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It is the largest of all federal agencies with a budget that accounts for one- quarter of the federal budget allocated to all federal agencies.
In addition to maintaining approximately 300 HHS programs, the USDHHS also administrates numerous other federal agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Indian Health Service (IHS), the Health esources and Services Administration (HSA), Health esources and Services Administration (HSA), Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), and the Agency for Healthcare esearch and Quality (AHQ).
Through these federal agencies, the USDHHS monitors and ensures the safety of foods and drugs, conducts ongoing medical and health-related scientific research, monitors and responds to medical crisis and other medical issues affecting the public, and provides for the health-related needs of approximately 2 million Native Americans and Alaskan Natives in more than 500 officially-recognized Native…
U.S. Department of Justice (2008) Federal Bureau of Investigations. Retrieved March 14, 2008, from the FBI Homepage at http://www.fbi.gov/homepage.htm
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2008). Retrieved March 14, 2008, from the USDHHS Homepage, at http://www.hhs.gov
Additionally, after 9/11, "the FAA engineers and scientists addressed the flammability of fuel tanks by developing a practical inerting system, eventually resulting in a regulation that mandates flammability reduction in systems," (Dorr 2008). The FAA has been very crucial in research and development of systems that make airplanes safer for consumers and businesses by eliminating some of the threats that were seen in the 9/11 attacks.
Moreover, the Transportation Security Administration has been crucial in post 9/11 security strategies revolving around travel. This agency has responsibility over both commercial and passenger flights, with agents being responsible for inspection of baggage and cargo (Transportation Security Administration 2012). Agents work around the world to ensure that the same level of security experienced here in the United States is also seen abroad. According to research, members of this agency "serve as transportation security liaisons" who are responsible of ensuring safe travel and catching…
Dorr, Les. (2008). The FAA flies high for 50 years. Federal Aviation Administration. Web. http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsid=10271
Transportation Security Administration. (2012). Global strategies. Our Approach. Web. http://www.tsa.gov/approach/harmonization.shtm
Security is, as expected, extremely tight, and because of this, the Pentagon also houses shopping facilities, banks, a bus and subway station, and numerous restaurants (Johnson). Employees do not need to leave the building once they arrive each day, which makes it easier to manage security. The building also has its own sewage treatment plant, and heating and cooling facilities (Johnson).
In conclusion, the Pentagon is much more than a Washington area office building concerned with the defense of the nation. It is made up of a group of dedicated men and women who quietly and efficiently run the day-to-day operations of the nation's defense, while studying how to maintain strength and military defense in the future. The Pentagon stands for strength, determination, and freedom. The building itself is miraculous, and rose from the ashes of the 9/11 terrorist attacks even stronger than before. Part small city, part defense stronghold,…
Drummond, Daniel F. "Building Renovation Helped Limit Losses." The Washington Times 16 Sept. 2001: 3.
Editors. "About the Pentagon." U.S. Department of Defense. 16 Jan. 2001. 8 Nov. 2004. http://www.defenselink.mil/pubs/pentagon/about.html
Greider, William. Fortress America: The American Military and the Consequences of Peace. New York: PublicAffairs, 1999.
Johnson, David. "The Pentagon." Infoplease.com. 2004. 8 Nov. 2004. http://www.infoplease.com/spot/pentagon1.html
The contention that politics by innuendo, unethical conduct, and moral decay are somehow strictly modern phenomena is patently false. If anything, increased public scrutiny, partially made possible through new technologies, may make it more difficult for such ethical abuses to take place for long.
Adams, G.. (1993). Ethics and the Chimera of Professionalism: The Historical Context of an Oxymoronic Relationship. The American Review of Public Administration, 117-139.
Anechiarico, F. (1994). Visions of Corruption Control and the Evolution of American Public Administration. Journal of Public Administration, 465-473.
David, S.R. (2003). Israel's Policy of Targeted Killing. Ethics & International Affairs, 111-123.
Ginsberg, G. a. (2002). Politics by Other Means: Politicians, Prosecutors, and the Press from Watergate to Whitewater. New York W.W. Norton.
Jefferson, T. (1776). Declaration of Independence. Retrieved November 4, 2007, from Indiana U. School of Law: http://www.law.indiana.edu/uslawdocs/declaration.html
Johnson, L.K. (1992). On Drawing a right Line for Covert Operations. American…
Adams, G.B. (1993). Ethics and the Chimera of Professionalism: The Historical Context of an Oxymoronic Relationship. The American Review of Public Administration, 117-139.
Anechiarico, F. (1994). Visions of Corruption Control and the Evolution of American Public Administration. Journal of Public Administration, 465-473.
David, S.R. (2003). Israel's Policy of Targeted Killing. Ethics & International Affairs, 111-123.
Ginsberg, G. a. (2002). Politics by Other Means: Politicians, Prosecutors, and the Press from Watergate to Whitewater. New York W.W. Norton.
Government agencies are formed and used to both oversee and administer specific functions within a government. U.S. Customs and Border protection is a recently reorganized agency that is part of the Department of Homeland Security umbrella. U.S. Customs and Border Protection is charged with the regulation and facilitation of international trade, the collection of import duties, and the enforcement of U.S. regulations that include, but are not limited to, trade, customs, and immigration (U.S. Customs and Border Protection).
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is one of the most recently formed government agencies; DHS was created after the September 11 attacks and is the third largest Cabinet department. DHS is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council. During the formation of DHS, several government agencies were combined, overall incorporating more than 40 agencies different agencies. Under the DHS reorganization, U.S. Customs, U.S. Border Patrol, the Animal…
Borja, E. (2008). Brief Documentary History of the Department of Homeland Security
2001-2008. Department of Homeland Security History Office.
Timeline (n.d.). from U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Accessed 10 October 2011, from http://nemo.customs.gov/opa/timeLine_04212011.swf.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection (n.d.). Accessed 10 October 2011, from http://www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/home.xml
Professional Associations and State Government Agencies
Addressing Potential conflicts in jurisdictional authority of APA, State Bodies & Other Authorities
Identification of Potential conflicts in jurisdictional authority of APA, State Bodies & Other Authorities
Management of Complaints by State Bodies & Other Agencies
elationship between APA, ASPPB & NHSPP
Practicing psychology in United States is governed by the various authorities. The eminent authorities providing code of conduct for the psychology professionals are State laws, American Psychological Association, State boards of psychology, Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB) and National egister of Health Service Providers in Psychology (NHSPP). Where these bodies have a general purpose of facilitating the psychology professionals and enhancing the standards of their service, there are instances where their respective codes of conducts are at conflict. It is up to the professionals to ensure that these conflicts are identified a resolved in the most suitable manner and…
American Psychological Association. (2002). "Provisions in the APA ethics codes that address conflicts between ethics and law: A history." Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/provisions-codes.aspx
American Psychological Association. (2010). "American Psychological Association amends ethics code to address potential conflicts among professional ethics, legal authority and organizational demands." Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/2010/02/ethics-code.aspx
Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards. (2012). About ASPPB. Retrieved from http://www.asppb.net/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3285
Bricklin et al. (2003). "Understanding licensing board Disciplinary procedures: Capp/bpa task force." American Psychology Association
GIS Client/Server Systems
Geographic Information System (GIS): Overview
Use of GIS Client/Server Systems by U.S. Government Agencies
Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Department of the Interior
Fish and Wildlife Service
Federal Emergency Management Authority
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
Successful Deployment of GIS Technologies in Facilities Management and Transportation
eal Life Application of GIS in ecent Times
Application in other Jurisdictions
The Future of GIS: Opportunities for Application
An Examination of the Use of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) Client/Server Systems by U.S. Government Agencies
ecent years have seen thousands of business organizations embrace GIS client/server systems in an attempt to improve processes and enhance efficiency. It should, however, be noted that government agencies are also increasingly implementing GIS client/server systems -- particularly in the analysis of complex situations and enhancement of coordination. This case study examines the use of GIS client/server systems by U.S.…
Anselin, L. & Rey, S.J. (eds.). (2009). Perspectives on Spatial Data Analysis. Tempe, AZ: Springer.
Beveridge, A. (Ed.). (2011). Forensic Investigation of Explosions (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Taylor and Francis
Cramer, P.C. (2009). New Approaches to Ecological Surveys. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board.
