.; Wilson, M; Brinkman, D. & Neuman, A. (2009). "Seventy-five-million-year-old tropical tetra-like fish from Canada tracks Cretaceous global warming." Proceedings - Royal Society. Biological sciences 276(1674), pp. 3829-3833.
Swanson, K.; Sugihara, G. & Tsonis, A. (2009). "Long-term natural variability and 20th century climate change." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106(38), pp. 16120-16123.
Urban, F. (2009). "Climate-Change Mitigation Revisited: Low-Carbon Energy Transitions for China and India." Development policy review 27(6), pp. 693-715.
The intentions of the signatories to the Universal Declaration on Human Rights were at least admirable. But such intentions mean very little when application is the issue. Justice and humanity are not always met with an even hand. Potentially, the most adversely affected nations or groups in despair from global warming will be the poorest, least developed and least involved in the causes of global warming. Is this justifiable? I think not.
To address the consequences of global warming one must examine the greatest causes and effects. Fossil fuels, increased transportation in developed nations, wealthy companies and less distribution of wealth creates greater emissions. These emissions, as already stated, create global harm and potential global harm but in particular, drought stricken nations will become dryer, flood areas will become uninhabitable and crops will lessen created a greater food shortage in already starving countries. How can humanity ignore these issues? Survival…
Evidence Supporting & Opposing Global Climate Change
Global climate change persists a hot point of contention on an international scale. This subject went from ridicule, mockery, and doubt to massive grassroots and nonprofit movements, heated debates, and media headlines. Though there exists scientific research that dates back into the mid 20th century regarding impending climate change, the subject was not take seriously by massive audiences until the 21st century. At first the debate over global warming was whether or not it existed. While the existence of global climate change continues to be debated, the debate has evolved and branched into a new direction -- whose fault is it and strategies for counteracting or reversing the damage.
When public figures such as former Vice President Al Gore began speaking publically regarding global climate change, average people as well as experts & professionals across fields, did not take these claims seriously.…
Bensel, Terrence, & Turk, John. Contemporary Environmental Issues. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, 2011. Print.
Khandekar, M.L., Murty, T.S. & Chittibabu, P. "The Global Warming Debate: A Review of the State of Science." Pure Applies Geophysics, 162(2005), 1557 -- 1586. 2005.
Olausson, U. "Global warming -- global responsibility? Media frames of collective action and scientific certainty." Science, 18(4), 421 -- 436. 2009.
Thus, since we are a major contributor to the problem, we need to be the first to step up with global solutions.
In addition, the country (and the world) needs to start to encourage the development of alternative energies on a large scale. Homes that utilize solar, geothermal, and/or wind power should receive tax breaks, and there should be significant incentives to build "green" in the future. In addition, we need to stop our dependence on foreign oil NOW, as the recent spike in oil prices clearly indicates. We need to develop alternative fuel sources, alternative power sources, and much more environmentally friendly ways of generating the power we need for our homes, schools, and businesses, and we need to do it as soon as possible.
There is mounting evidence that extreme weather events that have recently occurred are at least partly due to global warming. There have been studies…
Author not Available. "About the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change." IPCC.ch. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.ipcc.ch /about/index.htm
Editors. "Climate Change." EPA.gov. 2008. 14 March 2008. http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/
Johansen, Bruce E. The Global Warming Desk Reference. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2002.
Jordan, Stuart. "The Global Warming Crisis." The Humanist Nov.-Dec. 2005: 23+.
Part 1: A Closer Look at the Evidence
1. The first graph on the NASA site shows the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere, comparing across time. It shows that for all time, there were fluctuations in the level of CO2 in the atmosphere, but that the level always remained below 300 parts per million. The graph takes a sharp uptick in recent years, and by the time we get to the 20th century it is basically a straight upward line, to the present level around 400ppm. The 1950 level was only at around 320, so nearly a quarter of the carbon in the atmosphere has been added in about the last 70 years or so, and that is for all-time.
The UK website explains that the increase in carbon dioxide levels in the environment has occurred since the Industrial Revolution, which brought about many changes in technology, including the…
Global Warming Trends and Impact
Global warming refers to the warming of the earth's temperature, in particular oceans and the layer of the atmosphere closest to the planet (Thompson, Lonnie & Gioietta 114). Thus far, the total temperature increase is documented at only about one degree (Weart 43). However, even this seemingly minor change can create ripple effects that present challenges for earth and mankind. Global warming and other climate change issues are thought to be the result of both natural phenomenon and man-made activity. In order to sustain life as we know it, the earth must maintain a consistent temperature. The rapid elevation in temperature has created an imbalance making it evident that the phenomenon of global warming is real.
The rate at which arctic sea ice is melting is faster than normal which has caused sea levels to rise (Prothero 15). In addition, weather is becoming more extreme,…
Prothero, Donald R. "How We Know Global Warming Is Real And Human Caused." Skeptic 17.2 (2012): 14-22. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Thompson, Lonnie G., and Gioietta Kuo. "Climate Change: The Evidence and Our Options." World Future Review 4.2 (2012): 114-122. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Weart, Spencer. "Global Warming: How Skepticism Became Denial." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 67.1 (2011): 41-50. Academic Search Premier. Web. 1 May 2013.
Climate change is also described as global warming, the unnatural or manmade cause of the planet’s increase in temperature. Climate change is physically caused by the release of greenhouse gases which get trapped in the atmosphere, in turn trapping heat from the sun on the planet (Meyer & Roser, 2006). Other pollutants can cause problems for the environment as well, such as toxins released into the water from chemical plants, or nuclear meltdowns that result in oceans being poisoned. These are also lumped in with climate change, since they also alter the environment. One of the biggest producers This paper will describe how climate change is occurring, how corporations are involved, and what some companies are doing to address it.
A Poore, Williams and Tracey (2000) note, sea levels are rising as a result of climate change. This occurs because the heat trapped on the planet by greenhouse gases leads…
causes of Climate Change?
It is ideal to focus on the primary causes of climate change with the aim of understanding the influence or implication on the growth and development of the planet earth. This paper seeks to unveil the major or primary causes in relation to climate change. This is through evaluation of natural and artificial events/activities with massive implication on climate thus changes in the climatic conditions within the modern society. I have chosen this topic because of its sensitivity to the growth and development of the humanity. Modern society associates itself with constant debates on the concept of global warming. This is a reflection of the significance of the topic of the research with reference to the examination of the primary causes of climate change. It is ideal to understand the primary causes of climate change with the aim of adopting and implementing various critical issues in…
"CEH Protects People from Toxic Chemicals and Promotes Business Products and Practices That Are
Safe for Public Health and the Environment." Center for Environmental Health. N.p., n.d.
Web. 01 Mar. 2013.
"How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE." How Much Does Human Activity Affect Climate Change? | NCSE. N.p., 5 Jan. 2012. Web. 05 Feb. 2013.
