Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Han Dynasty of China
The Han Dynasty lasted from 206 BC to 280 AD. It followed on the heels of the short-lived Qin Dynasty and came into being as a result of Liu Bang's victory in rebellion. The Han Dynasty may be separated into two parts: the estern Han, which lasted approximately the first two hundred years; and the Eastern Han, which made up approximately the second two hundred years. In between these two parts, appeared the Xin Dynasty, which existed for little more than a decade. Aside from this interlude, the Han Dynasty had a tremendous stay and its impact on China was considerable. Today, it is remembered as a Golden Age of China. This paper will discuss the Han Dynasty and show what made it so particularly special to the Chinese people.
ith the fall of the Qin Dynasty, China split into warring factions. Liu Bang was "the…
China: Five Thousand Years of History and Civilization. Hong Kong: City University
of Hong Kong Press, 2007. Print.
Di Cosmo, Nicola. Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East
Asian History. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001. Print.
Han Dynasty in China
The ise and Fall of the Han Empire
In a country well governed, poverty is something to be ashamed of. In a country badly governed, wealth is something to be ashamed of. --Confucius
The Han dynasty was one of China's longest and most powerful dynasties, spanning a period form 206 BC to 220 AD during which two dynasties were formed. The Western Han took place form 206 BC to 24 AD and the Eastern Han was established in 25 BC and lasted until 220 AD[footnoteef:1]. The Han dynasty was the second Imperial dynasty in China. Twenty-four emperors reigned during the Han dynasty.[footnoteef:2] A number of these emperors contributed strongly to the order and prosperity of the country, of which Emperor Gaozu, Wen, Jing, and Wu are known to have particularly accomplished noteworthy outcomes for their people.[footnoteef:3] However, the ancient Chinese practice of permitting royal juveniles to…
____. (2014). Silk Road. Livius: Articles on Ancient History. Retreived http://www.livius.org/place/silk-road/
____. (2014). Han Dynasty. Travel China Guide. Retrieved http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/ han/
Temple, Robert. (1986). The Genius of China: 3,000 Years of Science, Discovery, and Invention. With a forward by Joseph Needham. New York: Simon and Schuster, Inc. ISBN 0-671-62028-2.
Turchin, Peter; Adams, Jonathan M.; Hall, Thomas D. (December 2006). "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires." Journal of world-systems research 12 (2): 219 -- 229. ISSN 1076-156X http://www.jwsr.org/
For a society whose entire livelihood was tied to the migration patterns of animals, this factor is a vital change (Bellwood, 2004).
As mentioned, the technological advancements required for progress were vast, but were somehow attained by the Paleolithic people. The plow, loom, wheel, clay bricks, and calendars were all developed, despite a lack of knowledge surrounding such technical aspects (Bellwood, 2004).
Perhaps the largest factor in the transition was the changing global climate.
During the late Paleolithic period, the farmers of the Middle East concentrated on grain crops and plants that originated in a wet climate. However, these climates changed drastically, forcing the farmers to develop new farming methods to avoid starvation. As a result, some began to travel long distances to find food, but always remained near a water source. The key factor at this time was the change due to the end of the last ice age.…
Bellwood, P. (2004). First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies. New York: Blackwell Publishers.
History of China." China Discovery. Travel China Guide. 2004. Obtained April 27, 2007 at http://www.travelchinaguide.com/intro/history/ .
Mote, F.W. (1999). Imperial China: 900-1800. Boston: Harvard University Press.
Rossabi, M. (1983). China among Equals: The Middle Kingdom and Its Neighbors, 10th-14th Centuries. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Sui, Tang, and Song Dynasties
The Major Changes in the Political Structures, Social and Economic Life in the Sui, Tang and Song Dynasties
One leading present-day nation that was home to one of the world's oldest and greatest civilizations and has a rich, 5000-year-old history is China. The Chinese culture can be traced back to an assortment of small, early tribes that grew to become modern-day China (Chafilwa, 2012).
According to Ahmed (2015), after the Han dynasty's disorganized and divided reign came to an end, the country experienced a period of preeminence beginning from 589 C.E. From 589 to 1279 C.E., it underwent reunification, achievement, chaos and renaissance. The Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties are credited with being the main chronological contributors to the aforementioned phases.
The Sui Dynasty
This empire ruled over China for a relatively small period of 38 years, between 581 and 618 C.E. Of its…
How likely, for instance, would it be that someone would give up a great job or a new life in a new place just to remain home with a child? Instead, the modern woman would find day-care and attempt to balance both.
his theme of balance is another predominant philosophy from Ning. When Ning was younger, she deferred to the wisdom of the elders and the ideas put upon her as a youth -- namely that tradition and destiny are predetermined. It was interesting to chart the manner in which Ning grew emotionally as she aged to realize that she made her own existence, her own present, and her own future. As Ning turned from a victim waiting for a husband to bring home money for food to a working woman serving many families, she found she had to cast out any dependence upon others for her own welfare and…
This reader was aware of the importance of family in traditional Chinese culture, but not to the extend shown in Ning's life. For her entire lifetime, in fact, Ning's sole purpose was to remain close to her children and grandchildren -- to pass on the wisdom of the elders and to ensure that the lineage of the family was carried to the next generation. Little did her family know just how much Ning gave up just to ensure that her family would have enough to eat and the children could grow up and have families of their own. This, too, is something that is not really present in modern American culture. While families still get together at holidays, and some are closer than others, the idea of "family first" is not a pervasive idea like it was for Ning. How likely, for instance, would it be that someone would give up a great job or a new life in a new place just to remain home with a child? Instead, the modern woman would find day-care and attempt to balance both.
This theme of balance is another predominant philosophy from Ning. When Ning was younger, she deferred to the wisdom of the elders and the ideas put upon her as a youth -- namely that tradition and destiny are predetermined. It was interesting to chart the manner in which Ning grew emotionally as she aged to realize that she made her own existence, her own present, and her own future. As Ning turned from a victim waiting for a husband to bring home money for food to a working woman serving many families, she found she had to cast out any dependence upon others for her own welfare and actively take charge of her life and make the future for her children the way she envisioned it. However, it was this dichotomy between independence and reliance on traditional values that separated Ning from many of her friends and relatives. At the same time, it strengthened her, giving us all a life lesson to contemplate.
Many times during the reading of the book this reader had to stop and realize that this was not fiction -- that the things that happened here were ostensibly real and told to Ms. Pruitt by Ning herself. Too, one must ask why the memoirs of someone born in 1867 who told her story in the 1940s, would have any impact or relevance to contemporary society. In fact, we find ourselves saddened that the book ends in 1938 with the Japanese invasion of Beijing. This is primarily because we have come to know this character like a member of our own family, and taken wisdom, encouragement and advice from her, much as we might our own grandmother.
Han dynasty, Confucianism has been a central and defining feature of Chinese art and culture. It therefore makes sense that Confucian values and ideals would be reflected in Chinese art throughout the past several millennia. Even when Confucian principles are blended or confounded with the principles of Daoism and Buddhism, the Confucian themes of law, order, structure, and hierarchy become salient. Moral rectitude in the Confucian model means ascription to a patriarchal social order, and obedience to authority. Perhaps the most obvious way Confucian moral precepts are depicted in art is through the careful ordering of the world evident in Chinese scroll paintings. "Admonitions of the Instructions to the Court Ladies" is a horizontal scroll painting that accompanies a literary tale with themes related to "wifely virtue," a prime Confucian moral precept (Kleiner, 2016b, p. 473). Yet is more than just wifely virtue that this scroll painting shows; it is…
Some of the issues that made Liu a favorite of many were the fact that he lowered taxes, he reduced the demand for labor from the state and the origin being from the peasants.
