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God in Genesis
The nature and character of God, as found in the Bible and in human consciousness, is a widely disputed and contested field of debate. The reason for this is the very nature of God as ephemeral and unknowable. Human beings can surmise ideas from God from religious texts and their own experience. However, no human being can claim to know the true nature of God. This fact seems to be especially clear when reading religions texts such as Bible, in which numerous concepts of God are depicted not only throughout the Bible itself, but even within each individual book. This is particularly true in Genesis, where the story of creation and the origin of the Israelites create a variety of personalities for God, which are used as the situation dictates. Indeed, there is even a marked difference between the ways in which God is depicted in Genesis…
Brady, C. (2009, Sep.15). Genesis 1 -- Character of God. Targuman. Retrieved from: http://targuman.org/blog/2009/09/15/genesis-1-character-of-god/
The Flaming Heretic? (2005, Oct. 9). Genesis: Folklore of Faith: Lesson 4 -- Adam and Eve (Genesis 2). Retrieved from: http://theflamingheretic.wordpress.com/2007/08/24/genesis-lesson-4/
United Church of God. (2011). The Creation of Man and Woman (Genesis 2:4-25). Bible Commentary: Genesis. Retrieved from: http://bible.ucg.org/bible-commentary/Genesis/Man-and-woman-in-the-Garden-of-Eden/default.aspx
God of the Old Testament displays many human images, many human emotions. Even though we are after all created in His image it still shocks one to read of an angry God or a vengeful God. God seems to play favorites often. We must keep in mind that the Bible was written by man. Man wrote of God in the only manner he could - in human terms.
Moses wrote the first five books of the Bible. He wrote Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. Genesis means beginning or origin. It is the beginning of mankind, the beginning of sin, and the beginning of our fall from Grace. Exodus recounts the story of the Israelites in Egypt and their escape form such harshness. Leviticus details the laws set down by God and the Levites - the 12 tribes of Israel. Numbers deals with the census on the surface. However, the…
God and Creation
Has the concept of God well and truly woven itself into the very psyche of the average American citizen? What exactly does the average American think about God? As a matter of fact, each and every American must take some time to sit back and think deeply about these issues, and also pay close attention to the power and influence of God in the history of America. Perhaps a visitor to the national Capital would not be complete without a visit to certain of the most important historic and monumental exhibits present therein, which would undoubtedly prove that God does exists in the psyche of the American citizen. For example, when one visits the National Archives, which hosts the original document of the Declaration of Independence, one would note that it is there that one would find the 'immortal phrase' which states that we are "endowed by…
Flashpoint USA, God in America. Accessed 27 September 2005; available from http://www.pbs.org/flashpointsusa/20040127/infocus/topic_01/
Frier, David. You are hostile to the concept of tolerance. Accessed 27 September 2005; available from http://www.positiveatheism.org/mail/eml8711.htm
George Washington Quotes. Accessed 26 September 2005; available from http://www.eadshome.com/GeorgeWashington.htm
God Bless America. American Treasures of the Library of Congress. Accessed 26 September 2005; available from http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/trm019.html
Since Medea was born as the Princess of Colchis and the niece of Circe, she was a powerful sorceress. Medea fell in love with Jason through the little help she received from Hera when on his quest for the Golden Fleece. Medea helped Hera to steal the sacred artifact for her beloved and received abduction in return. Medea had numerous adventures in her life including murdering her brother to distract her father for her to make a clean escape.
Through her heroic actions, Medea handled various incidents and adventures for Jason though she eventually never got away easily. One of the final adventures that she handled for Jason is when they arrived to take the throne from Pelias in which she tricked Pelias' daughters into boiling him alive. Following their escape to Corinth and with Jason's two children, Medea was thrown out by Jason in favor of the cute…
Andra, Picincu. "APOLLO, the Greek God of Light and Prophecy." GroundReport. CROSCON, 21 Dec. 2008. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. .
"Greek God Apollo." Greek Gods and Goddesses. Greek Gods and Goddesses. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. .
"Human Women of Greek Myth: The Mortal Heroines, Victims, and Villainesses of Greek Myth." Paleothea: Women in Greek Myths. Paleothea, 28 June 2011. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. .
God and Science
The art of philosophy, demonstrated throughout history in all its arguments, present certain obstacles and contextual distortion for the state of humanity. There is no doubt it is worthwhile then, to examine some of the most troubling and difficult philosophical issues of the day. The idea of God and its role in humanity and its science will probably never be settled however the discussion itself helps create new attitudes and expressions of empathy that teach us about our time here on earth.
The purpose of this essay is to explore the complex issue of God and science and their relationships with one another. The relative stance of every individual's relationship to God does not provide a simple positive and negative stance. I will attempt however to present this issue in two sides. I will break down the argument as whether God can exist with science or cannot…
Dean, C. (2005). Scientists speak up on mix of god and science. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://personal.bgsu.edu/~edwards/NYTimesCSL.pdf
Larson, E. & Witham, L. (1998). Leading scientists still reject god. Nature, 394, 313-314. Retrieved from http://www.stephenjaygould.org/ctrl/news/file002.pdf
Preston, J. & Epley, N. (2009). Science and god: and automatic oppostion between ultimate explanations. Jornal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 238-241. Retrieved from http://faculty.chicagobooth.edu/nicholas.epley/Preston%26EpleyJESP.pdf
Russel, B. (2006). From science to god: the journey of a devout skeptic. New Spirit Journal, November. Retrieved from http://www.newspiritjournal.com/Issues/Nov06/Nov0607.pdf
Nietzsche pressed humanity to realize that God is an invention of human creativity, and that we can no longer accept the idea of a divine being outside of ourselves. This was the center of his anthropocentric ideas. Feuerbach and Marx both held beliefs that agreed with Nietzsche (Jeff 19). Marx even referred to religion as the opium of the people. Kant's ideas of reason come back to haunt him because he asserts that we cannot know reality directly as thing-in-itself and that what is real in itself is something outside of human experience, therefore even if God exists, we can not know God as he really is. The idea of freewill becomes a stumbling block for the existence of God as well since many philosophers contend that the idea of freewill and an omniscient God are contradictory. The concept of an omnipotent God comes under the same scrutiny. The atheist-existentialist…
Craig, William, Michael Murry, and J.P. Moreland (eds.) Philosophy of Religion: A Reader and Guide. Camden, NJ: Rutgers UP, 2002.
Jordan, Jeff. "Pragmatic Arguments for Belief in God," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2004 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.).
Pojman, Louis P. Philosophy of Religion: An Anthology, Fourth Ed., Belmont, CA:
God's Knowledge in the Thinker's Guide to God by Peter Vardy and Julie Arliss (2003)
In The Thinker's Guide to God, the author Peter Vardy asks the question, did human beings 'make' God and did humans make the various conceptions of goodness that they have attached to God? Or is it possible to detach such concepts as a God that exists in space and time apart from the very varied conceptions human beings have evolved to explain the Supreme Being? In essence, why do so many religions have such varied conceptions of goodness and God, despite the persistence of evil in the world?