Risks of Climate Change
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
Climate Change Impacts on Engineering Infrastructure
Key Impacts on Water and Resources
Risk Management Analysis Coping Methods Possibility And Probability
Recommendations And Guidelines For The Vulnerability Of Climate
Change Impacts Using Risk Management Methods And Analysis
THE RISK OF CLIMATE CHANGE: IMPLICATIONS FOR ARCHITECTS AND ENGINEERS
This work examines climate change in relation to impacts upon infrastructure, utilities, and water in relation to the affects from projected sea level rise, flooding, and other related impacts expected to result from climate change. This work also reviews models used for risk assessment and analysis and examines their usefulness and the associated limitations with these models. Knowledge and expertise is growing in the risk-assessment and analysis field of study and reliable models are being developed although the primary effective and appropriate use for the majority of these models…
Adapting to Climate Change Impacts on Water Management: A Guide for Planner (2006) AEA Technology - Prepared for the South East England Regional Assembly. May 2006. Online available at http://www.southeastra.gov.uk/our_work/planning/sust_nat_res/planners_adaptation_guide/planners_adaptation_guide.pdf
Sandell, 2007) ABC News Report Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/Technology/GlobalWarming/story?id=3582433&page=1
Blakemore, Bill (2007) Greenland: Where Towering Icebergs Raise Sea Levels. 9 Sept 2007. ABC News Online available at http://www.abcnews.go.com/WN/story?id=3579084&page=1
Cities Should Plan Now for Effects of Global Warming on Infrastructure (2005) University of Maryland 21 Feb 2005 Science and Technology Online available at http://www.newsdesk.umd.edu/scitech/release.cfm?ArticleID=1036
Global Warming and Climate Change
Natural versus anthropogenic forces in climate change are a common topic for discussion. Some people believe that the global warming experienced now is part of a natural cycle while other others believe it is accelerated thanks to human evolution on earth. Although there is a natural cycle on the planet concerning global warming, this is not the case regarding the information provided from scientific data on the effects of human-generated global warming. Natural global warming takes long periods of time to develop.
People that have analyzed previous global warming trends have noted the rise in temperatures occurred over a prolonged period, like thousands of years. However, human-caused global warming has produced a warming trend at a faster rate. Instead of thousands of years, it is decades. Secondly, humans were not around for the previous global warming trends and if they were, they were much smaller…
A closer look at a soap bubble basically reveals swirling colors that are usually in motion with the forces that keep these colors swirling being likened to those that create weather. The weather is moved around by very delicate forces which are the variations between cool and warm areas and their slight variations in constituents. Similar to the complexity of these processes, it's difficult to understand the nature of human influenced climate change.
Carbon dioxide and methane which are primarily greenhouse gases are the derivatives of industrial activities. These greenhouse gases basically gather in the atmosphere and bring changes in the way the earth absorbs and discharge heat. One of the major examples of the effect of these gases is Venus than is hotter than Mercury regardless of the fact that it is farther from the sun. While human beings didn't create the greenhouse gases on Venus, the effects of…
"Disagreement on Human-caused Climate Change." (n.d.). Climate Change & Global Warming
Fact Sheet. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from http://climatechange.110mb.com/intro-debate-climate-change.htm
"Global Climate Change: Is it Human Caused?" (n.d.). Sierra County Prospect: 21st Century
News. Retrieved November 4, 2010, from http://www.sierracountyprospect.com/Global_Climate_Change.html
doubt seen the most profound transformation of the human relationship with the natural world in the history of humankind," ("Great Acceleration," 2015). Technological and environmental progress has been a tremendous boon for humanity, but came at the price of environmental degradation and disaster. Looking back from the vantage point of 2117 to the success of sustainable economic growth around the world that occurred since 2017, it is a relief to see how humans were able to withstand the temporary, loud, but ultimately divisive and ineffective movements like the "Cooler Heads Coalition" that flourished around the time Obama was President of the United States.
Climate change denial organizations and other conservative coalitions resisted change and government interventions to the point where they were almost willing to sacrifice their grandchildren's planet and human welfare in general just for the sake of making their political opponents work harder. In a PBS Frontline episode…
"Great Acceleration," (2015). Retrieved online: http://www.igbp.net/globalchange/greatacceleration.4.1b8ae20512db692f2a680001630.html
McKibben, B. (2012) Global Warming's Terrifying New Math. Rolling Stone, July 19, 2012
Mooney, C. (2015). The Magic Number: Holding Warming Under Two Degrees Celsius is the Goal. But is it Still Attainable?" The Washington Post, November 25, 2015.
PBS Frontline, "Climate of Doubt," (2012)
History Of Climate Change and Potential Impact of Climate Change
HISTOY AND POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE
History of Climate Change
Climate change can be traced back to the 19th century when ice ages together with different natural changes were first noted, and effect of greenhouse first identified. Most recently, the glaciers are melting. Water levels in the seas are increasing. Evidence of increased temperatures in the atmosphere is evident from these. For the last ten years, rampant cases of tornados, winter freezes, wildfires, tropical cyclones, and floods have been common in the US and across the globe. Besides, environmental temperatures have risen steadily over the past century. Today, human activities have advanced, with their eventual effects resting on the environment (McNall, 2012). The use of nuclear energy is a devastating blow to the sustenance of the natural state of the cosmos. The use of fossil fuels has increased the…
Black, B. (2013). Climate change: An encyclopedia of science and history. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.
McNall, S., G. (2012). Rapid Climate Change: Causes, Consequences, and Solution. Framing 21st Century Social Issues. Routledge
Sustainable Development Goals
At the end of September 2015, 173 leaders from across the globe gathered in New York City at the United Nations Summit to adopt the sustainable development goals. Generally, the concept of sustainable development goals was birthed at the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012. The main objective of the conference was to generate a series of universally applicable objectives that balances economic, social, and environmental dimensions (United Nations Development Programme, n.d.). The September 2015 meeting was fueled by increased concerns, calls, and demands for leadership on climate change, inequality, and poverty. As a result, the UN Summit focused on transforming these demands, concerns, and calls into actions that were ratified as part of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
The conclusion of the UN Summit in September 2015 involved the formal adoption of new development goals that would direct the development agenda of the world…
Schutt, D.M. (2014, October 29). How the Post-2015 Global Development Framework Can Address Climate Change. Carbon Market Watch. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from http://carbonmarketwatch.org/how-the-post-2015-global-development-framework-can-address-climate-change/
United Nations Development Programme (n.d.). A New Sustainable Development Agenda. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from http://www.undp.org/content/undp/en/home/mdgoverview.html
United Nations (n.d.). Goal 13: Take Urgent Action to Combat Climate Change and its Impacts. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/climate-change-2/
United Nations (2015, August 12). Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Retrieved October 23, 2015, from http://www.un.org/pga/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2015/08/120815_outcome-document-of-Summit-for-adoption-of-the-post-2015-development-agenda.pdf
Negative Effects of Climate Change
The weather patterns are changing all over the world and it has become one of the most debated issues across the globe with environmentalists having their concerns pertaining to global warming and its adverse effects on the environment in general. It is important for us to note here that scientists at NASA are doing extensive research on this issue and it has been proposed that the climate change is predicted to have harmful effects in some regions of the world; meanwhile the changes in the weather patterns will also have some beneficial effects in some other parts of the world. However, the main focus of this paper will be on the harmful effects of climatic changes (Cox et al.).
Current and Future Consequences
The effects of global climate change on the environment of the world have already been observed by the scientists and environmentalists. Ice…
Cox, Peter M. et al. 'Acceleration Of Global Warming Due To Carbon-Cycle Feedbacks In A Coupled Climate Model'. Nature 408.6809 (2000): 184 -- 187. Print.
Randal Jackson, Amber Jenkins. 'Effects'. Global Climate Change. N. p., 2014. Web. 9 Aug. 2014.
Vitousek, Peter M. 'Beyond Global Warming: Ecology And Global Change'. Ecology 75.7 (1994): 1861 -- 1876. Print.
Climate Change -- Cause and Mitigation
There are several ways to look at climate change because there are natural causes and there are also human-influenced causes for the global climate to change. This paper defines anthropogenic climate change and it defines natural climate change and the historic record of the earth's changing climate over the millennia. This paper also provides strategies for mitigating global climate change and speculates as to the possible stabilization of climate change vis-a-vis the business and economic fields.
hat is Anthropogenic Climate Change?