Liu appointed rich land owners as governors because of the distrust he had against merchants, he as well appointed officials that were loyal to him ensuring that he controlled all the powers within the dynasty. Liu died in 195 B.C and left a stable Han dynasty. Though there were power struggles within the dynasty after the death of Liu, they were resolved by capable leadership. The rule of Jingdi, Wendi and Wudi were predominantly peaceful, prosperous for peasants, expansion of China, art and trade thrived as well under Confucianism. The expansion saw northern Vietnam, Korean peninsula come under the Han dynasty. Trade routes to Asia were open including the famous Silk oad.
However, the wars of…
Cultural China, (2012). The Collapse of the Han Dynasty. http://history.cultural-china.com/en/183History6001.html
Rit Nosotro, (2010). The Decline of the Han Dynasty and the Roman Empire. http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/comp/cw07hanromecollapse33100120.htm
Socyberty, (2009). The Fall of the Roman and Han Empires. http://socyberty.com/history/the-fall-of-the-roman-and-han-empires/
Zhu Yuanzhang: First Ming Dynasty Emperor
Zhu Yuanzhang was founder of the Ming Dynasty, the one dynasty that endured for so long (1368-1644), considering the fact that it was established by a commoner. The reason Ming Dynasty and its first emperor Yuanzhang occupy special place in Chinese history is because this was one of the only lonely two dynasties to have been formed by a landless peasant. It is not everyday that commoner emerges from nowhere, overthrown powerful rulers of the time, establishes his own dynasty that endures for three long centuries. But Yuanzhang managed to achieve this colossal feat and thus his name went down in Chinese history as a competent emperor, second commoner only after Liu Bang of Han Dynasty to rule China.
Yuanzhang's rise to fame and power was simply unprecedented in history. Born to a very poor family in Anhui province in 1328, Yuanzhang was orphaned…
1) David Curtis Wright; John E. Findling-editor, Frank W. Thackeray -- editor THE HISTORY OF CHINA, Greenwood Press. Westport, CT. 2001
2) Michael, Franz; China through the Ages: History of a Civilization. Westview Press: Boulder, CO. 1986.
3) Edward Thomas Williams: A Short History of China. Harper & Brothers. New York. 1928.
power of China from the Shang Dynasty to the estern Han. There are eight references used for this paper.
China has seen a number of changes in terms of history and power over the years. It is interesting to examine the changing nature of the association as well as explore the relationship between history and political authority from the Shang Dynasty to the estern Han.
China's history has been documented in a number of ancient writings.
Centuries of migration, amalgamation, and development brought about a distinctive system of writing, philosophy, art, and political organization that came to be recognized as Chinese civilization (Shinn, 1991)."
The fact that this civilization has continued over 4,000 years provides it with a unique position in world history.
Until the twentieth century, members of the ruling scholar-official class were responsible for documenting the history of China, which was "meant to provide the ruler…
Ancient Dynasties. (accessed 06 October, 2003) ).
Birdwhistell, Anne D. 1995. Medicine and history as theoretical tools in a Confucian
Pragmatism. Vol. 45, Philosophy East and West. 01 January. Pp. 1 (28).
HIGHLIGHTS OF CHINESE CULTURE AND HISTORY. (accessed 06 October, 2003) www.chinatown-online.com/cultureeye/highlights/bronze.htm).
Zhou (or Chou) dynasty, arising to power after defeating the Shang Dynasty in China in the mid-1000's C, was the first dynasty to move the people groups which lived in the area currently known as modern china toward a common civilization.
Under the Shang, the Chinese people were no more than a collection of family tribes scattered throughout the region. At the beginning of the Chou dynastry, the region still felt little cohesive cultural unity. It wasn't until the 6th and 7th centuries C that archeological designations begin to appear that signify the people were collecting under a common identity. The early forms of collectivism appeared in the form of tribal heads marrying daughters of neighboring tribes. At this time, the term Hsia appeared, and was used as a designation for the people of the region who had the common experiences of living under a number of dynasties.…
Benn, Charles. 2002 Daily Life in Traditional China: The Tang Dynasty. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
Ebrey, Patricia Buckley.1993. "Religion and Society in Tang and Song China." Hawaii: University of Hawaii Press.
Gernet, Jacques 1998. Buddhism in Chinese Society: An Economic History from the 5th to 10th Centuries. Coilumbia University Press.
Keightley, David (ed.) 1983. The origins of the Chinese Civilization. California:University of California Press.
New Culture May 4th movements. Why considered important modern Chinese history? 2. What Han synthesis? Who principle figure process elements bring create ? 3.
As suggested by the terminology, the New Culture movement refers to the attempt to rise against traditional Chinese culture. The movement was initiated by various Chinese intellectual circles around 1916 and was related to the perception that Confucian tradition contributed to the country's stagnation and national weakness and inhibited the development of China. The May 4th Movement, part of the overall Chinese cultural reform, refers to the day in 1919 that marked the immense popular protest against some of the terms that the treaty of Versailles included. The population reacted against Japan receiving territorial rights in China which had been previously owned by Germans. The Chinese intellectuals deemed the imperious need of a cultural movement that would enable China's adaptation of norms to those of the…
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…
1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf
2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf
3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf
4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
The more important someone's rank in society was, the bigger the obligations became and thus, the responsibility increased.
Mesopotamia was a region between the two rivers Tigris and Euphrates where the swing of world's first civilization emerged. Various cultures occupied the region and were brought together solely by their customs and religion. Trade came in as the result of agriculture, it brought prosperity and urbanization. The rise of cities led to economic and political developments, one city being conquered by another until the establishment of the first Mesopotamian empire by Sargon that lasted about 150 years until outside powers such as the Hittites (who raided Babylon) gained control over some areas. During the Middle Bronze Age, the Assyrians conquered much of Mesopotamia and, with the rise of the Babylonian dynasty, trade was once again favoured and brought along warfare.
The Alexandrian Empire was favoured by a number of its king's…
In this sense, "During the 1950s and 1960s, especially after the falling-out between hina and the former Soviet Union, the hinese government actively relocated Han hinese to frontier provinces such as Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, and Heilongjiang, in order to consolidate the border in light of possible military threat from the Soviets"
. Therefore, the decision to intervene in the ethnic composition of the region was not only a choice related to the national identity of the country but also to geostrategic aspects.
After the end of the old War, the region remained of importance for hina form the perspective of the national identity as well as crucial natural resources, which include oil reserves. From this perspective, massive investments have been conducted in the region, stating the official reason to be the reduction of the disparities between the regions of hina. In this sense, "Rich in natural gas, oil, and warm…
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Rome. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnston, Sarah. Religions of the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, 2004.
Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." German Journal of Psychiatry, vol 8, 42-48, 2005.
Sikora, Jack. Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press, 2002.
Confucianism in Pre-Modern China
Confucianism comes from the Chinese philosopher Confucius, after whom the philosophy takes its name. Confucius lived from the middle of the 6th century BC to the first part of the 5th century BC and was a teacher of the values of those who lived in the days of Chinese antiquity. For Confucius, the greatest years of the Zhou dynasty had come in the three centuries prior to his birth. The dynasty itself lasted for centuries following Confucius' life, though in a much different form from what came before. Confucius viewed the lessons of the early Zhou dynasty as containing valuable nuggets of wisdom. Confucius' teachings carried on well after his day as did many other schools of thought in China, where philosophy and wisdom were highly prized and sought after by many Chinese leaders from Confucius' own time till the end of the 3rd century BC.…
Some Chinese researchers assert that Chinese flutes may have evolved from of Indian provenance.