Furthermore, the all-knowing nature of a good God would also seem to complicate and problematize the notion of goodness, as well -- why does God know of evil, and allow it to exist? Why did God, in the Christian understanding of the fall, give humans free will…
hile none lacked a sense of the importance of serving the community, they came from increasingly different perspectives on how long to tolerate the peril posed by a crumbling civility. Indeed, for some, a sense that the Islamic fundamentalist groups around them would see to their deaths invoked a question as to whether it was even a worthy goal to serve such a community.
However, the monks were united in their spirituality, in their shared call to prayer and in their commitment to the simplest of lifestyles. The film does a remarkable job of demonstrating the solidarity that this creates between them even as they find themselves vehemently divided over the best course of action. The commitment to the extended community around them surely begins with the strength of community shown by the monks themselves. Even in the midst of the tumult of mounting violence, with the increasing regularity of…
Beauvois, X. (2010). Of Gods and Men. Armada Films.
Scott, a.O. (2011). Between Heaven and Earth. New York Times.
Berry's theory of the power runs the risk of exchanging imagination with reality, as the following quotation suggests. "I don't see that scientists would suffer the loss of any skin from their noses by acknowledging the validity of the power of imaginative truths…(26)." The danger in this quotation and in Berry's thoughts on this subject lies in the oxymoron of "imaginative truths." There is nothing wrong with imagining things; but when one does so and then tries to present such imaginings as truth, he or she is doing little more than trying to pass of religious or scientific fundamentalism to the world at large. De Button, as well, illustrates the risk of becoming too involved in one's own personal introspection, as the following quotation, in which a Mr. De Maistre "travels" about his room by seeing routine objects as though they had some sort of novelty" readily indicates. "But thereafter…
Jesus then becomes a supreme secondary cause. Paradoxically, though, Jesus is both primary and secondary cause because of His divine nature. Jesus asks the servants to fill up the jars with water, which they do "to the brim," (John 2:7). Then the servants do Jesus's bidding by delivering some of the water to the banquet. Upon serving, the water has been turned into wine. The servants "knew" how the water had turned into wine; they ascribed the miracle to Christ and therefore to divine power.
The water into wine miracle also illustrates the way God acts in the world as a "master builder," (McGrath 116). As a master builder, God works with whatever construction materials are available at the moment of creation. If Jesus is viewed a divine, then His actions during the water into wine miracle perfectly explain the role of God as carpenter to the world. Jesus transforms…
McGrath, Alister E. Science and Religion: A New Introduction. Blackwell, 1999.
God was not part of the original pledge written in 1892 and adopted by Congress 50 years later as a wartime patriotic tribute. Congress inserted the "under God" phrase in 1954, amid the Cold ar when some U.S. religious leaders sermonized against "godless communists." (Gearan)
All Things Considered. "Interview: Dr. John . Baer discusses the history of the Pledge of Allegiance" All Things Considered (NPR reprint) 6/27 (2002).
Baker, Tod a., Laurence . Moreland, and Robert P. Steed. The 1988 Presidential Election in the South: Continuity Amidst Change in Southern Party Politics New York: Praeger, 1991.
Canipe, Lee. "Under God and anti-communist: how the Pledge of Allegiance got religion in Cold-ar America" Journal of Church and State March 22 (2003).
Chmielewski, Cynthia M. "Federal Appeals Court Bans Pledge of Allegiance in School." NEA Today Vol. 21 (2002).
Elvin, John. "High Court May eigh in on Pledge of Allegiance…
All Things Considered. "Interview: Dr. John W. Baer discusses the history of the Pledge of Allegiance" All Things Considered (NPR reprint) 6/27 (2002).
Baker, Tod a., Laurence W. Moreland, and Robert P. Steed. The 1988 Presidential Election in the South: Continuity Amidst Change in Southern Party Politics New York: Praeger, 1991.
Canipe, Lee. "Under God and anti-communist: how the Pledge of Allegiance got religion in Cold-War America" Journal of Church and State March 22 (2003).
Chmielewski, Cynthia M. "Federal Appeals Court Bans Pledge of Allegiance in School." NEA Today Vol. 21 (2002).
It indicates that he is set apart form all that is creaturely and corrupt, that he is distinct from this physical and fallen world. It affirms that God is not like humans, angels, false gods, animals -- or anything in existence. In short, we may say that there is no one like God, even though that statement has the obvious limitations of a negative sentence -- it does not by itself say what he is. But when we describe the holiness of God, we must think of his uniqueness.
Holiness has bee around as long as the Bible and parts of the Bible have been around for nearly 4,000 years.
The doctrine was taught in the moral law at Sinai to the Israelites. hen Abraham was ninety-years-old God appeared to him and said, "I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect." This proves that this doctrine…
American Standard Version Bible. "Ecclesiastes 3: 1-8." Accessed on 14 Dec 2010:
Baxter, J.S.A New Call to Holiness. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1967.
Berkhof, Louis. Systematic Theology. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996.
The Stoic God was material, and therefore knowable to man, who is also a material being. They believed that all things which were knowable to us were of a material nature.
St. Augustine took this idea of becoming close to the divine through knowledge of it, but expressed that this knowledge had always been within us. Through our memory, which is one of the only things we can trust as real, we remember God "You are always the same, and you always know unchangeably the things which are not always the same," (Augustine 137). St. Augustine believed that the were was an immaterial and formless God "You are certainly not our physical shape...Yet you mad humanity in your image and man from head to foot is contained in space," (94).which we had known before our mortal "morbid condition of the mind," (186). He believed that through religious conversion and religious…
St. Augustine, Confessions. Oxford University Press. Oxford. 1991.
Plato, the Republic. Penguin Classics. New York. 2005.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. "Stoicism." 1996. Found on November 14, 2007 at: http://plato.standford.edu/entries/stoicism
God of the Old Testament is the same as the God of the New Testament
Mathewson, Dave. \"Reading Heb 6: 4-6 in light of the Old Testament.\" Westminster theological journal 61, no. 2 (1999): 209-226.
This particular article aims to propose an additional aspect that has not been adequately considered in the interpretation of Hebrews 6:4-6 to offer new exegetical understanding into comprehending this confusing passage. More precisely, the author looks to suggest reading Hebrews 6:4-6 in light of an Old Testament matrix since according to the author, a great portion of the interpretation of this part of Hebrews arises from the failure of not appreciating its Old Testament background.
Osredkar, Mari Joe. \"Forgiveness as the Summation of the Gospel Ethics of God.\" Bogoslovni vestnik 78 (2018): 313-323.
Here, the author maintains that the revelation of God doesn't necessarily fall from the heavens, but man acknowledges the word of God in the human word.…
Leaders Should Place Their Trust in God to Solve the Difficult Problems
God is My CEO: Chapter 7—Tough Decisions
Sometimes in life one is presented only with what seem like lose-lose situations. These are times when everything seems hopeless, when it seems there are no good solutions and like God has abandoned one to a miserable fate. However, if one sees with the eyes of God, one can see that there really are no lose-lose situations; on the contrary, there are really only win-win situations, because in all things God’s grace is shining through, inviting one to become better in some way that beforehand did not even seem possible. Finding the winning idea in a lose-lose or hopeless situation is really the essence of what it means to have God as one’s own personal CEO. The problem is: How does one get to that point, that level of understanding, that…
Bosworth, D. A. (2011). Faith and resilience: King David\\'s reaction to the death of Bathsheba\\'s firstborn. The Catholic Biblical Quarterly, 73(4), 691-707.
