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Greek tragedy strikes the contemporary audiences with the same strength it had over two and a half millennia ago. Sophocles, along with Aeschylus and Euripides are among the most famous playwrights of the Greek ancient world whose works have survived. Their plays are testimonies of the creative genius of the human mind regardless of the time, as well as of the universality of the human nature. In his dealings with the contradictions of human nature, Sophocles was among the first playwrights to tackle the issue of sacred vs. mundane.
Antigone and King Creon are the main characters in the play Antigone who embody the weakness of humanity when confronted with some of its fatal mistakes: fanaticism.
Sophocles' play, Antigone, is part of a trilogy. The other two plays are Oedipus the King and Oedipus at Colonus. Oedipus, the king of Thebes, and his wife and mother, Jocasta, make a couple…
Sophocles, Antigone, Prestwick House Inc. 2005.
Griffith, Mark, editor. Sophocles Antigone. Cambridge Greek and Latin Classics. Cambridge University Press. 1999
Sophocles' Antigone is taken as a paradigm of the very idea of tragedy. Why is Sophocles' play called "Antigone" and not "Creon"?
The play "Antigone" by Sophocles illustrates many of the factors and paradigms that go into defining a great tragedy. A tragedy can be thought of as a literary work in which the principal character is engulfed in some form of a morally significant struggle which in the end results in ruin or in which the primary character experiences some profound disappointment in their life. Throughout the tragedy "Antigone," Sophocles uses many literary techniques to engage the empathy of the reader and manifest feelings of fear and pity which is a requirement of an excellent tragedy.
To meet all of the requirements for a great classical tragedy, the plot must achieve the response of fear and pity in the reader. In the plot of "Antigone," Sophocles does a…
Tragedy in the Oedipus Trilogy
Sophocles is considered to be one of the greatest Greek dramatists, and remains among the most renowned playwrights even today. The Greek tragedy is one of the most influential genres of literary and theatrical history on the modern drama and theatre. The theatre of ancient Greece was inspired by the worship of Dionysus, and the performance of plays was considered to be a religious experience for both the actors and the audience. ecause of this, the intensity of the Greek theatre was very strong, and the degree to which the plays were taken seriously as a means of influencing and interpreting life was also very high. According to Aristotle, the philosopher credited with creating the definition of a tragedy, "Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament,…
McManus, Barbara. "Outline of Aristotle's Theory of Tragedy in the POETICS." CLS 267 Topics. November 1999. http://www.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/poetics.html
McManus, Barbara. "Unity of Actionn in Oedipus the King." CLS 267 Topics. November 1999. http://www.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/oedipusplot.html
Morissey, Christopher. "Oedipus the Cliche: Aristotle on Tragic Form and Content." Anthropoetics 9, no. 1. Department of Humanities, Simon Fraser University. Spring/Summer 2003. http://www.anthropoetics.ucla.edu/ap0901/oedipus.htm
"Reading Greek Tragedy." University of Washington, Tacoma. 2005. http://www.tacoma.washington.edu/ctlt/students/resources/someelementsoftragedy.pdf
The vengeance of the gods is further underscored by the Chorus who warns that "But if any man comes striding, high and mighty, in all he says and does, no fear of justice, no reverence for the temples of the gods-let a rough doom tear him down, repay his pride, breakneck, ruinous pride!" Oedipus portrays tyranny and the people's greatest blessing becomes their worst curse.
In the last stage, Oedipus is a man who has become humbled with the pain and dejection of knowing the truth of reality as he is forced to admit his tragic destiny by the overwhelming evidence. The writer shows the sudden change in the protagonist's persona when Oedipus condemns himself by saying, "I stand revealed at last -- cursed in my birth, cursed in marriage, cursed in the lives I cut down with these hands!" (1309-1311) Oedipus's complete transformation is demonstrated when he gouged out…
As a king in ancient Greek literature, Oedipus was required to have a dramatically catastrophic fall, while modern literature needs a tragic hero who is an "everyman." But both suffered greatly in their own ways, and in ways that the audience both expected and regarded as essential. But while these two characters were both the central, tragic figure in their respective stories, their differences were a reflection of the role of dramatic tragedy in their societies.
The subject of ancient Greek literature was often the magnificent deeds of the gods and heroes, while everyday life was more often forgotten. As a result, the tragedies presented often had as their main character a great person, sometimes with a major personality flaw, who suffers extreme torments and a mighty plunge from an exalted position. Nothing exemplified this excessive amount of suffering than Oedipus, a man who became a king only to later…
Aristotle, S.H. Butcher. "Poetics." The Internet Classic Archive. Web. 8 April 2012.
Miller, Arthur. Death of a Salesman. London: York, 1998. Print.
Sophocles. "Oedipus the King." The Internet Classic Archive. Web. 9 April 2012.
A Timeline of Greek Sculpture
Polykleitos, Doryphoros (early fourth century BC)
As Paul Johnson (2003) records, this ancient example of Greek classicalism "epitomizes a canon of male beauty embodied in mathematical proportions" (p. 63). Showing the perfection of contraposto, Doryphoros (or the spear-carrier) is a balanced representation of the body's muscles. Polykleitos, a contemporary of Phidias, had his own school of young artists, which carried on into the third century BC. Polykleitos' works are treated on in his own treatise, called "The Canon," which gave explicit attention to symmetry, clarity, and wholeness. The Spear-carrier is one of the best examples of Polykleitos' teaching -- however, this example is a copy of his original, and is held in Naples -- a fitting representation of the art of Greek sculpting.
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos (mid-fourth century BC)
Praxiteles actually made two statues for Kos -- so the legend goes. One…
Agony -- The Famous Group of Laocoon. (n.d.) Old and Sold. Retrieved from http://www.oldandsold.com/articles26/rome-19.shtml
Haaren, J. (2000). Famous Men of Greece. Lebanon, TN: Greenleaf Press.
Johnson, P. (2003). Art: A New History. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
The Farnesse Bull. (n.d.) Old and Sold. Retrieved from http://www.oldandsold.com/articles26/naples-5.shtml
Greek Concept to Movie Troy
Ancient mythology as never ceased to amaze and fascinate its readers and followers. Especially Egyptian and Greek mythology, having followers everywhere; in the current times it has found a new fan, that is the movie making business, with a special interest in Greek mythology. Nothing is better than watching your favorite characters brought up to life and actually see them doing all the things we had previously only imagined them doing. One such captivating movie is 'troy' based on the Greek Trojan war starring Brad Pitt. Various Greek concepts were shed light in this movie, which will be discussed, in relation to the movie.
The first concept is Fate, since in Greek mythology fate does not just happen. The gods make things happen, in their own engineered ways, and interfere to make things happen on their own account. Then there is MOIA, which means that…
Walter Benjamin "The Task of the Translator" vol 1: 1913-1926. Marcus Bullock. Pg. 256-259
Roman Jacobson "The World of Movies, Media and Multimedia: language, history, theory" Pg. 26-266.
James Monaco "How to Read a Film" 3rd edition, Pg. 250-255.
Also, this carving is quite sentimental in appearance, for it reflects "the solemn pathos of the Greek citizen, much like some of the sculptures found on the pediment of the Parthenon" (Seyffert, 245).
Our last artifact is titled Pair of Armbands with Triton and Tritoness Holding Erotes, made in the Hellenistic period, circa 200 .C.E. These jewelry objects were apparently designed for a woman of high Greek culture, for they are made from solid gold and are fashioned in the shape of two loosely-coiled snakes or serpents. Whomever designed these intricate and beautiful objects realized the special properties of gold, for the woman lucky enough to wear these could easily slip her arms through the loops, due to the malleability of solid gold. The two figures located at the tops of each piece are representations of Triton and Tritoness, most closely associated with the Greek god of the sea Poseidon.…
New Greek and Roman Galleries." The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Internet. 2007.