In fact, the kind of side-blon, or transverse, flutes musicians play in Southeast Asia have also been discovered in Africa, India, Saudi Arabia, and Central Asia, as ell as throughout the Europe of the Roman Empire. This suggests that rather than originating in China or even in India, the transverse flute might have been adopted through the trade route of the Silk Road to Asia. In addition to these transverse flutes, Southeast Asians possessed the kind of long vertical flutes; similar to those found in Central Asia and Middle East.
A considerable amount of similarities exist beteen the vertical flutes of Southeast Asia and flutes from Muslim countries. This type of flute possibly came from Persians during the ninth century; during the religious migration to SEA. Likeise, the nose-blon flute culture, common to a number of…
Purple highlight means reference from his thesis, chapters 1-5
Blue highlight means reference from his raw research that was sent (17 files)
Yellow highlight means that writer could not find reference; one of the 17 files received
Gray highlight means writer found this source
Chinese Jade Burial Suits
During all my travels throughout ancient China, one of the more peculiar beliefs I came across was the notion that jade holds mystical powers, capable of preventing the body from decaying. I am currently in Chang'an, the capital of the dynasty, which is known in the present day as Xi'an. The year is 192 CE. The people of the estern Han Dynasty universally agree that this supposedly magical material is the essence of mountains, and because it prevents the decomposition of the physical form, it may in fact ensure rebirth. Now, as of the present day, very few of these jade burial suits still actually exist, and it may seem ambiguous as to whether or not they were a passing fad or a momentary excess amongst emperors. However, upon my investigation of the long-forgotten past, I have found that this practice of burying the dead with…
Cultural China. (2007-2010). Jade burial suit. Retrieved December 9, 2010, from http://arts.cultural-china.com/en/32Arts415.html
China.org.cn. (2001). Handicraft industry and technological advances. Retrieved December 9,
2010, from http://www.china.org.cn/e-gudai/4.htm
H-ry?-ji. Horyuji: a brief history. Retrieved December 9, 2010, from http://www.horyuji.or.jp/horyuji_e.htm
Burial ituals: The Early Chinese
From Early Chinese periods, starting roughly from the Shang Dynasty, the Chinese community have been of the belief that the souls of those who demise subsist in another world. This world is referred to as the netherworld and that graves were their earthly dwellings (China Highlights, 2016). The purpose of this paper is to discuss the different burial rituals and customs that were practiced in the ancient Chinese period.
The appropriate manner of the burial ceremony has always been an aspect of great significance to the Chinese. A person's soul was believed to leave the physical body at the time of death, with the purpose of taking its place in the spirit realm. Therefore, according to the Early Chinese, an elaborate funeral provided the spirits in the subsequent world, together with the bereaved persons left behind, a proper indication of the rank of…
Bradley, J. (2016). Traditions of Ancient China Regarding Death. Retrieved 29 February, 2016 from: http://classroom.synonym.com/traditions-ancient-china-regarding-death-7976.html
China Highlights. (2016). A Grave Day -- the Culture of Death! Retrieved 29 February, 2016 from: http://www.chinahighlights.com/travelguide/article/death-culture.htm
Clydesdale, C. H. (2009). The Vibrant Role of Mingqi in Early Chinese Burials. In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000. Retrieved 29 February, 2016 from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/mgqi/hd_mgqi.htm
Lagerwey, J., Kalinowski, M. (2009). Early Chinese Religion: Part One: Shang Through Han (1250 BC-220 AD) (2 Vols). Netherlands: Brill.
Today when one thinks of a country with explosive economic growth and a bright future both economically and politically, China comes to mind. China has risen in prominence on the global stage at an exceedingly fast rate. It is sometimes referred as the United States, next great potential rival, and with good reason. It is officially known as the People's epublic of China and is the world's most populated country in the world, with over 1.35 billion people (CIA). It is ruled by a single political party, the Communist Party, with Beijing being the capital and therefore, the epicenter of political power in China. China is also the second largest country in regards to land area. It is a diverse geological country, its landscape consisting of deserts, forests, to subtropical forests in the south (CIA). A country with vast natural resources, its population being of them, and a rising…
China. (n.d.). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved March 13, 2014, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html
Keay, J. (2009). China: a history. London: Harper Perennial.
Wilkinson, E.P. (2000). Chinese history: a manual (Rev. And enl. ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Published by the Harvard University Asia Center for the Harvard-Yenching Institute: .
4) Many Westerners have mistakenly thought of China as a largely closed empire/culture. Write an essay showing the ways China has influenced, and has been influenced by, the wider world. Make a specific argument about which has been greater: China's influence on the world or the wider world's influence on China.
It's true that many people have thought that China is a mostly closed empire and culture, but that couldn't be further from the truth. China has continued to have an impact on western culture in the areas of religion, cuisine, health and lifestyle. For example, Buddhism is currently enjoying a tremendous amount of popularity in the West and is being explored and practices by a range of Westerners, from Madonna to Elle Fanning. Nearly every other home in America has a box of green tea in their cupboard, a practice which was relayed directly from China. Vegan diets of…
Chinese Atist AI Weiwei
"Tuth, No Matte the Powe: China govenment's aggesso."
This pesentation will povide you with an intoduction to Ai's life and wok, including his pesonal backgound, some of his geatest woks of at and thei significance as well as the contovesies they have caused in his native China.
Although AI has faced temendous opposition fom the Chinese govenment, he is a foce to be eckoned with: he has dedicated his life to change and expanding awaeness about human ights abuses in China. His intenational fame has made him a global voice fo China's 1.3 billion people.
Fist, I will povide you with a bief backgound as to Ai's beginnings. Ai is known fo his conceptual at, at that emphasizes ideas ove aesthetics and visual appeal. Ai believes that being an atist is moe about a lifestyle and attitude than poducing an atistic poduct. His ealy, seminal influence…
The British Empire gained significant land share within North America through its conquests and emigration. From the founding of Jamestown to the growth of the greater New England region, the North American territories represented a significant portion of the British Empire. Following the Seven Years War, England won the entire territory of New France and doubled the territory possession within North America. Although from a trade perspective North America was not the furtive economic zone that Britain originally envisioned, it did become a several exporter of tobacco, cotton and rice to the British Empire, as well as naval material and furs from the northern region. The American Revolution affected the British Empire in several different ways, it proved to be a symbolic blow the largest empire of the European Continent, and it provided a model for liberation and freedom throughout the rest of the colonial territories. The American Revolution occurred…
Over the course of time, this gave many, the ability to express ideas from: Chinese mysticism and culture. Guang is the classic example of this, where a mysterious dragon is resting on a base. This is signifying, the belief in East Asian ideals and what they have tied to these different views (such as dragons). Where, the subject is depicted to be: powerful and larger than life creature (even though they are not real). ("China and Korea 1729")
The Neighing Horse
The use of stoneware, allowed artists the ability to be able to: create real depictions of actual people and things. This helped artisans to design a real life representation of their subjects. They would then paint these images, to illustrate the emotions and feelings that were being experienced. This is important, because it helped to create new ways that artists could be able to: represent their subjects and the…
In ancient China, the science of mathematics was subsumed under the larger practice of suan chu, or the "art of calculation." The Chinese are believed to be one of the first civilizations to develop and use the decimal numeral system. Their early mathematical studies have influenced science among neighboring Asian countries and beyond.
This paper examines the history of mathematical knowledge in China. It looks at the early Chinese achievements in the field of mathematics, including the decimal system, calculation of pi, the use of counting aids and the application of mathematical principles to everyday life. It also examines the influence of Indian and later, European mathematical knowledge into Chinese mathematics.