Firmage, E. B. (1995). God: CEO or Master of the Dance?. Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, 28(4), 59-64.
Julian, L. (2002). God is my CEO: Following God\\'s principles in a bottom-line world. Simon and Schuster.
Kaniasty, K., & Norris, F. H. (2000). Help?seeking comfort and receiving social support: The role of ethnicity and context of need. American journal of community psychology, 28(4), 545-581.
Ladd, K. L., & McIntosh, D. N. (2008). Meaning, God, and prayer: Physical and metaphysical aspects of social support. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 11(1), 23-38.
Marks, L. D., Dollahite, D. C., & Baumgartner, J. (2010). In God we trust: Qualitativef indings on finances, family, and faith from a diverse sample of US families. Family Relations, 59(4), 439-452.
The six most comprehensive aspects or characteristics of God that can be found in both the Old and New Testaments are God’s justice, mercy, wisdom, love, goodness and greatness. This paper will discuss these characteristics and show, using references from the Old and New Testament for each attribute, that God always possesses the attribute and never changes from one collection of books to the next. In doing so, this paper will demonstrate that God’s character is defined from the beginning in a way that is consistent with its definition in the modern era of revelation.
Justice of God
The justice of God is described in multiple places in the Old Testament. In Ecclesiastes 3:17, one finds: “God will bring into judgment both the righteous and the wicked, for there will be a time for every activity, a time to judge every deed.” In Proverbs 21:15, it is written: “When justice…
Hesed is one of the most ubiquitous and important principles of the Old Testament, defining both the nature of God and the theological framework of God’s relationship with human beings. The primary qualities of hesed include loyalty, kindness, justice, and grace. Hesed also describes the reciprocity of God’s covenant with human beings. God addresses and responds to sin, transgression, and rebellion with the principles of hesed throughout the Old Testament, including a righteous combination of forgiveness and fairness. In fact, hesed can also be described as a paternal form of love, one that flows freely and unconditionally from parent to child, which is filled with grace and kindness and yet which is also willing and able to guide, teach, and even to punish when necessary. Hesed is significant from a theological standpoint but also an ethical one because it showcases how human beings can respond to moral turpitude in…
Cooper, B.A. (2005). The Biblical concept of revival in the desert and some implications for today’s church regarding the restoration of man’s covenential relationship with God. Master of Theology Thesis, South Africa Theological Seminary.
Duguid, I. (2011). Loyal-love. Ligionier Ministries. https://www.ligonier.org/learn/articles/loyal-love-hesed/
Kynes, W. (2010). God’s grace in the Old Testament: Considering the hesed of the lord. Knowing and Doing, Summer 2010, http://www.cslewisinstitute.org/webfm_send/430
Reid, John William (2013) The love of God in biblical and Reformed theology. MTh(R) thesis.
Sproul, R.C. (2013). What is hesed? Ligionier Ministries. https://www.ligonier.org/blog/what-hesed/
Gertrude of Helfta: Book III
Chapter 56 from Book III—“Why Life and Death Were One and the Same for Her”—helps to explain Gertrude’s character very well.[footnoteRef:1] Much of what she learns and communicates to the reader are lessons in humility and in serving God. For instance, in Chapter 6, Gertrude struggles with her role in the Mass: she feels her unworthiness even to watch the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass and wants to bow down to the floor—and yet she hears Christ call to her and tell her that the greatest service she can do is not to grovel at the floor and declare her own unworthiness but rather to be of utility to God and unite her reception of the Eucharist with His intentions so that His grace may flow out to even more souls. She learns that true humility does not always mean acting unworthy but simply being…
Gertrude of Helfta. The Herald of Divine Love.1Translated by Margaret Winkworth.
Classics of Western Spirituality,Paulist Press, 1993. ISBN: 978080913332
Gertrude of Helfta
Gertrude’s experienced relationship with the incarnate Christ was like that of a child seeking a support. She was a young nun at the time and confesses that she had built up a “tower of vanity”[footnoteRef:1] within herself and that Christ came to tear that tower down so that He could make room for himself. In the first apparition, she wanted to reach and touch Christ, whom she described as the most beautiful of all persons ever seen, but she could not touch Him because of some obstacle that was in the way. She saw that this obstacle was her sins and her attachment to things of the world. In order to fully experience union with God, she had to rid herself of these attachments and empty herself of her vanity and pride. [1: Gertrude of Helfta. The Herald of Divine Love 1 Translated by Margaret Winkworth. Classics…
Gertrude of Helfta. The Herald of Divine Love 1 Translated by Margaret Winkworth. Classics of Western Spirituality Paulist Press, 1993.
Action and Reflection
Reading, meditating, praying and contemplating are the four steps of the Lectio Divina. By inviting the community to take part in this process, my goal was to increase the presence of the Holy Spirit in the community and in the hearts and minds of the people in my community. By directly engaging with this community through prayer walks in the neighborhood and prayer readings followed by an observation of silence, I was able to engage with the members of the community and get to know them, share experiences with them, and discuss these experiences in a focus group like setting. These actions all together served to provide me with much reflection as I felt the more we all directly engaged with the God, the more the Spirit was felt among us in a very positive way.
The prayer-walks through the neighborhood were particularly meaningful as the community…
Aquinas, Thomas. Summa Theologica. http://www.newadvent.org/summa/
Dever, Mark. Discipling: How to help others follow Jesus. Crossway, 2016.
Dulles, Avery. The Assurance of Things Hoped For. New York: Oxford, 1994.
Georgia Baptist Mission Board. A Brief Theology of Intercessory Prayer. https://gabcm.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/A-Theology-of-Intercessory-Prayer.pdf
Green, Cheryl Ann. \\\\"Complimentary Care: When Our Patients Request to Pray.\\\\" Journal of religion and health 57.3 (2018): 1179-1182.
Sheen, Fulton. Life of Christ. NY: Image Books, 2008.
Smith, Christian. \\\\"Why Christianity works: An emotions-focused phenomenological account.\\\\" Sociology of Religion 68, no. 2 (2007): 165-178.
At a time when Europe was rushing blindly into reform, rationalism and naturalism via the Protestant Reformation, the Scientific Revolution and later during the Enlightenment, Berulle and the French School represented a return to the kind of mysticism of the medieval world (Howells). Berulle’s focus was on the Incarnation, the mystery of God Made Man through the union of the Holy Ghost and the Virgin Mary. Berulle and the French School, including St. Francis de Sales, placed a profound emphasis on the intercession of the Blessed Virgin in the spiritual journey to God. Since Christ came to man through the Virgin Mary it only made sense that man should seek God through the Mediatrix of Divine Grace in return (Leo XIII). What Berulle accomplishes in “Discourse on the State and Grandeurs of Jesus” is a kind of middle-ground Christology that brings high and low Christology together, emphasizing the…
Berulle, Pierre de. Discourse on the State and Grandeurs of Jesus.
