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Ways to Improve Language

Words: 3384 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18828215

Grammar Error Correction

Grammar Correction Best Practices

The art and science of grammar correction has seismic implications on native and new speakers to English alike. The ability to communicate in a clear and cohesive fashion, both verbally and in writing, whilst using the proper syntax, punctuation, sentence structure and spelling is vital for the message to be clear. Further, it is seen as a sign of intelligence or lack thereof for someone to use the obviously wrong words and sentence structure while communicating in writing or via speech. hile grammar and languages teachers are perhaps fighting a losing battle right now given the fairly sloppy nature of many people including supposed language professionals like writers and journalists, there are indeed some verifiable and known best practices that can and should be used to help combat the grammar failures that pervade the sphere of communication in the United States as well…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chan, Alice Y.W. "An Algorithmic Approach To Error Correction: An Empirical

Study." Foreign Language Annals 39.1 (2006): 131-147. Education Research

Complete. Web. 31 July 2014.

Chodorow, Martin, Michael Gamon, and Joel Tetreault. "The Utility of Article And
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Standardization Expectation and Judgment in Response to Language Use

Words: 1606 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8267543

Language

American English is incredible malleable and diverse, and it would be a mistake to impose artificial rules. Not only would it be a mistake, it could even be construed as racist. The imaginary Correct English (whether Oxford or Webster-based prescriptive grammatical rules) is one that is clearly defined by the white upper-class hegemony in higher education. As Deresiewicz (2005) states, "there is no such thing as Correct English, and there never has been." Dialects and accents are a sign that the language is alive. Language reflects subculture and social identity, and can allow for the vivid expression of ideas that would be severely restricted if there were only one Correct English.

Language is a form of cultural capital. Therefore, "stigmatized forms" of language such as edneck or African-American speech, are "typically those used by social groups other than the educated middle classes -- professional people, including those in law,…… [Read More]

References

Baron, D. (n.d.). Language and society. PBS. Retrieved online:  http://www.pbs.org/speak/words/sezwho/socialsetting/ 

Cutler, C. (n.d.). Crossing over. PBS. Retrieved online:  http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/prestige/crossing/ 

Deresiewicz, W. (2005). You talkin' to me? The New York Times. Jan 9, 2005. Retrieved online:  http://www.nytimes.com/2005/01/09/books/review/09DERESIE.html?_r=2&pagewanted=print&position= 

Finegan, E. (n.d.). State of American. PBS. Retrieved online:  http://www.pbs.org/speak/speech/correct/prescriptivism/
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Perceptions of Interlink Language Center

Words: 1381 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 69964423

These different perspectives were based upon their language learning experiences from the past, their language proficiency, their current academic needs, and also their future career choices. To bridge the gap, the teachers engaged in dialogue with the students to determine the best ways to engage the students individually (Pazaver, and Wang 35).

In a study in the International Journal of English Studies, the authors used ELT materials in order build of a reliable instrument to help in the potential for the promotion of implicit and explicit components in ESL learning by students. The found that implicitness and explicitness were promoted equally by the ESL teaching units in three different textbooks (Criado Sanchez, Sanchez Perez, and Cantos Gomez 129). In an article in the journal of Applied Linguistics, .W. Schmidt analyzes issues that impact upon explicit learning modalities. He concludes that subliminal language learning is impossible. Also, he notes that it…… [Read More]

References

Akakura, Motoko. "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Explicit Instruction on Implicit and Explicit L2

knowledge." Language Teaching Research. 16.1 (2012): 9 -- 37.

Criado Sanchez, Raquel, Aquilano Sanchez Perez, and Pascual Cantos Gomez. "An Attempt to Elaborate a Construct to Measure the Degree of Explicitness and Implicitness in ELT

Materials." International Journal of English Studies. 10.1 (2010): 103-129.
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Codeswitching Code Switching -- How

Words: 3716 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45990159

The most proficient language users, namely bilinguals, favor inter- and intrasentential CS which "require most knowledge of both languages" (Poplack 1980:606) whereas tag-switched sentences are preferred by less proficient and non-bilingual speakers who, in comparison to their first language, are less competent in their second language.

3. Grammar of Intrasentential Code Switching

As already mentioned in chapter 2.2.1 the switching of languages within a single sentence is no random occurrence. As many researchers observed that "bilinguals tend to switch intra-sententially at certain (morpho) syntactic boundaries and not at others" (Poplack 2004:1). According to Poplack (2004:1) the government of grammatical constraints on CS has become a largely accepted fact. "Though, there is little consensus on what they are or how they should be represented" (Poplack 2004:1). The question arises in which way two separate grammars merge to one grammatically correct sentence and which grammar governs the switching. The following chapter gives…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cantone, Katja Francesca (2005). Evidence against a Third Grammar: Code-switching in Italian-German Bilingual Children. ISB4: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Bilingualism edited by James Cohen, Kara T. McAlister, Kellie Rolstad, and Jeff MacSwan. Cascadilla Press, Somerville, MA.

MacSwan, Jeff (2000). The Architecture of the Bilingual Language Faculty: Evidence from Intrasentential Code Switching. Bilingualism Language and Cognition 3(1), 37-54.

Myers-Scotton, Carol (2006). Codeswitching as a Social and Grammatical Phenomenon. An Encyclopedia of the Arts. 4:8 (800-805). Web 16 May 2011.
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Goal of Indiana Students Reading

Words: 3549 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44891359



Clickers/esponses Phonics Lesson

Phonics Long Vowel - Silent e Lesson Plan for Special Education

Objectives:

Students will recognize and say words that follow the c-v-c-e and v-c-e rule where the first vowel is a long vowel and the final e is silent. By using the Clickers/esponses as a classroom game they will utilize them after hearing the correct sounds.