The Merriam-ebster Dictionary defines anthropogenic as "…relating to, or resulting from, the influence of human beings on nature"; the first use of this team was in 1923.
Meanwhile, the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research lists three ways in which the evidence points toward humans having influence over the rising temperatures on earth. The "…concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) is rising," which is…
Institute of Physics. (2013). Study reveals scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate change.
Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.iop.org .
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (2007). Climate Change 2007: Working Group I:
The Physical Science Basis. Retrieved September 1, 2013, from http://www.ipcc.ch .
S. Department of State). Since them the severity and frequency of bleaching events continues to increase. These bleaching events correlate with rising average sea temperatures on a global basis, rising sea levels, and more frequent tropical storms fueled by increasingly stronger heat masses (U.S. Department of State).
In addition to coral reef bleaching, the geographic ranges of many plants and animals are shifting. Plant and animal ranges are generally limited by climatic factors, with animals able to respond to climate changes faster than plants due to increased mobility (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). ecently, changes have been noticed in the ranges of several species. Those that cannot adapt to the new climate will quickly become extinct. Currently, nearly 20-30% of all plant and animal species are in danger of becoming extinct in the near future, with many of these extinctions related to climate change (EPA, Ecosystems and Biodiversity). However, climate change…
Begley, S. The Truth About Denial. Newsweek. August 13, 2007.
< http://www.newsweek.com/id/32482 > Accessed June 1, 2009.
Canadell, J., Le Quere, C., and Raupach, M., et al. Contributions to accelerating atmospheric
CO2 growth from economic activity, carbon intensity, and efficiency of natural sink.
The Growing Consensus on Global arming
In the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy, many segments of the general public have begun to concede that global climate change and its various consequences are real. Moreover, as the New Jersey coast and the streets of New York experienced flooding and damage the likes of which had never been seen this far north, it has become difficult to deny that our weather patterns are changing. Global warming contends that these changes are as a result of manmade hazards. According to the Stanford Solar Center (SSC) (2008), a "panel convened by the U.S. National Research Council, the nation's premier science policy body, in June 2006 voiced a "high level of confidence" that Earth is the hottest it has been in at least 400 years, and possibly even the last 2,000 years." (p. 1) The discussion hereafter will demonstrate that the case for the…
Blue Marble. (2012). How to Help Stop Global Warming. Bluemarble4us.com.
Bryce, E. (2012). On Our Radar. The New York Times.
Lewis, M. (2012). Scientists Find No Trend in 370 Years of Tropical Cyclone Data. Globalwarming.org.
National Geographic (NG). (2011). What Causes Global Warming? Nationalgeographic.com.
Global warming occurs due to the rise in temperature. The trapping of light and heat from the sun causes this rising of temperature. Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor are the green house gases, these gases trap the light and heat from the sun, and as a result, the temperature rises. This global warming hurts a large number of people, plants and animals living in the earth. There are many reasons due to which global arming is increasing day by day. Human beings also cause global warming but many other things are also responsible for it (Maslin, 2006).
The main activity that human beings perform due to which global warming occurs is to flaming the fossil fuels. Whiled riving a car, carbon dioxide is released in the atmosphere. This increases the greenhouse effect. In addition to this, jet fuel in the airplane also contributes in releasing the carbon…
Archer, D. (2011). Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
Karling, H.M. (2011). Global Climate Change. Huntington, NY: Nova Science Publ.
Maslin, M. (2006). Global Warming: Causes, Effects, and the Future. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press.
Changes (Global, National, Region, Local, and Farm)
In the work entitled: "Climate Change and Agriculture" a brochure prepared for the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food written by Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. In Section 4: Impact of Climate Change on Crops report findings that:
1) Elevated temperature increased their rate of grain growth but shortened the duration of grain filling;
2) Higher temperatures may have decreased the availability of assimilates so decreasing grain size, grain yield and mass per grain; and 3) Higher temperatures reduced average mass per grain, in one experiment, by 25% in normal CO2 and 14% in elevated conditions." (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, et al. nd)
The following chart demonstrates the effect that CO2, temperature, and CO2 combined with a higher temperature had on crop yields in this study.
Change in yield (%)
Source: (Muriel, Downing, and Hulme, 2006)
Chipanshi, a., Chanda, R., & Totolo, O. (Dec 2003). Vulnerability assessment of the maize and sorghum crops to climate change in Botswana. Climatic Change, 61(3).
Dhakwa, G. & Campbell, L. (Dec 1998). Potential effects of differential day-night warming in global climate change on crop production. Climatic Change, 40(3).
Isik, M. & Devadoss, S. (20 April 2006). An analysis of the impact of climate change on crop yields and yield variability. Applied Economics, 38(7).
Peng, S., Huang, J., Sheehy, J., Laza, R., Visperas, R., Zhong, X., Centeneo, G., Khush, G., & Cassman, K. (6 July 2004). Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(27).
Using this concept, further solutions to this problem can be solicited. By continuing to involve states, NGOs, and IGOs, a solution to this problem can be achieved eventually, but only through community response. Researchers can continue to work toward discovering scientific solutions, NGOs and IGOS can offer incentives for companies and individuals to adopt new greenhouse gas cutting policies, and governments can enforce these policies. The global nature of this problem, in addition to the global community response that fostered both the Framework Convention on Climate Change and the Kyoto Protocol exemplifies the importance of global community in dealing with this international issue.
A second global problem, the peak oil crisis, has established itself as a prime example of the need for global community and global community responses in this age of globalization. Since the use of fossil fuels for energy production first became mainstream, scientists and government officials knew…
Major Issues of the 21st Century: Who is Responsible for Addressing Global Warming?
Global warming is one of the most pressing issues in the 21st century. In the last few decades, the world has experienced higher temperatures, increased melting of ice caps, rising sea levels, more regular and more adverse weather events (such as storms, floods, heat waves, and drought), and changing rainfall patterns. We have also observed increased rain and ocean acidification, desert expansion, as well as greater species endangerment. These occurrences have largely been linked to human activity, particularly air pollution, burning of fossil fuels, greenhouse gas emissions, industrialization, and deforestation. The issue is so pressing that it threatens the ability of future generations to sustain their lives, which is ethically unfair. Indeed, global warming threatens food security, human health, human and non-human survival, as well as socioeconomic stability in the future (Cummins, 2014; Justin, 2015).…
There are a wide range of issues it consider here; from the effect that changed ecosystems can have on the general environment to studies of the 'disappearing' coral reef and the glaciers that are rapidly melting. "Scientists predict that composition and range of many ecosystems will shift as species respond to climate change..." (eschatology of the left)
This will also have an impact on the forests and it is estimated that as much as two-thirds of the worlds footrests will be affected.
Figure 1. Comparison of emissions source: (http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/recognizing-forests-role-in-climate-change.html)
2.1. The media and the construction of perceptions
Taking into account the enormous significance of global warming and the potential that it poses for the disruption and even destruction of human life on earth, it is important to gauge the effect that this event has had on the public perception. The media as a conduit of popular perception is also means…
Boykoff J. And Boykoff M. Journalistic Balance as Global Warming Bias:
Creating controversy where science finds consensus. May 4, 2007. http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=1978
Brief Analysis of Climate Change Report. May 4, 2007. http://alt-e.blogspot.com/
Eschatology of the left. May 4, 2007 http://www.watchblog.com/republicans/archives/001181.html
Fact or Fiction
Global arming is a controversial topic largely because of its sprawling prediction of worldwide catastrophe, an image which is far exaggerated from the reality of global climate change. If it were to be a more subtle phenomenon, say an increase in cloud cover, or more sunny days in February, then people would not pay any attention to the matter and would go on living their carefree lives. This is not the reality however, as science predicts massive changes to the way all of humanity will have to live due to climate change. Some may scoff at this allegation, and some may seriously change their habits in fear of the future. For the sake of comparison, I will present global warming believers, and global warming deniers and will analyze the motivations for each side to stretch its influence, whether in the political realm or…
"The Basics of Global Warming - Science of Global Warming - Environmental Defense Fund." Environmental Defense Fund - Finding the Ways That Work. Web. 25 July 2011. .