ESRI. (2014). GIS for Federal Government: Building a National GIS Community. Retrieved from http://www.esri.com/library/brochures/pdfs/federalbro.pdf
Institutional Framework of Federal Acquisitions
Government agencies rely heavy on contracting officers to obtain goods and services at fair prices and in a timely manner. This is possible with the billions of dollars tax dollars entrusted to them annually. Evidently, it is necessary for purchasing agencies along with the Government Accountability Office (GAO) and the Federal Acquisition egulation (FA) to create accountability in organizations and continue to improve weaknesses in key areas of federal acquisition (Cameron, 2000).
Importance of fixed price contracts in creating effective, efficient, and accountable acquisition planning
Fixed price contracts refers to contracts that do not need further discussions and engagement in fixing the prices of commodities to be acquired or transferred by an organization. In this contract, a negotiable amount is agreed upon no matter the expenses incurred by the contractor. Fixed price contracts reduce cases of fraud and manipulation of the prices of goods and…
Cameron, J.G. (2000). A practitioner's guide to construction law. Philadelphia, PA:
American Law Institute-American Bar Association Committee on Continuing
Murphy, J.E. (2009). Guide to contract pricing: Cost and price analysis for contractors, subcontractors, and government agencies. Vienna, VA: Management Concepts
Irby's report on EP at the different levels of government highlights that there are two different approaches -- the software approach and the consulting approach. To consider the differences in how governments use these, the differences between them from an end user standpoint need to be understood. In a software approach, the client buys the software, and there is only a limited revenue stream annually thereafter. Thus, much of the cost of the EP is up front, and the client can amortize over several years, as a capital expenditure. Consulting-based EP is generally considered to be an operating expense. The cost of such service is lower up front, but higher each year thereafter. Both software and services firms are among the top EP vendors, according to Irby's report. The federal government makes much higher use of consulting-based services, while local and state governments prefer the software-based approach.
Irby, P. (no date). Market analysis: ERP procurement in federal, state and local government. ONVIA. In possession of the author.
· Partnerships between government agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can be important for disaster recovery and response efforts.
· Discuss why you agree or disagree that these partnerships are important.
· Do they improve recovery and response efforts or delay them? Explain.
NGOs can offer a vital source of support during disaster recovery, given that community organizations are frequently more familiar with the immediate needs of the population than federal or state authorities. FEMA has often coordinated with national NGOs such as the Red Cross and Salvation Army for their specialized knowledge in addressing specific issues which can arise during a disaster such as the need for blood donation or housing support. “Specialized or lesser-known NGOs can offer a variety of products, services, and functions that are in addition to — or outside of the scope of — other, more widely used organizations” (“NGOs,’ 2016, p.3). Even something apparently unexpected…
" Further, it is held that "a material misrepresentation in the certifications (bid) generally provides a basis for rejection of the proposal or reevaluation of the award decision." Thus, it can be said that if a challenge shows a material misrepresentation in the awardee's bid, than their challenge should be upheld.
n mpresa Construzioni Geom. Domenico Garufi v. United States, 238 F.3d 1324 (U.S. App. 2001), the issue was the standard of review for decisions of contracting officers made under the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act of 1996. According to the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act of 1996, "The Court of Federal Claims and district courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction over bid protest actions, and that the courts 'shall review the agency's decision pursuant to the standards set forth in section 706 of title 5' of the APA. Accordingly, under the APA, a bid award may be set aside if the contracting…
In the 2004 decision of in the matter of ACS Government Services, Inc., another decision involving the challenge to the awarding of a contract to another business, Plaintiff argues that the awardee misrepresented information in their bid and that this misrepresentation materially affected the evaluation of the awardee's bid. In this case, the court upheld the challenge, stating that on review it was the review board's position to ensure that the evaluation of the parties bids was "reasonable and consistent with the terms of the solicitation." Further, it is held that "a material misrepresentation in the certifications (bid) generally provides a basis for rejection of the proposal or reevaluation of the award decision." Thus, it can be said that if a challenge shows a material misrepresentation in the awardee's bid, than their challenge should be upheld.
In Impresa Construzioni Geom. Domenico Garufi v. United States, 238 F.3d 1324 (U.S. App. 2001), the issue was the standard of review for decisions of contracting officers made under the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act of 1996. According to the Administrative Dispute Resolution Act of 1996, "The Court of Federal Claims and district courts shall have concurrent jurisdiction over bid protest actions, and that the courts 'shall review the agency's decision pursuant to the standards set forth in section 706 of title 5' of the APA. Accordingly, under the APA, a bid award may be set aside if the contracting official's decision laced a rational basis or involved a violation of regulation or a procedure. Further, under the APA, although an explanation is not required by the officer, a reviewing court may require an explanation. It is on this ground that the Court remands the decision to the lower court.
Finally, in the administrative decision of in the Matter of Savantage Financial Services, Inc. (2003), held that a business may challenge an agency decision to not provide the business with a solicitation for purchase where the decision was made pursuant to FAR 8.404(b)(3) and where the business did not appear to offer best value, as determined by the agency, based on information obtained from schedule vendors and product demonstrations. However, despite the ability to challenge such indirect pre-solicitation decisions, the review board further ruled that such practice was reasonable under the standard of review laid out in the above-mentioned court and administrative decisions.
EPA Profile Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is the main government agency tasked with monitoring the nation's environmental concerns. Because they are charged with protecting the United States environment, perhaps no government agency has a wider or more diverse mandate. The EPA handles a wide variety of environmental concerns, from potable water to clean air, from the nation's forests and wilderness to the country's wildlife population. In addition, the EPA also regulates the conduct of multinational industries, American businesses and even the personal actions of individual citizens (Williams).
As an agency, the EPA was created during the term of President Nixon. The publication of achel Carson's Silent Spring and the growing popularity of the environmental movement pushed Nixon to create an agency to establish and enforce "environmental protection standards consistent with national environmental goals."
The first EPA administrator, William D. uckelhaus, was sworn in on December 4,…
Barnes, James et al. 2003. "EPA: Out of the loop." National Journal. January 25. 35(4): 298-299.
Levine, Samantha. 2003. "Hostile environment: Bush's EPA choice faces high-stakes hearings." U.S. News & World Report. September 22. p. 24.
The Guardian: Origins of the EPA." 1992. EPA Historical Publications-1. available online at http://www.epa.gov/history/publications/print/origins.htm
Williams, Dennis. 1993. "The Guardian: EPA's Formative Years, 1970-1973." available online at http://www.epa.gov/history/publications/print/formative.htm
Currently, auditors must labor over the writing of each section as though it must read perfectly when they submit it for the review by the senior auditors. Many of them have expressed frustration at the fact that they are not good writers. Consequently, they waste considerable amounts of time doing what they are worst at. Meanwhile, the senior auditors have similar problems synthesizing all of the individual sections together to compile a single report draft from the work provided by the auditors. Generally, the most laborious part of that chore for senior auditors is making the necessary changes to each of the individual sections first.
By contrast, the proposed changes to the audit report production process is designed to allow the senior auditors to reconcile any technical audit issues with the individual auditors while largely ignoring the writing of those sections. The senior auditor's primary responsibility is simply to confirm…
Cornell University Law School. (2011). U.S. Code Title V. Inspector General Act of
1978. Retrieved July 18, 2011 from the CULS Legal Information Institute website http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode05a/usc_sup_05_5_10_sq2.html
Edwards, G., Wattenberg, M., and Lineberry, R. (2009). Government in America: People,
Politics, and Policy. New York, NY: Longman.
As a part of this initiative, the EPA works with local communities to: establish the optimal use of the cleaned up sites, it provides relevant information to the potential buyers / developers and dispenses advice on technical needs for re-utilization of the site. ("SARA Overview," 2010)
In this particular case, the RTU is effective at helping communities be able to reclaim land that had once been considered to be contaminated. For business, this will have long-term benefits as the reclaimed land could help to support other commercial activities. At the same time, time it will help to increase property values, by taking land that was thought to be destroyed and making it re-useable once again. This will have ripple effects for a host of different businesses, as their net worth will increase from a rise in the price of land.
However, over the short and medium term, this will have…
SARA Overview. (2010). EPA. Retrieved from: http://www.epa.gov/superfund/policy/sara.htm
Title 42 Public Health and Welfare. (2008). GPO Access. Retrieved from: http://frwebgate.access.gpo.gov/cgi-bin/usc.cgi?ACTION=BROWSE&TITLE=42USCC103
What is the Super Fund. (2010). EPA. Retrieved from:
Government Accounting Office in America (GAO)
This is an examination of the Government Accounting Office in America. The writer discusses the history, purpose and background of the GAO as well as the duties that the office is charged with performing. The writer then analyzes literature that illustrates the office in action. The final discussion revolves around the question, "Is the office effective or is it a waste of money." There were four sources used to complete this paper.
