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In Greece particularly government corruption in the broad public sector is considered widespread; this is evident in local government and agencies including those that issue permits and licenses that authorize planning permissions (Economist, 2004). Doctors and other officials are even known to expect a 'tip' for jobs undertaken that they are supposed to do (Economist, 2004).
The new Democracy government being constructed in Greece is taking action to "re-construct" the state and to emphasize the importance of decent authority, however because of past practices, there are many disincentives to domestic and foreign investment in the country, typical political and economic side effects of widespread corruption (Economist, 2004).
Government corruption has many long lasting effects on the political well being and economic structure of the country involved. Generally the more wide ranging the corruption the less resources are available for political development and strengthening the economy. The areas most likely…… [Read More]
One group has offered that social welfare reform would be an effective deterrent to corruption. "Conditional cash transfer programs, an innovation in social welfare administration, have received considerable acclaim as a means of enhancing human capital and reducing leakage of public resources" (Grimes and Wangnerud, 2010), one extensive form of corruption in Mexico. It is innovative problem solving such as this that offers the greatest hope for bringing government corruption to an end in either Mexico or the United States.
A second example of programs that are being implemented in Mexico to counter crime and corruption is a school-based program on the U.S.-Mexican border. "This strategy consists of a 36 lesson course developed in collaboration between Mexican and American teachers, whose intent is to build support for a culture of lawfulness and further the rule of law" (Kenney and Godson, 2002). Certainly no one is naive enough to believe that…… [Read More]
hile U.S., New Zealand and Denmark have many differences, they are basically capitalist, consumer economies. To combat the corruption inherent in such a system, we need to protect and nurture whistle blowing. Certainly, the more eyes there are on a situation, the more transparent it is, both in government and in business.
The corruption that the recent recession revealed in the U.S. banking system is simply a part of the bigger problem. As the Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell text puts it well, "The ability to recognize and deal with complex business ethics issues has become a significant priority…" (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2009). Enforcement takes human observation to fulfill this priority. There is not enough police to go around. However, the common citizen, armed with legal protections, will provide this.
Anti-corruption. (2006, November 8). Retrieved 11 August 2010 from http://www.um.dk/en/menu/developmentpolicy/anticorruption/
Caslon analytics guide secrecy and accountability. (2008, February).…… [Read More]
Gordon, Joy. "The Accusations against the Oil for Food Program: The Volcker Reports." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 28.3-4 (2006): 19+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5018509671.
Harper, Jennifer. "At 25, atergate's Details Have Gotten Hazy: Americans Have Grown Used to Scandal." The ashington Times 17 June 1997: 1. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001562718.
Josipovic, Ivona. "Conflict Diamonds: Not So Clear-Cut." Harvard International Review 25.2 (2003): 10+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001987469.
Niven, David. "A Fair Test of Media Bias: Party, Race, and Gender in Coverage of the 1992 House Banking Scandal." Polity 36.4 (2004): 637+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5008316309.
Posner, Sarah. "Security for Sale: The Department of Homeland Security Has a Section on Its eb Site Labeled "Open for Business." It Certainly Is." The American Prospect Jan. 2006: 28+. Questia. 8 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015061684.
Reports Gleefully Transform Bush Oil…… [Read More]
Governments should limit their interference in market progress.
The recent Presidential election was billed as a choice between two visions for America. Unfortunately for voters, there are many other visions that were not presented as viable options. If those options had been presented, voters may have chosen them. One such alternative political philosophy is libertarianism, which makes the case that government should interfere as little as possible in the daily lives of Americans. This is especially true in the economic realm -- whether it is regulation or tax handouts to powerful donor lobbies, the two big parties are equally culpable for creating needles burden that constricts the growth of the American economic engine.
Decentralization of government is a key concept. Manor (1999) notes that there has been a trend towards the decentralization of government worldwide. This trend is occurring because governments realize that decentralization can spur economic growth and alleviate…… [Read More]
The Japanese government has a onstitution created in 1947. It is founded on three principles, respect for fundamental human rights, sovereignty of the people, and renunciation of war. There are also three branches of the government. The legislative or Diet, executive or cabinet, and judicial or courts.
The highest organ of state power, the Diet, is Japan's national parliament. They are the singular law-making organ of the states. There are 480 seats in the House of Representatives, 242 seats in the House of ouncillors, all a part of the Diet. Furthermore, all Japanese citizens, once they are 20, can vote in election.
Diet members elect not a president, but a prime minister from amongst the group. The cabinet, from where the prime minster leads, is responsible to the Diet. Things like currency are run by the Diet. On page 21 of hoi's book, he explains the connection between the…… [Read More]
Finally, this sub-component also recognizes the growing problem associated with diversion of prescription drugs into the illicit black market. The policy provides funding for methods to redress that issue by improved tracking of prescriptions for controlled substances, including the practice of "doctor shopping" sometimes used to obtain legal prescriptions for controlled substances with the intention of distributing them illegally for profit (USONDCP, 2004).