Students with the will be able to spell and write out some basic long vowel words that have c-v-c-e and v-c-e spelling patterns and will use the Clickers/esponses when they hear the right sound.

About the Concept:

There are several regular long vowel spelling patterns in the English language. The c-v-c-e pattern (consonant-vowel-consonant-final e) is a long vowel spelling pattern which occurs quite frequently in early reading and spelling. Essentially, the phonics rule for this design mentions that when a vowel and final e are separated by a single consonant, the…… [Read More]

References:

Indiana Standards. (2010, March 3). Retrieved from Learniing Connection:  https://learningconnection.doe.in.gov/Standards/About.aspx?art=11 

Classroom Resources. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from ReadWritethink:  http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/ 

Elementary K-5 Writing Curriculum. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Melrose Public Schools: https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:aLFi5i1eLl4J:www.melroseschools.com/lincoln/MPS_Writing_Curriculum_K_5.pdf+writing+curriculum+for+elementary&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShGXpwCDU3mdB2rQVO2e3Dav6AgQn-3Ng2vDjsDa_f50Pd5k8wDn4zmQH2cTwV3P7kAA2v9zu

Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests® Online. (2012, September 5). Retrieved from Online reading test:  http://www.riversidepublishing.com/products/gmrtOnline/index.html
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Concept Learner Centered Curriculum in TESOL

Words: 4782 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63782176

Learner-centered curriculum' in TESOL

The most important learning processes in any school anywhere in the world involve the use of several different means of communication. The communication methods may be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal communication involves the use of oral and written symbols that can communicate a message to the student, and non-verbal involves the use of, primarily, among other means, body language. Without communication there can be no means of telling the other person what one person wants or needs, and communication is used between teachers and parents, between groups, between the parents and the community, and also for the formation of interpersonal relationships and as the medium of instruction in a school. Any sort of behavioral problems in school would be dealt with by effective means of communication, and it can be stated that without communication there would be no education.

However, the culture or the background of…… [Read More]

References

Bacon, Suzanne. "Communicative Language Teaching" Retrieved From

http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/comlangteach/index.htm Accessed on 15 November, 2004

Counihan, Gerard. (July 1998) "Teach students to interact, not just talk" The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IV, No. 7. Retrieved From

 http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Counihan-Interaction.html  Accessed on 15 November, 2004
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Traditional Methods of Language Teaching

Words: 1884 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86392313

Traditional Methods of Language Teaching

The paper discuses the various traditional methods of language teaching, namely:

Grammar Translation Method

The Audio-lingual Method

The Direct Method

The Silent Way

The Communicative Approach

Cognitive code learning

The Natural Approach

Behaviorist approach

Functional-Notional Approach and The task-based approach

The paper discusses each approach in details and describes its various chief principles and how it helps both teachers and students to teach, understand, learn, and practice all the skills they learn through these approaches.

Grammar Translation Method

This method involves the learner to spend a lot of time in understanding the language structure. Though both listening as well as speaking suffer because of it. However, grammar and vocabulary are being stressed throughout the teaching method.

The grammar translation method has been derived from traditional approaches to the teaching of Latin and Greek in the nineteenth century (Selected Lesson Plans). It was originally used to…… [Read More]

References

Benstein, Patricia. Explaining concepts behind the Silent Way. Wanadoo Communiquer. www.wanadoo.fr

Communicative language teaching. Sil International.

A www.sil.org

Capes - History of Language Teaching 2. Club Internet.
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Do You Think Animals Meet the Definition of Using Language

Words: 841 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60654014

feature of language and why?

The most important key feature of any language is grammar. Grammar provides structure and meaning to sounds. Without a grammatical framework, it is unclear if a word is referring to a noun or an adjective; an adverb or a verb. Even a computer language must have a grammatical construction to be read and to be comprehensible. Many words between different languages sound very similar (such as Latin and Portuguese, for example) but without grammatical rules the distinctions in use between those sounds is unclear. Grammar also is part of the social 'situation' of a language. For a language to be effective, it cannot exist in a vacuum. "No commonly-spoken language is fixed. All languages change over time. What we call 'grammar' is simply a reflection of a language at a particular time" (What is grammar, 2014, English Club). Over time certain grammatical rules may become…… [Read More]

References

Factors that influence the acquisition of a second language. (2014). ESL. Retrieved from:

 http://esl.fis.edu/teachers/support/factors.htm 

Language learning by adults. (2013). Linguistics 201. Retrieved from:  http://pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ling201/test4materials/secondlangacquisition.htm 

What is grammar? (2014). English Club. Retrieved from:  http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/grammar-what.htm
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Language Is Fundamentally a Verbal

Words: 1224 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63717607

If language is like food, then the ingredients are its words; the cooking process is its grammar; the nutritional value is its semantics. Some sentences are simple staples like rice and beans. Others are primarily aesthetic, finely crafted, and honed over time like a French sauce. Like the ingredients in any dish, the words of a language depend largely on geography. At the same time, we borrow words from other cultures just as we may borrow ingredients from other cuisines. Spanglish is like fusion food. Some cooking processes are rigid, time-consuming, and complex like proper grammar; others are looser and more flexible like everyday speech. There are some dishes you would serve your mother and others that are too spicy for her. Some language is long-winded and without substance; some is meaty; some is so packed with goodness that you return it again and again.