During the last few years there has been a public outcry and demand to investigate government spending. The public was brought stories by the media about the government paying thousands of dollars for toilet seats, and spending hundreds of dollars on a screwdriver and other such tools. When the reports began to surface about wasted government spending the public became angry. Lobbyists across the nation began to demand an accounting of not…
Bibliography for a listing of non-GAO publications.) It should be noted that, as with any effort to put current events into historical context, alternative interpretations are possible. Often debated are the intent and motivation of the framers of the Constitution who created the census. In this report, we have quoted the Constitution and various laws relating to the decennial census and have attempted to place their language in an historical context. We are not, however, providing our own independent review or interpretation of the constitutional and statutory issues discussed in this report, which, unless otherwise noted, are based primarily on the analysis contained in the various publications and documents we relied upon in preparing this report.
Short answers to some frequently asked questions about the decennial census are in appendix 1. Appendix 11 contains information on changes in the apportionment of the membership of the House of Representatives between the 1920 and 1990 Decennial Censuses by region of country and on changes in the nation's population and its undercount by race and ethnicity between the 1950 and 1990 censuses, as well as a snapshot of the growth and cost of census-taking since the first decennial census in 1790. Major contributors to this report are identified in appendix III.
L. Nye Stevens Director, Federal Management and Workforce Issues
Why Take the Census?
Government's Right To Spy And Command Our Life The Way They Do
The 9/11 attack saw over 3,000 Americans murdered by terrorists. The government was faulted, but there was a consensus that the U.S. government needed to take stern action. There was panic that made the congress to give the government fresh surveillance authorities. However, it attached an expiration date to the authority so as to allow for further deliberations after the end of the emergency. Decades later, the law has been extended on a number of occasions, yet there has been no public discussion on how the law can be interpreted. There has been an expansion of the surveillance at all fronts regardless of the freedom created by the founders of the United States. The surveillance should make us safer without violating the liberties of the American Citizens. This paper is a critique to the right of the government…
Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.
However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…
American Civil Liberties Union (2012). Racial profiling. Retrieved online: http://www.aclu.org/racial-justice/racial-profiling
Banks, C. (2012). Criminal Justice Ethics. Sage.
Block, W.E. & Obioha, V. (2012). War on black men: Arguments for the legalization of drugs. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 106-120.
Harfield, C. (2012). Police informers and professional ethics. Criminal Justice Ethics 31(2): 73-95
Perhaps this will always be an issue for the U.S. federal government because under the existing political system there are few substantial options for making policy decisions that can extend across political elections. Situations that represent a problem for one politician or political party will be ignored by the next, making consistent, proactive responses difficult if not outright impossible. From an emergency management position, this means that agencies will always have to be designed to react to the worst-case scenarios, instead of more reasonable, proactive affects that could control potential problems before they escalate out of control.
Farazmand, a. (2001). Crisis in the U.S. administrative state. Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. Ed. a. Farazmand. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Florida Atlantic University.
Nice, D.C. And Grosse, a. (2001). Crisis policy making: some implications for program management. Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. Ed. a. Farazmand. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Florida…
Farazmand, a. (2001). Crisis in the U.S. administrative state. Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. Ed. a. Farazmand. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Florida Atlantic University.
Nice, D.C. And Grosse, a. (2001). Crisis policy making: some implications for program management. Handbook of Crisis and Emergency Management. Ed. a. Farazmand. Fort Lauderdale, FL: Florida Atlantic University.
Government Regulations and Hospice
Government Regulations Affecting Health Care in Hospice
Regulations Affecting Health Care in Hospice
Impact of rules on Hospice services
This paper focuses on how government regulations impact hospice. The paper starts off with an introduction to the hospice system that was revived by a nurse, Cecily Saunders, who then went on to become a physician, establishing one of the first modern hospices. The concept of total pain is explained in some detail. The body of the paper then includes the studies that have been conducted on patients and caregivers in hospice systems as well as on people who died after they were diagnosed with terminal illness resulting in death in six months following the prognosis. The overall conclusion that can be drawn here is that while in Japan there is a marked need for improving the Day hospice system, the American hospice industry…
American Medical Directors Association. (n.d.). White Paper on Palliative Care And Hospice In Long-Term Care. Retrieved March 10, 2012, from American Medical Directors Association: http://www.amda.com/governance/whitepapers/palliative_care.cfm
Carlson, M.D., Morrison, R.S., Holford, T.R., & Bradley, E.H. (2007). Hospice Care: What Services Do Patients and Their Families Receive? Health Services Research, 42(4), 1672-1690.
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (2008). Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Hospice Conditions of Participation; Final Rule. Federal Register, 73(109), 32088-32220.
Christakis, N.A., & Escarce, J. j. (1996). Survival of Medicare patients after enrollment In hospice programs . The New England Journal of Medicine, 172-179.
Developing a Federal Acquisition Team: everse Engineering a Standard Forestry Project to Determine Team equirements
The selected project is controlled by the Forestry Department, which is part of the Department of Agriculture, placing the project under the auspices of Chapter 4 for the Federal Acquisition egulations, which themselves make up Title 48 of the Code of Federal egulations (e-CF, 2012). elevant paragraphs include a provision that all Head of Contracting Activities (HCAs) comply with FA 7.103, detailed further below (e-CF, 2012, Title 48, Chapter 4, Part 407, par. 407.103). In addition, paragraph 407.503 of the same chapter provides provisions for the determination of whether or not a proposed contracting function is "inherently governmental" according to FA 7.503(e), and also sets out rules for settling disputes when there is not agreement on this issue (e-CF, 2012). It is not expected that this will be of issue in…
e-CFR. (2012). Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Accessed 22 April 2012.
PAYCO NSFR #2210 (2012).
PAYCO NSFR #2210 Recons. Drawing. (2012).
Evaluate how Public Policy Decisions Affect the Receipt of Revenues
Politics and attitudes about where the various revenues should be spent can create heated amounts of debate. In the case of the Department of Defense, this can mean that periodic reviews could occur that can have an impact upon a host of different spending programs. At the same time, various assessments will take place with Secretary of Defense. Where, they will review the size and necessity of the various bases / personnel. A good example of this can be seen when the Secretary of Defense will recommend various base closures and force adjustments. As politics and changes in the Department's needs / availability of funds will affect what programs are going to receive the most appropriate amount of revenues.
Analyze the Economic Conditions that Affect Revenue Projections
The economic conditions will play a major role in determining how…
Base Closure List. (2005). MSNBC. Retrieved from: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7834939/ns/us_news
The Numbers. (2010). Tax Policy Center. Retrieved from: http://www.taxpolicycenter.org/briefing-book/background/numbers/revenue.cfm
Bender, B. (2010). Spending Critic Brown. Boston Globe. Retrieved from: http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2010/04/08/spending_critic_brown_backs_mass_weapons_bid/
Dupy, T. (2010). Defense Secretary Wants Spending Cuts. Huffington Post. Retrieved from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/tina-dupuy/defense-secretary-wants-d_b_571906.html
Government Created a Committee
An electronic health record is a digital record of a patient's health information generated from every medical visit a patient makes. This information includes the patient's medical history, demographics, known drug allergies, progress notes, follow up visits, medications, vital signs, immunizations, laboratory data and radiological reports. The EH automates and streamlines a clinician's workflow. (Himss, 2009)
Due to the multiple advantages of an EH, health care agencies have been aiming to push up this technology. In 2004, the FDA approved of an implantable EH microchip into patients. Each microchip has a specific code which is identified through sensors. The device is implanted under the skin, in the back of the arm, requiring a twenty minute procedure, without needing the use of sutures. ("Fda approves computer," 2004)
According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, deaths due to preventable medical errors rank as the fifth most…
CDC. (2011, October 24). Deaths and mortality. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/deaths.htm
Fda approves computer chip for humans. (2004, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6237364/ns/health-health_care/t/fda-approves-computer-chip-humans/
Himss. (2009, September 2). Implanet using ibm software to protect patients in the event of medical device recalls. Retrieved from http://www.healthcareitnews.com/press-release/implanet-using-ibm-software-protect-patients-event-medical-device-recalls
Prutchi, D. (2011, December 30). Verimed's human-implantable verichip patient rfid. Retrieved from http://www.implantable-device.com/2011/12/30/verimeds-human-implantable-verichip-patient-rfid/
Government Performance esults Act
The General Accounting Office (GAO) may be one of most essential agencies in the federal government, because of its investigative oversight, but to the average American citizen, it may also be among the lesser known agencies. That is because the average hard-working nine-to-five person - whose contact with "news" is a few sound bites on television after work - might never dig into newspapers deep enough to read up on how taxpayer dollars are spent in Washington D.C. It's regrettable that the average person complains loudly about taxes, and "politicians" - yet knows little of the GAO's pivotal work. Meanwhile, this paper will focus upon the GAO report on the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ), titled, "Status of Achieving Key Outcomes and Addressing Major Management Challenges" - which is clearly a wise use of taxpayer monies, whether taxpayers know about the GAO or not.