Klein, Naomi. Global Warming, Fact or Fiction. Web. 25 July 2011. .
NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Web. 25 July 2011. .
For many people, global warming is primarily relevant to them in regards to the weather. They assume that when it is excessively hot, this is reflective of a shift in the global climate and when it is cold, this is a sign that global warming is not really as bad as it might be. However, this is far from the truth. While changes in weather may still be present during our era of global warming, climate refers to sustained and prolonged shifts in temperature. According to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), although the earth has always experienced periods of cooling and warming, the current trend has a probability of a staggering 95% to have been generated by human intervention (“Climate Change”).
The fact that the current change has been generated by human activity and intervention is what makes the shift so especially worrisome. Industrialization since the nineteenth century…
Global sustainability can be defined as "meetings the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." (Oskamp, 2000, p. 373) This can be interpreted to mean that the present generation must not overuse resources, or created problems which will effect future generations. Many see the problem with humans abusing the Earth's resources as a human behavior problem, and therefore psychologists, sociologists, and other social scientists have a role in altering destructive human behavior. Both George Howard and Stuart Oskamp have identified the problems and proposed several ideas on how psychologists can play an important role in designing non-destructive human behavior.
Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing the human race and it's ability to sustain itself. It is important to discuss human behavior that can contribute to climate change, as well as the psychological drivers of these behaviors. For instance,…
Oskamp, Stuart. (2000). Psychological Contributions to Achieving an Ecologically Sustainable Future for Humanity. Journal of Social Issues, 56 (3), 373-390. Retrieved from http://188.8.131.52/scholar?q=cache:fELgfd3ftmMJ:scholar.google.com/&hl=
Oskamp, Stuart. (2002) Environmentally Responsible Behavior: Teaching and Promoting It Effectively. Analysis of Social Issues and Public Policy, 2(1), 173-182. Retrieved from http://www.asap-spssi.org/pdf/asap034.pdf
Swim, Janet., Howard, George, et al. (2010) A Report by the American Psychological Association's Task Force on the Interface Between Psychology and Global Climate Change. American Psychological Association. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/science/about/publications/climate-change.pdf
The Debate of Global Warming
Global Warming is a serious problem for our planet and our generation. This is a topic of much concern and debate. The climate change in our environment has been the center of many debates. Global warming is the increase in temperature in the earth's surface and in the oceans. This increase in temperature and potential continued increase in temperature is a significant threat to the environment and planet earth as we know it. This type of imbalance in the environment can impact us significantly. Scientist believes that there are things we can do as a society to prevent this horrible change in climate.
There are some natural causes that create the climate changes. One of the natural causes is the release of methane gas from the arctic tundra and wetlands. The greenhouse gas is a gas that collects heat and keeps it stored…
Climate Change Information Resources (2004). What causes global climate change? Retrieved from http://ccir.ciesin.columbia.edu/nyc/pdf/q1a.pdf
Environment News Service (2002). U.S. Report Links Human Actions to Global Warming. Retrieved from http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jun2002/2002-06-03-02.asp
Langdon, K. (2003). Human Activity and Global Warming. Journal of the Prometheus Society. 140. Retrieved from http://www.polymath-systems.com/pubpol/globwarm.html
Global warming is the trend with which temperatures across the globe are increasing beyond the range of normal fluctuations. The effects of global climate change are real and will result in serious consequences for the generations to come if nothing is done to solve this problem. The problem of global warming has mainly been caused by the emission of greenhouse gases into the Earth's atmosphere. These greenhouse gases that are being emitted into the Earth's atmosphere and result in global warming include carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide. Some of the serious effects of the global warming problem include hotter and dry summers, increased flooding as well as lessened snowfall and soil moisture. This problem also results in serious consequences on the agricultural and tourism industries of many countries across the globe. Therefore, there is a need for rapid changes and actions that will help in the reduction of greenhouse…
Lehman, Christine. "Global Warming Problems & Solutions." EHow. EHow, Inc. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. .
Riebeek, Holli. "Why Is Global Warming a Problem?" NASA: Earth Observatory. NASA, 6 July 2010. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. .
Sheldon, Tony. "Reducing Greenhouse Gases Will Have Good Short-Term Effect." BMJ: Helping Doctors Make Better Decisions. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd., 2 Dec. 2000. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. .
Simmons. "5 Deadliest Effects of Global Warming." Environmental Graffiti: The Magazine Created By You. Environmental Graffiti. Web. 29 Jan. 2011. .
Global Warming: Is it Really a Threat?
Global warming has become a modern issue of considerable significance. It has been the subject of many debates, articles and conferences. Despite the amount of debate around the issue, there is still no clear conclusion. Yet the possible consequences that are attributed to the threat are highly concerning. As one report describes:
The most recent projections of state-of-the-art computer models of the Earth's climate (GCMs) have projected a globally averaged warming ranging from almost 3 to 10.7 degrees F. over the next 100 years, if greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in the atmosphere at the current rate. Climate scientists believe that such a warming could shift temperature zones, rainfall patterns, and agricultural belts and, under certain scenarios, and cause sea level to rise. They further predict that global warming could have far-reaching effects -- some positive, some negative depending how it may be…
CGER: Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources. 2000. Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change. National Academy Press: Washington DC.
Justus, J.R., & Fletcher, S.R. 2002. IB89005: Global Climate Change. Congressional Research Service: Washington DC.
Kaufman, Y. 2002. On The Shoulders of Giants: Milutin Malinkovitch (1879-1958). NASA. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov:81/Library/Giants/Milankovitch/index.html
Magnuson, J.J., Robertson, D.M., Benson, B.J., Wynne, R.H., Livingstone, D.M., Arai, T., Assel, R.A., Barry, R.G., Card, V., Kuusisto, E., Granin, N.G, Prowse, T.D., Stewart, K.M., & Vuglinski, V.S. 2000. Historical Trends in Lake and River Ice Cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science 289: 1743-1746.
The Existential Threat
Climate change, besides being a natural phenomenon, has been greatly induced by humans since ancient times. With the advent of technology, factories came into being and became the reason for greenhouse emission, which was deducted to be the major source of environmental depletion. Cyclones, storms, floods, and tsunamis have been accounted for the repercussions of human intervention in climate change. Although humans, now in the form of global corporations, such as oil and fossil companies, have been working for human betterment, they have been deceptively producing great harm to their environment. World Climate Conferences were held, and many political leaders set scientific teams to investigate causal complications and ask scientists to find answers and make pacts with parties to reduce the catastrophic effects of climate change (Butler). Planting trees was promoted, and the use of fossil fuels was discouraged.
It seems as if climate change…
Butler, Colin D. \\\\"Climate Change, Health and Existential Risks to civilization: A comprehensive review (1989-2013).\\\\" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 15, 10, 2266. 16 Oct.2018, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15102266
Chua, Liana, and Fair, Hannah. \\\\"Anthropocene.\\\\" The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Anthropology, 2019, https://www.anthroencyclopedia.com/entry/anthropocene. Accessed 12 Oct. 2020.