Retrieved at http://www.metmuseum.org/special/greek_roman/images.asp .
Seyffert, Oskar. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art.
New York: Gramercy Books, 1995.
Euripides' tragedy of "Hippolytus":
Phaedra as a plaything of the gods
Euripides' tragedy of "Hippolytus" is a tragedy of paganism, at least on its surface. The work details the conflict between Hippolytus, the noble son of Theseus who honors the goddess of chastity and the hunt Artemis and his new stepmother Phaedra, who honors Aphrodite above all other goddesses. When Phaedra falls in love with Hippolytus he is repulsed not simply because of the incestuous nature of Phaedra's love but because it dishonors the principles of chastity embodied by his excessive worship of Artemis. The conflict between the two goddesses, translated into human terms, ultimately results in death and destruction for both Hippolytus and Artemis and the misery of Theseus, the father of Hippolytus and the husband of Phaedra. However, there is also a higher symbolic order beyond that a personal conflict between the gods that is being violated, one…
In asking him to stay with her and their family, she was practically betraying her country. Demeter cares for the earth in a way that no other gods did. She was actively involved with mortal affairs. However, she also cared for own, her daughter. She does what she feels what she must do in an act of revenge. These women demonstrate the complexity of the female in any era. Even in ancient texts, we see the female figure associated with the typical womanly things such as motherhood and fertility but she is also given characteristics that are strong, powerful, and dangerous. What these myths tell us about the role of the female is that it is constantly changing. The female is complex and while she will always associated with fertility, she should never be relegated to an inferior role. While we often see mythology as wild with fantastical elements, we…
Bullfinch, Thomas. Bulfinch's Mythology. New York: Random House Publishing. 1979.
Hesiod. Theogony. Perseus Digital Online Library. Information Retrieved August 7, 2009.
drama is tragic not only because of Willy Loman's suicide, but because he has left his family with nothing, and his sons with no hopes and abilities of their own.
Brief overview of the play
Argument for tragedy
Pro argument for tragedy
Con argument against tragedy
What the critics say
Death of a Salesman as Tragedy
This paper analyzes the play Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller. Specifically, it discusses the definition of tragedy by Aristotle, and research if it is correct to label the play as a tragedy.
Death of a Salesman is indeed a tragedy of epic proportions. The drama is tragic not only because of Willy Loman's suicide, but because he has left his family with nothing, and his sons with no hopes and abilities of their own.
Arthur Miller wrote Death of a Salesman in 1948,…
Adamczewski, Zygmunt. The Tragic Protest. The Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1963.
Amsden, Robert. "Aristotle's Definition of Tragedy." Ripon College. 2002. 29 Aug. 2005.
Bloom, Harold. Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman. Ed. Harold Bloom. New York: Chelsea House, 1988.
The fact that most men sublimate this feeling, and instead identify with their father to obtain the maternal figure in the form of another woman, is the reason the Oedipus myth was generated in the first place.
Freud's theory was popular not only 'on the couch' but in literary theory. Ernest Jones suggested that it is the reason Hamlet cannot bring himself to kill his uncle: "Now comes the father's death and the mother's second marriage. The long 'repressed' desire to take his father's place in his mother's affection is stimulated to unconscious activity by the sight of some one usurping this place exactly as he himself had once longed to do… the two recent events, the father's death and the mother's second marriage . . . represented ideas which in Hamlet's unconscious fantasy had for many years been closely associated" (Jones 98-99).
Regardless of the merit of Freud's theory,…
Dunkle, Roger. The Classical Origins of Western Culture, the Core Studies 1 Study Guide.
Brooklyn College Core Curriculum Series. Brooklyn College, the City University of New York, 1986.
Jones, Ernest. "The Oedipus-Complex as an Explanation of Hamlet's Mystery:
A Study in Motive." The American Journal of Psychology. January, 1910
Girl From Samos
Just to give a background. This passage starts off with Demeas finding out some devastating information. He discovers that his mistress Chrysis' was holding a baby. Believing it to be Chrysis', and kept against his requests, he decides to kick her out. At that time, Moschion moves in and tries to convince him to keep the baby and then starts to push the question of marriage to his mistress. "Nay, wine is mixing and your wedding's going on Incense rises; and Hephaestus laps the victim with his flame" (Meander, 2010, p. 61)
However, before all of this would occur, there would be a great tragic incidence that would change the course of the play "In the midst of a fair voyage, a storm can suddenly appear from nowhere. . ." (Meander, 2010, p. 53 para 4) This quote is basically explaining that there was about…
Meander. (2010). Plays and Fragments. Penguin Classics; Reissue edition.
Greek Crisis- Opportunity
Board of Directors
The Greek financial crisis is rooted in two decades of profligate spending which has ballooned the country's debt to GDP ratio to 124.9% of GDP in 2010 (The Wall Street Journal.com. May 7, 2010). Coupled with a stagnant economy, the risk of a Greek sovereign default is roiling markets and could cause a contagion across the Eurozone and ultimately the global financial system. Yet, Greece has a unique opportunity to emerge from this crisis stronger and able to compete competitively around the globe as a viable and prospering member of the Euro block. To do so they must embrace a mix of austerity and free market reforms to ensure liquidity and avoid default.
Greece had always been a weaker member of the Eurozone as compared with Germany, France, and Italy accounting for only 2.6% of the GDP of the Euro…
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.com. (2011). Economic
Survey of Greece. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.com. Retrieved December 1, 2011 from http://www.oecd.org/document/28/0,3746,en_2649_34327_48421852_1_1_1_1,00.html
Roscini, D. Schlefer, J. & Dimitriou, K. April 19, 2011). The Greek Crisis: Tragedy or Opportunity? Harvard Business School. Retrieved December 2, 2011
The Wall Street Journal.com. (November 26, 2011). Greece Faces 'Mortal Danger' Amid
Gradually the Greek hero recognizes (peripeteia) that his visitors are the hated Greeks who once abandoned him, in disguise. Philoctetes denounces the foul plot and demands back his bow, realizing once again he is alone in the world. (anagnorisis)
In Euripides, "Hippolytus," pity and fear (pathos) is evoked by Phaedra's unbridled passion for her stepson Hippolytus. The recognition element of the drama (peripeteia) comes when both Phaedra and Hippolytus see that their mutually incompatible desires both for others (in the case of Phaedra) and also to be removed from others (as expressed in the character of the young, title son of Theseus) are inescapable. This recognition is shortly followed by the terrible peripeteia of Theseus that his wife has lied to him and he has cast off his son as nothing, for nothing. The final tragic anagnorisis comes with Athena's visit. Athena exposes Theseus' folly of his love for his…
How does the ideal of heroic citizenship change from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through the emergence of Greek tragic drama to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism?
Mythopoeic thought holds that the occurrences of events are the result of an act of will on the part of gods and spirits. A thread of anthropomorphism runs through this mythopoeic thinking as impersonal laws of nature and the deductive generalizations of logic are not a part of the mythopoeic framework: instead, every event is an aspect of some personal being. A mythopoeic orientation is one of the most primitive lenses used by humans to explain and attribute meaning to phenomena. Sensemaking in naive cultures typically involves attribution of human motivation to the inanimate and to otherwise inexplicable events. Indeed, the term mythopoeic means myth-making, from the Greek muthos or myth and poiein which means to make. From the anthropomorphic position…
Bowra, C.M. (1957). The Greek Experience. New York: Praeger. In Steven Kreis, History Guide (2006).
Dunkle, R. (1986). The classical origins of western culture. Brooklyn, NY: Brooklyn College, The City University of New York.
Shakespeare's Othello: Is it a tragedy according to Aristotle?