III. Disrupting the Market: Attacking the Economic asis of the Drug Trade: The third major component of the President's drug policy incorporates law enforcement and prosecution in a manner designed to address the economic basis of the drug trade. Specifically, the policy authorizes both increased funding as well as tactical reorganization of various elements of the criminal justice system with respect to the illegal drug trade. In that regard, the policy emphasizes a priority targeting initiative designed to identify and prosecute specific criminal organizations and enterprises involved…… [Read More]
" For most this is generally seen as a reference to the Federal Judiciary. One thinks of the arren Court, and the great number of decisions concerning civil rights, voting rights, etc. It is often not realized, however, to what an extent state judges play ar ole in shaping these issues. In many state court systems, the state system was actually more liberal than the Federal:
First and foremost, state constitutions may be used not only to broaden rights but also to restrict them. They are far easier to amend than the U.S. Constitution. Therefore, forces within a state dissatisfied with liberal court interpretations of the fundamental state law may, without nearly the same effort required on the federal level, undo those rulings....In Florida... voters adopted an amendment to the state constitutional search and seizure provision, requiring the provision to be "be construed in conformity with the 4th Amendment to…… [Read More]
This was because of some of the reforms that he introduced for corporations, for public spending, environmental protection and transportation sectors. Since powerful LDP members had vested interests in these sectors, they did not approve of all the reforms and hence were wary of Koizumi and his brand of politics.
The articles about Koizumi and Abe suggest that Japan suffers from serious economic problems that the political system cannot resolve. Why not? What are the political obstacles to changing Japanese politics? How does it relate to the Johnson reading?
Japan has had enormous economic success over the decades but lately its problems are negating the effects of earlier successes. I cannot agree with the opinion that economic problems cannot be solved through political means. Even though other factors do play in, it is the political system that determines the path economy will take. By political system, we mean…… [Read More]
Barker, T. (2011). Police ethics: Crisis in law enforcement. Springfield, IL: Thomas.
This book deals with problems experienced in law enforcement that demonstrate the inability of police officers to make lawful decisions. Chapter 8 deals specifically with police corruption and identifies three elements that exist in police corruption. The first is, the behave must be forbidden, the second is misuse of officer's position, and third, the reward. Although this chapter offers no study, it does provide a look into what the definition of corruption is along with a possible explanation for the prevalence of corruption amongst police officers and law enforcement in general.
Block, C. (2015, December 30). Florida Police Under Investigation for Laundering $55.6 Million For Drug Cartels. Retrieved from http://www.mintpressnews.com/212404-2/212404/
A newspaper article, this source discusses police corruption in Miami. Florida cops that work for the Bal Harbour Police Department have allegedly laundered an estimated $55.6 million for…… [Read More]
The government should provide health care, because the economic characteristics of health care make it ripe for abuse in a market environment. Government should provide as a service to its population those goods that, for one reason or another, are open for abuse in a normal market economy. Normally, the main condition is natural monopoly, which makes the case for government involvement in commodities like electricity, water, or policing. Health care is not a natural monopoly in that there can reasonably be a number of different providers, but it has other characteristics that make it a strong candidate for government intervention.
In even the freest capitalist economies, there are public goods that the government provides. The government provision of certain services is accepted by populations because the alternative -- total anarchy -- results is a severely degraded quality of life. No government services at all is a failed…… [Read More]
When this happens, the standard of living and income levels will remain stagnant. (Bhargava, 2006, pp. 341 -- 362) (Cazurra, 2008, pp. 12 -- 27)
Moreover, corruption will increase the costs of doing business inside a particular area. This is troubling, as it will lead to less employers relocating to the region. Instead, they will seek out locations where there are lower amounts of corruption. This is a part of an effort to keep their costs as low as possible so that they can increase their overall returns and remain competitive in the global marketplace. For the region, this will result in less high paying jobs (which helps contribute to an increase in the unemployment rate). (Bhargava, 2006, pp. 341 -- 362) (Cazurra, 2008, pp. 12 -- 27) (Heineman, 2006, pp. 75 -- 86)
How can MNCs deal effectively with these problems?
The ways that MNCs are able to deal…… [Read More]
Social security is not perfect by any means, but as a program, it has good intentions, and that is one reason to trust our government to do what is right and proper for senior citizens. Many of them have served our country in many ways, and social security means they can be comfortable as they grow older.
Do the Right Thing - In many areas of government, historically they have chosen to do the right thing. Finally giving women the vote was the right thing to do, even if it took too long. Passing civil rights legislation was the right thing to do, even though it took too long, as well. Ending slavery was the right thing to do, well, you get the idea. It may take the government time to do the right thing, but it most cases, especially with really big issues, they end up doing the right…… [Read More]
" It should be noted that Perriello supported a "Republican version" (House.gov) of PAYGO that supported stronger restrictions on spending. In defense of this vote, he says, "This was a great chance to really get our budget under control, and I was glad to stand up and vote for the kind of smart fiscal policy that folks in the Fifth District expect" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). Perriello even posted an update on Twitter, stating that he was "very pleased that PAYGO passed the House" (Twitter.com). Perriello believes that responsible spending is not an issue for Democrats or Republicans but rather an "American issue" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). Perriello states that while both of these bills contain good ideas, he wishes "we could have combined ideas from both sides of the aisle to produce a better, bi-partisan solution" (Perriello qtd. On House.gov). hile still a freshman in ashington, Perriello has demonstrated…… [Read More]
The protester then has an opportunity to file written comments on the report.
Utilizing Debriefings to Prevent id Protests
Officially, Post-Award debriefings are meant to provide transparency to the unsuccessful candidates. Although the prescribed requirements of the briefings are very rigid and formal, agencies should resist the temptation to meet the bare minimum required by the formalities. Agencies should pay special attention to Requirement 1, the "evaluation of the significant weak or deficient factors in the offeror's proposal" because the evaluation is open-ended, unlike Requirements 2-3, which contain definite numerical standards, and Requirement 4, which only requires a simple summary. Open-ended evaluations can vary greatly in quality and also increase the opportunities for the agency to make a mistake.