Cook, John, et al. \\\\"Exxon has Misled Americans on Climate Change for Decades. Here\\\\'s How to Fight Back.\\\\" The Guardian, 23 Oct. 2019, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/oct/23/exxon-climate-change-fossil-fuels-disinformation
Sawyer, Suzana. \\\\"Human Energy.\\\\" Dialect Anthropol, vol. 34, 2010, pp. 67-75, DOI: 10.1007/s10624-009-9122-9
The precise variables and units of measurement will be greatly dependent upon the area or the region of the study as well as the specific crop to be the focus of the study. For example, in the state of Wisconsin variability in the weather include the following: (1) Wetter winters/driers summers; (2) poor air quality; (3) more frequent floods, droughts, forest fires and storms with damage; and (4) increase in disease-carrying insect populations. (Wisconsin Natural Resources, 2007)
III. Specific Units of Analysis
Units of analysis within the scope of this type of study would necessarily be crop production units, which will be factored by temperature variances and rainfall variances as compared to the resulting production of crops within the area or region of the study. Other independent variables by which crop production might be factored include the factors of air quality, forest fires, storms and insect population in the area…
What Global Climate Change Could Mean for Wisconsin (2007) Wisconsin Natural Resources Magazine. 4 Feb. 2007. Online available at http://www.wnrmag.com/supps/2000/apr00/global.htm .
Will Global Warming Improve Crop Production? (2002) Science Daily American Society of Agronomy 19 September 2002. Online available at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/09/020919065913.htm .
Douglas, Jerome (200) Global Warming Already Impacting Monsoons, Crop Production in India. 4 Dec. 2006 NewsTarget. Online available at http://news.mongabay.com/2006/1204-ca.htm l' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
" (Ungar, 2001) in the work of Jerry Williams entitled: "Knowledge, Consequences, and Experience: The Social Construction of Environmental Problems" explored are the "realist and constructionist approaches to environmental-social problems." (1998) Neither view in its current form is adequate as the actual reality is one that "moves beyond relativism and definitional constructionism" recognizing that the natural world is not dependent upon the constructions of humans. (Williams, 1998) the work of Carvalho and urgess (2005) entitled: "Cultural Circuits of Climate Change in the U.K. roadsheet Newspapers 1985-2003" provides an argument supporting "a cultural perspective to be brought to bear on studies of climate change risk perception." This article holds that those who produce and consume media texts "are jointly engaged in dynamic, meaning-making activities that are context-specific and that change over time." (Carvalho and urgess, 2005) Richard a. Kerr in the work entitled: "Global Warming: Rising Global Temperature, Rising Uncertainty" states…
Dunn-Brown, Beth (2007) Far North is 'Ground Zerio' for Global Warming. AP New Wire. 15 April, 2007. Online available at http://news.aol.com/topnews/articles/_a/far-north-is-ground-zero-for-global/20070415145709990002?ncid=NWS0001
Shelden, Ungar (2001) Moral Panic vs. The Risk Society: The Implications of the Changing Sites of Social Anxiety. The British Journal of Sociology. 52 (2) 2001 June.
Williams, Jerry (1998) Knowledge, Consequences, and Experience: The Social Construction of Environmental Problems. Sociological Inquiry. Vol. 68 No. 4. October 1998.
Carvalho, Anabela and Burgess, Jacquelin (2005) Cultural Circuits of Climate Change in U.K. Broadsheet Newspapers, 1985-2003.
Specifically, it has risen a full degree since 1957 (Crittenden & White, 2010; Muller, 2008). Similarly, there is no doubt that carbon dioxide levels have also risen significantly, thirty-six percent since their first recording (Muller, 2008). Proponents of the global warming hypothesis argue that this increasing level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is a cause of the greenhouse effect that traps warmth under the lower layers of the atmosphere and increases severe weather patterns and weather instability in general (Crittenden & White, 2010).
In many respects, the principle flaw in the global warming theory is not so much that it is illusory but that it is not necessarily harmful and also, not necessarily attributable to human behavior. The most responsible proponents of global warming acknowledge both of those uncertainties but argue that if the observed evidence is significantly related to global warming, and if global warming is the cause…
Crittenden, J.C. And White, H.S. "Harnessing Energy for a Sustainable World"
Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol. 132, No. 13; (2010): 4503 -- 4505.
Muller, R.A. (2008). Physics for Future Presidents: The Science behind the Headlines.
New York, NY: W.W. Norton.
It is indeed sad to point out that the Kyoto protocol has not been enforced as a result of its rejection by the U.S. government and the ussian move of deferring it.
As pointed out by Hamada (2006).the process of controlling the global weather change should be done through a combined and unified effort of all nations. These must include the entire global community of the developed and the developing nations. It is therefore important to put aside political differences and then advance a sense of unity in coming up with an appropriate framework to be used in tackling global warming. A global strategy should therefore be put forward to tackle the problem. The design of the global strategy must accommodate the situation of all the participating nations. On the technical aspect, the strategy must involve the view of both social and natural scientist.
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global…
Encyclopedia of Earth (2010)."Global Warming"
Guardia (2009). Climate change increasing malaria risk, research reveals http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2009/dec/31/climate-change-malaria-kenya
Hamada, T (2006). How Should Global Society Address Climate Change? - The Kyoto Protocol
Politics Behind Climate Change and What Can and Should Be Done
Climate change has been a major problem experienced by various countries globally. Many factors contribute to climate change problems experienced including manmade and natural factors. Many researchers in different countries have concentrated on studies with the aim of finding strategies that help in dealing climate change problem. From the increasing climate change problems, many policy questions are arising regarding the methods used in addressing the issue. Different countries have directed more funds, climate professionals, and other resources to the approaches aimed at dealing with the climate change. With such efforts, no significant impact is felt from the commitment (McLean et al., 2016). Additionally, policy matters are the weakest part of all the approaches adopted and implemented when addressing the issue. Some of the questions arising include availability of the policies, their implementation, punishment to the policy offenders, civic education,…
Barker, T. (2017). The economics of avoiding dangerous climate change. In Green Economy Reader (pp. 237-263). Springer International Publishing.
McLean, J. E., McLean, J. E., Fuller, S., & Fuller, S. (2016). Action with (out) activism: understanding digital climate change action. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 36(9/10), 578-595.
Shreck, B., & Vedlitz, A. (2016). The Public and Its Climate: Exploring the Relationship Between Public Discourse and Opinion on Global Warming. Society & Natural Resources, 29(5), 509-524.
Employee development and training is an alternate zone. In the IT business, training is not simply about recognizing training needs and giving the presupposed training, but anticipating and reckoning the necessities and advancing suitable training to equip employees so that they can handle the challenges.
Another serious challenge is the way businesses have the ability to fuse all the sub-systems in H and help them in accomplishing a definitive objective: extraordinary performance. Individuals must be groomed to get in tune with the performance culture. Making an environment that invigorates the formation of information and its sustenance all through the organization is an enormous challenge. However, investments in Human esource Information Systems (HIS) must create, maintain, and enhance a performance driven culture. The role shifts to that of a facilitator. H will include the entire organization in this process and go about as an advisor and facilitator. This is a H…
Aswathappa, A. (2009). International business. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill.
Bell, M.P. (2012). Diversity in organizations. Mason, Ohio: South-Western College.
Burke, R.J. (2005). Reinventing human resource management: Challenges and new directions. London [u.a.: Routledge.
Congress, E.P., & Gonza-lez, M.J. (2013). Multicultural perspectives in social work practice with families. New York: Springer Pub. Company.
For this assignment, you will watch the National Geographic Documentary Six Degrees Could Change the World and answer the questions
1) Summarize key changes in the earth's climate system (include vital numbers quoted in the documentary) that are projected to occur with each incremental rise in global temperature.