Aristotle and tragedy
Aristotle defines tragedy as imitation of an action that is serious and has a certain dramatic and complete magnitude. Tragedy to Aristotle is something that is:
"A form of drama exciting the emotions of pity and fear. Its action should be single and complete, presenting a reversal of fortune, involving persons renowned and of superior attainments, and it should be written in poetry embellished with every kind of artistic expression. (Poetics, Part IX)
Aristotle saw tragedy as a simulation of an event that aroused pity and fear in the individual and, by doing so, served as a form of catharsis in the individual could identify with the plot and feel a certain sort of purging or relief (VI.2).
In fact, it is this sense of purging that most distinguishes the tragedy from the comedy or epic (for instance)…
Aristotle. (1970). Poetics. Univ. Of Michigan Press
Gellrich, M. (1988). Tragedy and theory. The problem of conflict since Aristotle. Princeton: Princeton Univ.
Greek theory of tragedy: Aristotle's Poetics academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/tragedy.html
New York College. Outline of Aristotle's theory of tragedy www.cnr.edu/home/bmcmanus/poetics.html
Roxana as Tragedy
"Roxana" stands unique among Daniel Defoe's work in that it ends a tragedy. The work is a lot more than that, however. "Roxana" dispenses with the formalities associated with many texts and paints sex as a commodity from the very get-go. Roxana ends up a tragedy not so much because of what transpires at the end of the novel, but because Roxana herself cannot deal with her decision to prostitute herself: Roxana is a tragic figure because at the end she cannot reconcile her morals, her guilt and the fact that although she has been able to achieve wealth through her actions, through social upward mobility has eluded her, partly through her own eyes. In fact, her reliance on her beauty and body compound this desire for social upward mobility, and eventually result in a sort of manic race to delude not only her daughter, newest Dutch…
A lot of genres throughout history have been tested over time among which 'tragedy' has been the most favorite one. Tragedy reveals a debacle tale of a good or valuable person through misinterpretation and fatal mistakes along with the production of misfortune and awareness on the protagonist's part and arousal of fear and sympathy on the audience's part. Aristotle, an ancient Greek thinker, is considered to have been the key ruling forces of tragedy. 'Poetics,' a masterpiece literature is considered to be the key authority that defines a true misfortune (Aristotle, 1968, pgs 33-35).
A character filled with tragedy must lift the story plot in every tragedy and that hero has to accomplish particular rules to be called a tragic hero. Aristotle presents some rules of a tragic hero which state that the character should not be displayed fleeting through an excellent fortune to a bad one; while…
Altman, J.B. (1987). "Preposterous Conclusions": Eros, Enargeia, and the Composition of Othello. Representations Journal. No. 18, pp. 129-157
Altman, J.B. (2010). The Improbability of "Othello": Rhetorical Anthropology and Shakespearean Selfhood. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
Aristotle. (1968). Aristotle on the Art of Fiction: An English Translation of Aristotle's Poetics. CUP Archive Publications, pgs 33-35.
Dominguez-Rue, E and Mrotzekb, M. (2012). Shakespearean tragedies dynamics: identifying a generic structure in Shakespeare's four major tragedies. International Journal of General Systems. Vol. 41, No. 7, 667 -- 681.
omen in Ancient Tragedy and Comedy
Both the drama of Euripides' "Medea" and the comedy of Aristophanes' "Lysistrata" seem unique upon a level of even surface characterization, to even the most casual students of Classical Greek drama and culture. Both in are female-dominated plays that were produced by male-dominated societies and written by men. Both the drama and the comedy features strong women as their central protagonists, whom are depicted under extreme circumstances, in relatively positive lights. And both plays, despite their very different tones, also have an additional, unique feature in that they show 'the enemy' -- or the non-Greek or non-Athenian, in a fairly positive and humane fashion.
The sympathies of the viewer for female's plights are immediately arisen by Aristophanes from the first scene of "Lysistrata," as Cleonice, the friend of Lysistrata, and a common Athenian housewife states, regarding the lateness of the other women that frustrates…
Arkins, Brian. "Sexuality in Fifth-Century Athens." Ancient History: Journal of University College Dublin, Ireland, Volume 1: 1994. http://ancienthistory.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://www.ucd.ie/%7Eclassics/94/Arkins94.html
Aristophanes. "Lysistrata." Retrieved on 6 November 2004 from Exploring World Cultures Website, 1997. http://m3.doubleclick.net/875354/freeze10012004.html
Euripides. "Medea." MIT Classics Archive, 2001. Retrieved on 6 November 1997 at http://classics.mit.edu/Euripides/medea.html
Hemminger, Bill. "Why Study Ancient World Cultures?" Retrieved on 6 November 2004 from Exploring World Cultures Website, 1997.
Shakespeare Never Read Aristotle?
Or, the dynamic forms of catharsis and tragic flaws in Shakespeare's plays
Shakespeare's most beloved plays are his tragedies. If one were to list his best and most popular plays: Othello, Romeo & Juliet, Hamlet, King Lear, and so forth, one would find the list comprised almost entirely of tragedies. So it would not be amiss to say that much of the modern literary conception of theatrical tragedy is shaped and influenced by Shakespeare. At the same time, the definitions of the tragic form as understood at the roots of theatrical history (in Greco-Roman times) continue to be part and parcel of the official comprehension of tragedy. Many critics have sought to fore Shakespeare into the mold of tragedy defined in Aristotle's Poetica, and many others have rightfully protested that he was not cast from that mold, and that in fact he owes little to it.…
Aristotle. Poetica. Trans. W.H. Fyfe. http://www.noncontradiction.com/ac_works_b38.asp
Charlton, H.B. "Humanism and Mystery" Shakespeare The Tragedies. Ed. Alfred
Harbage. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1964. 10-18.
Harbage, Alfred. "Introduction" Shakespeare The Tragedies. Ed. Alfred Harbage.
Synge's iders To The Sea
Analysis of structure, narrative, and irony in Synge's "iders to the Sea"
John Millington Synge is considered to be one of Irish literature's most influential writers. Born near Dublin in 1871, he was highly interested in studying music before turning his attentions to literature. In 1898, Synge made his first visit to the Aran Islands, which he continued to visit at various intervals for the next four years (J.M. Synge, n.d.). It was during this time that he began to study the way of life on the islands. "On they rocky, isolated islands, Synge took photographs and notes. He listened to the speech of the islanders, a musical, old-fashioned, Irish-flavored dialect of English. He conversed with them in Irish and English, listened to stories, and learned the impact that the sound of word could have apart from their meaning" (J.M. Synge, n.d.). The influence of…
J.M. Synge. (n.d.). The Poetry Foundation. Accessed 17 February 2013, from http://www.poetryfoundation.org/bio/j-m-synge
Notes on Synge's "Riders to the Sea." (n.d.). Bielefeld University. Accessed 17 February 2013,
Synge, J.M. (1902). Riders to the Sea. Chapter 13.
Sophocles' Oedipus the King
Look up and/or reflect on the meaning of:
Tragedy: A tragedy is any event which causes great suffering and stress, such as the death of a loved one or a natural disaster. In the context of Greek literature, tragedy was the most popular form of theatre, with storytellers relying on the rhetorical technique of tragic irony to create emotionally resonant tales of lost love and territorial conquest.
Philosophy: The overall study of the human condition, reality, metaphysics, and other pursuits of higher intelligence.
Psychology: The scientific study of the human mind, including cognitive function, perception, attention, emotion and behavior.
Logic: The fundamental application of reasoning to the pursuit of problem solving, a function which only the human mind is known to hold the capacity to perform.
Ethics: The branch of philosophy which postulates certain standards which should be used to guide proper human conduct.
structure of ancient and modern dramas to highlight their differences and similarities. The paper also shows how drama evolved over the centuries with references to Greek, Elizabethan and Modern plays.