If it is a particularly confusing or shallow evaluation, an unsuccessful offeror might take issue with the soundness of the agency's decision and later move to Protest the id by claiming…… [Read More]
There are numerous effects of corruption on MNCs. In case their competition engages in such practices, their activity is significantly influenced by this phenomenon. This is because their corrupt competitors can change rules and regulations that do not favor other companies. Therefore, they have to deal with the effects of such situations. This sometimes determines them to modify their activity.
In addition to this, there are situations where employees of certain MNCs are bribed by competitors in order to provide important information on these companies. This is extremely harmful to companies as it can lead to information leaks on strategies, price levels, and other types of investments that these companies intend to make. This means that these MNCs must increase investments in security issues.
In addition to this, MNCs are sometimes forced to become corruptors because some of their competitors do so. In other words, if certain companies provide incentives…… [Read More]
Criminal justice is an inherently ethical profession. The judiciary ostensibly crafts laws that reflect the ethical sensibilities and social norms of the society, which are often embedded in the American Constitution. The role of the criminal justice system is to ensure that local, state, and federal laws are applied and enforced in a manner consistent with constitutional and regional codes. Issues like the equal protection clause are also ethical matters. The core objective of the criminal justice system is built on ethical responsibility: the ethical responsibility of the system to its main stakeholders, which is the American people.
However, there are also ancillary ethical issues associated with criminal justice that are not codified. Such issues are often linked with ambiguities and philosophical complexities. Applying criminal justice ethics entails sensitivity and awareness to prevailing political and social climates. Among the most pressing ethical issues in criminal justice include those related…… [Read More]
Notwithstanding these dreadful forecast as well as the consequential results, the political will for transformation is not that strong at the moment, if these situation extends, it will be harder to alter them; conceivably it is the moment for the people as well as the government officials to work hand-in-hand in saving the country's current economic state.
In an article written by Shear and Branigin (2009), they quoted President Obama saying "we cannot rebuild this economy on the same pile of sand, we must build our house upon a rock. We must lay a new foundation for growth and prosperity -- a foundation that will move us from an era of borrow and spend to one where we save and invest, where we consume less at home and send more exports abroad."
The new economy that President Obama mentioned will surface from America's most horrible economic occurrence in the past…… [Read More]
akalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876
Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 - Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html
Alternatives to the War on Drugs," at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/4727/alt-wod-faq.html
Frequently Asked Questions," at http://www.paranoia.com/drugs/marijuana/hemp/FAQ-alt.hemp
Americans for Compassionate Use," at http://www.acu.org/~acu/
Ethan a. Nadelmann, "Thinking seriously about alternatives to the drug prohibition," Daedalus v.123:3, at http://www.calyx.com/~mariolap/debate/ethan1.html
NASRO Issue rief, Spring 1995 vol. 1, no.1,"Rethinking the War on Drugs and Crime: New Approaches to Local Polic." http://www.dscc.org/cwa/report.html
Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html
Fish, Jefferson M, Ed. How to Legalize Drugs. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.. July 1998, 675 pages., pp. 161
Lester Grinspoon, MD, James . akalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876 Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 -- Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
Alternatives to the War…… [Read More]
This case illustrates several ethical issues including those related to social responsibility as well as to business transactions. A food and beverage shop has an ethical obligation to follow rules of food safety. If it is agreed that the rule related to the distance between the building and the trash dumpster is a reasonable one, then our company should comply with these rules even if it poses an inconvenience and requires us to reconfigure our locations. However, it is possible that the government arbitrarily set these distances. It would be in our company’s best interest to find empirical evidence suggesting that six feet makes a difference, and that five feet is actually unsafe. If we can unearth research that shows that five feet is sufficient to promote public health and safety, then we should present those findings to the health department and request that the rule be changed. Doing so…… [Read More]
Grand corruption is a serious issue throughout the world which has led to the development of many different laws. The United Nations defines grand corruption as "corruption that pervades the highest levels of a national Government, leading to a broad erosion of confidence in good governance, the rule of law and economic stability ("United Nations Convention against Corruption")." Grand corruption is such a concerning issue because of the costs associated with this deceptive activity. Eliminating grand corruption has become a major quest of NGOs such as the UN. According to an article entitled "The Global Programme against Corruption" published by the UN, efforts to raise awareness about corruption have been made since 1994. The report explains that corruption has an insidious nature and can have devastating impacts on entire countries and their citizens. The report asserts that "Corruption not only distorts economic decision-making, it also deters investment, undermines competitiveness and,…… [Read More]
American Government Response
Summarizing the Readings:
In his article "Constitutional Democracy and Bureaucratic Power," Peter oll discusses the administrative branch of the government and the various departments who are in control of the funds which keep federal and state governments working. The bureaucracy is a highly influential part of the government and has a degree of control over both the President and Congress with far fewer legal checks to their actions than either of these bodies has to deal with. It has proven difficult to find ways to limit the influence of the bureaucracy when the constitution does not clearly state an opinion on the matter; a serious problem since the constitution is the basis for all legislation in the country. And additional issue has been in trying to determine which branch should deal with administration. Alexander Hamilton believed this was the job of the president and the Executive branch…… [Read More]
Suppose I was asked to donate money to "Citizens for Better Schools," what would I need to find out about the group first? The first thing would be find out if they are a bona fide public charity -- a 501 C3 -- and if they were, I would examine their bylaws and mission statement. Secondly, I would locate board members and examine public statements they have made and projects they have injected themselves into. Something with a vague title like this one has could actually be a protest group trying to remove certain board members from the school board or they might be advocating to have the science textbooks changed so evolution isn't taught. I would also look through newspaper reports to find what the group has been advocating in its public pronouncements.