Howells, Edward. \\"Relationality and Difference in the Mysticism of Pierre de Bérulle.\\" Harvard Theological Review102.2 (2009): 225-243.
Leo XIII. Iucunda Semper Expectatione. http://w2.vatican.va/content/leo-xiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_l-xiii_enc_08091894_iucunda-semper-expectatione.html
The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a mixture of being rooted in the traditions of the Christian experience and being grounded in the here and now. For an LGBTQ youth, the church’s outlook can be frustrating and confusing. How a good pastor responds to the feelings of this youth can be a determining factor in the extent to which the relationship blooms and flourishes or wilts and dies. The church pastor is there to set the example and serve as the voice of the UMC. Therefore it is important to consider this case study in detail to discover what is at the heart of the youth’s feelings and how the youth might best prepare for whatever may come with the UMC.
The Particular Experience
In this case, an LGBTQ youth came to the UMC looking for guidance. The youth was anticipating a welcoming reception, comfort, support and acceptance. She…
Agnew, R. “Strain Theory.” In V. Parrillo (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social problems. (pp. 904-906). Thousand Oaks: SAGE, 2008..
Cohen, Jonathan, ed. Educating minds and hearts: Social emotional learning and the passage into adolescence. Teachers College Press, 1999.
Huitt, W. (2011). A holistic view of education and schooling: Guiding students to develop capacities, acquire virtues, and provide service. In Revision of paper presented at the 12th Annual Conference sponsored by the Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER), Athens, Greece.
Ritter, Chris. “Augustine, Luther and the Inward Curve.” https://thegospelmatters.wordpress.com/2012/01/11/speaking-of-sin-luther-augustine-and-the-inward-curv/
Stoneking, Kristin. \\"Beloved Community In the UMC.\\" Fellowship 81, no. 1-6 (2017):10.
Ends and Means
The story of Baruch Goldstein is one that for me helps me to define ends and means. Goldstein was a deranged lunatic who believed that by murdering Muslims at prayer he could further the aims of Zionism. While his means were despicable in and of themselves, the fact that many extreme Jewish settlers have memorialized him shows that they are sympathetic both with his means and the end he embodied (Chapter 5, n.d.): total domination of the West Bank and the total annihilation of the Palestinian people. The reason I think if Goldstein when I think of ends and means is that he represents in the most literal way exactly how ends and means go together. They must align: the ends must be in alignment with the means and vice versa. From a Christian point of view, the end is union with God and the means are…
Chapter 5. (n.d.). Digital file.
Rodriguez, Fr. (n.d.). Bellah’s Theory of Civil Religion in America. Digital File.
Hinduism—Rituals (Life Rituals/Worship)
Dawn and dusk are the two most important times of the day for Hindu rituals. All rituals are concerned with moving from impurity to purity. Water is a common tool used to help wash away impurity during worship. This can be used during a ritualistic bathe, for example. The intention is to purify the body. Prayer at the shrine of a Hindu god is a normal form of worship. Puja (worship) can consist of making an offering to the gods, particularly on special days set aside for the gods. The practitioners will smear sacred ash on their foreheads after making puja to show they have made their devotions to the gods.
In Jainism, there is no God Creator or God Destroyer. There is only the perfect being—i.e., God the Perfect Being. Those who eliminate all their karmas and pass into a state of perfection become the…
Gospel: John 11: 17-27
1. Contextual information about the community addressed:
Historical context: John’s Gospel was addressed to an Ephesian Gentile audience—modern day Turkey.
John 11:17-27 describes the meeting between Jesus, Mary and Martha after Lazarus has died. Jesus’ hour is prefigured in this text but the text should be considered in light of the whole, larger passage, which includes the miraculous resurrection of Lazarus (page 681).
2. Significant information:
Jesus knows of the death of Lazarus before Mary and Martha tell Him, indicating that he is Omniscient (page 687).
Martha indicates that she expected Jesus would have saved her brother but that now it is too late, even though she confesses her belief in a resurrection. This belief does not come across as holding much resignation to the will of God, however, for she is still upset that her brother is dead (page 688).
Jesus announces that He is the…
Throughout history, mystical experience is related to spiritual maturity. It merely describes the state of consciousness ("Mystical Experiences"). Selected Writings focuses on the teaching and preaching of Meister Eckhart, a fourteenth century mystic, academic theologian and administrator (McGinn 40). He believes that one can reach God spiritually and not necessarily through the church. Church leaders condemned his teachings and later in life he was accused of heresy (Eckhart XV).
Eckhart original audience were Dominicans. He taught them ways of developing a deep spiritual life. His writings are classified into five main teachings. Namely: The book of divine consolation, the noble man, the talk of instruction, German sermons and Latin sermons. This essay analyzes how Meister Eckhart expresses mystical experiences in his writings.
The feeling of Oneness or Interconnection is the first element of mystical experience. Philosophy of oneness is equated to the Universe. The Universe is one and undivided…
Eckhart, Meister. Selected Writings. Kindle ed., Penguin UK, 1994.
Eckhart, Meister, et al. The Complete Mystical Works of Meister Eckhart. PDF file, The Crossroad Publishing Company, 2009.
McGinn, Bernard. The Mystical Thought of Meister Eckhart: The Man from Whom God Hid Nothing. 1st ed., PDF file, Herder & Herder, 2001.
\\\\"Mystical Experiences.\\\\" The Australian Institute of Parapsychological Research, 2 Aug. 2017, www.aiprinc.org/mystical/. Accessed 25 March 2019
For grasping religion and science’s scope, besides the connection existing between them, it is imperative to acquire, at a minimum, a general idea of what entails religion and science. In any case, the two concepts aren’t invariably rigid terms having definite meanings. In fact, both words coinage dates back to the recent past and their meanings differ for different cultures and eras. Two centuries ago, the word “religion” was seldom utilized. Aquinas and other medieval era writers interpreted religion as prayer or piousness; besides orthodoxy, no other “religious” systems was ever conceived of (Harrison 2015). “Religion” as a term garnered its significantly more wide-ranging present meaning owing to initial anthropologists’ efforts.
Further, the word “science”, as employed presently, became widely known and utilized during the same century. Earlier, “science” as we know it was represented by a different name – experimental philosophy or natural philosophy. Only in the year…
Bashour, B., & Muller, H. D. (2013). Contemporary philosophical naturalism and its implications. Contemporary Philosophical Naturalism and its Implications (pp. 1–199).
Carroll, S., (2009). Science and Religion are Not Compatible. Retrieved 13 November, 2017 from http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/cosmicvariance/2009/06/23/science-and-religion-are-not-compatible/#.Wgl7BJc2e00
Carroll, S. M. (2005). Why (Almost All) Cosmologists are Atheists. Faith and Philosophy, 22(5), 622–640.
Clark, K. J. (2014). Religion and the sciences of origins: Historical and contemporary discussions. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014
Clouser, R. (2006). Prospects for Theistic Science. Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, 58(1), 2–15.