Ascription to the rules of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kemerling, Garth. "Language and Logic." 27 Oct 2001. Retrieved June 6, 2007 from  http://www.philosophypages.com/lg/e04.htm 

Schutz, Ricardo. "Stephen Krashen's Theory of Second Language Acquisition." 20 Aug. 2005. Retrieved June 6, 2007 from
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Successful Writing How Can You Improve Your

Words: 348 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 2888085

Successful Writing

How can you improve your understanding of and proper use of grammar and punctuation?

Read, read, and read! Perhaps the best way to improve my understanding of and proper use of grammar and punctuation is to read more books and newspapers that utilize correct grammar and punctuation. This kind of exposure to the language will give me a better intuitive feel for English. Although it is true that not most books are not carefully labeled with nouns, verbs, and semicolons, and that not all great works of literature are written with perfect grammar and punctuation for artistic purposes, still, the best way to understand proper usage is to be exposed on a consistent basis to proper usage. One must know how published authors use the language when they write quality works of literature. So much of modern communication takes the form of email that it is easy to…… [Read More]

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Pitman Bullokar Two Champions and

Words: 1226 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54901669

Because of the existence of so many common homophones in the English language, Bullokar wanted to retain some way of distinguishing between these words in print, and if two different symbols signified the production of the same sound, this could be accomplished (olfe 41). His reform efforts were essentially centered around the visual word, no doubt due to the novelty of the printing press, and he attempted to develop a simple visual system for pronouncing the English language.

Pitman's shorthand accomplishes the same thing, to some degree, but that was not at all its purpose nor is his system limited in such a fashion. Pitman wanted to develop a true science behind the development and codification of linguistic elements, and his phonetic shorthand system -- one of the first serious and comprehensive efforts at the development of a phonetic alphabet for English -- does largely this, having one symbol for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Baker, Alfred. The Life of Sir Isaac Pitman. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 1919.

Bullokar, William. Three Pamphlets on Grammar. Accessed 26 March 2010. http://ota.oucs.ox.ac.uk/headers/0025.xml

Dons, Ute. Descriptive Adequacy of Early Modern English Grammars. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2004.

Pitman, Sir Isaac. A History of Shorthand. London: Ben Pitman, 1890.
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Individuals Professional or Lay Have

Words: 1891 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48240669

05 level as measured by ____(insert the name of your measurement instrument here) on a post-test basis.

There exists no statistically significant difference between multiple intelligence teaching and traditional teaching for reading language acquisition of first graders at the ?… [Read More]

References

Eysenck, H.J. And Eysenck, M.W. (1985). Personality and individual differences: A natural science approach. New York: Plenum.

Ferguson, George a. (1964). Statistical Analysis in Psychology and Education.

New York: McGraw-Hill.

Kerlinger, Fred (1964. Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart,
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ELL Writing Sample Analysis Instruction

Words: 2999 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 2564198

The student jumps from one tense to another in the space of two sentences, revealing a discussion which is largely uncertain of its own chronology. Naturally, this makes the work a very unclear experience for the reader such as in the pair of sentences in the second paragraph, which declare that "A few days later 'This alarms the Crows.' Father Crows discussed the matter with the other animals that live in the banyan tree." Again, only with respect to tense changes, the pattern of error in this sentence jumps from present tense (alarms), to past tense (discussed) and then back to present (live). These examples all come from the first few sentences of the essay, and are consistently observable throughout, indicating that verb conjugation is an area of particular need for this student where written expression in concerned.

Other issues that are often encountered by ELL students will concern the…… [Read More]

References:

Christensen, L. (2003). The Politics of Correction: How We Can Nurture Students In Their Writing. The Quarterly, 25(4).

Manley, J. (1988). Telling lies efficiently: terminology and the microstructure in the bilingual dictionary. in: Jensen Hyldgaard (ed.), 281-302.
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Code Switching Although it Sounds

Words: 3873 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 348387

344).

In his seminal work, Second-Language Acquisition in Childhood, McLaughlin (1985) reports that early research into language acquisition by preschool children suggested that interference between languages is not as inevitable or universal as was once believed. "Contrastive analysis, in its traditional form, was not able to account for the vast majority of errors that second-language learners made; in fact, learners from quite different language backgrounds appeared to make the same types of mistakes in the target language," he adds (McLaughlin, 1985, p. 14).

Since these early studies into language acquisition, other studies have shown that transfer from the first language does take place in the speech of children from certain first-language backgrounds and at certain times during the learning process. Therefore, McLaughlin cautions that, "It is an exaggeration to say that transfer from the first language is minimal and unimportant. The acquisition of phonological, syntactic, and morphological structures in a…… [Read More]

References

Bakker, P. (1997). A language of our own: The genesis of Michif, the mixed Cree-French

language of the Canadian Maetis. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bialystok, E., & Hakuta, E. (1994). In other words: The science and psychology of second-

language acquisition. New York: Basic Books.
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Generals Grant and Lee Was Particularly Instructive

Words: 398 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55804012

Generals Grant and Lee was particularly instructive to me as a writer because it made use of the two generals to stand for, not simply themselves, but two different regional differences present in America of the day and two different philosophies that were being merged into one at Appomattox. The personages, political views, and upbringings of Grant and Lee encompass and emphasize the whole of the American Civil War as "they were two strong men, these oddly different generals, and they represented the strengths of two conflicting currents that through them, had come into final collision.