Should journalists have the right to protect their sources? The answer is yes. One example relates…… [Read More]
Preserving the current form of government will ease Nepal's transition from a constitutional monarchy to a constitutional republic. If the nation were to suddenly switch voting procedures and governmental structures, the resulting confusion would threaten to undermine the fledgling system. Furthermore, a large number of Nepalese residents are either connected to or from India and are familiar with its parliamentary system.
A parliamentary system allows for a greater plurality of voices in the legislative branch of government. Nepal is an extraordinarily diverse country, with no one ethnic group comprising more than 15.5% of the nation's population (CIA). The recent political strife in Nepal is partly rooted in the strong Maoist presence there. Maoist demands for political representation in parliament was finally granted during the recent turmoil in 2007 (CIA). Nepal's main considerations when composing its new constitution and attendant form of government include maintaining political stability, permitting a plurality of…… [Read More]
However, there is some common sense in knowing when government is necessary and when too much government is detrimental to quality of life.
A world without government would be a much worse world, one in which crimes proliferated, in which an economy would be impossible to maintain on a global scale, and in which public works projects could not be maintained feasibly. Too much government, such as with socialist and communist systems, do not work well because they restrict the rights and freedoms of people. However, too many Americans believe that any government is bad. Before Americans forget what government is good for, they should remember that governments pay for schools because citizens agree that an educated population is a safe and happy population. Governments also create public works projects that allow citizens to enjoy clean drinking water, communication networks, and transportation systems. Anarchy and complete privatization might be fun…… [Read More]
Branches of the Government
In 1787 leaders of the different states sat down to write down the constitution whereby the first section described the separation of the federal government. These three branches of the government are; legislative branch, executive branch and judicial branch.
Legislative branch consist of two houses of congress; the senate and the House of epresentatives .the senate comprises of 100 members from each of the states who are elected in their states in a term that is six years long. The head of the senate is the Vice president but has no voting power. The senate approves the nominations that have been made by the Supreme Court, president of the cabinet, federal courts among other posts. On the other hand, the house of representatives comprises of 435 members with these numbers varying in every state depending on the population. The most important duty of this branch of…… [Read More]
India is a parliamentary republic, the largest democracy in the world with over a billion people and counting.
Head of State
The head of state is a ceremonial position occupied by the President. The current President is Ram Nath Kovind, and vice president is M. Venkaiah Naidu, positions held since July-August of 2017 (CIA World Factbook, 2018). The president is elected by an electoral college, which is comprised of appointed members of both houses of parliament as well as members of state legislatures (CIA World Factbook, 2018).The President serves for a five year term, and there are no term limits on the position.
Far more important a role than president is held by the head of government, the Prime Minister. Members of parliament of the majority party elect the Prime Minister. The current Prime Minister of India is Narendra Modi, who was elected in 2014. Modi is leader…… [Read More]
Unitary State vs. The Federal State
Unitary vs. Federal
A unitary state government is one in which the state's entire affairs are overseen by a single central governing authority. A federal state government is one in which governing powers are shared between a central government and a local or state government(s). France offers us today an example of a unitary state, while the U.S. offers us an example of a federal state. To judge which type of government is better, one could look to these two examples -- but as neither appears to be ideal in its present-day condition (both are broke), this paper will instead look at the dynamic of both types of states to show why a federal state is preferable to a unitary state.
The unitary state solution is one that lends itself to the Weber-based system of modern bureaucracy, and for that reason is bound to…… [Read More]
public corruption and its effect, including the claim that public corruption in an unavoidable side effect of development. Corruption in public service can be an ongoing concern in many areas. Corruption can lead to disorder, lack of trust in police or other public entities, and to ongoing problems with morale and citizen support. There is an argument that in countries with high levels of corruption, it has some benefit, but that is difficult to accept, as corruption only benefits those who participate in it, and it definitely does not benefit the general population.
The Transparency International Web site defines corruption as "Corruption is operationally defined as the misuse of entrusted power for private gain" (Editors, 2009). They go on to state that public servants (including criminal justice professionals), have a duty to remain above corruption. They note, "It is the duty of civil servants, managers and trustees to act visibly,…… [Read More]
" hile there are factors like peer pressure and authority that come into play, some research claims to have isolated significant features of an individual's character that make them more likely to commit acts of fraud, bribery and falsification in the corporate context (27, 2009). For example, those people with "high levels of ambition were more likely to transgress moral codes, competitively stab colleagues in the back and make dubious decisions relating to asset-stripping, disinvestment, and so on" (27, 2009).
Trevino's (1986) work is relevant when it comes to understanding individuals and corruption. There are a couple questions regarding moral personality that come up: first of all, whether or not a person sees an event or issue as a moral problem; the second is how they decide to act in relation to that problem. Kohlberg's theory of cognitive moral development emphasizes the cognitive or reasoning aspect of moral-decision making (604,…… [Read More]
Modern-Day Corruption and Graft
The Watergate incident that occurred in President Nixon's Administration is exemplary of modern day corruption. Here, the government under Nixon's presidency was recognized to have sanctioned a sequence of confidential monitoring operations conducted by highly-trained agents that was financed by illegal campaign contributions. The seriousness of the incident was such that ichard Nixon had to resign his presidency.