MODEN AND ANCIENT DAMA: A COMPAISON
Drama has an inherent ability to adapt itself to the thinking and wishes of the society in which it takes birth. Therefore modern drama with all its intensity, relevance and eloquence is certainly more popular among modern audiences than its ancient counterpart. Still we cannot deny the importance of ancient dramatic concepts, models and devices in the development and evolution of modern drama. While ancient plays are mostly remembered for their grandeur and myths, close analysis reveals that there is more to them than meets the eye. All ancient Greek tragedies contain some similar elements, which set them apart from tragedies of later eras. While they basically concentrated on highlighting the significance of myths,…
Aristotle The POETICS Book XIII: 350 BCE Translated by S.H. Butcher Online version:
Arthur Miller, Death of a Salesman, 1949 Penguin USA, 1 edition, October 6, 1998
Arthur Miller, "Tragedy and the Common Man," from The Theater Essays of Arthur Miller (Viking Press, 1978)
Mourning Becomes Electra
It must have come as something of a shock for the original audience of Eugene O'Neill's Mourning Becomes Electra in 1931 to take their seats, open their programs, and discover that this extremely lengthy trilogy of plays does not actually contain a character named "Electra." This may seem like an obvious point, but it is one worth considering as we approach O'Neill's American analogue to the Oresteia of Aeschylus -- the title essentially gives away the plot. Yet this would have been precisely the case with the original audience in fifth century Athens for a Greek tragedy: they arrived already knowing the myth of Electra or Oedipus or Medea, and so therefore what was being witnessed was, in some sense, a ritual re-enactment rather than a plot-driven narrative. Even the rare Greek tragedy that does introduce surprise into its plot, like the Orestes of Euripides, does so…
This temper surely gave Clytemnestra the ability to withstand her "wretched life" by serving as a type of emotional outlet for her anger and disappointment related to being imprisoned in her own household as the doting wife of Agamemnon who certainly experienced sexual encounters with other women as leader of the Greek armies at Troy.
Another example has Clytemnestra admitting "Thus harassed by these ever-rife reports
(i.e., that Agamemnon was dead)/Full often from my neck have forceful hands/Seized and untied the beam-suspended noose" (Swanwick, 179), a reference to attempting to hang herself from a roof beam. This indicates that Clytemnestra was indeed a very strong woman with sufficient inner strength to do away with herself because of her grief associated with Agamemnon and his alleged death at the hands of the Trojans -- "For a woman severed from her mate/To sit forlorn at home is grievous woe" (Swanwick, 179).
Martin, Thomas R. Ancient Greece: From Prehistoric to Hellenistic Times. New Haven, CT:
Yale University Press, 1996.
Swanwick, Anna, Trans. The Dramas of Aeschylus. London: George Bell & Sons, 1907. Rpt.
There isn't one time in the film that Martin doesn't act out of passion. Unlike Oedipus, Martin does not choose blindness but rather it is a result of his passion and desire for Mini.
atching Mini's First Time, the audience has a sort of god-like perspective as perhaps the audience felt in one of the great Greek theatres. As one watches the film, there is a definite feeling that it isn't going to end well for the humans involved. e can see the machinations growing and growing until they spin out of control and utter chaos is revealed. e are not sure what the fate of the characters will be, unlike Oedipus because we are so familiar with it, but like Oedipus, we know that there isn't much hope. In the Iliad and Odyssey, the gods do occasionally look down upon the humans with some compassion and interest -- and…
Sophocles. (Berg, Stephen., Clay, Diskin) Oedipus the King by Sophocles. Oxford University Press: Trade edition. 1988.
Ovid. (Martin, Charles) Metamorphoses. W.W. Norton & Company. 2005.
11- 3). The Chorus' summations are necessary for continuity in the play, answering any questions or expounding upon certain thoughts or themes. The Chorus has the last word in the play, leaving a lasting impression with the audience, which includes a message of desolation to all. The Chorus says, "Let none / Presume on his good fortune until he find / Life, at his death, a memory without pain" (Exodus. 298-300). These are examples of how the Chorus reinforces what the audience may already be thinking. The Chorus connects certain aspects of the play and emphasizes Sophocles' themes.
The resolution of the play is harsh. This, of course, makes the play a tragedy but the extent of the pain Oedipus suffers is monumental. e can say he was headstrong and perhaps deserved something for his arrogance but the circumstances are so bizarre it is no wonder the man took out…
Sophocles. Oedipus the King. Fagles, Robert, trans. New York: Penguin Books. 1984.
He completed the tasks. hen Hercules was dying, he was placed upon a funeral pyre, where he "ascended to Olympus, where he was granted immortality and lived among the gods" (Ellingson).
The Hebrew culture approaches the question of the interrelationship of the human and the divine in a manner substantially different than the Greek or Roman cultures. In fact, there are substantial differences in the Greek and Hebrew schools of thought, even down to descriptions of objects. For example, "the Greek culture describes objects in relation to the object itself. The Hebrew culture describes objects in relation to the Hebrew himself" ("Hebrew Thought"). Therefore, any Hebrew description of the divine automatically reflects the interrelationship between the divine and the human.
Both ancient Greeks and ancient Romans believed that the gods were actively and intimately involved in the lives of humans. In fact, modern Christianity can be said to arise from…
Ancient Hebrew Civilization." Public Bookshelf. 2003. LoveToKnow, Inc.Public Bookshelf. 12
Mar. 2005 http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/The_Story_of_the_GreatestNations_and_the_Worlds_Famous_Events_Vol_1/ancienth_ja.html
Ellingson, Lief. "Hercules." Encyclopedia Mythica. 2005. Pantheon.org. 12 Mar. 2005 http://www.pantheon.org/areas/mythology/europe/roman/articles.html .
Epstein, Paul. "The Recovery of a Comprehensive View of Greek Tragedy." Animus: A Philosophical Journal for Our Time. 1996. University of Newfoundland. 12 Mar. 2005 http://www.mun.ca/animus/1996vol1/epstein.htm .
Oedipus also chose not to ask questions regarding his past, although this might be ascribed to the fact that he did not know to ask in the first place. It was his choice to leave his adopted family to escape the prophesy that he knows about. The adopted family however choose even at this point not to inform Oedipus of the true nature of his fate.
Another choice that Oedipus makes is to kill Laius at the crossroads, regardless of the fact that the prophesy is very specific regarding where the murder will take place. When he marries the wife of the dead king, it also does not occur to him that this is remarkably parallel to the prophesy. One might therefore argue that Oedipus might have been deliberately blind to the truth of his actions in order to further his own good fortune. On the other hand, ophocles' aim…
Sophocles. Oedipus Tyrannus. http://www.mala.bc.ca/~johnstoi/sophocles/oedipustheking.htm
contemplated an individual's relationship with his or her environment. In Oedipus Rex and Antigone, Sophocles explores the relationship an individual has with the world and society. In each of these plays, Sophocles juxtaposes divinity and humanity and investigates the role of each within Theban society as well as looks into conflicts that arise when the laws of man conflict with divine laws. Through their narratives, Oedipus Rex and Antigone posit man is intended to serve others, including gods, and that they do not exist to be self-serving.
Oedipus Rex revolves around an eponymous anti-hero who by saving the city of Thebes from a Sphinx inadvertently and simultaneously brought forth a plague upon it. By defeating the Sphinx, Oedipus secured his place upon the Theban throne and as such was not only responsible for ensuring laws were abided, but was also responsible for protecting Thebes' citizens. Because of the plague that…
Sophocles. Antigone. The Complete Greek Tragedies. Eds. David Grene and Richard Lattimore.
2nd Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1991. pp. 160-212.
-. Oedipus Rex. The Complete Greek Tragedies. Eds. David Grene and Richard
Lattimore. 2nd Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1991. pp. 10-76.
C.E. With this particular piece, the artist was less concerned with anatomical description than with the problems of foreshortening in the figures and of showing them from different viewpoints. The turning and twisting of the figures indicate that the artist was beginning to view them as three-dimensional volumes with free mobility in a space deeper than the flat, two-dimensional surface of a picture plane, a significant departure from the pre-Greek tradition.