American Civil Liberties Union (2003). "ACLU Demands Truth From Justice
Department: New Report Details False Claims about SCOPE, Impact of PATRIOT Act." http://www.aclu.org/SafeandFree/SafeandFree.cfm?ID=13100&c=206 .
Kast, Sheila (2001). "Terror probe raises concerns about civil rights." CNN.com. http://www.cnn.com/2001/U.S./10/22/inv.civil.rights/
Perry, Tony (2002). "Immigration Attorney for 7 Detainees Lashes Out At INS:
Structurally, the Project's functions and the roles of each member seemed to be clear and well-defined. However, taking part into the daily activities and interactions of the Project staff made me observe specific irregularities on how the Project is being managed and how objectives are met and delivered to the funding agency. Ultimately, the Project has long-range issues, both internally and externally, that makes management difficult and delivery of targets a challenging task not only for the staff, but also for its partners, the Task Force members.
Internal long-range issues involve the seemingly slow progress in the recruitment of individuals to critical positions in the support team, specifically, the M&E and training specialists. Most critical among these positions is the M&E specialist, since this position is responsible for the implementation of the Project's evaluation program, in addition to the responsibility of ensuring that the endeavors of the Project are in…
Oversight oard: The Public Company Accounting Oversight oard was created to oversee the audit of public companies.
Auditor Independence: Auditors now have a list of non-audit services they can't perform during an audit.
Financial Disclosure: Off-balance sheet transactions and relationships that may affect financials must be disclosed. Annual reports must state that management is responsible for the internal controls and procedures for financial reporting.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures for Analysts: Conflict of interest disclosures need to be made by research analysts.
Fraud Accountability: Altering, destroying, concealing or falsifying records or documents with the intent to influence a federal investigation or bankruptcy case is subject to fines and up to 20 years imprisonment.
Attorneys' Responsibilities: There are minimum standards of professional conduct for attorneys representing public companies before the SEC. These include a rule requiring an attorney to report securities violations to the CEO.
oard roles and responsibilities. http://126.96.36.199/search?q=cache:Apq3uCdfKLoJ:www.1epa.org/oard%2520%2520Roles%2520and%2520Responsibilities.doc+%22legal+responsibilities%22+%22board+of+directors%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=8&gl=us…
Board roles and responsibilities. http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:Apq3uCdfKLoJ:www.1epa.org/Board%2520%2520Roles%2520and%2520Responsibilities.doc+%22legal+responsibilities%22+%22board+of+directors%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=8&gl=us
Corporate accountability: A summary of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. http://www.legalzoom.com/legal-articles//article5470.html
What they did not anticipate was the levees breaking nor were they aware of the level of immediate need of the people. He also says that with Hurricane Andrew, about two million residents were evacuated and only about 10% we left homeless whereas with Hurricane Katrina approximately the same number of residents were evacuated yet over 90% were left homeless (Halton, 2006). This was much more of a burden than FEMA had anticipated and it was a result of poor emergency response at lower levels of government.
Even still, FEMA should have been better prepared to handle the situation. They should have been called in earlier than they were and if this were the case they situation would have been easier to manage. Paulison says that FEMA was not fully aware of what was needed and where. This is a result of poor communication. y the time they were called…
Halton, B. (2006). FEMA's response to Hurricane Katrina. Fire Engineering, 159(5), 213-218.
Kelley-Romano, S. And Westgate, V. (2007). Blaming Bush: An analysis of political cartoons following Hurricane Katrina. Journalism Studies, 8(5), 755-719.
Perry, R.W. And Lindell, M.K. (2003). Preparedness for emergency response: Guidelines for emergency planning process. Disasters, 27(4), 336-350.
Government Budgeting for Kelsey: Budget Changes Needed to Better Protect and Serve the Community
"We're not going to use the budget as an excuse. We're not crying about it. But I'm going to push as hard as I can to get as many people on the streets as I can. We need all hands on deck," so were the words of the Philadelphia Police Chief when faced with a similar situation to what Kelsey faces now (Steele 2010 p 2). Police strength is an absolute necessity in the effort to fight crime, both on local and larger federal levels. Without the appropriate funding resources, many local police forces around the country are beginning to suffer in terms of just how effective they are at fighting crime overall. Limited budgets mean limited capabilities, and that is exactly what the city of Kelsey is experiencing right now. Essentially, the budget is already…
Budget of the United States Government. (2004). Budgets and taxes. Almanac of Policy Issues. Web. http://www.policyalmanac.org/economic/budget.shtml
City of Kelsey. (2006). Annual Budget for the Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of Phoenix. Web. https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/cist/vop/Government/KelseyCity/docs/KelseyBudgetBook2005.pdf
City of Kelsey. (2009). Kelsey profile. City Government. University of Phoenix. Web. https://ecampus.phoenix.edu/secure/aapd/cist/vop/Government/KelseyCity/docs/KelseyProfile.doc
DeWeese, Adrianne. (2011). Police say safety tax is needed to help alleviate 'blackout.' The Examiner. Web. http://www.examiner.net/features/x1896018474/Police-say-safety-tax-needed-to-help-alleviate-blackout
Some of the key budget components for the FY 2015 include, but they are not limited to, administration of non-Stafford Act disasters, allocations to the Office of Advocacy and the Office of the Inspector general, and funding for business loan subsidies and non-credit programs (SBA, 2014).
The Most Appealing Budget
Two budgets in this case appeal to me most; that of the U.S. Small Business Administration and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. However, for purposes of this discussion, I will limit myself to one budget; i.e. that of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In addition to having significantly sliced its budget request (in relation to that of the previous period), the agency clearly identifies its key funding priorities for the financial year 2015. One could therefore conclude that the FY 2015 budget request for the concerned agency is justified on the basis of this marginal change from the FY 2014's…
McCaffery, J. & Jones, L.R. (Eds.). (2001). Budgeting and Financial Management in the Federal Government. New York: IAP.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (2014). FY 2015 EPA Budget in Brief. Retrieved from http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2014-03/documents/fy15_bib.pdf
U.S. Small Business Administration. (2014). U.S. Small Business Administration FY 2015 Congressional Budget Justification -- Budget Request in Brief. Retrieved from http://www.sba.gov/sites/default/files/files/SBA_FY15_Budget%20Highlights.pdf
The State of Nevada and Clark County appear to have a different manner of meeting budget deficiencies. The Office of udget and Management has an amount of finances reserved for supplemental and emergency funding, at a total of $153.1 billion dollars. Neither Clark County nor the State of Nevada appears to have emergency or supplemental funding in their budgets.
State of Nevada
The budget for the State of Nevada is larger than Clark County. The total 2006 budget for the State of Nevada is reported to be $2,400 million dollars with a deficit of -2.3%. The state of Nevada's transportation budget for 2006 was $4.6 million dollars; agriculture $21.1 million; education $56.6 million; health and human services $69.2 million; and $21.0 million for justice programs. These amounts are considerably higher than Clark County in comparison. The State of Nevada's Department of usiness and Industry recently released a new prevailing wage…
Clark County (2006). Clark County. Retrieved September 22, 2006, from Nevada's Clark County
Website: http://www.co.clark.nv.us/ .
Office of Budget and Management. (2006). The White House's Office of Budget and Management.
Retrieved September 22, 2006, from the Office of Budget and Management's Website: http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb /.
Finally, this sub-component also recognizes the growing problem associated with diversion of prescription drugs into the illicit black market. The policy provides funding for methods to redress that issue by improved tracking of prescriptions for controlled substances, including the practice of "doctor shopping" sometimes used to obtain legal prescriptions for controlled substances with the intention of distributing them illegally for profit (USONDCP, 2004).