Dutch. S. (2011). Why Science Cannot Address the Existence of God, University of Wisconsin - Green Bay. Retrieved 13 November, 2017, from https://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/PSEUDOSC/GodExist.htm
Forrest, B. (2000). Methodological Naturalism and Philosophical Naturalism. Philo, 3(2), 7– 29
Garwood, C. (2008). Flat Earth: The History of an Infamous Idea. 2008 New York: St. Martin\\'s Press
One of the most quintessentially Christian messages is related to the reversal of fortunes, to the exultation of the poor and the demotion of the rich and powerful. The story of Mary and her annunciation embodies the great reversal, which is as tangible and concrete as it is spiritual in nature. In Luke especially, the reversal provides meaningful instruction in how to prepare for God’s judgment. Luke describes the story of Mary and Elizabeth, especially with the “choice of Mary” as an “example of God’s preference for those who do not enjoy abundant prosperity,” (p. 463). However, these passages can be broadly misunderstood and misinterpreted. Luke is not suggesting necessarily that God actively scorns the wealthy. God’s mercy is boundless and infinite. What these passages about fortune reversals imply is that “in an unjust world, the form this universal love takes differs according to circumstance,” (p. 266). The wealthy and…
The First Council of Nicea established and solidified the fundamentals of Christian theology as well as outlining the organizational structure of the Catholic Church. Among the most pressing issues discussed at the Council was the nature of Christ being “consubstantial,” of the very same substance, as God the Father, and yet who “became human” for the good of humanity. Known thereafter as the Nicene Creed, the concept of the Holy Trinity as spiritual unity—with Christ as equal to the father and differentiated solely in Christ’s role as redeemer--remains a fundamental Catholic tenet and one embraced by many other branches of Christian faith. The need to resolve the debate over the nature of Christ was in part precipitated by Arius and expressed in doctrines claiming that Christ was “created,” as if out of nothing. According to the Council, it would have been impossible to “create” Christ out of nothing because Christ…
There are various types of prayer that can be used to connect with one’s beliefs and a higher power. These types of prayers allow people a variety of ways to worship and feel unified with God. Cassian in his work (Conferences), expounds on prayer and connecting via the highest form of prayer. Evagrius in a similar fashion has the same kind of desire to explain what such a prayer would entail and does so not just by verbalizing it, but by living it. This essay will briefly reflect on the various types of prayer and how the highest form of prayer can be performed according to Evagrius.
The first type of prayer is blessing and adoration or what some call worship. This kind of prayer is about acknowledging one’s dependence on God and exalting God. Another kind of prayer is prayer of petition. This is where people ask God for…
‘Essential knowledge’ is what can be read and learned in the Bible. Evagrius had a daily routine that allowed him to absorb and become well versed in essential knowledge. “His work and other exercise was accompanied by the recitation of biblical texts. When copying he would have meditated on the text he was writing: when doing other kinds of manual labor, he could recite from memory” [footnoteRef:3] This kind of routine can be seen as the highest form of prayer because it is putting into practice the idea of becoming one with God. If becoming one with God is absorbing the ‘essential knowledge’ and one performs such a task each day, that is the physical and literal representation of prayer. [3: Columba Stewart, \\\\"Imageless Prayer and the Theological Vision of Evagrius Ponticus,\\\\" Journal of Early Christian Studies 9, no. 2 (Summer 2001): 185, doi:10.1353/earl.2001.0035.]
In conclusion, prayer is a powerful means of connecting with God. There are various ways to pray to God. Some of which can be considered the highest form of prayer because one is gaining the ‘essential knowledge’ to connect with God.
Religion and Selflessness
In “Homo Religiosus,” Armstrong presents the idea that people need to believe in God to make sense of their own lives, to order their lives, and to give their lives meaning. She argues that this is a very ancient idea and that people should be used to this need by now because it is not going away and is unlikely to ever go away. Nelson suggests, however, that our consciousness is not necessarily linked to our desire or ability to “do better.” Nelson points out how reality TV watchers find the horrific and the brutal to be “great to watch”—and she cites a number of examples to prove it: from To Catch a Predator to Shattered and Unbreakable. These programs show that people are no different from the days of the Gladiators: they still want to watch others suffer and be tormented—it stimulates them and entertains them…
Armstrong, Karen. “Homo Religiosus.”
Nelson, Maggie. “Great to Watch.”
Thurman, Robert. “Wisdom.”
God's Activity In Men's Lives
God's Active Role
How many people look for God's activity in their lives, and never come up with the evidence? Yet, in the lives of Mary Rowlandson, and Ben Franklin, they recognized the working of The Almighty in their every day circumstances. Maybe it was that they didn't look for God to prove himself to them, but they acknowledged that the Almighty God is always at work. Maybe it was their colonial upbringing which emphasized that God is active in the lives of his children which taught them to see the Hand of God in everyday situations.
What could be said with a measure of certainty is that these two did not have a pre-determined list of what they expected god to do for them. In the two readings, Ben Franklin recognized God's hands in protection and providential care throughout his lifetime which grew from…
At first, the passage in Romans seems unequivocal -- a rebellion against established authority seems to be the same as a rebellion against God. But a closer and more considered examination of the situation suggests that this is not the case. First, Romans was written with a very specific government in mind -- the Roman government, as a matter of fact. It considers authority as the earthly servant of God. At the same time, this passage suggests that free will exists, in that men have the ability to rebel against God and authority. Therefore, individual authorities could rebel against God and use their authority in ways that were not in his service. This would make the authority no longer the arbiter of sin, and rebellion would be almost morally necessitated.
For many who rebelled during this nation's revolution, and even those who came to the continent in the preceding century…
Augustine of Hippo, Saint. City of God. Accessed 26 April 2009. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/120104.htm
Romans. New International Bible. Accessed 27 April 2009. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=romans%2013
The Cosmological Argument: This argument begins with the tenet that for the Universe to exist something outside the universe must have created it. Also refereed to as the First Cause or the Uncaused Cause theory, here God exists as the prime mover that brought the universe into existence. The universe is a series of events, which began with God who must exist apart from the universe, outside of time and space as well. (Martin) the detractors of this theory say that if everything has a creator than God must also have a creator and that perhaps an infinite series of creators and universes exist as well. Also if God is an uncaused cause than why could not the universe be one as well.
The Moral Argument: This is perhaps one of the most interesting arguments for the existence of God. Basically it states that since man perceives a moral law,…
Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene UK; Oxford University Press, 1989
Lamprecht, Sterling P. Our Philosophical Traditions: A Brief History of Philosophy in Western Civilization. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955.
Martin, C.F.J. Thomas Aquinas: God and Explanations. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997.
McIntyre, John. St. Anselm and His Critics: A Re-Interpretation of the Cur Deus Homo. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1954.
However, prayer is not simply a reflection of a request made of God; it also demonstrates the depth of someone's desire to attain a goal. Atheists fall to their needs and beg God when confronted with a dying child or other major catastrophe. Those prayers do not necessarily reflect a newfound belief in God, but the level of desperation and desire that the person is experiencing. Therefore, prayer reflects more than a request; it also reflects the depth of a person's desire to attain a need.