Do not simply list these changes. I am well aware that if you do a google search, you will get numerous hits that describe degree-by-degree changes as described in the movie. Well, if you copy those (or paraphrase them), it wouldn't be as much funRight? Not to mention, you don't want to risk getting F on this course because of plagiarism. So do the right thing.Watch it and use your own words to articulate your response in a fashion that conveys a clear picture of these changes. If it helps, think yourself as a science writer who has…
Global warming, or more accurately, climate change, is the phenomenon that has been scientifically observed over repeated studies that the planet is experiencing warming and changing climates at a pace much more rapid that has been observed in any prior era. The increase in the pace of the climate change has been correlated with the coming of the industrial age, and in particular with the mass adoption of fossil fuels. The burning of hydrocarbons to create energy unleashes a chemical reaction that ends with carbon entering the atmosphere, where it then traps solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to the warming process. This paper will outline this process and the evidence supporting the fact of anthropogenic global warming.
Observations of Climate Change
The first step in understanding climate change is understanding how it is determined to be occurring. Weather is an observable phenomenon, and over a long period of time…
Antonio, R. & Brulle, A. (2011). The unbearable lightness of politics: climate change denial and political polarization. The Sociological Quarterly. Vol. 52 (2011) 195-202.
Cox, P., Betts, R., Jones, C., Spall, S. & Totterdell, I. (2000). Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate change model. Nature. Vol. 408 (9 November 2000) 184-187.
Crowley, T. (2000). Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science. Vol. 289 (14 July 2000), 270-277.
Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S., Clausen, H. Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N., Hammer, C., & Oeschger, H. (1984). North Atlantic climate oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity.
Climate Change and Moral Responsibility
The position that will be supported in this paper is that climate change is a fact and Americans in the U.S. have a moral responsibility to address it.
The background to this issue includes the following: since the 19th century, scientists and researchers have been looking more closely at changes in the climate and the impact of greenhouse gases on the atmosphere. As Meyer and Roser point out, "the emission of greenhouse gases causes climate change" (223). Since the rise of industrialization, greenhouse gases and pollutants have surged, leading to global warming, which has resulted in polar ice caps melting, sea levels rising, and temperature and weather patterns changing -- all of which has major ramifications for the planet.
From the standpoint of distributive justice, specific questions arise when looking to address climate change. For instance, many people believe there should be a cap on…
Javeline, Debra. "The Most Important Topic Political Scientists Are Not Studying:
Adapting to Climate Change." Perspectives on Politics, vol. 12, no. 2 (2014): 420-434.
Meyer, Lukas; Roser, Dominic. "Distributive Justice and Climate Change: The
Allocation of Emission Rights." Analyse & Kritik: Journal of Philosophy and Social Theory, vol. 28, no. 2 (2006): 223-249.
Global Warming is real and happening
When it comes to the environment, one of the major topics for concern revolves around the issue of global warming. While there has been much debate on global warming, the fact of the matter stands, that numerous items if scientific research demonstrate the global warming is in fact real and happening. Those who oppose the idea that global warming is real and happening, do so often seeking refuge in the assertion that the climate of planet earth has changed continually through time, and that the climate changes that some attribute to global warming are actually just changes that are typical to the fluctuations of the earth. At this day and age, scientists have high technological tools such as satellites which orbit above the earth and which are able to show scientists snapshots of the "bigger picture" of this issue and preventing any further denial…
Nasa.gov. (2013). Climate change: How do we know?. Retrieved from http://climate.nasa.gov /evidence
Markman, A. (2013, May 21). Who rejects evidence of global climate change?. Retrieved
Matthews, D. (2012, November 8). Cbo: Letting upper-income tax cuts expire would barely hurt economy. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/wp/2012/11/08/cbo-letting-upper-income-tax-cuts-expire-would-barely-hurt-economy/
As sea level are on the rise, many millions will suffer more and more aggressive floods and entire coastal cities and industries will disappear unless significant investment is made in dam systems. Another socio-geographical effect is large fires due to high temperatures and winds that create disasters all over the planet. Also, freshwater systems in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report in Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, America, North America, Polar regions "showed an overall net negative impact of climate change on water resources and freshwater ecosystems." (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.2007)
Global warming effects also reach more developed countries with effects not necessarily connected with the food supply or health issues, but climate change. The increase of severe weather phenomena in the last 10 years is quite visible, although no direct match can be made at this point as not enough data has been collected. As an in example of global…
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. "Climate Change 2007: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaption and Vulnerability" IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007 Retrieved from http://www.ipcc.ch /publications_and_data/ar4/wg2/en/ch19s19-es.html).
National Geographic. What is Global Warming? 2010. Retrieved from http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-overview.html
Pachauri, R.K. "Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change" IPCC Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report Retrieved from
Ample scientific evidence exists to demonstrate that global warming is an authentic and unequivocal threat to the globe, to nations around the world, and to society in developed countries. Climatologists have found evidence of seven cycles of glacial retreat and advance over the past 650,000 years ("NASA," 2012). Notably, the beginning of the era of the climate we experience today is estimated to have occurred 7,000 years ago when the last ice age ended ("NASA," 2012). Scientists assert that these earlier climate changes were caused by changes in the solar energy that Earth receives as a result of its orbit ("NASA," 2012). However, the current global warming is not a natural event since it has been induced and worsened by human activity ("NASA," 2012). Moreover the rate of global warming in unprecedented over the past 1,300 years as substantiated by scientifically validated geological and climatological records, and by…
____. (2012). Global Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Retrieved http://climate.nasa.gov /evidence/
____. (2012). Stop Global Warming. Greenpeace. Retreived http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/en/campaigns/global-warming-and-energy/
Microphone Climate Change
Over the last several years there has been a heated debate in both the political and scientific arenas regarding the validity and nature of climate change. This paper will discuss several factors that lead to natural climate change as well as factors contributing to anthropogenic climate change, discuss the implications of global warming, and discuss policies that can help reduce it.
There are several processes that contribute to natural climate change (Seinfeld & Pandis, 2012):
The sun. Of course the sun is the most prominent natural climate influence. Variations in solar activity such as sunspots, changes in the solar magnetic field, etc. all have the potential to produce variations in climate.
Interactions between the atmosphere and oceans. The oceans interact with the atmosphere in several different ways including absorbing half of the key transferred to the polls, being the single most important carbon dioxide sink, etc. However,…
Al-Juaied, M., & Whitmore, A. (2009). Realistic costs of carbon capture. Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Discussion Paper, 8. Retrieved on November 9, 2014
Booth, R.K. (2010). Testing the climate sensitivity of peat-based paleoclimate reconstructions in mid-continental North America. Quaternary Science Reviews, 29(5), 720-731.
Delucchi, M.A., & Jacobson, M.Z. (2011). Providing all global energy with wind, water, and solar power, Part II: Reliability, system and transmission costs, and policies. Energy Policy, 39(3), 1170-1190.
This shows that media outlets have an extremely strong influence on individuals in their belief of global warming. The lack of knowledge in the real application of global warming is startling considering the real earnestness in which each of these individuals expressed their beliefs on global warming.
For the second group of individuals who do not believe in global warming, the results are just as mixed as previously. Although they all seem to very intelligent individuals, none of the three could provide a definition of exactly what global warming was. Although two of them pointed out that greenhouse gases plays a factor. They explained that their understanding or knowledge of global warming has come from multiple sources, and all professed a strong distrust of traditional media outlets as viable and truthful information. One of them interestingly cited the novel "State of Fear" as a strong impetus for why he does…
Barnett, T.P., Adam, J.C., and Lettenmaier, D.P. (2005). "Potential impacts of a warming climate on water availability in snow-dominated regions." Nature 438: 303-309
Gerald a. Meehl, et.al., Science Magazine, www.sciencemag.orgHow Much More Global Warming and Sea Level Rise?, 18 March 2005. Retrieved February 11, 2007.