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois offered differing philosophies, strategies, and tactics for African-Americans following econstruction. In your opinion, which of these leaders gave the best advice for their times? Why do you feel this way?
Booker T. Washington primarily believed that the approach to deal with the African-Americans after the econstruction was tolerance, adaptation, and self-assistance with maximum attention on the provision of job opportunities for possible advancement of the community W.E.B. Dubois, on the other hand, asserted that the best methodology was the use of campaigning…… [Read More]
Police, Terrorism, Ethics, And Corruption
The traditional mission of police forces in the United States is fighting criminality and upholding the law in the defined geographical area or boundary they belong to. This translates to the local police forces of towns, municipalities and cities engaging in policing activities in these respective areas. Outside of these boundaries, the state police forces have responsibilities and on the national level, the Federal ureau of Investigation (FI) has jurisdiction. Prior to the onset of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the American homeland, the mission and boundaries of the aforementioned police forces are clear and distinct. Immediately thereafter, there has been a tremendous paradigm shift in the mission of police forces in the United States because the growing threats of terrorism and terrorist activities have entered into the very heart of the nation. Even several years after the 9/11 attacks, terrorists have taken…… [Read More]
Cauchon, D. (2008). Hiring leaps in the public sector. USA Today. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/employment/2008-04-29-stateworkers_N.htm
CIA orld Factbook: United States. (2011). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html
Effland, A.; Normile, M.; Roberts, D.; ainio, J. (2008). orld Trade Organization and globalization help facilitate growth in agricultural trade. Amber aves. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from http://www.ers.usda.gov/Amberaves/June08/Features/TO.htm
Gifford, D. (1995). Federalism, efficiency, the Commerce Clause and the Sherman Act. Emory Law Journals. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from https://litigation-essentials.lexisnexis.com/webcd/app?action=DocumentDisplay&crawlid=1&doctype=cite&docid=44+Emory+L.J.+1227&srctype=smi&srcid=3B15&key=3817dcb1059aa6fa22a90e0370c3a704
Nelson, S. (2010). Commandos crack down on Afghan drug trade. NPR. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=124731730
Rashid, A. (2000). IMU insurgency threatens Tajikistan political reconciliation. Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Analysis. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from http://www.cacianalyst.org/?q=node/263
alters, N. (no date). A brief overview of government, law and order and social matters in Tari District. Australian National University. Retrieved May 10, 2011 from http://epress.anu.edu.au/ssgm/conflict/mobile_devices/ch10.html… [Read More]
Bardhan, P. (1997) "Corruption and Development: A Review of the Issues." Journal of Economic Literature 35: 1320-46.
Barro, R. (1996) "Determinants of Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study." NBER orking Paper No. 5698.
Barro, R., and Lee, J. (1993) "International Comparisons of Educational Attainment." Journal of Monetary Economics 32: 363-94.
Bhagwati, J.N. (1982) "Directly Unproductive Profit-Seeking (DUP) Activities." Journal of Political Economy 90: 988-1002.
Buchanan, J.M.; Tullock G.; and Tollison, R., eds. (1980) Toward a Theory of the Rent-Seeking Society. College Station: Texas a & M. University Press.
Campos, J.E.; Lien, D.; and Pradhan, S. (1999) "The Impact of Corruption on Investment: Predictability Matters." orld Development 27 (6): 105967.
Cheung, S.N. (1996) "Simplistic General Equilibrium Theory of Corruption." Contemporary Economic Policy 14 (3): 1-5.
Davies, B. 2001. "Making macaroni out of Marconi." Centaur Communications. [online] http://www.ideasociety.co.uk/marconi.htm
Easterly, ., and Levine R. (1997) "Africa's Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions."…… [Read More]
Corruption, Political Patronage and the Need for Reform of the Pakistani Cricket Board (PCB)
Corruption in professional sports carries significant implications beyond the sport itself. Nations, regions and populations attach a great deal of importance to athletic competition and particularly to the notions of honor, integrity and sportsmanship. So recent revelations of match fixing in cricket have shaken the sport to its foundation.
Particularly, evidence of match fixing in Pakistan is forcing the sport to examine its conscience. According to the transcript emerging from an investigation into such events, gambling odds-makers are guilty of an historically persistent pattern of corruption. CEO of the International Cricket Council (ICC) between 2001-2008, Malcolm Speed indicates that "the same bookmakers who were there in the late 90s, who were corrupt then and were seeking corrupt players, they're still there."
Today, the game is troubled by mounting allegations that players have accepted…… [Read More]
Following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States by violent fanatics, the federal government passed legislation which was designed to protect American citizens and to prevent further deaths. One piece of legislation, Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, more simplistically known as the Patriot Act, has been at the center of vehement debate on both sides, in support of and in opposition of the document. Among the many provisions of the act, some of the most contentious include: reduction of restrictions of law enforcement agencies, allows the Secretary of the Treasury to regulate financial transactions, and gave further powers to law enforcement and immigration officials in allowing them to detain, arrest, or deport immigrants who have been suspected of terrorist activities (Schulhofer 2005,-page vi). Following 9/11, there was a national grief over the tragic events and…… [Read More]
Guerrilla Government and the EPA
Guerrilla government within the EPA grew out of a response to various failed administrations, which were led by men who did not approach their leadership position with the type of virtue and character that those passionate about the environment and the organization would have preferred to see. Thus, under ussell, for example, the EPA had become a shell of what it was supposed to be, with ussell using EPA funds for self-pleasure and even blocking clean-ups and environmental action for occurring as in the case of the smelter complex in Idaho (O'Leary, 2014, p. 61). The ethics issue that ussell violated was his lack of transparency, which resulted in dishonesty among the administration and a failure to live up to the expectations of the mission of the EPA by getting in bed with big business instead of holding business's toes to the fire and demanding…… [Read More]
It is because policemen may succumb to corruption; especially when their salaries are minimal and the money earned by drug dealers are immense. The legalization of drugs will eliminate such acts of illegality.