III. Disrupting the Market: Attacking the Economic asis of the Drug Trade: The third major component of the President's drug policy incorporates law enforcement and prosecution in a manner designed to address the economic basis of the drug trade. Specifically, the policy authorizes both increased funding as well as tactical reorganization of various elements of the criminal justice system with respect to the illegal drug trade. In that regard, the policy emphasizes a priority targeting initiative designed to identify and prosecute specific criminal organizations and enterprises involved…
Farwell, S. Man Who Sells Tips on How to Avoid Arrest Is Running for Congress; the Dallas Morning News (Mar. 3/08)
Macionis, J. (2003) Sociology 9th Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
USONDCP (2004) the President's National Drug Control Strategy. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/policy/ndcs04/index.html
S. - Canadian border. And what makes it all even worse is that even U.S. Border Patrol Agents need to sleep every once in a while so less than a third of the 1,000 are on duty at any one moment. The real number is secret but a safe guess could be that fewer than 250 agents are on-duty defending us from the dozens of known terrorist cells operating in Canada. Of the 22 U.S. Border Patrol Sectors, there are only seven are considered absolutely critical to a secure America (Northern Border, n.d.).
The Detroit Sector for instance is one of these. It is accountable for 804 miles of total wilderness between Michigan and Canada. The Detroit area is home not just to wilderness but to the city of Detroit which has the largest Muslim populace anywhere outside of the Middle East. With a Muslim population exceeding 150,000, Detroit is…
Ackleson, Jason. (2009). From "Thin" to "Thick" (and Back Again?): The Politics and Policies
of the Contemporary U.S. -- Canada Border. Review of Canadian Studies. 39(4), p. 336-
Harwood, Matthew. (2009). DHS to Deploy More Cameras at Northern Border. Retrieved March 14, 2010, from Security Management Web site:
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), its creation and the different roles it plays. The duties of the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) are also highlighted in the paper. The paper also highlights the Intelligence eform Act of 2004 and the amendments that were made after the date of enactment. Lastly, the paper discusses the major components of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the roles played by them in order to guarantee the efficient running of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Central Intelligence Agency
The CIA is an independent agency, whose functions are not disrupted by the United States government without any necessity. This agency is dedicated towards providing national security intelligence to the senior policy makers of the United States of America. ("CIA vision, mission," 2013)
The Central Intelligence Agency, (CIA), is responsible for collecting and analyzing information in relation to the plans and strategies of the enemies…
About CIA. (2013, January 10). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html
Canon, D. (1980). Intelligence and ethics: the CIA's covert operations. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 4(2), 198-199. Retrieved from http://mises.org/journals/jls/4_2/4_2_6.pdf
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), (2003). National strategy for combating terrorism. Retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) website: https://www.cia.gov/news-information/cia-the-war-on-terrorism/Counter_Terrorism_Strategy.pdf
Cia.gov (2009). Components of the CIA -- Central Intelligence Agency. [online] Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/additional-publications/the-work-of-a-nation/cia-director-and-principles/components-of-the-cia.html.
Federal Government has increased its presence in many ways in the last decade and has supplied much of the economy with its own purchases. These government acquisitions are important because they represent the collective buying power of the American people. The purpose of this essay is to examine the system of regulation that supplies the rules to government purchase entitled the Federal Acquisition egulation (FA). To demonstrate the practical usage of this regulation this essay will use four different types of contracts and investigate the details of these rules creating effective, efficient and accountable acquisition planning.
Fixed Price Contracts
The FA's Subpart 16.2 supplies the necessary information about these types of purchases. According to the text, " Fixed-price types of contracts provide for a firm price or, in appropriate cases, an adjustable price. Fixed-price contracts providing for an adjustable price may include a ceiling price, a target price (including target…
Ashline, L. (2012). Contracting 101: Cost Reimbursement and Cost Plus Contracts.Gov Win Network, 27 Mar 2012. Retrieved from http://govwin.com/lindleyashline_blog/contracting-101-costreimbursement-and - costplus/423992
"Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR)." Viewed 3 May 2013. Retrieved from http://acquisition.gov/far/index.html
US Small Business Administration. "Federal Acquisition Regulations." Viewed 3 May 2013. Retrieved from http://www.sba.gov/content/federal-acquisition-regulations-far
This as an important moment in the history of the Cold War because it marked the start of a new series of talks between the Palestinians and the Israeli side. This moment also proved the importance of the State Secretary in relation to the issues of foreign policy and the international community.
At this moment, some of the most important cabinets in the executive concern issues such as internal affairs and job security. These are essential portfolios from the perspective of internal and external factors. The homeland security refers in particular to aspects which take place inside the borders of the U.S. And tackle the threats that are visible on the U.S. territory. There are several departments inside the Homeland Security portfolio. These concern issues of counterterrorism, border security, immigration, or cybersecurity
. Counterterrorism measures are crucial at this moment, especially given the national security advisory which changed to orange…
Department of Homeland Security. 2010. Accessed from http://www.dhs.gov/index.shtm
Department of Homeland Security. Counterterrorism. 2010. Accessed from http://www.dhs.gov/files/counterterrorism.shtm
Department of Labor. On the Recovery Act. 2009. Accessed from http://www.dol.gov/recovery/
Department of Defense. Travels with Gates. 2010. Accessed from http://www.defense.gov /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
It has a strong and influential impact on public administration because the law entices the public to be aware and to take action about the issues concerning their community or society, which only becomes possible if people are aware and informed of these issues and problems that their community is dealing with at the moment. It is through knowledge of and education about social issues that citizens take a more active stance towards community involvement, which oftentimes result to active legislative action on the part of the public. Thus, if an individual, as a citizen, becomes more informed, through the open meetings, about a case or issue relevant to him/her as a citizen, s/he can form his/her own opinion based on the information being disclosed to the public by the agencies. This law embodies the wisdom that 'an informed public makes for easy governance.'
Hall, D. (2006). Administrative…
Hall, D. (2006). Administrative Law: Bureaucracy in a Democracy. NJ: Prentice Hall.
American Government Response
Summarizing the Readings:
In his article "Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power," Peter oll discusses the administrative branch of the government and the various departments who are in control of the funds which keep federal and state governments working. The bureaucracy is a highly influential part of the government and has a degree of control over both the President and Congress with far fewer legal checks to their actions than either of these bodies has to deal with. It has proven difficult to find ways to limit the influence of the bureaucracy when the constitution does not clearly state an opinion on the matter; a serious problem since the constitution is the basis for all legislation in the country. And additional issue has been in trying to determine which branch should deal with administration. Alexander Hamilton believed this was the job of the president and the Executive branch…
"The Executive Branch." 204-28.
Wilson, James Q. "The Rise of the Bureaucratic State." The Bureaucracy. 298-302.
Woll, Peter. "Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power." The Bureaucracy. 302-310.
As a result many government contractors struggle to remain profitable over the life of their contracts. Third, the federal government requires contractors to create a Project Management Office (PMO) that acts as the coordination point of all activities. The PMO is a requirement in larger government contracting projects including the building of aerospace and defense vehicles and systems.
Despite the costs and challenges of selling to the federal government, the annuity-oriented contract renewals and the potential of becoming a prime contractor make the investment an attractive one. Many companies initially begin pilot programs that concentrate on selling a specific set of products or services that can be tailored and customized to the governments' needs. By taking a pilot-based approach, a company can minimize risk but also gain insight into how to better work with the federal government.
uben Berrios (2006). Government Contracts and Contractor Behavior. Journal of Business…
Ruben Berrios (2006). Government Contracts and Contractor Behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 63(2), 119-130. Retrieved October 9, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 964489041).
Today, China owns the majority of U.S. debt, thereby inflating the Yuan and further downgrading the security of the dollar across the globe. These trends mean that American taxpayer money will increasingly be used to benefit foreign governments, leaving even fewer resources available for American citizens. A smaller, more efficient government is clearly needed, but in order to reduce government growth, a grassroots effort needs to be created to encourage term limits and eliminate wasteful and redundant government bureaucracies. In order to be successful, though, this effort must be embraced across all political party lines but the payoff will be worth it. By curbing government growth and control in business and Americans' private lives today, the country will be able to regain its financial security and maintain America's fundamental constitutional liberties.
Beland, D. & Chantal, V.F. (2004). Fighting 'Big Government': Frames, federalism, and social policy reform in the United…
Beland, D. & Chantal, V.F. (2004). Fighting 'Big Government': Frames, federalism, and social policy reform in the United States. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 29(2), 241-244.
Branum, T. & Dokupil, S. (2002). Security takeovers and bailouts: Aviation and the return of Big
Government. Texas Review of Law & Politics, 6(2), 431-434.
Feulner, E. (2001, November 14). The Return of Big Government. The Heritage Foundation.