Unlike the ancient Greeks who prized knowledge for its own sake, much of the scientific studies conducted in ancient China were spurred by practical everyday needs. Because of its geographic location, China was prone to…
Martzloff, Jean-Claude. A History of Chinese Mathematics. New York: Springer Verlag, 1997.
Needham, Joseph. Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 3, Mathematics and the Sciences of the Heavens and the Earth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1959.
Spence, Jonathan D. To Change China: Western Advisers in China, 1620-1960. New York: Penguin Press, 200
Swetz, Frank. Was Pythagoras Chinese?: An Examination of Right Triangle Theory in Ancient China. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977.
In contrast Mozi argued that people should always care for others equally.
Linking the thoughts of different philosophers
The ancient Chinese sacrificial practice was very common whereby the historical dynasties had carried out human sacrifices quite extensively. However there was the disappearance of this ritual during the periods of spring and autumn as well as the warring periods. Though it was practiced privately this ritual of sacrificing humans was replaced at the state level by clay puppets. The reason why this ritual was discontinued was not known. All these philosophers ignored the blood letting ritual but instead put emphasis on ritual morality to form the foundation of ritual state. Xunzi came up with a funeral ritual which was an ancestral right which required blood sacrifice in the ancient time. This according to him was to form the basis for good citizenship and morality when it came to rituals (Plutschow, 2002).…
Plutschow, H. (2002). Xunzi and the Ancient Chinese Philosophical Debate on Human Nature. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.anthropoetics.ucla.edu/ap0801/xunzi.htm
Cultural-china.com. (2010). Mohism (Philosophy of Mozi). Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://history.cultural-china.com/en/49H6943H12322.html
Brindley, E. (2011). Individualism in Classical Chinese Thought. Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.iep.utm.edu/ind-chin/
Piblius. (2007). Comparing Mohism and Confucianism. . Retrieved May 23, 2013 from http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/16546-comparing-mohism-and-confucianism/
The State has also established a string of both general and specific policies for improving and developing special education and set aside special funds for this purpose. Consequently, just like regular education, special education has also developed rapidly. Although local governments are encouraged to provide compulsory education to children with and without disabilities, the enacted policies do not necessitate that education be provided to all students.
Despite the fact that students with disabilities were earlier educated in special schools, China has adopted new channels of special education including the integration of disabled children into general education classes. Currently, the number of disabled children enrolled in schools has continued to experience a big increase since 1987. Although many articles in the laws formulated by the Chinese government call for the overall education of handicapped children, special education for children with autism or severe disabilities is not directly mentioned in these policies…
Baker, M. (2007, November 17). China's Bid for World Domination. Retrieved April 11, 2010,
Mu K, Yang H & Armfield A (n.d.). China's Special Education: A Comparative Analysis.
Retrieved April 11, 2010, from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/13/16/25.pdf
I Ching Classical Understand vs. Aleister Crowley
Any belief, whether it is a self-made system or is bestowed upon us from above, can be taken as a religious view, for how does one define religion except as a system which sets upon humans a certain lifestyle to follow. The definition might seem vague at the least, but to define religion is becoming increasingly difficult, as more and more new sources of religious believes emerge. In all sense of the world, there is a message, however it may or may not be from an omnipotent, invisible God; it can be from a messiah or a man who has been raised to the level of a Messiah by his/her followers, as is the case of Buddha. [1: END NOTES Connelly, Paul. Definition of Religion and Relates Terms. 1996. 23rd March 2012 .]
The same has been the fate of many of the…
Confucius was a Chinese philosopher and his thought is referred as Analects of Confucius composing of his ideas and sayings. For over thousand years after his death, his thought was still relevant in the Chinese thought. Confucius was born in 551 a couple of centuries before Socrates taught ethics and logic. Confucius was being identified as the Chinese first teacher whose his ideas had been implemented in several countries in Eastern Asia that include Korea, Vietnam, Japan and Western civilization. The Analects is the selected sayings and ideas of Confucius, which he used to preach his philosophical thoughts. The Analects composed of more than 500 independent passages, which were divided into 20 books, and some of these books had separate bundles with the dominated themes.
There are a group of the key contexts in the books that consist of Ren, Junzi, and Li. The literary meaning of Ren is revered…
Ancient Chinese Architecture
Modern Chinese Architecture
Ancient Chinese architecture is considered to be an important part of the world architectural system along with architecture in Europe and Arabian architecture. Over centuries, the construction and architecture of China has developed in to a style of its own and is often characterized by the heavy timberwork that combines with stone carving and rammed earth construction and bucket arch buildings and other techniques that make it unique (Guo, 2005).
The Great Wall, Forbidden City and the Mausoleum of the First Qin Emperor are some of the examples of ancient Chinese architectural miracles that were created by the laboring people of the country.
The rampant use of timber framework was the primary and significant characteristic of ancient Chinese architecture. In order to make the buildings more beautiful and attractive the ancient Chinese architects used paintings and carvings that were put up into…
Guo, Q. (2005). Chinese architecture and planning. Stuttgart: Edition Axel Menges.
Lou, Q., & Chen, P. (2002). Ancient Chinese architecture. Beijing: Foreign Languages Press.
Lu, D. (2007). Architecture and global imaginations in China. The Journal Of Architecture, 12(2), 123-145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13602360701363411
Wang, Q. (2011). Chinese architecture. New York: Better Link Press.
One of those buildings was the International Foreign Trade Center -- Shenzhen's first skyscraper and the tallest building in China (36).
Hong Kong is commonly referred to as a place where "East meets West" because of its hybrid nature. That is, there is a culture mix occurring that is part traditional Chinese as well part ritish due to its colonization by the ritish. Hong Kong is quite a modern place, yet there is an infusion of traditional Chinese practices that makes the place unlike any other in the world. One example of how East may meet West in Hong Kong is how the art of feng shui may be utilized in constructing a modern piece of architecture. The old Chinese traditions are used to support newer ways of thinking and living. The architecture in Hong Kong is contemporary and reflects a more Western style as opposed to a Chinese traditional…
Campanella, Thomas. The Concrete Dragon: China's Urban Revolution. Princeton Architectural Press; 1st edition. 2008. Print.
Chen, Ming-Jer. Inside Chinese Business: A Guide for Managers Worldwide. Harvard Business Review Press. 2003. Print.
China Tour Online. "Shenzhen History." Retrieved on June 13, 2012 from http://www.chinatouronline.com/china-travel/shenzhen/shenzhen-facts/shenzhen-history.html. Web.
Ching, Julia. Chinese Religions. Orbis Books. 1993. Print.
By the fifth millennium BCE, China had developed the basic elements that were to identify it as a civilization, such as social structure, agricultural skills and the domestication of animals (Schmidt pp). It was also developing concepts related to the order of the natural environment, to life, death, and life after death (Schmidt pp). China's cultural identity, as it is known today, can be traced to the endeavors of the Neolithic village communities of the Yangshao culture that flourished during this time (Schmidt pp). Ancient Chinese communities produced numerous vessels and objects from various mediums for use in both utility and religious purposes.
Only fragments and traces of items created in ephemeral materials remain from the prehistoric and early historic periods, yet numerous ancient Chinese objects of jade, earthenware, and metal have survived in fairly good condition, most of which were found preserved in ancient burial sites (Schmidt…
Schmidt, Carolyn Woodford. "Early Societies and the Arts: The Foundations of A
The Art of Chinese Bronzes - ancient Chinese bronze artwork.