The government and elected officials have a significant amount of say and rule as to what passes as a law and what does not. Such representatives are to symbolize and stand for what the people want. However, with so many voices and opinions of how certain issues should be and what should be ruled as legal, conflicts arise. Controversy is heavily shrouded in the dilemma around the legalization of drugs, and whether the government should permit the legal selling, purchase of narcotics like alcohol and tobacco. If such law is passed, the government and its citizens are affected economically, judicially, medically, and socially. Economically, the government is able to receive billions of dollars in revenue and reduce…… [Read More]
S. military to stabilize the violent uprising by the 'opposition' thugs, many of whom were former members of the Duvalier-era military or members of the death squad known as the Front for the Advancement and Progress of Haiti, who were responsible for a multitude of human rights violations during the three years following the coup d'etat in 1991 (ater pp). Moreover, aters and others want to know why the Bush Administration refused to negotiate a peaceful settlement to the crisis, and forced Aristide, "who had agreed to a peace plan worked out by the international community, to resign and leave his country" (aters pp). Prior to Aristide's departure, Bush's only concern was to make sure that all Haitian refugees were turned back at sea before they could reach the U.S. (aters pp).
Hallinan, Conn M. "Haiti: dangerous muddle." Foreign Policy in Focus. March 08
2004. Retrieved October 29,…… [Read More]
Clearly, he companies engaged in this practice were operating with direct intention, and a roper governance system would have made this obvious and prevented it.
In another telecommunications case, a company was found to have included spyware in a company-sponsored "software upgrade" to users' cell phones, that enabled the company to collect confidential information from users' phones without their consent (Khaleej Times, 2009). Not only is this practice clearly unethical, but it is also illegal despite a lack of stringency in the detection of such crimes and the prosecution of large-scale corporate offenders such as telecommunications companies. Again, greater transparency and internal control would have allowed this practice to be discovered much sooner, and the risk of discovery almost certainly would have prevented this action from ever occurring. Corporate governance works best when it is so strong it is only rarely and usually accidentally tested; when purposeful actions…… [Read More]
Busang iver of Gold
Bre-X is a notorious case of fraud in the mining industry, which makes this case all the more interesting. Set in the mid-90s, years before the fraud was uncovered, the case (also written before the fraud was uncovered) focuses on the strategic options that the CEO of Bre-X, David Walsh, has in dealing with a crisis at the company. Bre-X claimed that they had a property in Borneo that contained the world's largest gold deposit. In 1995, the reserves were believed to be around 10 million ounces, and the amount only increased from there. The ability of the company to exploit this claim was constrained by two key factors. The first is that the company lacked the capital to exploit a deposit this big. According to Walsh, the principals at Bre-X were convinced that they would be taken over by a major producer in order to…… [Read More]
Patronage jobs allowed local and regional businesses to flourish, offered political viability for minority groups, and ensured welfare services that state or federal funding would not have provided.
However, urban machines also colluded with organized crime, created impenetrable legacies of city boss cabals, and fomented corruption. Voters cast ballots based on the spoils system, diminishing the relevance of democratic freedoms. The patronage system also boosted special interests and prevented businesses from thriving independently of the machine. Around the 1920s, muckrakers began exposing the inner workings of the urban machine. Progressive politicians championed legitimate social welfare reform at the local level, speaking out against government corruption and collusion with big business (Caswell 2001).
The Progressive movement helped to eliminate or at least to diminish the scope of urban machine governments, even though Chicago's would persist well into the 1970s. In other cities like New York and Boston, the strong mayor system…… [Read More]
This, of course, would represent one aspect of the resentment served to Salinas. The other aspect would be the significant impact of the economic crisis and the continued devaluation of the Peso. These things reflected on the ineptitude of a party seldom challenged as it should have been.
To most, the failures effecting the whole of the nation had marked the need for a hastening of democratic reform, which would in turn reflect quite negatively on the candidacy of the PRI candidate. In an article dated to 1988, it was characterized thusly, with report stating that "the Institutional Revolutionary Party on Sunday designated Carlos Salinas de Gortari, the budget and planning secretary in the present government, to be its presidential nominee. Getting the nomination is tantamount to being named president. The PRI, as the party is universally called here after its Spanish initials, has ruled Mexico for six decades. As…… [Read More]
evolution, Education, And Modernization
evolution, Education and Modernization
Is revolution an acceptable way to change government? Why or why not?
In 1776 the founding fathers of the United States faced a situation where this question was paramount among the interests of their fellow countrymen:
"When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation" ("The Declaration of Independence," 1776).
History shows that when the needs of a society are not being met revolution is generated from outside the existing system since it is that system that is perceived as…… [Read More]
The government official has a legal as well as an ethical responsibility to put the interests of the public first, as a public servant. To fail to do so will result in greater cost to the taxpayer, and perhaps even an inferior product. This type of waste takes money away from other, more worthy public projects as well, including aid to the poor.