Then, a second major difference resides in the sources used to retrieve the necessary funds. The nonprofit organizations do indeed get the support of the federal budget in the meaning that they are often exempt from tax payment; but they have to raise the funds by themselves without any additional help or interference. They do this through the organization of various events, such as concerts, dinner parties or theatre plays, during which wealthy members of the community donate money to the causes promoted by the NPOs. In the case of governmental institutions however, the funds come directly from the state officials. The money is initially collected from the general public in the form of taxes, fines or other transfers to the state budget, and then redistributed to the state agencies.
A third difference also deals with the financial nature of the organizational activities, but is somewhat different from the previous…
Alvarado, E.I., 1998, Is there a Difference between 'Nonprofit' and 'Not-for-profit'?, Idealist, http://www.idealist.org/if/idealist/en/FAQ/QuestionViewer/default?section=01&item=09last accessed on June 19, 2008
Feiock, R.C., Andrew, S.A., Understanding the Relationships Between Nonprofit Organizations and Local Governments, Florida State University, Retrieved at http://www.fsu.edu/~spap/feiock/papers/Nonprofits_&_Public_Services.pdfon June 19, 2008
Frumkin, P., Kim, M.T., 2000, Strategic Positioning and the Financing of Nonprofit Organizations: Is Efficiency Rewarded in the Contributions Markeplace?, the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations and the Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University, Retrieved at http://www.ksghauser.harvard.edu/PDF_XLS/workingpapers/workingpaper_2.pdfon June 19, 2008
Hopkins, B.R., 2005, Starting and Managing a Nonprofit Organization: A Legal Guide, Wiley
US Government and Environmental Ethics
The United States government has had a long history with the environment, beginning with the very beginning of the settlement of the Pilgrims, through the industrialization era, forming the beginning principles of having national parks, and to today with the onset of climate change and the environmental hazards of the 21st century. (National Park Service, 2012) Compared to other countries, the U.S. has had a more favorable view towards the use of the environment for business matters, often leaving entire communities scarred by the unprotected use of machinery and pollution to retrieve coal minerals, build six lane highways through forests, and even building massive subdivisions of buildings so close together that they represent risks of fire and natural disaster. There are several government agencies that have been created through the years to govern the vast territories that have been preserved, but the amount…
American Farmland Trust. (2012). "History of the Farm Bill." Retrieved from, http://www.farmland.org/programs/farm-bill/history/usfarmsubsidies.asp .
The Encyclopedia of Earth. (2008). "Roosevelt, Franklin D. And his Environmental Policies." Retrieved from, http://www.eoearth.org/article/Roosevelt,_Franklin_D ..
The Environmental Protection Agency. (2012). "About Us." Retrieved from, http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/ .
BBC News. (2011). "What is the Kyoto Treaty?." Retrieved from, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/2233897.stm .
The program uses good planning models to develop and create the program, and the planners are aware of the program's intended audience, purpose, and topics. However, there are some weaknesses to the idea, too. They need to develop comprehensive training that is both affordable and retrains workers for new jobs, so they need to identify the top employment needs of different employers, and design curriculum to meet those needs. The problem is that if they only train in certain areas, the employers may no longer have a need in those areas, and other training will have to be identified and developed, which could be costly and inefficient for the program. Another weakness is governments or agencies running out of funding, which could lead to the destruction of the program.
representative system of government has motivated a vital chain of discussions in the literature about police workers administration and representation of women and racial minorities. The serious questions in this study are: (a.) Does the under oath police force rationally mirror a cross section of the groups being monitored? And (b.) hat aspects are measured in representation of women and minority police officers in law-enforcement agencies? Black and Hispanic depictions on police forces are strongly associated with its incidence in community populations. Regions differ in the quantity of female and minority illustrations, blacks being better characterized in southern police forces than in another place; women are better characterized in the northwest. Nevertheless, findings disclose that men, more often than not whites, maintain to hold unreasonably more sworn positions in the largest part of law-enforcement agencies. The data sets of female and minority representation also demonstrate the extent of female and…
Ayres, Ian, and Steven Levitt. Measuring Positive Externalities from Unobservable Victim Precaution: An Empirical Analysis of Lojack. Quarterly Journal of Economics, February 2008, 43-77.
Bahrke, Mike, and Bob Hoffman. Identifying the Fitness Needs of Law Enforcement Officers. Working Paper, Fit Force, 2007.
Coate, Stephen, and Glenn Loury. Will Affirmative-Action Policies Eliminate Negative Stereotypes? American Economic Review, 2003, 1220-40.
Donohue, John J, and Steven D. Levitt. The Impact of Race on Policing, Arrest Patterns, and Crime. Working Paper, Stanford University Law School, August 2009.
(Olson, 1999) the feminist theory is when you are making the arguments that the social structure in place is unfair or targeting a particular group of people. The critical legal studies theory is when you are looking beyond the issues of civil liberties and are instead focused on if the action is effective in supporting particular rights. The moral theory is when you are arguing that the best way to interpret the law is based upon what is best for society using: case precedent, established legal principals and the law. Intellectual capitalism is when you are arguing that freedom of speech is the best way for the minority of having their voices heard. Where, you are using the different actions to justify that the government could be stifling this free speech, which is leading the activity in question. The over regulation theory is when the federal / state government will…
Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts. (2010). Retrieved May 19, 2010 from Regulations.gov website: http://www.regulations.gov/search/Regs/home.html#documentDetail?R=0900006480aaf473
History of Anti-Money Laundering Laws. (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2010 from Treasury Department website: http://www.fincen.gov/news_room/aml_history.html
Olson, B. (1999). Application of American Legal Theories. Retrieved May 19, 2010 from Boston College website: http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/law/st_org/iptf/commentary/content/1999122601.html
Schlick, a. (2010). A Third Way Legal Framework for Addressing Comcast Dilemma. Retrieved May 19, 2010 from FCC website: http://www.broadband.gov/third-way-legal-framework-for-addressing-the-comcast-dilemma.html
The Office exacts a new level of accountability, which encourages a broader range of competitions and new organizations to enter these competitions. Congress authorizes the Office to develop the franchise funds pilots and to expand the competitive environment. It also invites the private sector to participate in new markets and at new levels of commercial workload. At the same time, it encourages the public to compete for the same work on a level playing field. To insure that the taxpayer continues to get the best out of the deal, the Office suggests a re-examination of outsourcing, cross-servicing and in-house performance decisions. The ultimate goal of the Office is to restore public faith in Government through a more effective management of its resources and by giving citizens and taxpayers greater value for their dollar. Federal employees have been found to be extremely cost competitive. Its Revised Supplemental Handbook expressly prefers private…
Florida, Richard. The New American Dream. The Washington Monthly: The Washington Monthly Company, March 2003
Gates, Bill. How to Keep America Competitive. The Washington Post: The Washington Post Company, February 25, 2007
Hawkins, William R. Uncoordinated Federal Technology Policies Put Nation at Risk. GAO Report. American Economic Alert: U.S. Business and Industry Council, March 4, 2007
Koskinen, John. The Freedom from Government Competition Act. Office of Management and Budget, June 18, 1997. Retrieved April 14, 2007 at http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb
However, the coverage of credit ratings in Europe is being considered to a certain extent to be under developed in comparison to that of the United States as a result of the greater enhanced dependence upon bank intermediation. The rating penetration was even found to be quite different even within the quarters of the European Union as a result of the increased prevalence of the different types of financial structures with more or less financial disintermediation. The continuing internationalization / Europeanization of the level of fixed income portfolios however, are being expected to remain as a strong element of demand for the purpose of ratings in the European bond market. Besides, the ratings are also being required by the different regulators in the various areas. Presently, however, the new market-based methods for the purpose of evaluating credit risks have been derived from that of the equity prices, subordinated bond prices…
Bohn, John. A. How International Ratings Strengthen Financial Markets. Economic Reform
Today: Banking and Financial Reform. No: 1, 1995. Retrieved at http://www.cipe.org/publications/fs/ert/e15/across.htm . Accessed 14 October, 2005
International Credit Rating Agencies. Retrieved at http://www.kazakhstaninvestment.com/credit-rating-2.html . Accessed 14 October, 2005
Jorion, Philipe; Liu, Zhu; Shi, Charles. Informational Effects of Regulation FD: Evidence from Rating Agencies. March, 2004. Retrieved at http://www.gsm.uci.edu/~jorion/papers/regFD.pdf#search='effects%20of%20credit%20rating%20agencies'Accessed 15 October, 2005
They believe that the information was there for the asking, but that DHS did not have the individuals on the ground that could ask.