Because prayer serves multiple functions, it seems fair to suggest that people who do not get things that they want and need may need to consider prayer. Prayer, if nothing else, is a designated period of contemplative thought. Prayer can help reveal the steps that a person should take in order to attain certain goals. Prayer can be motivational, giving a person the energy…
God Given Rights:
Understanding America's Equality and Freedom
The poem "On Being Brought to America" by Phillis Wheatley and The Declaration of Independence written by Thomas Jefferson share similarities on the ideals that America possesses. Each of these writings argues for their God given rights, claiming every person is equal. Each must start new: One as a Christian, the others as a government. It is the bravery and the challenge in these writings that fascinate readers and help them understand America's growth process into the country it now proudly is.
Wheatley writes a poem discussing the introduction to both America and the Christian faith. The author feels as though she was brought to America out of kindness, and is thankful for the introduction to Christianity. She continues on to discuss the social factors, asking why her race is good enough for God, but not for the other Americans. When asking,…
If it cannot be effectively proven that God does not exist, then God apparently does exist. In fact, the lack of proof for atheism can be used as direct proof in the existence of God. "It is much easier to be persuaded that ontological arguments are no good than it is to say exactly what is wrong with them," (Oppy).
The apparent manifest multiplicity of the universe is further proof of the necessity of God. "Abstract objects depend on God for their existence, and abstract objects exist in every world; therefore, God exists in every world," (Davidson). The crux of the necessary existence of God theory is that God is most certainly not a being that could have conceivably not existed. The fact that the thought of God exists illuminates the existence of God, and thus, the necessity of God.
Central to the theory of the necessity of God is…
Cline, Austin. "God Exists." About.com. Retrieved online: http://atheism.about.com/od/whatisgod/a/exists.htm
Davidson, Matthew. "God and Other Necessary Beings." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 29 April 2005. Retrieved online: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/god-necessary-being/
Oppy, Graham. "Ontological Arguments." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ontological-arguments/
Vaknin, Sam. "Is God Necessary?" Retrieved online: http://samvak.tripod.com/sciencereligion2.html#god
What is the image of God? This is an important theological question. Depending upon what a person believes the image of God to be, and man's relation to that image, the whole rest of that person's theological belief system will be affected and slanted by it. The Bible gives some good guidelines as to what the image of God is, and what man's relation to that image is. Noted theologian Henry Theissen discusses it in his lecture series, as well. This paper discusses the idea of the image of God and man's relation to that image using contemporary theological research.
The Bible tells us that man was created in the image of God. This seems pretty straightforward. On first reading, one might reasonably assume that man was created to look like God. This would mean that God looks like us. This is a very comforting thought for most people,…
Dolphin, Lambert. "Made in the Image of God." LDolphin.Org. 2001. http://www.ldolphin.org/Image.html>.
Humanity as the Image of God." Shef.Ac.UK. n.d. http://www.shef.ac.uk/uni/academic/A-C/biblst/DJACcurrres/Postmodern2/Humanity.html
The Image of God in Man." Let Us Reason Ministries. n.d. http://www.letusreason.org/Wf14.htm >.
Man, Created in the Image of God: How Man is Unique Among All Other Creatures on Earth." God and Science.Org. 2003. http://www.godandscience.org/evolution/imageofgod.html
Answer to an Atheist
e are mortals and cannot possible know the will of God. God does perform miracles in our lives, if we only stop to pay heed to them. If one takes a bunch of parts and random parts and pieces, gives them to a chimpanzee, and asks them to assemble a car from them, an Atheist would have one believe that eventually they would do it through random chance. There is another similar argument that if you placed 100 monkeys at 100 typewriters they would eventually come up with a Shakespeare play. Just as the Atheist argument claims that there is no proof that God exists because no on has ever seen him, there is also no proof that the monkeys will ever make a car or type Shakespeare. It has never been done and no one has ever proven that it will actually happen. At the…
Freud, S. The Future of an Illusion (New York: Norton, 1961), p. 30.
Grislis, E. The Meaning of Good Works: Luther and the Anabaptists* Word & World 6 (2). University of Manitoba, 1986.
Marx, K. And Engels, F. Collected Works, vol. 3: Introduction to a Critique of the Hegelian Philosophy of Right, by Karl Marx (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1975).
God in mankind
Image of God and mankind
According to Genesis 1;26-27
Then God said Let Us make man in our image, according to our likeness: and let them rule over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the sky and over the cattle and over all the earth, and over every creeping things that creep on earth.
God created man in His own image .In the image of God He created him: male and female he created them.]
This simply means that God finished his work with a personal touch according to his own image. God made man from dust and gave life to him by sharing his own breath with man. This therefore means that man is unique among all God's creations since man has both a material body and an immaterial body which is the spirit or soul. Having the image or likeness of…
Grigg, R.(2012).Made in the image of God. Retrieved 20, January 2013 from http://creation.com/made-in-the-image-of-god
The bible; Genesis 1:26-27
Believe About God
Looking at the atheist worldview on believe about God as a myth that people have invented to make them feel better we tend to find out whether it is impossible to have a high moral character without belief in God.
As I was getting settled into my set for a very long plane ride home a was I got to know that the person next to me was a devoted atheist who believed that God is a myth that people have invented to make them feel better, he asked me what I believed about God. Since iam a Christian I believe that God is real, the creation the origin of life and the universe gives me a concrete reason to believe in God instead of seeking real answers. Another thing is the idea of loving God is sweet and the idea that there is eternal life.…
Blaise Pascal (2010) philosophy of Religion.
Phillips, W.G., Brown, W.E. & Stone Street, J. (2008). Making sense of your world: A biblical worldview.
(2nd Ed.). Salem, WI: Sheffield Publishing Company
Robert merrihew Adams (2009) moral argument for 'theistic belief
Thomas Aquinas was summarily concerned with the compatibility of faith and reason. In The Summa Against the Gentiles (Summa Contra Gentiles) and the Summa of Theology in particular, Aquinas presents his arguments for the synthesis of faith and reason. Aquinas offers a rather ironic glimpse at the nature of reason, which is both capable of intellectual comprehension of God but simultaneously insufficient for understanding God. Thus, Aquinas argues that God can be ascertained and even logically proven via the use of reason, but that the experience of God is a transcendent, spiritual, and emotional one that requires faith. Faith also fulfills the goals of reason, which is truer and greater understanding of God. hereas faith fails to provide the means by which to perceive the mundane world, reason is unable to offer a genuine proof or understanding of God.
One of the ways Aquinas reconciles faith and reason is…
Aquinas, Thomas. On Politics and Ethics. Trans. Sigmund, P.W.W. Norton, 1987.
Finally, the idea that human beings are manifestations of God is profoundly empowering and can in itself foster healing and growth. Murphy urges his readers to use their subconscious minds to become like gods on Earth: to invoke their own healing. The subconscious mind of each person is endowed naturally with the power of God because each person is a manifestation of God. Similarly, the principle of unity underlies the idea that human beings are a manifestation of God. If the universe is unitary then there is no qualitative differences between a human being and God; God is within each person. The idea that human beings are manifestations of God also precludes prejudice or discrimination. If all human beings are manifestations of God then no one person is better or worse than any other. This idea can greatly aid the health care practitioner who has difficulty with ethical issues. This…
Murphy, J. (2001). The Power of Your Subconscious Mind. Bantam, 2001.