Confucianism promotes the "ideal of the scholar, who cultivates virtue in oneself and shares it through service in government, teaching, and daily life," Canda explains on page 1. The pure idea of Confucianism is to benefit all the citizens and those benefits have a ripple effect starting with the individual, through the family, and out to the Korean society and then the world (Canda, p. 1).
Confucianism has had an influence on many spiritual and physical Asian-based traditions; for example, Confucianism had a big influence on the development of martial arts, acupuncture, and meditation, according to Canda.
Shamanism: There are about 300 shamanistic temples within an hour of the capital of Seoul, according to an article in the New York Times (Sang-Hun, 2007, p. 1). The article points out that shamanism is presently enjoying a renaissance after "centuries of ridicule and persecution"; indeed, shamans were "demonized by Christian missionaries and…
Beaver, R. Pierce. "Chondogyo and Korea." Journal of the American Academy of Religion.
Buddhism Today. Buddhism in Korea. Retrieved Dec. 6, 2010, from http://www.buddhismtoday.com . (1997).
Buswell, Robert E., and Lee, Timothy S. Christianity in Korea. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2007.
Not only does this benefit them as a port destination, but the influx of trade goes through Taiwan with the majority of manufactured goods of the Pacific region flowing through their ports. Since Taiwan has a favorable relationship with the Western states, it has been able to absorb the growth of the East Asian region and serve as an effective broker for traffic of goods. Thus it plays a central role within the region as a broker between lesser developed nations and the developed super powers.
Not only does Taiwan hold an enviable position within global trade, but it also has developed its internal capacity to become a manufacturing force. Taiwan has focused its industries on two key developments, high end technology products including semi-conductors and high end technology product development. The Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company is the world's largest independent semiconductor foundry. As a joint venture through subsidized state…
Lee, Pei-shan, "Regime Transition and Economic Governance: The End of Development. Annual Meeting of the Taiwanese Political Science Association, National
Sun Yat-sen University. 9-10 December 2000.
Paul Hirst and Grahame Thompson, Globalization in Question (London: Polity Press, 1999), p.241.
ecause of rhetoric that was rampant through the region, the result was "a skewed perception among some Chinese intellectuals that Indian must have been a race of violent and uncouth barbarians" (Mather, 1992). The once positive relationship between the two regions was tarnished, as evident by the "Discourse on Triple Destruction" which illuminates the barbarian traits that the Indian people have (Mather, 1992). This laid, along with the foundational elements Scripture of Lao-tzu Converting the arbarians, for a negative perception of India and allowed for huddism to flourish on Chinese terms.
uddhism in China was taught as "radical dualism," with teachings that focused on sudden enlightenment on salvation through grace rather than through ascetic practices" making it more appealing to a larger population of Chinese (Whyte, 2008). The Consul General of China asserts that "in Northeast Asia and some Southeast Asian countries, the historical influence of Chinese culture could be…
Mather, Richard B. (1992). Chinese and indian perceptions of each other between the first and seventh centuries . Journal of the American Oriental Society, 112(1), 1-8.
Siwei, Mao. (2011, June 19). China and india: related yet different civilizations. Retrieved from http://www.defence.pk/forums/world-affairs/115473-china-india-related-yet-different-civilizations.html
Whyte, Bob. (2008). Religion in china. Retrieved from http://www.sacu.org/religion.html
The severity of mental retardation covers a wide spectrum, as discussed before, and variation in ability of individuals within this spectrum is wide (Tammi, 2006). In order to understand and to assist such persons, it is important to know the category in which they fall and the possible causes of the condition. In most cases, a little psychological instability leads to a mental retardation and therefore psychological interventions can be very effective in solving such cases. The notion of viewing mental retardation as a case of pure medical condition should be changed in order to find means of reducing such situations.
Christopher D. Prater, MD. (2006, June 15). Medical Care of Adults with Mental etardation.
etrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html
Donna K. Daily, MD. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental etardation.
etrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000215/1059.html
Gotiesrnati, .L. (s.f.).…
Christopher D. Prater, MD. (2006, June 15). Medical Care of Adults with Mental Retardation.
Retrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0615/p2175.html
Donna K. Daily, MD. (2000, February 15). Identification and Evaluation of Mental Retardation.
Retrieved March 11, 2010, from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000215/1059.html
The active chemical ingredient, THC, is accessed by smoking marijuana and is used for both recreational and medical reasons. The pro-legalization supporters and the anti-legalization supporters are divided by ethical and medical viewpoints. The use of marijuana is linked with health risks, but it is also associated with beneficial medical and therapeutic uses. Opponents of legalization also raise concerns about marijuana abuse, dependency, and its stance as a "gateway" drug which could lead a user to try "harder" drugs. Tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol give concerns for abuse, dependency, and have been linked with the use of "harder" drugs, however these substances remain legal.
A total of 14 states have allowed for the use of marijuana for medical purposes, and some studies have indicated the benefits of decriminalization of marijuana as law enforcement efforts and resources can be used for more significant crimes. There is a concern that the legalization…
Drewe, M, F Drewe, and A Riecher. "Cannabis and risk of psychosis." Swiss Medical Weekly. 134. (2004): 659-663. Print.
Grossman, M, F Chaloupka, and K. Shim. "Illegal Drug Use and Public Policy." Health Affairs. 21.2 (2002): 134-145. Print.
Joffe, A, and W. Yancy. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." Pediatrics. 113. (2004): e632-e638. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. .
Leung, Lawrence. "Cannabis and its Derivatives: Review of Medical Use." Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 24.4 (2011): 452-462. Print.
That is, the notion of rivalry and envy is not inherently connected to rational ideas about good and evil. These ethical value judgments are quite secondary to the matter of human conflict and its role in the affairs of both love and power. As Giovetti (2012) points out, "Feng Yi Ting (running until June 7 and stopping in New York at the Lincoln Center Festival, also under Redden's directorship, in July) is characterised by an emotional neutrality that leaves the audiences to decide for themselves how they feel." (Giovetti, p. 1)
In many ways, this is a distinctly eastern way of approaching conflict, providing its details as a history rather than an allegory. And once again, as with the kung fu movies that made so great an impression on me as a child, the play would using certain visual strategies to supplement these themes. They demonstrate the same spare simplicity…
Giovetti, O. (2012). Spoleto Festival continues to provoke with Glass and Guo Wenjing. Gramophone.
Johnson, a. (2012). Atom Egoyan talks about directing Spoleto Festival's 'Feng Yi Ting'. Post and Courier.
Moore, R. (2012). Feng Yi Ting Spoleto After Party. Charleston Mag.com.
Poole, O. (2012). Spoleto Review: Feng Yi Ting Chinese Opera. Art Mag.
"Yu, shall I teach you what knowledge is? When you know a thing, say that you know it; when you do not know a thing, admit that you do not know it. That is knowledge." [II:17]
"A young man's duty is to be filial to his parents at home and respectful to his elders abroad, to be circumspect and truthful, and, while overflowing with love for all men, to associate himself with humanity (ren). If, when all that is done, he has any energy to spare, then let him study the polite arts." [I:6]
"Perhaps the word 'reciprocity': Do not do to others what you would not want others to do to you." [XV:23]
"To be able to practice five virtues everywhere in the world constitutes humanity. Courtesy, magnanimity, good faith, diligence, and kindness. He who is courteous is not humiliated, he who is magnanimous wins the multitude,…
Bary, W. And et al. (1960). "From the Analects of Confucius" Sources of Chinese Tradition.
Vol.1. New York: Columbia University Press.