Government contracting officers have unique responsibilities and special, additional privileges as a result of their duties: "Of all government personnel, only a Contracting Officer has the authority to enter the government into a binding contract. He or she will be the one to sign the final contract agreement, and only a Contracting Officer has the power to change the terms of the contract" (Government contracting personnel: Understanding roles played, 2011, ONVIA). The contracting officer is thus acting on behalf of the entire government, and has unique powers…… [Read More]
" It is additionally stated that the results of corruption are that public resources are channeled to the rich while the poor suffer because "their access to public services, such as public health and education, is reduced while drugs and textbooks are stolen from public facilities and sold privately and while doctors and teachers have high rates of absenteeism from their public jobs and sell their services privately." (Bonn, 2005) Bonn reports that the faith of citizen's in the government is greatly lowered as the government corruption deters both foreign and domestic investments which are needed in Bangladesh and that the government further 'undermines the ability of Bangladesh's development partners to sustain their support for the country."
IV. EMPIRICAL STUDIES
Mauro (1995) made an examination of the results of corruption through use of the Business International (1984) index and growth rates of per capital GDP spanning the years from 1960…… [Read More]
International Criminal Organizations
Over time, Mexico has experienced significant growth in crime levels -- something that has led to an increase in criminal activity not only in Mexico but also across the entire region as well. In this text, I concern myself with the rise of international criminal organizations in Mexico. In so doing, I will amongst other things explain the role poverty and/or corruption has played in the creation of fertile ground for organized gangs and how the Mexican government has responded to the rise in criminal activity. Further, in addition to evaluating the effect of the said criminal organizations on the stability of the nation as a whole, I will also speculate over what the situation in Mexico means to the United States from a national security perspective. ecommendations with regard to how the government of Mexico should respond to the situation will be offered at the end…… [Read More]
Juan Peron's Presidency
Juan Peron is one of the Argentine Presidents who had made a mark in the history of Argentina. A military who had never been in politics, Peron run for president in Argentina's 1946 election. With ideal political schemes in improving the living standards of the Argentines, which was specifically focused in uplifting the poor and working class's living conditions, Juan Peron won the 1946 election with 56% votes (Your Encyclopedia).
Peron's victory brought forth a new type of government known as the Peronism. Peronism was seen by many as a humanitarian form of government that looked into the needs of the poor. It appealed to the lower classes because it expected and promised to achieve national economic changes that will transform the Argentines into living better lives. The Peronism government had planned to industrialize Argentina. A great number of labor unions were formed while hoping that there…… [Read More]
The extent of historical American involvement will also be considered.
In term of qualitative data, surveys will be conducted of demographic groups in the United States and Iraq. These groups will be approached by mail, email, or telephone. Survey questions will revolve around each person's understanding of democracy, the democratic process, and whether the respondents believe that the American government is currently promoting either or both. Finally, respondents will be asked for any suggestions to improve the democratization process in Iraq and countries similar to it.
Ethics and Limitations
To ensure the reliability of qualitative data, respondents will be allowed to remain anonymous when submitting their completed survey. They will also be assured that no data will be published individually, or without their prior consent. Consent forms to used their data will also be made available for respondents to sign.
Limitations could involve the unwillingness of citizens to respond honestly…… [Read More]
79), probably as succinct an explanation for the fear, loathing, and bloodletting as there is in his book. Civil conflict also grew out of "personal emotions," the author explains. Nearly everyone it seems got into the act, including those who "set out to avenge a militant blasted to bits by a grenade" -- and the casualties grew as various groups "ordered an increase in terror" as a strategy to maintain power over those "of the wayward in their faction" (p. 79).
Though he was a newspaper reporter, and very interested in the guerrilla movement and the government corruption as a political dynamic, Graham-Yooll (p. 43) -- and a witness to the release of a kidnapped high-visibility individual (Jorge Born) -- Graham-Yooll remarked, "The frustrating thing about journalism is that often you know less about a story for being at the center of it."
One story Graham-Yooll did know about was…… [Read More]
As disagreements in the party grew, the right-leaning members of the party split off to form the TOP '09 party, with a platform promoting fiscal restraint and regulatory loosening that would encourage free market growth and the prosperity of industry and private citizens (Gardner 2010). Next, the party had to make itself known to the public.
Marketing by the TOP '09 party has shown some significant differences from the strategies employed by other parties in the 2009 election and in previous elections in the Czech epublic. This has been a necessity for the party given its platform of change and difference from the other "standard" and larger traditional political parties in the country; especially given modern social and technological trends, a change in the methods of message delivery is at least as important as changes to the messages themselves (Gardner 2010; II 2010). It is for this reason that this…… [Read More]
The world's largest economy has seen much since the financial crisis of 2008 began the role toward the precipice in terms of the all Street corruption. Transparency president Nancy Boswell maintains that it is an "integrity gap "(Graham, 2010).
However, this author will identify a different issue. Indeed, this author's view is very long and will take a historical approach in order to prevent another Great Depression, the Congress under President Franklin Delano Roosevelt separated all Street investment banks and regular depository banks. This took away the potential to make incredible profits from trading mortgage-backed securities whose ratings were artificially high. These encouraged banks to take what otherwise would have been intolerable risks in the form of bad loans that were later termed "toxic debt." Under this regime, people were obtaining home loans too easily (known derisively as "liars loans") and that exacerbated the decline once it started (Krugman).
In…… [Read More]
There is significant concern that the Kavan people will willingly sacrifice their environment for our money, but the impacts of such would be devastating. We must incorporate environmental training into all training and also into our relations with government. We will also need to listen to the concerns and expertise of the Kavan people with regards to their views on environmental stewardship.