Since that time, of course, there has been billions of dollars poured into DHS, DIA and the CIA. The DIA's three centers have become more refined and defined. Those three centers as they exist today, consists of: The National Military Production Center, the National Military Intelligence Collection Center, and the National Military Intelligence Systems Center. Each of the three has specific jobs and responsibilities as well as the objective to effectively coordinate information flow between the three centers.
According to Polmar, The National Military Production Center is responsible for producing and managing military intelligence, including assessments of aerospace, maritime and ground forces of foreign forces as well as threat assessment.
The National Military Intelligence Collection Center does exactly what it sounds like, that is it; manages…
Beal, Clifford (2006) Chronic Underfunding of U.S. HUMINT Plays Role in Intelligence Failures, http://www.janes.com/security/international_security/news/jdw/jdw010911_1_n.shtml , Accessed August 21, 2006
Polmar, Norman and Allen, Thomas B. (1997) Spy Book: The Encyclopedia of Espionage. New York: Random House
Powers, Thomas. (2002) Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to al-Qaeda. New York: The New York Review of Books
Client server systems are a group of inter-related subsystems which collaborate together to provide a specific solution or service. This computing model structures diverse and distributed applications, which separates tasks between the providers (servers) and service seekers (clients). Keeping the purpose of this paper in view, the provider-server is the Geographical Informative System and the client is the U.S. government. This paper analyzes Geographical Informative System (GIS) as its client server system. GIS are quite pricey with respect to installation. The primary concern while setting up GIS is:
Attaining the data
Performing quality assurance tests
Quality checks on data
Syncing hardware and software
This case study will go through many GIS projects implemented over the years by various U.S. government agencies. It has tremendous benefits to U.S. organizations, which have gone ahead and implemented them successfully. There are tons of benefits can attained from GIS, by both public and private…
Freeman, M. (2008). Government Technology, available from http://www.govtech.com/gt/392026?Id=392026&topic=117676&full=1&story_pg=1
Giglierano, J. (2009). Iowa Geographic Information Council, 20 May 2009, available from http://docs.google.com/Present?docid=dfpg82pj_5hjtxs5c7&skipauth=true
Leidner, A. (2007). American City & County: Payback Figures, available from http://americancityandcounty.com/mag/government_payback_figures/
Maguire D. et al., eds. (2008). The Business Benefits of GIS: An ROI Approach (Redlands, CA:ESRI Press), 3-10.
Guidance and Counseling Program for a school or a community Agency
Comprehensive School Counseling Program Guide of the - Public School
Guidance and counseling has been included as a professional course by the Higher Education Commission document publicized in 2010. The teachers must have a basic know how about the school guidance and counseling techniques in order to tackle the personal and social issues which students face within the classroom as per Higher Education Commission (2012). Comprehensive School Counseling Program Guide of the - Public School is a brief explanation of design, application and assessment of SPS school counseling program (Dahir, 2009).
Objectives of the model:
The basic aims of this model are as follows:
Outlining school counseling and transitioning of conventional practice into transformed practice (Dahir, 2009).
Comprehending the different roles the guidance and counseling system entails for backing the students in their future goals and social challenges
Connecticut State Department of Education (2008).Comprehensive School Counseling. Retrieved from http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/PDF/DEPS/Special/counseling.pdf
Dahir, C. (2009).Comprehensive School Counseling Program Guide. Working Document. Retrieved from http://www.sps.springfield.ma.us/webContent/Policies/Comprehensive%20School%20Counseling%20Program%20Guide%20&%20Appendix.pdf
Higher Education Commission (2012).Introduction to Guidance and Counseling. Retrieved from http://www.hec.gov.pk/InsideHEC/Divisions/AECA/CurriculumRevision/Documents/GuidanceCounseling_Sept13.pdf
Gysbers, N.C., & Henderson, P. (2001). Comprehensive Guidance and Counseling Programs: A Rich History and a Bright Future. Professional School Counseling, 4 (4), 246-259. Retrieved from http://fcett.nu.edu/sites/default/files/file_file/gysbers_history.pdf
The Supreme Court is the most powerful body of men in the United States, contrary to what many people believe.
The powers of the three branches of government are enumerated in the three charters of freedom: The Declaration of Independence, Constitution of the United States, and the Bill of ights. Together, these documents enumerate the rights and freedoms of the citizens of the United States, inherent by virtue of their citizenship; and they enumerate and limit the powers of the three branches of government in such a way as to create a system of checks and balances that cause the actions to be scrutinized by the other branches, and, if the office of the President, or the president, does not agree with legislation crated by the House of epresentatives, sent to the United States Senate for approval, the president can veto the bill containing the legislation. Likewise, the president's veto…
U.S. Federal Government, located online, found at http://www.usa.gov/Agencies/federal.shtml , retrieved 1 February 2008.
S. history such as Hurricane Andrew and the Northridge earthquake. Post-9/11 infrastructure protection investments have focused on increasing the security of infrastructure, not in increasing its resilience." (p. 258)
Certainly, these breakdowns are an indication that many of the interagency strategies brought to bear in the discussion on public administration had not been executed effectively, especially those intended to coalesce under the roof of the Department of Homeland Security. A quick review of the disaster management failures of Katrina are appropriate here. Accordingly, for five days after the landfall and passage of Hurricane Katrina, hordes of people stranded in New Orleans continued to wait for some indication that the federal government would soon be provided relief. Stranded and contained in horrific conditions in the city's football arena, the Superdome, which had been converted to a makeshift evacuation shelter with woefully insufficient supplies and accommodations for the tens of thousands who…
Agnos, a. (1998). Single Family Loan Production and Servicing. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development. (USDHUD).
Associated Press (AP). (2005). FEMA knew Katrina response was 'broken,' MSNBC.
Brown, a.D. (2004). Authoritative Sensemaking in a Public Inquiry Report, Organization Studies, 25(1), 95-112.
Brown N., Vega S., Dupree a., Hartong R. (2010). DHS' Progress in Federal Incident Management Planning, Department of Homeland Security Office of Inspector General
Government's ole in Advertising egulation
History of attitudes towards advertising
Taste and decency
The advertising is a major contributor and visual segment of the complete marketing strategy of a business. It is also noted as one of the image carrier for an organization. The businesses seek support of advertising agenciesdealing in print and electronic media to establish an advertising campaign along with the design of such activities to further their marketing objectives (Shimp, 2013). There are various environmental factors as well as regulations that should be followed by the advertising agencies. The governments also take part in evaluation of the content printed in advertisements. The role of government in regulating the advertising material and assessment of the content is discussed below. It is required that the governments lower their involvement in such activities and empower the self-regulation of advertisement content through agencies, associations. And…
Carroll, A.B., & Buchholtz, A.K. (2011). Business & society: Ethics and stakeholder management. USA: CengageBrain.
Chryssides, G.D., & Kaler, J.H. (1993). An introduction to business ethics.USA: CengageBrain.
De Fleur, M.L. en EE Dennis (2002). Understanding Mass Communication.A Liberal Arts Perspective.
O'guinn, T.C., Allen, C.T., & Semenik, R.J. (2011). Advertising and integrated brand promotion.USA: Cengage Learning.
Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States by violent fanatics, the federal government passed legislation which was designed to protect American citizens and to prevent further deaths. One piece of legislation, Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, more simplistically known as the Patriot Act, has been at the center of vehement debate on both sides, in support of and in opposition of the document. Among the many provisions of the act, some of the most contentious include: reduction of restrictions of law enforcement agencies, allows the Secretary of the Treasury to regulate financial transactions, and gave further powers to law enforcement and immigration officials in allowing them to detain, arrest, or deport immigrants who have been suspected of terrorist activities (Schulhofer 2005,-page vi). Following 9/11, there was a national grief over the tragic events and…
Baker, S. (2005). Patriot Debates: Experts Debate the U.S.A. Patriot Act. American Bar
Chang, N. (2002). Silencing Political Dissent: How Post-September 11 Anti-Terrorism Measures
Threaten our Civil Liberties. Seven Stories: Canada.
inaugural speech in 1981, his first term of being President of the United States, onald eagan famously stated with bold irony, "government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem." While mismanaged government agencies and bloated bureaucracies are problematic, government itself is not a "problem," and should not be perceived as such by one who has been elected to its highest office. Dismantling government institutions that provide for the common defense and welfare of the people would defeat the real objectives of government, which is not to protect the wealthy from taxation but to promote happiness, freedom, and safety and maintain law and order.
eagan did go on to clarify what he meant in his statement, and noted, "it is not my intention to do away with government. It is, rather, to make it work-work with us, not over us; to stand by our side, not ride…
"The Federalist Party." PBS. Retrieved online: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/duel/peopleevents/pande05.html
Reagan, Ronald. "First Inaugural Address." 20 Jan, 1981. Avalon Project. Retrieved online: http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/reagan1.asp
"Thomas Jefferson Quotations." Retrieved online: http://westillholdthesetruths.org/quotes/author/thomas-jefferson
Strategies to improve collaboration and cooperation between the Homeland Security agencies
The department of homeland security (DHS) controls the territorial, local, state, tribal, and federal government resources (DHS, 2018). The DHS coordinates various programs and agencies into one single and unified effort that is given to protecting the American homeland and the people. The first QHSR (Quadrennial Homeland Security Review) was completed in the year 2010 with an objective of establishing an incorporated strategy for the goals and missions of homeland security (Homeland Security, 2005). Following this, DHS carried out a BUR (Bottom up Review). The objective was to synchronize organizational structure and programmatic activities in order to effectively achieve the goals and missions of homeland security.