Stanford Education (Accesses 2005) "Confucius" [Online] Available at:
Over the past several thousand years, the Chinese have contributed some of the world's most significant technological tools and inventions. Most of these inventions have had a tremendous impact on human history and it is hard to imagine life without any of them. Among the most influential of Chinese inventions include gunpowder/explosives; paper; moveable type; the magnetic compass; tea; noodles; matches; and silk. Of these eight inventions, the four most important include paper, gunpowder, tea, and noodles. Of those four, the Chinese invention I could least likely live without would be noodles.
It is difficult to imagine how human beings could have spread information without paper. Even if the Chinese had not invented moveable type well before the Gutenberg printing press was designed in Europe, the invention of paper is one of the most important contributions to the spread of knowledge, learning, ideas, and information. As the Franklin Institute…
Asia Society (2013). Chinese inventions. Retrieved online: http://asiasociety.org/education/resources-schools/elementary-lesson-plans/chinese-inventions
Columbia University, East Asian Curriculum Project (n.d.). Timeline of Chinese inventions. Retrieved online: http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/song/readings/inventions_timeline.htm
The Franklin Institute (n.d.). Chinese inventions. Retrieved online: http://fi.edu/tfi/info/current/inventions.html
Roach, J. (2005). 4000-year-old noodles found in China. National Geographic News. Retrieved online: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/10/1012_051012_chinese_noodles.html
Education in the East and West
The difference between education in the East and the West is primarily a difference in culture. Today, cultural differences are less pronounced than they were a century ago. Globalized society has seen cultures meld and melt into one another, so that in many senses the East resembles the West in more ways than one (Igarashi). However, deeply rooted cultural cues still represent a fundamental reason for existing educational differences between the East and the West. This paper will describe these differences and show why they exist.
Medieval Guilds were important to production standards in the time of the Renaissance. For example, "in places where guilds were strong, they exercised strict oversight over training" (Hansen). In fact, the education and apprenticeship of the Renaissance was a highly skilled exercise that began at the youngest age and often required more than a decade of training.
Li, Jin. Cultural Foundations of Learning: East and West. UK: Cambridge, 2012.
Li's book is very helpful in understanding the differences between Eastern and Western education: it highlights cultural influences in the West, from the Greeks, and in the East, from Confucius and Buddha, etc. It looks at how religion and science have both played a part in where East and West are educationally speaking.
Buddhism and Its Teachings on Nobility
The Three Marks of eality
The three marks of reality involve Dukkha, Anicca, and Anatta. Dukkha encompasses unease, suffering, and dissatisfaction. In this case, the teachings advocate for analysis and the causes of suffering to understand and overcome the situation or event. Since Buddhism is not inherently pessimistic: we must attempt and see things as they are later responding appropriately. Anicca is about impermanence and change and since we are often disturbed by the element of a chance we get used to things. This includes us, in flux and when things arise and pass, it becomes difficult for one to cling to anything. Anatta is not a permanent self behind reality because everything relates to elements of 'process' and 'change.'
The Four Noble Truths
The noble truths relate to suffering, its origin, cessation, and the path to the cessation of the suffering. Suffering is…
Ingram, D. M. (2007). Mastering the Core Teachings of the Buddha. The Interdependent Universe.
Walter, M. L. (2009). Buddhism and Empire: The Political and Religious Culture of Early Tibet. PA, Leiden: BRILL.
In spite of the fact that it never became as popular as Daoism, Confucianism was important because it was responsible for a series of reforms in the moral and political systems of China. It was only during the ruling of Dong Zhongshu that Confucianism became appreciated as China's main school of thought. The philosophy slowly but surely experienced progress and came to be one of the main systems guiding China's politics. In addition to assisting politics, society, and economics, Confucianism also provided the Chinese with the opportunity to adopt a new and improved way of life. ith the ru school being supported by the state, it became clear that Confucianism had become the principal philosophy in the territory.
Confucianism was particularly impressive because it brought together elements found in Legalism and in Daoism. The ideology emphasized the importance of morality and it also assisted the state in implementing its laws…
Guo, X. (2002). The Ideal Chinese Political Leader: A Historical and Cultural Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Ivanhoe, P.J. And Van Norden, B.W. eds. (2001). Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy. New York: Seven Bridges Press.
Orts, E.W. "The Rule of Law in China," Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 34.1 (2001): 43
Pohl, K. And Muller, A.W. eds. (2002). Chinese Ethics in a Global Context: Moral Bases of Contemporary Societies. Boston: Brill.
' (Adams, 1982) Local agencies helped the magistrate, remedied public mores, and also inspected the conduct of the "Hyangni" and served as power base for the local "yangbans. "Yangbans" were dispatched to the province from the capital. Yangbans -- constituted of the class of advantaged / privileged civil and military servicemen. Yangins constituted of middle-level bureaucrats, peasants and merchants, whose children were allowed to sit the exam for governance service. "Chungins" -- were technical personnel and professional specialists composed of the side children of 'Yangbans"
Leonid (2011) points out that 'The literati composed of the dominant social class in Choson Korea. Most of them were the "Yangbans" the members of the two orders of officialdom who served as civil or military officials.' Since it was this yangbans who directed the government, economy and culture of Choson Korea, it may be designated a Yangban society as opposed to the aristocratic society…
Buzo, Adrian. (2002). The Making of Modern Korea: A History. New York: Rout ledge
Carter J. Eckert, Kibalk Lee (2009) Korea Old and New, A history, Lehokak: Publishers for Korea Institute, Harvard pp 107-131.
Cumings Bruce. (1997). Korea Place in the Sun: A Modern History. New York: W.W. Norton.
Zhuangzi and the Dao
The period between 480 and 221 BCE was technically a part of the Zhou Dynasty. But in reality, the disintegrating power of the dynasty's kings had led to a period of relative governmental disarray for China. According to DeBary & Bloom (1999), the impotence of the Zhou throne had caused China to descend into an array of conflicting feudal states. It is thus that the period became known as the arring States period. The relative instability of this time would prompt a host of philosophical responses, included among them the highly spiritual teachings of Zhuangzi. As DeBary & Bloom note, Zhuangzi is often lumped together in historical interpretations with Laozi, owing largely to their shared advocacy of the Dao (or The ay). (p. 1) However, the two figures are quite distinct in their espoused ideologies, with Laozi offering solutions for achieving conquest in the material realm…
De Bary, W.T. & Bloom, I. (1999). Sources of Chinese Tradition. Columbia University Press.
There are a number of factors that contributed to the rise of the Mongols in China. Chief among these is that after the Mongols invaded China, they were able to establish strong political control over the area. This was an extension of the Mongol system of governance that had been utilized in many of the lands conquered by the Mongol empire. Marco Polo, who visited Khanbalik during the reign of Kublai Khan, described the system of governance that the Mongols had imposed on China. They "appointed twelve…barons to supervise all decisions concerning the movement of the armies…" Polo noted that this council led to a high quality of decision-making with respect to resource deployment, and allowed for a stronger overall military presence in China as a result. Polo also noted that this tactic allowed the military leaders to identify the stronger soldiers and units, and cull the weak…
Korean History: The Climate and Culture of Foreign Business
The challenge of any cultural history undertaken to determine the foreign business fitness of a location is to make sure that there is due respect afforded the society with regard to issues that might not be seen as directly affecting the bottom line. So much of the time in the business world we are collectively focused on the ideas that surround the continued development of the global world economy, without regard for the existence of prior national issues. An easily made mistake for a researcher addressing issues of Korea from the United States would be to distill Korean history into a form that only include the interests of this country after the Korean-American ar.
This account will attempt to address those issues by addressing the culture through its earliest history to its present state through modern demographics, religion, education, housing, leisure…
North Korean crisis starts to hurt South Korea economically." February 11, 2003. American
City Business Journals Inc. February, 11 2003 ( http://tampabay.bizjournals.com ).