Grammar Summary

Identifying and rewriting compound-complex sentences has been tricky. Often, I am uncertain if my revisions are correct. However, the revision of such sentences forces me to be assured that I am quite clear about my line of thought. Sloppy thinking leads to sloppy sentence structure and grammar.

Overall Week had wonderful responses…… [Read More]

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Teaching Choices Approaches

Words: 3051 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44846510

English for Academic purposes (EAP) teaching and research have come up. These are the systematic functional linguistics (SFL) approaches in Australia and other parts of the world (for example Lee, 2010; Hood, 2006; Woodward-Kron, 2009) and Academic Literacy approaches in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world (for example Lillis & Scott, 2008; Turner, 2004; Thesen & Pletzen, 2006). Despite the two approaches drawing from sociocultural and ethnographic traditions, they tend to have a focus on various facets of EAP. As a language theory, SFL has used linguistic analysis for the establishment of nature of discourses and avenues of getting students participate in the discourses. The pedagogy and research have focused on language systems, language being used and texts. Most academic research literatures have focused on investigating ethnographic leanings and critiquing the predominant institutional and academic practices. The methods in use have focused on finding practices, identities of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Achugar, M. & Colombi, C., n.d.. Systemic Functional Linguistic explorations into the longitudinal study of the advanced capacities, s.l.: s.n.

Coffin, C. & Donohue, J., 2012. Academic Literacy and systemic functional linguistics: How do they relate?. Journal of English for Academic Purposes, pp. 64-75.

Chen, Y., & Foley, J. (2004).Problems with the metaphorical reconstrual of meaning in Chinese EFL learners' expositions. In L. Ravelli, & R. Ellis (Eds.). Analyzing academic writing: Contextualized frameworks (pp. 190-209). London: Continuum

Christie, F., & Maton, K. (Eds.). (2011). Disciplinarity: Functional linguistic and sociological perspectives. London: Continuum
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Students Were Graduating High School

Words: 1401 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38913075

Audience views can also be discussed at this time.

The students have written their first draft. The teacher tells them that after the peer review, they will take the suggested comments and rewrite the paper. This step is another step in the writing process. As the students are learning the process, it is natural with less stress. At the same time, the instructor can continue exposing the students to the masters but in another way. As mentioned above, the teacher is there to answer questions from the students about possible errors in the writing. During the time, the students can spend a portion of their time in examining sentence build from different styles of writing. From this writing, they can have assignments where they clarify their knowledge of the rudiments of grammar, such as subject, predicate, noun, and verb, etc. This can be done using the writings to which they…… [Read More]

References

1. Beulah, J. "Contemporary Composition: The Major Pedagogical Theories." Cross Talk in Composition Theory: A Reader (1st ed). Ed. Victor Villanueva. Urbana, IL. 1997. 265-280.

2. Hiemstra, R. Uses and Benefits of Journal Writing. New Directions for Adults and Continuing Education. 2001. n. 90. p. 19-26.

3. Murray, M. "Teaching Writing as a Process, Not Product." Cross Talk in Composition Theory: A Reader (1st ed). Ed. Victor Villanueva. Urbana, IL. 1997. 21-24.
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Teaching ESL the Cultural Shortcomings

Words: 3406 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 45842389

ardhaugh indicates that there is a problematic need in the field to reverse expectations about the capacity of this approach to instruct in practicable and usable linguistic ability. The author takes exception with traditionalist ideas the argue "the single paramount fact about language learning is that it concerns, not problem solving, but the formation and performance of habits." (ardhaugh, p. 21) The linguistic theorist rejects this principle as failing to acknowledge many of the more abstract contextual factors relating to the applicable usage of language. Particularly, the impact levied by culture, by regional dialect, by accent, by generational difference, by distinctions between formal, informal or slang usage and by a host of other even less tangible effectors cannot be introduced simply through the use of habit-forming drills or other techniques which rely singularly on rote practice.

Kanno & Varghese (2010) contribute research that does endorse this more integrative approach, which…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Booth, N.B. (2009). English as a Second Language (ESL) learning communities: An approach to retaining ESL students in a community college. Rutgers the State University of New Jersey.

Burdett, B.E., & National Association of Independent Schools, B.A. (1967). Foreign language teaching- A Review of current problems. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Celce-Murcia, M. (2001). Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.

Flood, J. (2003). Handbook of Research on Teaching the English Language Arts. Psychology Press.
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Effective Communicator Through My Writing In the

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 76171198

Effective Communicator Through My riting?

In the information age, technology has opened up numerous channels of communication. hile this provides us with an unlimited opportunity to get our message across, it also underlines the vital importance of effective communication skills without which we would be unable to benefit fully from the information revolution. riting skill, although just one of the aspects of communication, is arguably the most important to get our message across. In this paper I shall look at some of the key aspects of communicating effectively through writing.

Brainstorming

Before starting to write anything, whether it is a business letter, a written report, or an essay, it is always useful to "brainstorm" in order to generate some creative ideas. This would help in overcoming the number one nemesis of all writers -- "the writer's block." Brainstorming is most useful when a group of people indulge in a freewheeling…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Brainstorming." The Writing Center: University of North Carolina at Chapel. September 5, 2001.  http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/brainstorm.html 

Dulek, Ronald E. & John S. Fielden. "Principles of Business Communication." New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1990

Leach, John. "Seven Steps to Better Writing: Advice from a Journalist-Turned-Planner." Planning. 59: 6. June 1993. Page Number: 26+.