Essentially, the representations on the black figure panel amphora were obviously inspired by the Homeric epic of the Iliad, a poem which relates the famous tale of the attack by the Greek army on the city of Troy. The character of Achilles is by far the most important, for he was considered the best of the Greeks and without equal, the mighty warrior and pre-eminent holder of the Greek principle of excellence in all things. As he engages in…
Heroic Ideal Greece, ome
An Analysis of the Heroic Ideal from Ancient Greece to oman Empire
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece begins with Homer's Iliad, which balances the heroic figures of Achilles and Hector, two opposing warriors and men of honor, amidst a war on which not even the gods are in agreement. Hector and Achilles mirror one another in nobility and strength and both represent an ideal heroic archetype of citizenry -- men who do battle to honor both their countries and their names. To illustrate, however, the way the ideal of heroic citizenship changes from the Greek mythopoetic tradition through to the late Stoicism of oman imperialism, it is necessary to leap ahead several centuries and survey the several different bodies of work.
The mythopoetic tradition in Greece somewhat continually dwells on the same themes with regard to heroic citizenship, whether in Homer or in the Golden Age…
Aristophanes. (1973). Lysistrata/The Acharnians/The Clouds. Trans. Alan Sommerstein. NY: Penguin Classics, 1973.
Homer. (2008). The Iliad. Trans. Robert Fitzgerald. UK: Oxford University Press.
Farewell My Concubine
Kaige Chen's 1993 film Farewell My Concubine traces the development of several characters and the evolution of China throughout the twentieth century, from the Warlord Era in the 1920s until the end of the Cultural Revolution in the 1970s. The social and political upheavals occurring in the country mirrors the strife in the personal lives of Cheng Dieyi, Duan Xiaolou, and Juxian. War, chaos, and social turbulence are apt backgrounds for the depiction of these three central characters. The events of the film begin in Beijing during the warlord era, in 1924. A prostitute names Yanhong carries her child through a crowded public area, where a performance by the Beijing opera enthralls a rowdy crowd. Yanhong ignores a man who calls her a whore, an act that sets the stage for one of the film's overarching themes: social class conflict and the ill treatment of both actors…
On the eve of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution in 1966, which was designed to "reconstruct people's mind," fire becomes a key symbol for transformation, destruction, and change. Dieyi burns the costumes he despises, as Duan and Juxian burn jade relics of the old society. Later he, Duan Xialou, and Juxian are ridiculed in public in front of a great bonfire, their lives at stake. Figures like Na Kun slander and rat out Dieyi, calling the three of them "reactionary" and "anti-party." Like the opera "Farewell My Concubine," the King, played by Duan Xialou, is being defeated by the Han invaders, played by the Communists. In spite of his being "bold and resourceful," he cannot escape his fate.
Farewell my Concubine ends and begins in 1977, ten years after the Cultural Revolution. Dieyi and Duan Xialou are reunited after more than a decade of being apart and are set to perform "Farewell My Concubine" in front of an unseen audience. As his final moment of retribution, Dieyi kills himself on the sword that the pair had been performing with since their early days in the Beijing Opera. Now all of the events of the classical Chinese opera have came to pass, as Duan screams his final farewell to Concubines Yu and Dieyi.
The film captures decades of cultural, political, and social turmoil in China and juxtaposes several layers of characters in play-within-a-play format. The Cultural Revolution eliminated the appearance of the old social stratification, but the lives of actors and prostitutes remain substandard. When Duan, Dieyi, and Juxian stand before their communist accusers, all three of them are ridiculed for being low life actors and prostitutes, a bold assessment of the failure of the proletarian revolution to instill social equity on top of a millenia-old Chinese culture.
Indira Gandhi's assassination and the assassination itself. This paper delves into her early life to understand her political steps. Furthermore, it highlights the economic and political climate of India during her rule. Lastly the paper concludes whether Indira Gandhi can be understood within the context of a tragic heroine.
Indira Gandhi has been a controversial figure in the political history of India. Descending from the most important dynasty of India, Indira ruled India for a total of twelve years; a tenure that ended with her assassination. In retrospect, it is evident that her assassination was a direct result of the ways that she employed in running India's domestic policy. According to some, Indira Gandhi's life can be termed as a Greek tragedy and herself as the tragic heroine. According to Aristotle's description of a tragic hero which he gave in Poetics, a tragic hero is a person who falls from…
Dumar, Dhrub. Impact of Indira Gandhi on Indian Political System. Harper Collins: 1999.
Frank, Katherine. Indira: The Life of Indira Nehru Gandhi. Harper Collins; 2001
Gupte, Pranay. Mother India: A Political Biography of Indira Gandhi. Scribners Charles Sons; 1992.
Jayakar, Pupul. Indira Gandhi: An Intimate Biography. Pantheon Books Inc.: 1993.
Yes, the Oedipus complex aspect of Shakespeare it gives us and which in turn invites us to think about the issue of subjectivity, the myth and its relation to psychoanalytic theory. (Selfe, 1999, p292-322)
Hemlet and Postcolonial theory
Postcolonial theory was born as a result of the publication of the famous work of Edward Said, Orientalism (1978). This theory claim that some authors (Paul Gilroy, Achille Mbembe, Francoise Verges, etc.) and that seem so elegant in its formulation, in my opinion raises three fundamental problems: At a time when we are witnessing the emergence of new expressions of colonialism (colonialism, cultural, political and economic globalization, neo-colonialism nestled in the relationship between the hegemonic colonial past and their old colonies, colonialism in disguise that structure the relationship between international institutions and developing countries, institutions from the rest behest of the former colonial powers according to their interests), speak of post-colonial era…
Aragay, Mireia, and Gemma Lopez. 2005. "Inflecting Pride and Prejudice: Dialogism, Intertextuality, and Adaptation." Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Ed. Mireia Aragay. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p201-19.
Aragay, Mireia, ed. 2005. Books in Motion: Adaptation, Intertextuality, Authorship. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, p88-96.
Baetens, Jan. 2007. "From Screen to Text: Novelization, the Hidden Continent." The Cambridge Companion to Literature on Screen. Ed. Deborah Cartmell and Imelda Whelehan. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, p226-38.
Balides, Constance. 2000. "Jurassic Post-Fordism: Tall Tales of Economics in the Theme Park." Screen 4 I .2: p139-60.
Love Got to Do With it: A Critical Analysis of Hippolytus and Lysistrata.
If one reads Hippolytus and Lysistrata, one may immediately conclude that love has 'nothing' to do with anything. Many Greek plays discuss the subject of love in obtuse ways. Love is often the driving force of Greek tragedies, thought to inspire, incite and even enrage in many cases. While love is an important concept and theme, it is not always presented in a positive light in many plays. This is certainly the case in Hippolytus and Lysistrata, which at best suggest that love is unnecessary or tragic.
Hippolytus written by Euripides does so remarkably well, suggesting that love is something that can not only be manipulated by the Gods, but also something that is less tangible in some cases than passion and lust.
Lysistrata, written by Aristophanes, puts sex and power on a pedestal above love suggesting…
Seldes, G. (1930). "Aristophanes' Lysistrata: A new version." New York: Farrar &
Sutherland, D. (1960). "Hippolytus in Drama and Myth: The Hippolytus of Euripides."
Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.
Both men suffer, and both men have to continue living with that suffering, while losing the people they care about the most. That tragedy is even more apparent in Dove's work, with the misunderstanding about Augustus and what he managed to do in the plantation house. His fate seems more tragic, somehow, because he is being commended for something that he did not do, and is being treated as a hero when in fact he is nothing of the sort. He will have to live up to that reputation in the slave community and it is clear that he will not be able to continue that pretense for very long.
In conclusion, both of these plays use the central theme of incest for different purposes. Dove uses it to illustrate the enduring images of slavery, relationships between blacks and whites and how they were skewed, and how slaves were abused…
Bloom, Harold, ed. Black American Women Poets and Dramatists. New York: Chelsea House, 1996.