South Korea gross national income soars." February 9, 2003. American City Business Journals
Inc. February 11, 2003. (
This era is significant because it was dominated by peace at a local level, political constancy, and economic growth as a result of a dictatorship created by Tokugawa Ieyasu. The moment when he became shogun was very important in Ieyasu's life, as he was provided with the opportunity to commence a plan that he was thinking of long before he came to rule Japan. He sent many of his allies to rule over areas that he considered being potentially hostile in an attempt to have people there change their opinions regarding his personae. This individual was well-acquainted with the fact that control was one of the most effective tools that a leader could use and thus focused on having as much control as possible. Ieyasu's successor further continued his predecessor's system of gaining control over his people and influenced all of the Daimyos in Japan to live in Edo for…
Henshall, Kenneth, "A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower," (Palgrave Macmillan, 15.05.2012)
Lambert, Tim, "A BRIEF HISTORY of KOREA," Retrieved October 16, 2012, from the a World History Encyclopedia Website: http://www.localhistories.org/korea.html
Miles, Nancy, "Footbinding," Retrieved October 16, 2012, from the UCLA Website: http://www.international.ucla.edu/shenzhen/2002ncta/miles/index.htm
Seth, Michael J. "A Concise History of Korea: From the Neolithic Period Through the Nineteenth Century," (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006)
Ly, Tran, and Ho Epochs
The Dai Viet Kingdom had its origin in the middle of the 10th century until around the middle of the 11th century, when local chiefs were able to vie for control in what is now Land of Viet
However, regionalism is the pattern. As the Northern Tang dynasty crumbled, it lost control over South (which are now parts of Northern Vietnam)
The weakening of Northern Tang gradually led to the emergence of the Dai Viet kingdom
There was still a lot of in fighting, though. Chieftan Dinh Bo Lihn conquered the "Twelve Warlords" and established a capital at Hoa Lu, south of the Red River Delta not far from modern day Hanoi.
Dinh Bo Linh was succeeded by Le Hoan, who fought off Song Dynasty encroachment. Thus they gained regional dominance
Then Ly Cong Uan in early 11th cent, supported by Buddhist community, moved the…
East Asian Civilizations
(1) Unequal Treaties
(2) sino-japanese war 3
(3) MARCH 1ST MOVEMENT
(1) CHINA IN DECLINE
(1) CHINA's CIVIL WAR 7
(1) UNEQUAL TREATIES
The growing demand for Chinese tea, silk and ceramics by ritish had created severe trade imbalance for ritain. The ritish were also losing their silver reserves in exchange for Chinese goods. In late 1930's government of Great ritain found "opium" as a solution for resolving trade imbalance. Opium, which is more addictive than tea, was being supplied to China by ritish merchants. As demand for opium increased in China, ritain's imports increased and in this way silver bullion was flowing out of the China into ritain.
However Chinese government (Qing government) took serious steps to stop the trade of opium. Lin Zexu, which was appointed as an Imperial Commissioner for the Destruction of Opium, started an anti-opium campaign. During the campaign, opium stores were…
CIIC. "Formation of the Chinese Civilization." 2001. China Internet Information Center. .
Devine, Richard. "Japanese Rule in Korea After the March First Uprising." Monumenta Nipponic 52.4 (1997).
Dyke, Van and Paul Arthur. Tha Canton trade: Life and Enterprise on the China Coast 1700-1845. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1998.
Liu, Li and Xingcan Chen. The Archaeology of China: From the Late Paleolithic to the Early Bronze Age. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Hence, all of these festivals, occasions and other rituals that indigenous Taiwanese celebrated prove that the Indigenous Taiwanese were full of life and were true cultural people who celebrated all their occasions with enthusiasm and ebullience.
Languages: Official language of Taiwan is Mandarin though other local languages were also spoken in originally indifferent tribes. Mandarin is the language that is used for everyday communication in Taiwan but the origin of Mandarin started from Ching dynasty. Mandarin and other languages that were spoken in Taiwan were basically derived from Chinese language families. Indigenous people had their own languages which have survived to date. "From Taiwan to New Zealand and Madagascar to Easter Island, the Austronesian language family is made up of more than a thousand languages and dialects. (Estimates vary from 900-1200 according to how dialects are distinguished from languages)" (Austronesian Expansion).
Other languages that were spoken in Taiwan included Halo…
Austronesian Expansion - Taiwan 4,000 BC' Retrieved from Website: http://www.ualberta.ca/~vmitchel/rev3.html
Taiwan Aboriginals' Retrieved from Website: http://www.tacp.gov.tw/ENGLISH/INTRO/nine/nine.htm
Taiwan Year Book' Retrieved from Website: http://www.gio.gov.tw/taiwan-website/5-gp/yearbook/02PeopleandLanguage.htm
In addition, the ceremony also contained firecrackers which were symbolic of purification and joy. The food that was served at a marriage ceremony was also symbolic. For example, fruit and longevity noodles were symbolic of harmony, happiness, and prosperity.
Indeed the marriage arrangement was detailed and extravagant (for the wealthy) during the Qing dynasty. Now that we understand the marital arrangement let us focus on the role of the ideal wife during Qing's Dynasty.
The role of the ideal wife (Qing Dynasty)
Once the transfer was complete, the wife was totally immersed in pleasing her husband and his family. All kinship ties to the wife's family were broken and when she visited her family, she was considered a guest not a relative. Smith (1994) asserts that this was a cause of distress for many new wives because they were usually amongst strangers and the mother in law had a great…
Atwill, D.G. (2003). Code, Custom, and Legal Practice in China: The Qing and the Republic Compared. China Review International, 10(2), 411+. http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=14304634' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Improvements to The Chinese System and Ideals Done by Kublai Khan
Genghis Khan moved his troops into the quasi Chinese Chin-rule north China in 1211, and in 1215 they crushed the capital city. Hisson Ogodei vanquished all of North China by 1234 and ruled it from 1229 to 1241. Genghis Khan's grandson, Kublai Khan, vanquished the Chinese Southern Song in 1279, and out of the blue all of China was under foreign rule (Johnson, 2014).
In 1271 Kublai Khan named his administration Yuan which signifies "origin of the universe." The Yuan tradition in China kept going from 1279 to 1368. Kublai Khan took after a speculative approach of Sinicization, that is, he adjusted to the Chinese method for administering and when you take a look at his picture, he looks especially like other Chinese rulers. Then again, in spite of the fact that he utilized some Chinese in low…
Honor Code of Chinese Warriors
The objective of this study is to discuss the honor code of warrior-heroes in Chinese history and to answer to what the honor code consists of and the origin of the honor code. As well, this study will examine how this honor code influenced the intentions, words, and actions of the warriors and how the honor code manifests itself in novels, how and when the codes apply and what competing visions existed in human conduct.
Wuxia is a term in Mandarin that means literally "martial arts chivalry" and is representative of a unique Chinese type of story that is dated back as far as the Tang Dynasty (681-907). Wuxia is defined by stories "that combine wushu (martial arts) tradition with deeds of heroic chivalry perfomed by men and women." (Pollard, 2011, p.1) Wuxia stories are rooted in "early youxia (?
) and cike (?