Parse, R.R. (2002). Transforming healthcare with a unitary view of the human. Nursing Science Quarterly. 15(1): 46-50.
There is a creation but the animals and beings that transpire from his creative process take him by surprise: "I should like to see the things that have been created" he says, upon surveying the animals (11). For Maheo, the beings he meets are also much more powerful than Adam and Eve. Adam and Eve have no knowledge, not even of their own nakedness. God gives them free will to choose to eat of the tree and to Fall, but he knows that they have fallen and what they will do before they do it. The beings Maheo confronts have knowledge that Maheo does not have, even though Maheo existed before their origin and Maheo is the creator God: "I do not see You, but I know that you exist," says a goose, who takes him by surprise. "I do not know where You are but I know that you…
Unlike natural theology and revealed theology, however, the philosophy of religion is not concerned only with the existence or non-existence of God, but with a wide range of other issues that religion raises and is connected to, such as life after death, ethics, and moral behavior. The application of rationality to these other areas of religion raises other philosophical questions as well.
One type of theory used by religious philosophers (or natural theologists) are cosmological arguments. These attempt to prove the existence of God by logically proving that the universe must have had a cause or "prime mover," and this cause, then, is God (or gods). Aristotle's three point sum up the groundwork for most cosmological arguments: 1) something cannot be the cause of itself; 2) something cannot come from nothing; and 3) there cannot be an infinite series of causes and effects. If these arguments are taken as true,…
Doing so would ensure that there is a firm basis and grounds for interaction between the individual and the corporate environments.
It would also greatly behoove such a discipleship to allow a degree of liberty within bounds -- Mitchell calls it "allowing humankind to exercise choice and will" while simultaneously "restricting the options to maintain order"(6) -- in which both the individual contexts and the corporate contexts would operate. An example of this idea would be encouraging leaders of respective components of the ministry to conceive of and facilitate their own methods of disseminating their pedagogy to their students, while having one or two key individuals monitor their progress and gauge it against the feedback of those students. Lastly, the logistical work of administrative duties must also be ensured, such as the organization of files and the proper registering of students, all of which would merely aid in the overall…
Encarnacion, Roberto. Job Design. No date. [Online]. Available from http://edweb.sdsu.edu/people/arossett/pie/Interventions/jobdesign_2.htm. 26 November 2011.
Mitchell, Dr. Michael R. Leading, Teaching And Making Disciples: World-Class Christian Education in the Church, School and Home. Bloomington: Crossbooks Publishing, 2010.
No Author. Job Design. 2002. [Online]. Available from http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/hsprograms/job_design.html 26 November 2011.
No author. Acts 4:13. No date. [Online]. Available from http://www.esvbible.org/search/Acts+4%3A+13/ . 26 November 2011.
God can be seen in the three battles mentioned. Most evident is the fact that, as the Israelites are fighting a Holy War, God is the most important part of each battle. God is also shown by the selected passages as both omnipotent and all-powerful, as the giver and taker of victory and of life.
When choosing victory for his people, God expects their loyalty in return. This loyalty is based upon display of God's power in Egypt (Deut. 6:24). This is used as a reminder to keep God's laws for the victories that he has and will provide for Israel. These are the conditions for God's continued support throughout the battles within the Holy War. A further element is the security that God provides in turn for following his conditions for fighting battles and living life. God provides security for his people while driving fear into the hearts of…
Coogan, Michael D. (ed.) The New Oxford Annotated Bible. Third Edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.
God of Small Things, Arundhati Roy shows a surprisingly profound understanding of human nature for such a new author. Her complex novel intertwines the past and present with the subtleties of Indian class and culture to create a rich tapestry of betrayal and spirituality. It is perhaps in her portrayal of the many facets of human betrayal that Roy is at her most proficient and convincing in the novel. Betrayal is a common theme throughout Roy's novel, The God of Small Things, and is seen as adults betray children, society betrays individuals, classes betray castes, and children betray parents, and history and tradition are betrayed.
The impact of betrayal is seen throughout the differing settings of the book; both when the twins are seven years of age in 1969 and when the twins have reached 31 years of age in 1993. Betrayal involves most of the characters in the novel:…
Roy, Arundhati. 1998. The God of Small Things. Perennial.
DNA instructs the cell. DNA is a three-billion-lettered program telling the cell to act in a certain way" [what authorized and created that system, if not God?] and e) "e know God exists because he pursues us… constantly initiating / seeking for us to come to him… [and] keep the question of His existence constantly before us" (Morse, 2010, p. 2).
Meanwhile Oxford professor Anthony Flew argues against those who say that because of the big bang God is proven to exist. Did God cause the big bang, or was it just "popped" into existence, Flew asks. And why only two possibilities? Only a physicist can explain that, Flew asserts. Okay then, Flew explains that if God is truly "omnipotent and omniscient" and wants people to "behave in a certain way, why couldn't he accomplish this? If you were omnipotent wouldn't you expect results and expect people to do exactly…
Craig, William Lane, Flew, Anthony, and Wallace, Stan W. Does God Exist?: The Craig-Flew
Debate. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing, LTd, 2003.
Morse, Donald R. "Does God Exist?" The Journal of Spirituality and Paranormal Studies.
Her marriage was not sanctified in a community church, and true to expectations, Domingo leaves Sofi soon afterward. But this is not viewed in the narrative construct or in Sofi's own eyes as a judgment by the divine of her bad decision-making. Conventional religion within the narrative frequently fails to save even worthy people, like the pious Felicia. The need for God is a palpable presence within the narrative on a popular level, but God promises no reward for moral behavior.
Later on, in Chapter 6, the reader will see the young Domingo through Sofi's eyes, although the reader knows what he will become. However, Sofi's life is never a tale of virtue rewarded or foolishness punished, and she always reacts to adverse circumstances with humor and empowering choices, as she decides to run for mayor, at one point, in flagrant opposition to her community's standards once again, just as…
Castillo, Ana. So Far from God. Plume: New York, 1994.
St. Paul, an early founder of the traditional Christian church had some very misogynistic takes on women, dictating a subservient role for women, not only in the church, but in their personal relationships outside of the church. However, some Christian denominations are very supportive of women's rights, particularly some modern protestant denominations. Islam has gotten a reputation as a very misogynistic religion, but that reputation is more linked to cultural practices than religious dictates. For example, "Muhammad declared that a woman's consent had to be obtained before a marriage and that she be paid the brideprice instead of her father" (enzetti et al., 2012, p.353).
3. What is "feminist spirituality" and why is it important?
Feminist spirituality is viewed as something new, but it actually is not new. Instead, many feminists have revived or developed women-centered spiritual traditions as part of official religious observations. There is no single form of…
Renzetti, C., Curran, D.J., Maier, S. (2012). Women, Men, and Society, 6th Ed. Pearson
Education, Inc. Online from CourseSmart.com.