Carlisle, Theodora. "Reading the Scars: Rita Dove's the Darker Face of the Earth." African-American Review 34.1 (2000): 135.
Dove, Rita. "The Darker Face of the Earth." American Theatre Nov. 1996: 33+.
The Darker Face of Earth. 2nd ed. Brownsville: Storyline P, 1996.
Though he has vowed to destroy as many vampires as he can and to protect humankind, he is faced with the paradox of destroying part of his identity while trying to save the other. Blade possesses many qualities of a hero, particularly the qualities imbued by his vampiric semi-transformation and his ability and resolve to be courageous for the betterment of humanity. Mythological heroes, much like Blade, often had a close, but conflicted, relationship with their supernatural adversaries and benefactors. Though Blade possesses characteristics of a classical hero, he is also a Byronic hero, as well as an antihero. Like the Byronic hero, Blade comes from a troubled past, is emotionally conflicted, intelligent, and mysterious, but is also considered an outcast. Because Blade is not human, nor is he demon, he struggles to find his place in the world and is forced to live on the fringe of both societies,…
Mazzucchelli on behalf of Asterios (or Ignazio in abstentia) asks in words and graphics whether dividing lives into dualities and opposites is simply easier for than accepting "a sphere of possibilities." As Asterios states as he bends his head over his cigarettes, which are an unusual addiction for such a structured person, "It's just a convenient organizing principle." "As long as one doesn't mistake the system for reality," answers Ignazio. Although Asterios believes that he can handle the human tendency to simplify and sever, it is this division that breaks his emotional attachment with Hana, causing their relationship to dry up with neglect and boredom.
The scenes of disharmony between Hana and Asterios are text- and graphic-filled and colorful and morphing. In exaggerated graphics that portray how each person is thinking, Mazzuchelli shows how individuals build walls around themselves and become introverted as they are placed on the defensive and…
Goldmund and Narcissus respect each other, but they are two very different people, and the former is a student and the latter a teacher. They also feel that one is dangerous to the other. Narcissus takes care of Goldmund, and the polarity between the two becomes clearer over time. It is Narcissus who is the ascetic, the thinker; he does not accept that love is going to come into his life, regardless that he truly loves Goldmund. On the other hand, Goldmund, a man of outwardly love, sees his love unreturned. How can a man of the mind and a man of emotion and spirit find equality and friendship? Narcissus says to disappoint Goldmund: "It is not our aim to merge into one another, but to understand one another, to see and appreciate the other as he is: the other's contradiction and complement." Nor does Narcissus take Goldmund seriously, since he is not a deep thinker.
Goldmund travels for a number of years and gets his fill of life and women. When he returns, Narcissus once again relates the distinction between the two men. Goldmund always had "a dislike of the abstract," thinking in images, but "thinking has nothing to do with images, but with concepts and formulas. Exactly there, where the images end, philosophy begins." If Goldmund had instead become a thinker, he would have become a mystic, and mystics "are all unhappy people." Rather, Goldmund becomes an artist, which pleases Narcissus: "Be yourself, try to fulfill yourself," Narcissus says, to reach perfection. Goldmund leaves one more time and returns a broken man. Narcissus now says: "Let me now tell you, how deeply I love you, how much you always have been to me, how rich you made my life," and kisses him. Goldmund responds: "I have always loved you, Narcissus, half my life has been an attempt to attract you." Narcissus cares for his friend, until he dies. "Goldmund's last words burned in his heart like fire." Similarly, Asterios returns to Hana, and the two sit quietly together, at one and at peace.
Mazzucchelli, David. Asterios Polyp. New York: Pantheon, 2009
Theatrical Analysis of Macbeth and Antigone
The most accounted features of a tragedy are the gloominess of atmosphere, solemnity of action, mental conflicts, strain, suspense and capability of capturing the audience. Tragedy tries to stimulate the sentiments of pity and fear (Devi 1). Thus, this study is comparing the two Shakespearean and Greek tragedies, Macbeth and Antigone. This analysis will compare and contrast the two plays, their theme, comparison of main characters, conflict, plot etc. The purpose of this study is to provide a deeper understanding of the plays to the reader and to assess the similarity and differences in both the plays. Macbeth unfolds the story of a man, ambitious to become a king. He even murders King Duncan to fulfil his ambition due to the prophecy of the three witches and his wife, Lady Macbeth. However, he ends up dying because of his greediness. Antigone, on the other…
Boyd, Catherine Bradshaw. The Isolation of Antigone and Lady Macbeth. The Classical Journal, vol. 47, no. 5(Feb., 1952), 174-177+203, 2014, http://www.wwrsd.org/cms/lib04/NJ01000230/Centricity/Domain/230/Article%203.pdf . Accessed 11 Apr. 2017.
Cap, Adam. Creon as a Tragic Character in "Antigone." AdamCap.com, 16 Feb. 2016, https://adamcap.com/schoolwork/creon-as-a-tragic-character-in-antigone/ Accessed 12 Apr. 2017.
Chu, Dennis. Comparison of Macbeth and Oedipus. Prezi.com, 2010, https://prezi.com/jyrpci7hthum/comparison-of-macbeth-and-oedipus/ . Accessed 10 Apr. 2017.
Collins, J. Churton. Structure and Plot of Antigone. TheatreHistory.com, 2006, http://www.theatrehistory.com/ancient/structure_and_plot_of_antigone.html . Accessed 10 Apr. 2017.
From this point-of-view, Aeneas can be viewed as having failed also from the role of hero because he did not succeed in averting the danger. Even so, it is important to note the fact that Berlioz portrayed him still as a chosen individual. The fact that Aeneas had a premonition in a dream of the falling Troy made him a particular actor in the scene. The symbolism in this sense is related to the dream and the warning. However, the warning came too late and Aeneas failed as the head of his men and as the potential defender of Troy.
There are two feminine characters in Les Troyens. One is Dido, Queen of Carthage, and Cassandra, the Trojan prophetess and Priam's daughter. Cassandra's role however is very important because it draws the attention on the Shakespearian influences of the opera. In most of Shakespeare's works there is such a present.…
Jean Racine's Phaedra is an example of French neoclassical tragedy, which means that it observes certain formal rules of construction. For a start, Racine uses a classical model: in this case, it is the Athenian tragedy Hippolytus, by Euripides, whose basic plot is adapted by Racine. But the larger compositional procedure in neoclassical tragedy involves what is termed "observing the unities." This is a rule from Aristotle's Poetics, the standard ancient critical work on tragedies, which declares that a tragic drama should exhibit a unity of time, a unity of place, and a unity of action. This means in practice that the tragic plot should take place in continuous time over the course of one day or night, in the same location, and be centered generally on the main dramatic conflict and action without subplots. Racine's Phaedra observes these rules punctiliously, as the entire play takes place in a continuous…
Carl Orff a German composer, was born in Munich, Germany on July 10, 1895. Munich had been the place where Orff grew up and where his life had been shaped. The childhood days of Orff brought him a lot of memories that he used later as inspirations for his works and compositions.
Carl Orff started to develop his talent in music at the age of 5. He received his first piano, organ, and cello lessons in 1900. At the age of 16, he had already composed almost 50 songs using the text of classical authors such as Heinrich Heine and Friedrich Hoelderlin (www.dhm.de).When he was at the age of 19, Orff served in First World War for a short period of time
Carl Orff's genius in music was nourished and developed into a master's art at the Academy for the Musical Arts, a music school in Munich where Orff studied.…
Johnson, S.E. Carl Orff and the Orff Approach. Available at http://www2.potsdam.edu/CRANE/campbemr/curriculum/teaching-texts/orff-approach.html . Internet. Accessed 28 November 2003.
Harris, William; Levey, Judity. "Carl Orff.," in The New Columbia Encyclopedia.