Non-sensitive messages are those types of messages that evoke little or no emotional reaction in the reader. Sensitive messages evoke emotions (both negative and positive) in the sender and the receiver.
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Declaration of Independence Because it

Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86926831

Still the voice is based out of a solid religious belief of a Creator.

Assessment, Culture and Institutions general assessment of American Declaration regarding this selection is simple. It outlines clearly the intentions and plans for a free governing state created by its people for its people. The Declaration shouts, "e are here to stay!" It implores people if these intentions are fulfilled, happiness will result. This is a bold statement for its time. The culture of this document is very much engrained in the concept of a Creator or God. This is inherent of the time. America's creation is based out of religious freedom because of persecution elsewhere. This makes this document not only social but also deeply personal. A person's view of God or the Creator is an emotional connection and personal decision. By putting this in the foundation of government, the Founding Fathers were hoping to gain…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Congress. (1776). United States Declaration of Independence. Washington, DC:

U.S. Government Printing Office.

Analysis
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Language Impairment Phonological Memory Deficits

Words: 1733 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6488698

The focus of academics continues to focus on finding a cause and on developing reliable interventions for children suffering from this condition. It is important to begin intervention as early as possible so that incorrect speech patterns do not become ingrained. In addition, it is important to make certain that other learning complications do not develop as a result of SLI.

The research conducted by ice, Wexler, & Cleave (1995) helped to draw attention to SLI as being different from other language deficiencies. Their work helped to identify and define SLI as its own subset of language delay symptoms. This important step led the way for research that explored causality and intervention. SLI is typically associated with deficiencies in verbal skills. However, research into non-verbal skills was also suggested by these and other study results. This avenue will help to further define and distinguish SLI from other language delays.

eferences…… [Read More]

References

Bishop, D., Bright, P. & James, C. et al. (2000). Grammatical SLI: a distinct subtype of developmental language impairment? Applied Psycholinguistics. 21-92): 159-181.

O'Brien, E., Zhang, X., & Nishimura, C. et al. (2003). Association of specific language impairment (SLI) to the region of 7q31. American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (6): 1536-1543.

Rice, M., Wexler, K., & Cleave, P. (1995). Specific Language Impairment as a Period of Extended Optional Infinitive. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 38: 850-863.

Sajanrimi, N., Suhonen, E., & Kontu, E. (2008). Verbal and non-verbal development in SLI children after early intervention. Early Child Development and Care. 02 May 2008. Abstract.
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Burkian Analysis Brief Analysis of

Words: 2998 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55667727



Stephen Colbert's Speech at the White House Correspondents Dinner, 2006

In this speech comedian Stephen Colbert gives a hysterically funny account of the Bush administration and the White House Press Corps. President Bush and the member of the press are co-agents. Often he takes an idea of Bush's and carries it to its ridiculous conclusion and "gives people the truth, unfiltered by rational argument." The message seems to be that together Bush and the press have cuckolded the American public with a myriad of speech acts and policies that are illogical as well as destructive.

With Bush and the press as co-agents, the scene that contains them is Washington, D.C., the United States of America, and the whole world. The scene is in a state of economic chaos due to the actions of the co-agents. For example, Colbert states that democracy is our "greatest export. At least until China figures…… [Read More]

References

Burke, K. (1945). A grammar of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press.
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Foundational Skills Graduate Program If Trouble Translating

Words: 955 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34476984

foundational skills graduate program. If trouble translating ideas paper, evaluate analysis ideas. Clear, structured, concise writing free grammar spelling errors essential. For discussion, read writing sample provided propose improve writing.

Critiquing a piece of writing: Death penalty response

Perhaps the first, most obvious critique of this piece of writing is that the author's position on the issue of capital punishment is extremely unclear. The author begins by stating that America is one of the only nations in the world that still executes its citizens, suggesting he or she is opposed to the death penalty. The author compares the U.S. To ussia and China, two nations with terrible human rights records. True, if ussia and China continue to execute criminals, this hardly speaks well of the practice -- but the author at first seems to imply that the U.S. is worse than these two nations, stating that the U.S. executes more…… [Read More]

References

Dieter, Richard. (2009). Smart on Crime. Death penalty information center.

Retrieved November 13, 2010

 http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/documents/CostsRptFinal.pdf 

History of the death penalty. (2010). Death penalty information center.
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Child Case Study The Story

Words: 1816 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 44209188

In relationship of his reading comprehension -- Manuel knows how to read at grade level. He really does get the plain indication and can figure out the connotation of a lot of words in the course of context clues. He can effortlessly recapitulate what he has just read and grabbed some of the main ideas as well as extrapolations. His writing needs a lot of work. A lot of the time he leaves out things like prepositions and over uses the imperative regarding creating the words so that they could be plural. For instance -- take the word "children." Manuel will normally just adds an "s" on it so that it can be plural. During other times he does not make certain terms plural. Homonyms are a big issue for Manuel. His language appears to emphasis needs to be on structuring a basis of appropriate sentence structure and sentence syntax.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Belland, B.G. (2008). A scaffolding framework to support the construction of evidence-based arguments among middle school students. Education Tech Research Dev., 21(9), 79-89.

Bodrova, E. & . (1998). Scaffolding emergent writing in the zone of proximal development. Literacy Teaching and Learning, 21(8), 1-18.

Clay, M.M. (2005, June 6). Literacy lessons designed for individuals: Teaching procedures. NH: Heinemann. Atlanta, Georgia.