A final recommendation is that we work with the Kavan government to institute best practices. We want the Kavan government to take advantage of the opportunity our presence affords them to learn and to help develop the rest of their economy. We do not, however, wish to be seen as a source of handouts. We need to work closely with the Kavan government to ensure that our development strategies are not undermined by corruption or by adoption of the worst of American business practices.
To implement these strategies,…… [Read More]
Wasta has a long history as a way to manage relations through mediation and interception, but has implications as being a measure of corruption for both citizens and government officials. Citizens use wasta to get what they want from politicians and to make their decisions for them instead of taking responsibility for making their own decisions. Government officials use wasta to gainfully employ family and tribal members as well as to gain Parliament votes from citizens.
An Arabian blog viewed wasta as, "Friend of the bright lawyers and enemy of the ordinary, and virus plagued the community (Ocha). Instead of wasta working to promote people to independence, it is promoting people to be lazy and dependent by solving their problems and meeting all their needs for them. Wasta takes responsibility and the right to live independently away from citizens by doing everything for them. If wasta would teach them how…… [Read More]
Assessing Economic Performance
The United States vs. China: An economic comparison
Increasingly, the threat of world dominance by China is used as a 'scare tactic' to raise alarm about the faltering place of the U.S. In the world economy. However, while the U.S. faces major challenges, China also faces considerable obstacles in its upward economic trajectory, particularly given its low levels of personal spending, dependence upon exports and with political concerns about its human rights record and government corruption.
The United States remains one of the most powerful nations in the developed world. Its per capita GDP is $49,800. However, this figure alone does not explain the entire 'picture' of the U.S. economy (USA, 2013, CIA Fact Book). There is a growing divide between the very poor and the very rich which could lead to problems such as political unrest, resentment, and insufficient demand for goods and services.…… [Read More]
Kenya: A Case Study in Reform
From its rough beginnings, Kenya has instituted a series of economic reforms in an attempt to raise the condition of the Kenyan people. They are an attempt to bring the Kenyan people out of a state of poverty and repression to one of stability and security about their ability to sustain themselves. Each reform has been better than the last, but they are still far from solving these issues in their country. This paper will cite the reasons for this as being a need for the people to regain the feeling of nationalism echoed in the early years of independence.
Prior to1800 Kenya consisted of groups of small tribal governments. Kenya is grouped into more than 70 ethnic groups, Some of the ethnic tribes are large e.g. The Agikuyu who form a majority of the population within their homeland in the central…… [Read More]
There are also some words that are used, which do not translate into English such as privacy. This is because the cultural traditions of Russia do not understand such concepts, which makes translating certain ideas more challenging. (Richmond, 2009, pp. 109 -- 117)
Russian is a Slavic language that has close ties to all of the different European languages including: English and German. This means that many of the root words are similar to what is used in the common languages spoken throughout the West. However, as far as the alphabet is concerned, the language will utilize what is known as the Cyrillic alphabet. This is different from Western languages, as each of 32 different symbols will represent particular roots of certain words. When reading the language and learning Russian, the basic alphabet will help foreign business executives to navigate their way around. With the alphabet is pronounced…… [Read More]
Crime and Violence in Mexico
Introduction recent study by the orld Bank reveals that Mexico has become one of the most violent and crime-ridden regions in the world (Hart). After a slight decrease in the 1960's, the report shows that the murder rate has increased again in the 1990's to more than 16,000 murders per year (p. 111-113). The country's homicide rate was double that of the United States, with 18 killings for every 100,000 people.
Over the past few decades, Mexico's population has increased and urban poverty levels have risen. As a result of these two factors, Mexico has seen a significant increase in crime and violence. Residents have resorted to illegal means of making money, including drug rings and street crime, as the country struggled to incorporate a capitalist system.
A recent study from the Citizen's Institute for the Study of Insecurity reveals that 4.2 million Mexicans were…… [Read More]
Political Leaders In Latin America: Hugo Chavez And Lula
Who is Hugo Chavez and Lula
Hugo Chavez was born on 28 July 1954 in Sabaneta, Venezuela. Chavez attended Venezuelan military academy and took up service as an army officer prior active participation in efforts of the overthrowing government in 1992. His actions led to a two-year sentence in prison after arrest. In 1999, Chavez was named president of Venezuela. Within the early days of his presidency, he developed new constitution in the nation that was inclusive of changes of the capital name to the Bolivarian epublic of Venezuela. Chavez engaged in a critical focus of efforts towards gaining ultimate control of state-run oil companies. However, this was stirred with controversy and translated into protests and strained relations between Venezuela and the U.S. As well as subsequent nations. Chavez has a brief comment on the removal from power (Clairmont,…… [Read More]
No efforts have been made to create a strong consumer base in the Philippines itself by improving the lot of the Filipino workers (Bello 3). Had a local market been created and some protections afforded to Filipino workers, development may well have proceeded in a more positive direction as the nation would have been better able to take advantage of those aspects of globalization that offered true benefits, rather than sinking all economic hopes into the long shot that the small nation could compete with nations like India and China as a source of cheap labor. Despite this reality, economic reform in the Philippines has consistently focused on re-creating the nation as an export economy, specifically in the it industry. It probably seemed like a natural extension of economic development in the 1980s and 1990s when the Philippines was attempting to embrace globalization. Globalization offered a way to integrate with…… [Read More]