The Warrior Code (nd) China History Forum. Retrieved from: http://www.chinahistoryforum.com/index.php?/topic/31149-warrior-spirit-in-china-chinese-warrior-codes/
Hsia, C.T.C.T. Hsia on Chinese Literature. Columbia University Press, 2004 (ISBN 0231129904), pg. 149
Bordahl, Vibeke. Four Masters Of Chinese Storytelling: Full-length Repertoires Of Yangzhou Storytelling On Video. Nordic Institute of Asian Studies; Bilingual edition, 2004 (ISBN 8-7911-1464-0), pg. 166
Guth, Christine. Longfellow's Tattoos: Tourism, Collecting, and Japan. University of Washington Press (2004), p147
riters accused of composing subversive works were jailed, exiled, or executed" and thus silenced (Pamintuan, 2003).
Such puritanical attitudes on the part of the leadership seemed to be embraced by the common people. For example, a woman's virtue was held in particularly high regard during this period. The number of widows who honored their dead husbands by refusing to remarry or by committing suicide reached a historical high (Pamintuan, 2003). The government sponsored special female-only homes to support impoverished widows who refused to marry, to honor the memory of their dead husbands (Pamintuan, 2003).
The first Manchu emperor's successors, Yongzheng and Qianlong, were equally long-lived, ensuring stability of the regime and sustained peace. Also, they were quite effective in accumulating imperial intelligence in outlying areas of the empire. "Missives called 'memorials' were sent from trusted officials in these areas directly to the emperor with seals to guarantee that the document…
Nilsson, Jan-Erik. "Qing." Chronology. Text based on China: A Country
Study by Federal Research Division, Library of Congress, Edited by Robert L. Worden, Andrea Matles Savada and Ronald E. Dolan. Research Completed July 1987. Created 2002. Updated 23 Feb 2007. http://www.gotheborg.com/index1.htm?http://www.gotheborg.com/chronology/qing.shtml
Pamintuan, Tina. "Breaching the Great Wall: How the Manchu Took China."
Humanities. March/April 2003. Volume 24/Number 2. http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2003-03/greatwall.html
Tea was the third most important commercial product, and was also sold to the mainland. Research indicates that the Japanese, as well as other foreign powers, deeply coveted in Taiwan's wealth (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).
In 1886 Taiwan's defenses against foreign aggression were modernized, the government implemented tax reforms to make Taiwan financially independent, and educated its indigenous peoples. A general trade office was established to encourage foreign trade, and Western-style schools were set up (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).When Taiwan was ceded to Japan in 1895 under the terms of the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the locals declared independence on May 25, 1895, and formed the Democratic Taiwan Nation to resist the Japanese take-over. A total of 7,000 Chinese soldiers were killed in the conflict and civilian casualties numbered in the thousands (Government Information Office in Taiwan, at (http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html).These events also assisted in the creation…
Ballantine, Joseph. Formosa: A Problem for United States Foreign Policy. Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1952.
Chih-ming, Ka. Japanese Colonialism in Taiwan: Land Tenure, Development, and Dependency, 1845-1945. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, Inc., 1995.
Government Information Office in Taiwan. "History of Taiwan." Taiwan.com. 2005.
Taiwan.com. 10 June 2005 http://www.taiwan.com.au/polieco/history/report04.html.
Disorder does not descend from Heaven,
It is the spawn of a woman. 10
Contemporaneous with relocating the capital from Edo to Tokyo was the drawing up of the 'Memorandum on Reform of the Imperial Palace' in which Article 1 states that the emperor would 'deign to hear about all political matters' in the front throne room adding that 'women are to be prohibited from entering the front throne room' 11.
Yoshii Tomozane, enior ecretary for Court Affairs peremptorily dismissed all court ladies, after which a rare few were reselected for appointment. In his dairy, he noted: 'this morning, the court ladies were dismissed in their entirety… the power of women already lasting for centuries has been erased in a single day. My delight knows no bounds." 12.
In this way the power of the 'hens' was removed from the 'Enlightened regime' of Meiji rule and suppressed throughout the country.…
Adler, Philip. World Civilizations. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth / Thomson, 2008
De Vos, George & Wagatsuma, Hiroshi, "Value Attitudes Towards Role Behavior of Women in Two Japanese Villages," American Anthropologist, 63, (1961).
Hastings, S.A. "Gender and Sexuality in Modern Japan" a Companion to Japanese History, Blackwell Pub., 2007
Hendry, Joy, Understanding Japanese Society. London: Routledge, 1991.
scholars understand the quality and prospects of "democracy" in China?
Many people have different views concerning the exact nature of democracy. Scholars believe that democracy entails the act of the society choosing its own leaders to implement decisions, held responsible through elections, for the public. Others emphasize that democracy entails the rule by the people, in which the will of the people lies with the supernatural being. Nevertheless, while democracy may have varied meanings depending on every individual's definition, it is with certainty that if democracy shall prevail, ideas must flow, both from the majority and the minority. In absence of free flow of ideas, there will be absence of democratic ideal of governance by people if people are unaware of the occurrences. In the republic of China, some people knew this.
China reforms are developing very fast. Her exceptional political growth model is not only divergent from the…
Yu-tzung Chang and Yun-han Chu. 2002. Confucianism and Democracy: Empirical Study of Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong.
Yu-tzung Chang, Alfred Hu, and Yun-han Chu. 2002. The Political Significance of Insignificant Class Voting: Taiwan and Hong Kong Comparison.
Albritton, Robert B. And Thawilwadee Bureekul. 2002. Support for Democracy in Thailand.
Robert Albritton, and Thawilwadee Bureekul. 2002. The Role of Civil Society in Thai Electoral Politics.
The importance of ritual objects to the Shaolin is shown in how they react to the supernatural appearance of an incense burner. hen the survivors of the massacre woke up the next day, they saw on the surface of the water a white incense burner made of greenstone, which had two ears and three feet and weighed 52 "catties, thirteen ounces"; on the bottom of the incense burner, the four words Fan-Qing fu-Ming had been inscribed. The brothers immediately secured the incense burner and placed it in the third field in front of the temple gate (Baoqi & Murray 206). In this regard, the Shaolin monks of the day embraced the popular belief that Heaven could manifest its support of claimants to the Chinese throne or of founders of religious cults through the bestowal of precious objects, such as these incense burners, swords, or books. "The incense burner, as it…
Anderson, Mary M.
Hidden Power: The Palace Eunuchs of Imperial China. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus Books, 1990.
Baoqi, Qin and Dian H. Murray. The Origins of the Tiandihui: The Chinese Triads in Legend and History. Stanford, CA: Stanford University, 1994.
Campany, Robert Ford. (October-December 2001). The Eminent Monk (Book review). Journal of the American Oriental Society, 121(4):656.
Thus, the authors introduce the second theme: the duality. Er-kishi is double. He aspires to a Godless existence and tries to topple God, thinking he is better than God, but he receives his punishment soon enough and is thrown into the depths of the earth. On the other hand, the authors are masterfully explaining the idea that the earth was the result of a revolt. In this myth, God is not perfect, he forgets, fears, needs a female creature in the water to remind him of his creative capabilities and offer him a solution to the loneliness he feared. In this myth, the earth originates from water, since is made from the dirt brought from the bottom of the water. It also involved God, the symbol of light, Er-Kishi the symbol of darkness and k-ana, the female creature who reminded God of her existence and thus of his creative power.…
Altaic Languages: Encyclopedia. About.com. Retrieved: Oct 20, 2009. Available at: http://en.allexperts.com/e/a/al/altaic_languages.htm
Altaic. Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved: Oct 20, 2009. Available at: http://www.iranica.com/newsite/index.isc?Article=http://www.iranica.com/newsite/articles/v1f9/v1f9a004.html
Migrations, Racial Mixing and the Evolution of Cultures. Retrieved: Oct 20, 2009. Available at: http://www.angelfire.com/ca2/kushana/Migrations.html