Rodgers, E.M. (2004). Interactions that scaffold reading performance. Journal of Literacy Research, 12(7), 23-67.
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Museums Bid for Bodies

Words: 1758 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 49642417

Speech: Museum's Bid For Bodies

Good evening ladies -- and yes, good evening gentleman as well.

Well, where should we begin? Ahhhh yes -- Are any of you aware of what a cadaver parade is? Have any of you ever actually heard of a cadaver parade?

Let me read to you a recent headline that I discovered: "Anatomy of competition: 2 museums bid for bodies -- what is a bid -- it is an offer or a proposal of a price."

What do you think about that? (Pause) My initial thoughts after reading those words were: "This is unbelievable, no, it is downright shocking, shameful, and certainly very offensive.

When was the last time a price was hung on us human beings? You probably already know, that's right -- During the days of Slavery. (Pause) Am I right?

I believe that the practice attaching a price to the human body…… [Read More]

References

I need you to organize this speech - grammar and sentence structure my speech is about provocative questions - please correct the question (grammar)but don't omit them and make some order, that it flows the topic is about body world (and exhibition of cadavers in California-- the web site is www.bodyworlds.com) it's gruesome -- the article is from plain dealer-- the headline is anatomy of competition 2 museums bid for bodies and if you can elaborate little be more by asking questions about the morals of the people who are behind this morbid business, you don't have to add a lot just elaborate on what I have written and organize it more -- note: I need this essay by 3pm today 12/14/04 I want you to use words like
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10-Year-Old Boy Alec The Child Has Had

Words: 2646 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 86185381

10-year-old boy, Alec. The child has had pervasive relocations in his life, beginning at age 2 and endured a challenging separation between his parents. Since the separation he first experienced 50% split parenting, living with his mother one week then his father and stepmother the next, until such time as he was school age. He then began to live full time with his mother during the school week and visit his father and stepmother every other weekend, until age 7 when his mother relocated to an area which is a seven hour drive from his father at this point the mother also remarried. From that point to the present he has stayed with his mother and stepfather the majority of the time and traveled to visit his father and stepmother on the Christmas holiday, spring break and through the summer, which usually works out to be about 2 months. Prior…… [Read More]

References

Gardner, H. (2000) Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York, NY, USA: Basic Books.

Janssen, A., Diekema, E., van Dolder, R., Kollee, L., Oostendorp, R., & Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M. (2012). Development of a movement quality measurement tool for children. Physical Therapy, 92(4), 574-594.

Light, P. & Littleton, K. (2000) Social processes in children's learning. Port Chester, NY, USA: Cambridge University.

Meadows, S. (1986) Understanding child development. Florence, KY, USA: Routledge.
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Bottlenecks the Main Bottleneck Is the Creative

Words: 390 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6370717

ottlenecks

The main bottleneck is the creative thought processes that cause the essay to be too wordy, which is a mindset constraint (Gundlach, 2009). Creative thought processes can take over, leaving thoughts that require every detail being explained or imagination included. This thought process goes overboard and causes the final paper to be long, wordy, and not to the point. The grammar and use of action verbs also become inappropriate in the process to the point the essay does not flow.

A direction for solving the problem would be self-discipline in planning. For example, is the essay supposed to answer specific questions? If so, what are they? Once the questions have been identified, research for specifics can be done (And still, how to write an essay). Self-discipline in sticking with the questions of the essay requirements will also help to stay focused on the information that is needed to answer…… [Read More]

Bibliography

And still, how to write an essay. (n.d.). Retrieved from Essay 911: http://*****/basic-essay/13300-and-still-how-to-write-a-essay.html

Gundlach, M. (2009, May 13). Goldratt's Theory of Constraints (Part 1 of 3). Retrieved from Bright Hub PM:  http://www.brighthubpm.com/project-planning/4088-goldratts-theory-of-contraints-part-one/
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Rhetorical Outline Proposition Norman Bates

Words: 683 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71099509



Grammar

P1S1: Clumsy; the word "alike" can easily be removed.

P1S3: Clumsy sentence again.

P2S1: the term "self-relationship" is not common; does this mean his relationship with himself?

P2: "Although it is desired that men coven the female, Norman possesses a sub-conscious yearning to have effeminate qualities rather than a want for the female as property." This sentence is terrible. For one, the word "covet" and not "coven" is intended. Second, "for want for the female as property" is not really what the writer is trying to say.

P2: "The primary ends for this need for femininity is the procurement of what Norman sees as emotional freedom." First, the grammar is wrong as "the primary ends…are," not "is." However, this is not good phrasing to begin with. The writer should say something like, "Norman wants emotional freedom and seeks it in a stereotypically feminine self-expression."

P1S4: Change to: "The current…… [Read More]

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GOP Primary Republican Primary Video Research Analysis

Words: 445 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88859585

GOP Primary

Republican Primary Video Research, Analysis & Critique

Covering a Period between March 6th and April 3rd, 2012

Researcher/writer will be analyzing the entire TV/video ad campaigns related to both Mitt Romney and Rick Santorum from 03/06/2012 thru 04/03/2012. In the research paper, compare and contrast the overall ad campaigns of each with regard to:

Type of ad: biographical? Issue? Attack?

Sponsor of the ad: candidate, political party, independent advocacy group (including SuperPacs). Any difference in the type of ads run by each?

What demographic group(s), if any, were the ads primarily aimed at and how effective was it at reaching each?

Press coverage of the ads -- "how extensive? helpful or harmful? iased? And if biased, in what direction?

The overall effectiveness of the ads: very? somewhat? not very? Why?

Candidate reaction to the ads -- "smart or not? Why?