'They tossed me around as if I were a sack of flour.' "..."And, Bineta, that Mame Sofi is really something! Your husband must have his hands full with her! Do you know what she did? When one of them fell down, she grabbed him by his...you know what I mean... you could hear him yelling even with all the other noise.'"(Sembene, 1996, p. 110). We see the women considering their heroic deeds and taking trophies of victory, like the true heroes they are, fighting for one of the most rightful causes. This is however an exceptional situation, especially for these women that until that point only knew how to serve their families, husbands, children. In a moment of respire, Ramatoulaye even discovers pondering her own actions, but does not forget the mother role, as well. She asks if the children were fed. They have a new thing to learn they…
King David is a significant character in the Bible because he foreshadows the coming of Christ, Who was foretold to be a descendant of the House of David. David’s faith also foreshadows the faith that Christ sought among His people (yet in most cases failed to find). While the Bible is the only historical source of information for King David, other than the Tel Dan Stele in the archeological field, an analysis of the person of David is revealing as it sheds much light on the character of God and the merciful nature of the Divine Being Who represents the central heart of the Bible. In the story of King David, it is God’s mercy after all that shines most brightly. David was an individual who had many flaws and imperfections: he could very easily be considered a “bad guy” for his numerous transgressions—such as his adultery with Bathsheba…
God, and the ord was God. So reads the first verse of the book of John, just two in a handful of bible verses I was made to memorize and recite before I was able to read. These verses and the ones preceding and following them were read to me nightly -- and often in the mornings as well -- by my mother, grandmother and grandfather in our home in the small Southern Baptist community of Perry, Georgia. In addition to the bible, I was read bible stories in books with colorful illustrations meant to engage children. The illustrations helped me to associate meaning with the words on the page, while the words themselves struck me as just another way of painting a picture. hen I was asked to recite the verses or stories read to me, remembering the picture the words described often helped me to remember the requested…
Brice, Shirley. Ways with words: language, life, and work in communities and classrooms. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
The scene is reminiscent of Egyptian burial chambers; the walls were covered with brilliantly painted images of deities in animal form, including Anubis, the jackal-headed god who weighed the soul of the dead. This second phase of the prophet's vision of Jerusalem illustrates a number of important points with respect to the state of religion in the capital city. The nation's leadership was actively engaged in the pursuit of evil. hen the integrity of the nation's leadership is lost, there is no hope for its people.. It is already clear from the first part of the prophet's vision that the worship of the temple had become sadly debased; a pagan altar had been set up in the temple's outer court. So why, with a public altar outside was there a secret worship of the other false gods inside? Probably, there were two forms of the false religion? The open altar…
Allen, Leslie C Word Biblical Commentary: Ezekiel 1-19 vol 28. Nashville: Nelson Thomas Inc. Print.
Blenkinsopp, Joseph .Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching: Ezekiel. Louisville:Westminster John Press. Print Block, Daniel I . The New International Bible Commentary: Book of Ezekiel chapters 1-24. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, William B. Publishing Company. Print Craigie, Peter C. The Daily Study Bible Studies: Ezekiel. Westminster Press. Print
God on Trial: Movie Analysis and Review
The Holocaust of orld ar II spawned many tragedies, one of which was the crisis of faith it precipitated amongst European Jews. The film God on Trial depicts the inhabitants of a concentration camp literally putting God on trial for his crimes against humanity as they wait to be "sorted out" into groups of who will live and who will die at Auschwitz. The film begins set in the present, where various tourists to the concentration camp are shown gawking at the premises. They can hardly believe the horror was once real and then slowly, there is a shift as the camera pans away to reveal a change of time and the viewer is taken back to orld ar II. The event is based upon an apocryphal incident in which the residents of Auschwitz were said to have staged such a mock court,…
God on Trial. BBC, 2008.
morality still exist if God did not exist?
Is something pious because it is loved by the gods -- or do the gods love all that is pious? This is the central question asked in Plato's dialogue the Euthyphro (Ross 2012). The dialogue revolves around a young man who has elected to bring charges against his father for killing a slave. To complicate matters still further, the slave was accused of murder himself before he was killed. The question is never answered in the dialogue, but this raises the question: if something is only moral because the gods approve of it, what if there is no God? Is there then no morality?
Socrates seems to suggest that morality is intrinsic to actions themselves, given his largely deflationary view of traditional myths of the Greek gods. This is one of the reasons that he was charged with impiety under Athenian law.…
Byrne, Peter. "Moral Arguments for the Existence of God." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2012 Edition). Edward N. Zalta (ed.). [11 Oct 2012] .
Ross, Kelley. "Comments on the Euthyphro." [11 Oct 2012]
DESCARTES' BELIEVE IN GOD
Descartes Believe in God
Descartes' Believe in God
Science attempts to prove how God did or does things. The assessment is heavily disputed by archaic religious doctrines. The traditional conflict between science and religion is entirely based on the dominion and not what is right or wrong. Rene Descartes' belief in God is not based on atheistic principles, but on blasphemy as seen from the way he investigates God's functions. hilst examining Descartes' belief in the existence of God, it establishes that Descartes does not dispute the existence of God, but has a different opinion (parallel from the religion). A scientific argument proving Descartes' arguments and a reflection on his presumptions are provided.
Does Descartes believe in God?
As a philosopher and mathematician, Descartes dedicated his work entirely on writing and researching. His arguments combined humanism, science, and religion to arrive on the much-aggrandized assumptions of…
Broughton, Janet and Carreiro, John. A Companion to Descartes. New York: John Wiley & Sons,
Kohn, Hans. The Idea Of Nationalism: A Study In Its Origins And Background. Transaction Publishers, 2005. Print
McKnight, Edgar. Jesus Christ in History and Scripture: A Poetic and Sectarian Perspective.
It can be argued that they have no way of knowing the outcome of their reactions. And indeed, nor does Chris. What differentiates Chris from the rest of the crew is the love he feels for Rheya. Love in the end is the essential force that enables him to forgive both Rheya and himself, and in the end love both redeems and kills him. This dichotomy furthers the ineffability of both death and the god force symbolized by Solaris.
Chris chooses to remain on the doomed station rather than face further life without Rheya on earth. He has no way of knowing what the outcome will be and most likely believes that he will simply die. His "redemption" is therefore not based upon faith, but rather upon the love emotion. Emotion in this case takes the place of faith in redemptive force. Furthermore, his "afterlife" entails life with his love…
God" in Pledge Allegiance in Schools
The Alternative Would e "One Nation Under a Flag."
(Keeping our Alleigances in Order)
The Pledge of Allegiance is one of the greatest symbols of our most wonderful and blessed nation. Just the mention of it stirs to mind images of young children developing an understanding of devotion as they together face the classroom flag and chant in unison, of diverse people of all colors and walks of life finding a common goal as they recite the pledge, and of wartime veterans and the families of fallen heroes together saluting the America worth dying for. The Pledge of Allegiance is an important unifying and morale boosting element of our nation's history. However, recently it has come under attack by those who do not understand the importance of the Pledge as it is written today and the importance of it remaining intact for future generations…
Bellamy, Francis. "The Pledge of Allegiance." The Youth's Companion. September, 1892.
The First Amendment of the United States Constitution.
Jefferson, Thomas et al. The Declaration of Independence. 1776.