Schmerda, Susanne. 2000. 50 Years of Music for Children.
The Odyssey, which was written by Homer, and the Libation Bearers, which was written Aeschylus are some of the ancient Greek writings that act as classic literature. These writings depict events and tragedies that happened in the traditional Greek society and provide important lessons for modern literature given their classical nature. One of the pertinent passages from the Odyssey by Homer and the Libation Bearers from the Greek tragedies is the story of Agamemnon. The Odyssey by Homer provides a detailed account of the life and times of Agamemnon who was a Greek king and the brother of Menelaos. On the other hand, the Libation Bearers was written after Agamemnon's death and acts as one of the major components of the trilogy by Aeschylus, an ancient Greek playwright. The passages have certain similarities and differences based on a specific theme that underpinned and/or inspired the writers.
Hughes, C. (n.d.). Prelude to the Odyssey. Retrieved from Washington State University website: http://public.wsu.edu/~hughesc/Prelude_to_the_Odyssey.html
Suksi, A. (n.d.). The Story of the Death of Agamemnon. Retrieved from University of Western Ontario website: http://publish.uwo.ca/~asuksi/in-class%20essay.htm
Webster, M. (n.d.). Summary of The Libation Bearers. Retrieved from Grand Valley State University website: http://faculty.gvsu.edu/websterm/libation.htm
"The rain, of course. It came midway though the third day, clouds the color of iron filings, the lake hammered to iron too, and the storm that crashed through the trees and beat at their tent with a thousand angry fists (p.4)." This quotation is all the more salient for the fact that in the subsequent paragraph the author mentions that the lovers have neglected to bring sufficient protection. The imagery of the angry fists and the grey storm ravaging trees foreshadows the consequences of such neglect.
Boyle employs a similar sense of foreboding by utilizing imagery inherent in Winter to foreshadow the trouble which the will beset upon the characters when China gives birth. Although the setting is in mid-December, the following quotation, in which China is going to meet Jeremy at a hotel to give birth and then destroy her child, is definitely like Winter in tone and…
Though Medea has been repeatedly referred to as a 'witch' with magical powers, she being the niece of Circe, she is, first and foremost, a woman. She is as much a human being as anybody else, and at the same time, she is in the possession of Divine powers, and this is what helps her get out of Greece and out of her husband's life. (Theater eviews)
Medea has been compared and likened to Achilles, in that she helps her friends, like Aegeus, and harms her enemies, like Pelias. She is in fact likened to a Homeric Hero, and even a step further than that, because she in fact was responsible for the death of her closest friends, her children, when she murdered them in order to spite and wreak revenge upon her husband. Though Medea assumes monstrous proportions towards the end of the play, nowhere is it stated that…
Classic Note on Medea. Retrieved at http://www.gradesaver.com/ClassicNotes/Titles/medea/fullsumm.html . Accessed on 12 June, 2005
Euripides and his Tragedies. Retrieved at http://www.theatrehistory.com/ancient/euripides001.html . Accessed on 12 June, 2005
McDonald, Marianne. Theater Reviews. Retrieved at http://didaskalia.open.ac.uk/issues/vol1no3/mac3.html. Accessed on 12 June, 2005
Medea', a Summary and analysis of the Play by Euripides. Retrieved at http://www.theatrehistory.com/ancient/bates018.html . Accessed on 12 June, 2005
However, she is no bloodless female, absent of sexuality, despite her resistance of Apollo. In this respect, Wolf does update her story -- rather than a virgin or a sexless prophetess, Cassandra does have a relationship with Aeneas. She loves this hero with the ardor of a young woman, calling him the soul of Troy. But because he is a man, unlike Cassandra, Aeneas can master history and triumph. The admiration of Aeneas indicates the verisimilitude Wolf brings to her tale -- Cassandra has emotions and feelings, rather than simply spouts words, as in Agamemnon.
Wolf also interjects anecdotes into the story to make it more clearly told with Trojan eyes such as the Trojan's allegation that Helen was abducted because Priam's sister Hesione's eloped with a Spartan. Again, this underlines Wolf's theme of women as pawns and spoils of war -- it does not matter what Helen or Hesione…
iver of God a New History of Christian origins" by Gregory J. iley.
The iver of God
In The iver of God, Gregory iley tends to focus on the historical aspects of Christian origins that are often ignored by scholars. It is found that majority of the researchers of Christianity confine their subject matter to the inspiration from the Greek and oman. They also confuse abbinic Judaism with the Judaism of Jesus' times. Prof. iley however, takes into account Middle Eastern religious history to our search for God. iley throws light on the subject of the development of Cannanite and Mesopotamian religion in the history of ancient Judaism.
He also adds to Greek ideas of Orphism, Pythagoreanism and Plato, by throwing light on the Egyptian and Persian Zoroastrian impact on the progress of Christian concepts of afterlife. iley highlights the role of Persian Zoroastrianism to make us understand the concept…
Gregory J. Riley, The River of God A New History of Christian origins, Published March
4,2003, Publisher Haper, San Francisco.
Good Man is Hard to Find
Flannery O'Conner's short story, a Good Man is Hard to Find is a modern parable. The story is laced with symbolism and religious subtext. In many ways the piece is similar to classical Greek plays about pride and retribution.
efore launching into a discussion of O'Conner's story it is important to understand the woman and her motivations to write. O'Conner was born in Savannah, Georgia in 1925 to her devout Catholic parents, Edward and Regina O'Conner. Flannery spent her youth attending Catholic parochial schools. In 1938, the family moved to a town just outside Atlanta called Milledgeville where Flannery continued her education. Unfortunately, her father would ultimately die in this town as the result of complications from the disease lupus. Flannery went on to Georgia State College for Women and then proceeded to the State University of Iowa where she received her MFA in…
O'Conner, Flannery. A Good Man is Hard to Find. 1953. http://xroads.virginia.edu/~DRBR/goodman.html
Galloway, Patrick. The Dark Side of Flannery O'Conner. 1996. http://www.cyberpat.com/essays/flan.html
Mitchel, J. Tin Jesus: The Intellectual in Selected Short Fiction of Flannery O'Conner. 2000. http://sunset.backbone.olemiss.edu/~jmitchel/flannery.htm
Coles, Robert. Flannery O'Conner's South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1980.
Aeschylus - the Oresteia (Agamemnon, Libation Bearers and Eumenides)
The Oresteia offers the reader a close and intensive immersion with a truly pained universe of suffering: each play still has at its core a sense of flush of promise and vibrancy of Athens that was pushing forth and evolving into greatness. Even so, the author Aeschylus is able to captures a sense of the undercurrents of the primal vengeance that still defined this society. Each of the plays has in a common a strong pillar of the humanity and the lack of humanity that needs to be held in balance as the events spin and unfold. One could argue that the notion of suffering into truth is something which defines each of the plays in the trilogy. For instance, the first play thrusts the reader into a world which has been largely defined by the suffering of the Trojan War…
The theatre of the absurd does not depend on eliciting certain specific emotional responses, but rather on generating any sort of emotional disturbance -- it demands that the audience question its basic emotional beliefs, not give over to them.
In a careful explication of the concept of catharsis, Allan H. Gilbert determines that pity is the primary emotion necessary for the drama to elicit (rejecting the common counterpart, fear). Pity has no real meaning in the theatre of the absurd, however; it requires a great deal more identification with the characters, when one of the major effects of the genre is to cause a certain alienation from the characters and the supposed realities of the play -- and of the surrounding world. Anger and frustration are more appropriate emotional reactions than pity to a piece of absurdist theatre, and they are more appropriately addressed towards the self and towards reality…
Belfiore, Elizabeth. "Pleasure, Tragedy and Aristotelian Psychology." The Classical Quarterly, New Series, Vol. 35, No. 2 (1985), pp. 349-361.