NOTE: The paper should be an overview --…… [Read More]

Bibliography and In Text Citations

Page numbers o Paragraphs -- " This means use proper paragraph form. Indent the first line of a paragraph, etc.

Times New Roman Font - 12pt

Double Space with all margins set at 1
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Valuable Techniques Students and Lecturers

Words: 316 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91544555

This includes accurate spelling, verb-subject agreement, and punctuation. These building blocks of language are vital to constructing a good essay.

A further requirement of good essays is illustrating paragraphs. This means that each paragraph includes examples that support the topic sentence. The topic sentence makes a statement that is illustrated by clear examples in the support sentences. Illustrative examples provide the arguments in an essay with greater strength than would have been the case otherwise.

Narrating a paragraph goes hand-in-hand with illustrating techniques. This techniques involves providing reasons for the topic sentence and thesis statement. Narration also involves connecting sentences with each other, so that the paragraph forms a unit rather.

A good essay is built not only upon grammatical and syntactic accuracy, but also upon the larger issue of paragraph construction. It works rather like a chain. It is therefore important that all the "links," or paragraphs, are at…… [Read More]

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Morning Hours Seem to the Best Time

Words: 813 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64260626

morning hours seem to the best time for me to write. It is quiet in my house, no phones ringing, no one playing music or talking to distract me, so these are my best moments to write. Later in the day I do my editing by adding strength to my transitions, by carefully checking to see if grammar and context are correct and generally by proofreading what I have written.

I occasionally scribble notes on a piece of paper if an idea comes into my head at lunch, or in another class. There is a tendency to forget some of my best ideas for themes and specifics in papers if I don't jot down a note to remind myself. But basically when I start out without notes, I just open up a Microsoft Word document and start writing on my MacBook computer. A teacher in high school used to implore…… [Read More]

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John 13 1-17 Synthetic Observations

Words: 988 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82279226

However, in general the author relies on strong nouns and verbs to tell the story.

B. Composition

1. Verb choices are particularly strong and vibrant: the author uses words like "prompted," "wrapped," and "poured," which makes for a compelling and dramatic narrative and corresponds with the suspenseful atmosphere.

2. The author uses many complex sentences consisting of both dependent and independent clauses, but the author uses varied sentence structure to create rhythm.

3. The author uses subtle repetition: "not just my feet but my hands and my head as well," (John 13: 9).

4. The author uses parallelism also to create rhythm. For example, "he got up from the meal, took off his outer clothing, and wrapped a towel around his waist," (John 13:4).

5. Foreshadowing is one of the hallmarks of this passage. For example, "Jesus knew that the time had come for him to leave this world and…… [Read More]

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Jeremy Hammer's Book Entitled the

Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20350872



Overall, the text uses a good selection of text examples that work to appeal to the interest of all learners. However, one concern I have is that there are not enough texts, a learning tool that I feel is essential for language development, particularly for non-English speakers. This shortcoming can easily be resolved by bringing in outside sources, such as magazine articles, books and newspapers, to use as text examples.

As a whole, the texts that the book does present are clearly states, easy to read in terms of font type, and are of appropriate interest level for the adult learner.

The teaching of vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation and functional language use are all well done in this course book. Instead of separating these skills from the rest of the course book, as many similar texts do, this text places the language sections in a strategic manner with the purpose of…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Brown, Douglas H. (2006). Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Essex: Pearson ESL.

Harmer, Jeremy. (2007). The Practice of English Language Teaching. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.

Richards, Jack C. (2001). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Richards, Jack C. (2002). Methodology in Language Teaching: An Anthology of Current Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
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Gender Female-Fronted Irish Pop Band the Cranberries

Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47785734

Gender

Female-fronted Irish pop band The Cranberries address issues related to gender and sexuality tacitly in the song "Animal Instinct." The song lyrics do not overtly discuss feminist discourse, although the music video for the song does. Issues related to compulsory heterosexuality, the dual character and double standard for women, and gender roles are all topics addressed in "Animal Instinct" and its music video. The content or theme of the song can be best understood by an analysis of its title. "Animal Instinct" refers to the most basic human impulses. Thus, The Cranberries draw from Freudian theory. The structure of a song conveys a poetic sensibility, which can be construed as a stereotypically or archetypically feminine given its non-linear format and use of unconventional grammar. In other words, a song as poetry can be purposefully subversive of patriarchal language, grammar, and mechanics. However, the video for "Animal Instinct" is ironic…… [Read More]

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Integrate Speakers Into Baby Car Seats There

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75779462

integrate speakers into baby car seats, there is not enough information provided as to how adding speakers will benefit the baby and how the speakers will benefit the parent. Furthermore, Michelle does not list any consequences or drawbacks to the integration of speakers to car seats. Below is a detailed breakdown of each paragraph and the strengths and weaknesses of each.

Beginning with the opening paragraph, Michelle establishes that she will be writing about car seats and gives a brief overview of the history of car seats. However, the opening paragraph is missing a clear and concise thesis that argues that car seat speakers would be an added benefit to the already protective device. Moreover, the last sentence of the paragraph is muddled and does not establish a clear stance on the integration of speakers to car seats, but rather posits a hypothesis. he opening paragraph also needs to have…… [Read More]

The fourth paragraph has a good introductory sentence and establishes one of the pros of having speakers installed in car seats. However, Michelle only introduces one pro-to installing speakers to car seats. She needs to add more pros to make a stronger argument for the installation of speakers to car seats; allowing the baby to listen to something other than their parents and vise versa is not enough. Michelle should include at least two more pros. Furthermore, the paper is missing cons. Are there seriously no downsides to installing speakers to car seats? What about a lack of bonding between parent and child over music or any other audio-based media such as books and other instructional materials? What about having speakers replaced or fixed if they get broken?