Abarbanel, Albert, and Thomas McCluskey (1950). "Is the World Getting Warmer?" Saturday Evening Post, 1 July, pp. 22-23, 57-63.
Agrawala, Shardul (1999). "Early Science-Policy Interactions in Global Climate Change: Lessons from the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases." Global Environmental Change 9(2): 157-69.
Table of Contents
6. Thesis Statement
7. Body of Essay
9. Works Cited
Feeling the Heat: Global Warming and Climate Change
What Can be Done to Reverse Climate Change?
The Arguments For and Against the Anthropogenic Causes of Global Warming
Meltdown: Why Global Warming is Going to Become Even Worse in the Future
International Strategies for Addressing Global Warming
Global Warming and Policy Development in the United States
The Effects of Global Warming on the Earth’s Oceans
Science or Myth? The Truth about Global Warming
II. Review and Analysis
A. Arguments implicating anthropogenic sources as the cause of global warming
B. Arguments against anthropogenic sources as the cause of global warming
C. Discussion and Analysis
Although there is a growing consensus among the scientific community that global warming is…
N. has covered it in its report, and how climate change specialists are trying to address the huge changes underway in the world, as temperatures continue rising, causing havoc around the world. he strengths of this article's argument as backed up by research and by the report given by the U.N., an esteemed organization that also backs it up by research and thus the arguments are sound, and the article makes it clear in a very persuasive way that there is a problem.
he points made in this article are clearly thus based on evidence, yet the presentation is not balanced, here is way more evidence for human induced climate change than against, yet the data is from credible sources and the fact that research backs it up makes it impossible to be "for" climate change, as this is harmful to humanity. he article did not open my eyes, as…
The points made in this article are clearly thus based on evidence, yet the presentation is not balanced, There is way more evidence for human induced climate change than against, yet the data is from credible sources and the fact that research backs it up makes it impossible to be "for" climate change, as this is harmful to humanity. The article did not open my eyes, as it presents things that I already knew, but for some who do not believe in climate change, this can be a good source to go to.
Sadly, climate change is a reality and this article only proves it. Those who believe that climate change is not real really should do their research. The fact that we have freezing winters and scorching summers can only be attributed to climate change and global warming. There are research studies upon research studies out there, as well as a fantastic array of media proof to truly see the effects of climate change.
Source: Gillis, J. (2011). U.N. Panel Finds Climate Change Behind Some Extreme Weather Events. New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from .
Global Warming DQs
The determination of human contribution to the observed variations in Earth's climate includes making difficult decisions about the issues of climate systems that vary naturally. This is based on the interactions among different atmosphere parts with other concepts from an underlying concept. The natural variations exist on time scales from different years and decades. Shorter time spans for data records permit performance negotiations while separating systematic changes from human activities including greenhouse gas emissions and production of aerosol particles within natural variations (Victor, 2011).
Various natural climate fluctuations such as seasonal cycles are simple to develop and account for because they occur within well-known and fixed time scales. The alternative natural climate influence such as the El Nino and recurring warmth of ocean waters in tropical Pacific Ocean are difficult to identify within climatic datasets. The concept of warming refrains from occurring at fixed time intervals and…
Archer, D. (2011). Global Warming: Understanding the Forecast. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Victor, D.G. (2011). Global Warming Gridlock: Creating More Effective Strategies for Protecting the Planet. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Casper, J.K. (2010). Changing Ecosystems: Effects of Global Warming. New York: Infobase Publishing.
Dincer, I., Midilli, A., Hepbasli, A.T., Karakoc, H. (2009). Global Warming: Engineering Solutions. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.
Climate Change man-made, and if yes, is there a sustainable process that mankind can get actively involved in with the purpose to slow it down or even to stop it entirely?
Climate Change is one of the 'hottest' topics today and yet most people have a limited understanding of what it involves.
Global Warming is a process that can be seen everywhere and the majority of the world considers a future where temperatures will constantly go up until the earth's surface is no longer a viable place for people to live.
Thermohaline circulation is, to a certain degree, similar to a giant air conditioning device making it possible for earth to maintain its temperatures relatively constant.
Global Warming is believed to disrupt the ocean circulation process and to eventually shut it down completely, leading to an Ice Age and thus acting in disagreement with how most people perceive the effects…
DiMento, J. & Doughman, P. "Climate Change: What it Means for Us, Our Children, and Our Grandchildren," (MIT Press, 2007)
Klein, N. "This Changes Everything: Capitalism Vs. The Climate." (Simon and Schuster, 16 Sep 2014)
Committee on Abrupt Climate Change, National Research Council, Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Polar Research Board, Ocean Studies Board, "Abrupt Climate Change:: Inevitable Surprises," (National Academies Press, 23 Apr 2002)
He even goes so far as to claim that if global warming does occur, it will be a positive thing. Higher temperatures would be positive for agriculture and forests. He believes that higher temperatures will actually cause sea levels to drop, and wraps up his interview with the cheery optimism that everyone appreciates warmer weather.
igley isn't quite as upbeat. He points out that because uncertainty is a built in component of the climate models, it is just as likely that the scientists have erred on the side of caution as it is that they have erred on the side of excess. This means that the effects of global warming could be much worse than what the models predict. His overall concern:
I]t's not so much just the temperature changes, but it's the changes in all other aspects of the environment: amounts of precipitation, the ability for vegetation to maintain…
Bailey, Ronald. "Why Meaning?" Reason (Apr. 2004): 10-12.
First Test of Predictions of Climate Change Impacts on Biodiversity." Space Daily (15 July 2005): NA. General OneFile. Gale. 27 Nov. 2007 http://find.galegroup.com .
New Observations Confirm Recent Warming of the Tropical Atmosphere." Space Daily (15 Aug. 2005): NA. General OneFile. Gale. 27 Nov. 2007.
21st century underwent many changes. There were political events; civil unrest and terrorism that made countries like the United States take precaution. Although globalization became prevalent within the last decade, economic globalization has taken precedence. The issues surrounding countries and governance as well as the outcomes of such problems have sparked publicized negotiation situations. One in particular will be covered in this essay.
An article by John M. Broder explains the devastating effects of climate change and the need for governments globally to work together. Included in some of the possible repercussions of uncontrolled climate change are possible destabilization of entire countries and the feeding of terrorist movements. Climate change could affect nations through drought, mass migration (animals and insects) and food shortage. Broder continues explaining which areas around the world could be critically hit. Places in the Middle East, South Asia, and Africa could face water crises, food shortages,…
Dingwerth, K. (2014). Global democracy and the democratic minimum: Why a procedural account alone is insufficient. European Journal Of International Relations, 20(4), 1124-1147. doi:10.1177/1354066113509116
Gray, K., & Murphy, C. (2013). Introduction: rising powers and the future of global governance. Third World Quarterly, 34(2), 183-193. doi:10.1080/01436597.2013.775778
Stiglitz, J. (2004). The Future of Global Governance. Columbia.edu. Retrieved 16 January 2015, from http://academiccommons.columbia.edu/catalog/ac%3A126569
Earth's Climate System is a complex system that is influenced by many different factors. The manner in which the climate is maintained, and makes life on Earth possible, is a culmination of the atmospheric conditions and the Earth's energy balance that is determined primarily by energy introduced into the system as well as its ability to trap energy in the greenhouse layer. The Earth resides in the "Goldilocks Zone", or the habitable zone, which is believed to be the region around a star in which the right conditions for life can be sustained; recently scientist have been able to discover other planets that could also reside in such zones. (Zin, 2017).