Gilbert, Allan H. "The Aristotelian Catharsis." The Philosophical Review, Vol. 35, No. 4 (Jul., 1926), pp. 301-314
Pearce, Howard. "Harold Pinter's "The Black and White": Mimesis and Vision." Contemporary Literature, Vol. 33, No. 4 (Winter, 1992), pp. 688-711.
Spanos, William V. "Modern Drama and the Aristotelian Tradition: The Formal Imperatives of Absurd Time." Contemporary Literature, Vol. 12, No. 3 (Summer, 1971), pp. 345-372.
Moving beyond the plot and the intricacies of life at the New epublic though, and into the world of Hollywood producers, writers, and actors, one must also ask about the veracity and credibility of the portrayals of journalistic acumen for the general public. Films such as Alan Pakula's All the President's Men (1976), Peter Weir's the Year of Living Dangerously (1982), or oland Joffe's the Killing Fields (1984), all present the journalistic morality surrounding slant, sourcing, and frankly, what to exclude to ensure the acceptance of the story. There are more examples about aggressive and expose' hunting reporters, but one asks if Glass is not being shown as the typical, epitomizing print journalism through the eyes of Hollywood, as opposed to the rouge, well-intentioned, but naively arrogant, reporter? (Bowden).
When one replays some of the key scenes in the movie, one is struck by the calm, but budding nervousness Christensen…
Beckerman, G. "Facts and Fictions: Shards of Glass." Columbia Journalism Review.
42.3 (2003): 54. Print.
Bowden, M. "When the Front Page Meets the Big Screen." The Atlantic Monthly.
293.2 (2004): 146. Print.
Colonial Resistance in Things Fall Apart
Chinua Achebe was born in Ogidi, Nigeria, and his father was a teacher in a missionary school. His parents were devout evangelical Protestants and christened him Albert after Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria, although they installed in him many of the values of their traditional Igbo culture. He attended University College in Ibadan, where he studied English, history and theology. At the university Achebe rejected his ritish name and took his indigenous name Chinua. In 1953 he graduated with a A, and later studied broadcasting at the C where, in 1961, he became the first Director of External roadcasting at the Nigerian roadcasting Corporation. In 1944 Achebe attended Government College in Umuahia. He was also educated at the University College of Ibadan, like other major Nigerian writers including John Okigbo, Wole Soyinka, John Pepper Clark, Elechi Amadi, and Cole Omotso. There he studied…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1958.
Balint-Kurti, Daniel. "Novelist rejects national honors to protest conditions in Nigeria." Chicago Sun-Times. 18 October 2004. 4 August 2005 .
Bowen, Roger. "Speaking Truth to Power: An Interview with Chinua Achebe." Academe. Jan/Feb 2005. 4 August 2005 .
Gallagher, Susan VanZanten. "Linguistic power: encounter with Chinua Achebe - Nigerian writer." Christian Century. 12 March 1997. 4 August 2005 .
Nature of Justice -- ecular or Divine?
The comparison of Antigone and Dante's Inferno is interesting as they are really quite different in style, tone, context, and story type. Both stories address the choices made by mankind, and the allegiances that people form and that impact their actions. Dante is in charge of the telling in his story, but Antigone must suffer through the interpretations, telling, and retelling of her story and that of her opponent.
Antigone. Third of the three Theban plays, Antigone is a tragedy attributed to ophocles circa 442 BC. Of the three plays set in the city of Thebes, Antigone was created first but is chronologically the last in the stream of events. Establishing the premises related to the characters in the story is dominant in the first part of the play, then the action relentlessly advances toward the outcome, which the reader assumes…
Antigone. Retrieved http://classics.mit.edu/Sophocles/antigone.html
Dante's Inferno. Archive of Classic Poems. Retrieved http://www.everypoet.com/archive/poetry/dante/dante_contents.htm
Tom Stoppard's play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead and the play it was based on, Shakespeare's Hamlet, acting is a major theme and motif. Especially in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead, acting signifies the falsity, absurdity, and superficiality of life. Therefore, acting and the staging of plays is a metaphor for living. However, acting also causes the audience to perceive the play in an entirely new way, especially in Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead. In Stoppard's play, the audience never truly suspends disbelief because even the main characters, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, refer to the audience directly and because the play has no outstanding plot. Both plays use acting to portray the futility and tragedy of life, but Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are Dead does so in an almost slapstick way. Stoppard's play is a comedy that grossly exaggerates two minor characters in Shakespeare's Hamlet. While Shakespeare shows how acting and drama…
Not following his own rules, in the end, would make him attractive to Thebes as he would stay close to the rules of Gods. Following his words, would have meant the despise of all Greece, something no political strategy would allow.
It could be said that his change of direction comes, therefore, from two causes. The first, and the immediate one, comes from the pressures the Chorus puts him to. It could be argued that the Chorus, in this case, is his political conscience that asks for admitting that his decision is detrimental for his rule. A leader that creates rules with effects that are opposing the beliefs of his people has little chance for a good reign, especially in the shadows of a civil war. A state with a fragile political and social system is vulnerable to exterior forces. The other cause of his decision to bury Polyneices and…
What is Neuroeconomics? Provide two examples that standard economics failed to explain but the Neuroeconomics can.
The term is a combination of two sciences that, until recently, were thought to not connected. Neuroscience looks at what areas of the brain are stimulated by different activities, and tries to determine connections and see differences where anecdotal evidence would imagine similarities. Economics looks at the behavior of people where money is concerned and tries to understand why people behave the way they do looking at the action and the result. Of course both sciences are much more complicated than this, but when looking at where they intersect these functions matter the most. Neuroeconomics tries to determine the reasons people act in a certain way, based on a stimulus, by using imaging tools such as fMI, Pet scans, and other imaging software to show which areas of the brain activate during the…
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Pablo Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Malaga, Spain. His father was an art teacher and a painter. Although Pablo Picasso was classically trained, he would come to "break painting out of its mold" throughout his prolific career (Aviram and Hartnett 207). Picasso first started painting in Spain, and his ideas and techniques evolved first in Barcelona. After that, Picasso spent a large amount of time in Paris pursuing a career in art. When Picasso was in Paris, he helped revolutionize art by developing cubism, a philosophy and style of painting. Cubism has been called a "towering intellectual and artistic achievement that irrevocably altered the course of European art by shattering the spatial field and reassembling its component parts from different angles," ("Picasso, Pablo" 1781). Before he developed cubism in Paris, though, Picasso developed his style in Barcelona during what is usually referred to as his…
Aviram, Amittai F. And Hartnett, Richard. "The Man with the Blue Guitar': Dialogism in Lyric Poetry." In Blevins, Jacob, Dialogism and Lyric Self-fashioning. Rosemont, 2008.
Bertman, Sandra. "The Old Guitarist (The Blind Guitarist)." LitMed. Retrieved online: http://medhum.med.nyu.edu/view/10315
Gedo, Mary Matthews. "A Youthful Genius Confronts His Destiny." Art Institute of Chicago Museum Studies
Vol. 12, No. 2, The Helen Birch Bartlett Memorial Collection (1986), pp. 152-165
As Gerald Mast states, "Details develop the film's emotional dynamics" (138), and these details are everywhere in the mise-en-scene. The most important aspect of the mise-en-scene, of course, is the acting. Actors are the most obvious props -- and Oh Dae-su provides ample instances of buffoonery that keeps Oldboy from sinking into the mire of its own violence. Despite all the gore, the film harbors a gentleness and affection, thanks to the acting from Oh Dae-su and Mido. Even the villain provides a handsome face and charming smile -- and an affable voice; even he is hard not to like, as he plays cat and mouse with Oh Dae-su.
The low-key lighting also helps provide the audience with the emotional connection necessary for the kind of mystery the film attempts to be. Scenes are shrouded in darkness -- such as when the heroes find themselves working in the Internet…
Axmaker, Sean. "Oldboy story of revenge is beaten down by its own brutality." Seattle
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