The concluding paragraph states that there have been many advances made since 1898, however does not give any more information. The strength of the last paragraph is establishing that car seats provide protection and peace of mind, however, this can be accomplished without installing speakers. Furthermore, with one argument made for the installation of speakers, the paper is weak on the whole. There needs to be more evidence that supports the installation of speakers besides diminishing interaction between parent and child -- and avoiding conflicts.

The paper needs to be checked for grammar and punctuation as a whole. Also, spellcheck will only catch misspelled
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Logistic Planning and Collaboration in Complex Relief

Words: 826 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44459140

Logistic Planning and Collaboration in Complex Relief Operations by teven J. Romano

It seems to me that Romano is addressing his article to the Department of Defense (DOD) pointing out various issues in their humanitarian missions that he thinks need addressing. I found the article heavy and intense, although it is lightened up, to some extent, by photographs. Nonetheless, I wondered how the photographs were related to the issue at hand.

Romano is unhappy with the way that the DODF conducts its humanitarian missions saying that the DOD violates many logistical concerns in their operations:

Most humanitarian assistance/disaster relief (HA/DR) operations are characterized by rapidly changing circumstances and a lack of clear and accurate information; they are also distinguished by substantial pressure to quickly provide relief supplies and materiel to an affected area.

Romano maintains that DOD does have "the airlift capacity, disaster funding, critical supplies, and logistics systems to…… [Read More]

Source

Romano, SJ. Logistics Planning and Collaboration in Complex Relief Operations

 http://www.ndu.edu/press/complex-relief-operations.html
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Second Tier Instruction Courses I Struggled With

Words: 557 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 74770824

second tier instruction courses, I struggled with several aspects of writing, to include proper grammar, paragraph structure, thesis development and support, and the ability to write from an objective, unbiased perspective. By contrast, having completed the first and second tiers, I have a better understanding of these aspects and feel I am developing into a competent writer with an ever-increasing skill level. As this is the point of the writing instruction courses, I believe I deserve to pass the first and second tiers due to my new understanding of the various components of skilled writing.

In more specific terms, I often struggled with the following prior to completing the writing instruction courses:

When to use a semicolon vs. A colon, comma or period.

When to use a hyphen.

How to avoid fragments and run-on sentences.

How to write from a second and third-person perspective.

How to frame a thesis statement…… [Read More]

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Comment on Memoir

Words: 1300 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83685865

Hummingbird

The introduction offers the outstanding metaphors of the hummingbird and the trees, as symbols of a more natural, pure world. Details including the cookies, Baldy, and other people at the coffee shop help to ground the reader. However, the narrative quickly becomes narcissistic. Too much self-reflection isolates the reader rather than drawing the reader into the story. The anecdote drags, and the reader wonders where the story is going and what, if anything, the point is. Nice turns of phrase like "anorexic trees" do not rescue a boring narrative. The dream sequence that comes next, replete with the imagery of falling, could be poignant if explored more in depth. Instead the sequence comes across as a lazy means of rescuing a failing narrative. Like the rest of the memoir it has no purpose, either. The dream sequence is interjected in the middle of two disparate segments of text. Nothing…… [Read More]

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Linguistic Analysis of Word Order in Zulu

Words: 3240 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22163682

Zulu

Linguistic Analysis of Word Order in Zulu

efore delving into the intricacies of Zulu grammar, it is critical that a general understanding of the language, its structure and its historical and geographical distribution be provided. Zulu (isiZulu) is an important language spoken by approximately ten million people in Southern Africa (Ethnolouge, 2009). It is a language which belongs to the antu language family which extends from the Cape to the Equator. Zulu is a member of the South-eastern zone of antu, which includes four language groups: Nguni, Tsonga, Sotho and Venda. Within the Nguni group, there are two sub-sections: the Zunda and Tekela. Within the Zunda subgroup can be found the Xhosa and Zulu languages (Maho, 2002). Today, Zulu is the most widely spoken native language in South Africa making it a major language within the country (Ethnolouge, 2009).

Some of the key grammatical features of Zulu are a…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

Bybee, J. 2010. Language, Usage and Cognition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Colenso, John William (1882). First steps in Zulu: being an elementary grammar of the Zulu language (Third ed.). Martizburg, Durban: Davis.

Comrie, B. 1990. The major languages of South Asia, the Middle East and Africa. New York: Taylor and Francis.

Dent, G. & Nyembezi, C. 1969. Scholar's Zulu Dictionary. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter.
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Plan for Improving Academically

Words: 908 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51819843

Personal Development Plan for Academic Year 2014

What do I want to achieve?

The main target for this academic year is for me to improve my academic writing in school. I would like to make sure I get the basis English language writing skills and know how to do the various forms of academic writing that we will be using the course of my education within this institution. The main reason that makes me want to achieve this is the fact that in almost all the subjects that I will be taking in this school, there will be some form of official paper that I will have to write and these official papers will have to be in the form of academic structure and the punctuations and grammar must be of accepted levels and even the language must be of the college level. I have to otherwise but to concentrate…… [Read More]

References

Richard Yates, (2008). How to Improve Your Academic Writing. University of Essex Printing Services. Retrieved April 1, 2014 from https://www.essex.ac.uk/myskills/How_to_improve_your_academic_writing.pdf