The primary duty of homeland security is to protect the U.S. from any terrorism. The counterterrorism duties of the DHS are concentrated on these three goals i.e. First goal is protecting and resisting…
The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is far and away the most prolific and omni-present agency that exists in the United States, at least at the federal level, that regulates employers and protects employees from discrimination and other unlawful and/or unethical employment practices including inequity in who is hired, who is fired, who is promoted and why, who is given raises and why and so forth. While budgetary constraints and some of the EEOC's recent decisions certainly deserve attention and scrutiny, the EEOC's status as the ultimate arbiter of employee rights in the United States is not going to change anytime soon.
The mission statement of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is to "stop and remedy unlawful employment discrimination" (EEOC, 2014). The vision statement of the EEOC is "justice and equality in the workplace." The EEOC states quite clearly on their website that they know full well,…
DrugFree.org. (2014, May 18). Discrimination Against People in Recovery Rampant, Advocates Say |. Partnership for DrugFree Kids. Retrieved May 18, 2014, from http://www.drugfree.org/join-together/discrimination-against-people-in-recovery-rampant-advocates-say/
EEOC. (2014, May 17). EEOC Home Page. EEOC Home Page. Retrieved May 17, 2014, from http://www.eeoc.gov
EEOC. (2014, May 18). Fiscal Year 2014 Congressional Budget Justification. Fiscal Year 2014 Congressional Budget Justification. Retrieved May 18, 2014, from
Many responders, lacking clear guidance, would simply react to apparent immediate needs" ("Emergency management," 2009). It is important to note that in the event of a terrorist incident, local first responders would be the first on the scene, and it is imperative that incident commanders gain control or at least understand the complexities of the situation. However, there are national agencies, under the guidance of FEMA and other government agencies, that offer national response coordination 24/7 every day of the year. These organizations train in every state, and would eventually coordinate the response operations for a major terrorist incident in the country. The Department of Health and Human Services Web site notes, "The Secretary's Operations Center (SOC) is directly connected to the DHS National Operations Center and the FEMA National esponse Operations Center. It serves as the focal point for situational awareness, information management and response coordination for HHS" (Yeskey,…
Editors. (2009). About us. Retrieved 7 April 2009 from the National Domestic Preparedness Consortium Web site: http://www.ndpc.us/about_ndpc.html .
Editors. (2009). Emergency management preparation and planning. Retrieved 7 April 2009 from the FEMA.gov/Responder Knowledge Base Web site: https://www.rkb.us/contentdetail.cfm?content_id=20334.
Hill, M., Galarneau, M., Pang, G., & Konoske, P. (2006). Preparing for the worst: Using modeling to determine medical supply requirements for terrorism response. The Forensic Examiner, 15(1), 24+.
Yeskey, K. (2007). Preparing the nation for radiation and nuclear terrorist events. Retrieved 7 April 2009 from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Web site: http://www.hhs.gov /asl/testify/2007/11/t20071115f.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Changing environment and Communities
It is the intention of the various agencies of the government to help their employees to be able to in an environment that is suitable for the optimum performance in order to offer the best service to the public. In an effort tom achieve this, the different organizations and agencies have prepared their employees in various ways that help them approach the contemporary society with the diverse population therein. This paper will hence look at the various ways that the agencies prepare their employees to adapt to the fast changing environment in terms of technology and the workforce as well.
Since the onset of globalization, one defining feature has been the rapid shift in technology and information technology. The workforce has had to contend with the challenge of this fast changing technological advances, unfortunately there is no sign of the reliance on technology relenting hence it…
Chesterfield MA Fire Department, (2015). Chesterfield MA Fire Department. Retrieved June 9, 2015 from http://chesterfieldmafire.com/
Homeland Security, (2014). Goal: Remedy Information Shortfalls. Retrieved June 9, 2015 from http://www.dhs.gov/topic/information-sharing
Indiana Department of Homeland Security, (2015). Emergency Management Training Program. Retrieved June 9, 2015 from http://www.in.gov/dhs/emermgtngpgm.htm
US Department of Commerce, (n.d). Best Practices in Achieving Workforce Diversity. Retrieved June 9, 2015 from vhttp://govinfo.library.unt.edu/npr/library/workforce-diversity.pdf
special interest groups have too much power in politics today? Why or why not? Do you think we should allow these interest groups to continue to function as they currently do? Why or why not? What do you think would happen to our nation if we did not allow interest groups to continue to operate?
I do feel that special interest groups have too much power in politics today and I feel that this is a big part of the appeal for "outsiders" like Sanders and Trump in the race today. Special interest groups like AIPAC for example can make or break political careers, which is why when Netanyahu visits Congress to speak, nearly every member bows and bends at the knee: AIPAC is a big donor to campaigns. Likewise, Wall Street interest groups and corporate interest groups are also big donors to campaigns and Establishment politicians like Hillary benefit…
Durden, T. (2016). One Reader Tried To Get The Recording Of Yellen's "World-Saving
Phone Call"; This Is What The Fed Replied. ZeroHedge. Retrieved from http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2016-04-15/one-reader-tried-get-recording-yellens-world-saving-phone-call-what-fed-replied
Federal Reserve. (2015). Oversight of the Federal Reserve System. Retrieved from https://www.federalreserve.gov/monetarypolicy/bst_oversight.htm
Greensteing, T. (2011). The Fed's $16 Trillion Bailouts Under-Reported. Forbes.
The Effects Corporatocracy Has in Government
Corporatocracy occurs when a government is found to be run not by its own people, but by corporations or conglomerates within the country. The mixture of business and government allows corporations to control a country by deciding its governmental direction or economic plans (Mooney, Knox, and Schacht 256). Whether a corporation involves itself in a country's government for the good of its people or its profits, corporatocracy effects all involved, from employees and citizens to government and business. It is not uncommon for there to be a blurred line between government and business, but it is unfortunately a line that is all too often crossed.
Perhaps one of the strongest and most notable displays of corporatocracy in America was that of General Motors. In 1987, GM produced a solar powered car named Sun aycer which won the first World Solar Challenge, hosted by…
Mooney, L.A., David Knox, and Caronline Schacht. Understanding Social Problems. 6th.
Belmont, California: Cengage, 2009. 256. Print.
Perkins, John. Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. San Francisco, California: Berrett-Koehler
Publishers, Inc., 2004. Print.
Strategic Goals & Objectives
During its existence over three quarters of a century, the SSA has survived, evolved and changed. However, the technological and fiscal challenges of today and the near future require that the Social Security Administration bend and shape itself even more. Those challenges include some budget situations that are fairly bleak, a large amount of fraud and abuse of the program and the technological changes required as mentioned in the introduction for this strategic report. While the basic model of Social Security is criticized, that model itself does not need to be changed. ather, it just needs some adjustments that will be controversial and unpopular to many people.
As mentioned in the introduction, there are three main challenges to Social Security and its future. However, there are those and several others that need to be taken seriously. Those challenges, in total, are as follows:
The SSA needs…
Davis, Sara. 'Ageism In America'. msnbc.com. N.p., 2004. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.
Seitz, Dan. 'Microsoft Has Decided To Finally Get Rid Of Internet Explorer'. UPROXX. N.p., 2015. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.
Storm, Darlene. 'List Of Hacked Government Agencies Grows: State Department, White House, NOAA & USPS'. Computerworld. N.p., 2015. Web. 28 Apr. 2015.