The Earth's climate system provides an ideal habitat for life based on its relationship to the closest star, the sun, and its orbital patterns. The rotation of the earth, as well as the rotation of the moon, give the…
NASA. (N.d.). Climate Change: How do we know? Retrieved from NASA: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/
Zin, S. (2017, February 17). SEVEN EARTH-SIZED PLANETS ORBIT A NEARBY STAR, AND THREE ARE IN ITS 'HABITABLE ZONE'. Retrieved from Newsweek: http://www.newsweek.com/seven-earth-sized-planets-orbit-nearby-star-and-three-are-its-habitable-zone-559728
Forest Fires: Another Culprit in Climate Change?
Forest fires have always been menace to people's lives and properties. The threat becomes even more severe when these fires occur during the dry summer season since the containment of which becomes even more challenging. There are variable causes of forest fires from human-caused such as irresponsible campers building fires and unable to control the spread thereof to natural-causes such as during a lightning strike. In the case of the forest fire in the Columbia River Gorge located west of Lyle, Washington, the fire started with a downed power line (The Oregonian 2010). More than likely, when the power line fell the sparks produced initiated the fire and the dried plants and trees where the power line fell caught fire. From there, the unthinkable Domino Effect ensued where a wildfire spread and "has burned about 1,200 acres of forest land. Fortunately, the fire…
Oregon State University. "Effects of Forest Fire on Carbon Emissions, Climate Impacts Often Overestimated." ScienceDaily. 01 Feb. 2010. 29 Jul. 2011. .
The Oregonian. Fast-Moving Wildfire Burning in Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. 27 Aug. 2010. 29 Jul. 2011. .
Personal, Local, or National Issue;
Climate change has become one of the most debated subjects that mark the current political agendas throughout the world. The international community, the international and regional NGOs as well as the public opinion are constantly flagging more and more issues on the negative impact the lack of sustainable development has on the environment. Among other perspectives, one that has been rather often considered in relation to this subject is the role international organizations and in particular the ones at the level of the United Nations have mitigating the risks of climate change at the global level. This is in my opinion an important matter to discuss from several points-of-view; firstly, the issue of climate change affects the world at a global level and its perspectives are grim in comparison to the efforts made by every state individually in addressing the particularities of the situations; secondly,…
Other perspectives, such as the realist perspective, find that the threats posed by climate change are still uncertain and largely unsubstantiated, and other factors such as the global geopolitical situation also lead them to believe that now is not the time to pursue major hanges in energy production or industry. As international cooperation becomes more and more difficult, it will also become more difficult for to agree on international climate change regulations and rules, let alone enforce them, making an establishments of these rules now premature and effectively useless, according to this view. The fact that this perspective persist in many minds is a major barrier to the passing of effective climate change legislation.
Finally, many businesses show very little interest in adjusting their activities without federal mandates to do so. Carbon trading has failed as a voluntary enterprise, and the businesses and regions that have banded together in attempts…
perturbed by humanity (how and why)?
Although the most obvious effect of human-generated climate change may be the warming of the earth, it is not the only negative impact of the increased concentration of fossil fuels in the environment. This is reflected in notions such as the fact that "environmental consequences of increasing ocean acidity, caused by the solution of CO2, may be at least as serious as greenhouse-induced temperature rise." The increased solution of CO2 due to industrialization can affect the massive amounts of flora and fauna living in the ocean, which can also have an impact upon terrestrial life which depends upon fish for food. The fishing industry is likely to be impacted as well as animals that depend upon fish to survive.
Climate change is also not easily reversible. "Natural sources and sinks of CO2 are closely balanced, maintaining the total abundance in the atmosphere and oceans…
Writing doesnt have to be a chore.
To prove it, heres a cause and effect essay example that gets down and dirty with a semi-controversial issue that polarizes a lot of people (no pun intended): yes, were talking about climate change.
This topic has been in the news for a good long while.
There have been movies made about it, conferences held about it, and many works of scholarly and not-so-scholarly literature written about it.
So lets take a look at how to turn this subject into the main topic of a cause and effect essay.
Well start off with a title, give you the hook, underline the thesis, and highlight some important parts for you to consider.
Best of all, well show you how to have fun with your essay. Lets go!
b. Did climate change cause Harvey et al.?
what is climate change and what is it doing?
The reality of global warming: fact vs. fiction and the marginalized greed-based business perspective
The Economics of global warming vs. The moral impact of global warming on all stakeholders including non-human ones.
Climate change, not global warming: the effects are different in different parts of the globe.
The political, social, and financial challenges that global warming creates and how the challenges can be met.
The Economic, Political, and Ethical Effects of Global Warming
Global warming, or climate change, has economic, social, and political consequences. These consequences are experienced by the non-human populations of the planet, too, and perhaps even more so. The Environmental Protection Agency points out that due to climate change and global warming, migratory birds are flying an average of thirty-five miles further north than they did just forty years ago. The recent Hurricane Sandy…
Environmental Protection Agency. "Climate Change." Retrieved online: http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/
Jacoby, Henry. Interview with the Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/warming/debate/jacoby.html
Kolbert, Elisabeth. Interview with the Natural Resources Defense Council. Retrieved online: http://www.nrdc.org/globalwarming/ikolbert.asp
Maslin, Mark. Global Warming: Causes, Effects, and the Future. MBI, 2007.
14). While command-based incentives were more favored in the U.S. during the 1970s, the increasing shift to view market-based incentives in a more positive light caused a tendency to stress incentives in the eagan era and beyond -- just when the warming of the earth's atmosphere began to increase.
Today, both incentives continue to be used. One example of a control mechanism used to prevent global warming is fuel emissions caps. However, within the U.S. these have proven to be extremely unpopular. California, for example, has one of the most stringent and ambitious goals to regulate emissions but in November voters will be able to vote to suspend these goals, in a supposed effort to increase jobs if Proposition 23 is passed (Nagourney 2010). Incentive-based regulations are familiar to most consumers in the form of tax incentives to buy Energy Star-rated products, tax credits for fuel-conserving home improvements such as…
Climate change: How do we know? (2010). NASA. Retrieved October 13, 2010 at http://climate.nasa.gov /evidence/
Climate change. (2010) National Academy of Sciences. Retrieved October 13, 2010 at http://dels.nas.edu/resources/static-assets/materials-based-on-reports/reports-in-brief/Science-Report-Brief-final.pdf
Harrington, Winston & Richard Morganstern. (2004 Fall/Winter). Economic incentives vs. command and control. Resources for the Future. Retrieved October 13, 2010 at http://www.rff.org/rff/Documents/RFF_Resources_152_ecoincentives.pdf
Ifill, Gwen. (2005). Kyoto fallout. Online News Hour. Retrieved October 13, 2010 at http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/environment/jan-june05/kyoto_2-16.html
It was hoped in the past there would be laws and regulations in place that required mandatory reductions in greenhouse gases that were put into the atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol would have seen to this, but the U.S. rejected it. It still remains to be seen whether Obama's Administration will make renewable energy a real possibility and lower the number of greenhouse gases that are put into the environment.
Regulating greenhouse gases does not guarantee that climate change will stop or be reversed, but these kinds of gases are not good for people anyway, so there is nothing wrong with regulating them. However, the rising sea levels and rising temperatures could be cyclical and not really related to greenhouse gases or anything else that humans are doing. If that is the case, regulating the greenhouse gases and making other environmental changes will not help anything. Getting too worried about this…
Healy, J. Kevin and Tapick, Jeffrey M. (2004). "Climate change: It's not just a policy issue for corporate counsel -- It's a legal problem," 29 Columbia Journal of Environmental Law 89, 96.