Human Behavior Essays (Examples)

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Humans Behavior Discriminative Control of Punished Stereotyped Behavior

Words: 1057 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53070294

Humans Behavior: Discriminative Control of Punished Stereotyped Behavior

The problem of controlling behavior in humans who are challenged in their mental scope is of concern. While the majority of people shun the use of force, and punishments and the modern thinking on enforcing appropriate behavior is leaning to therapeutic and learning modes, altering the environment and peer pressure, there could be some truth in the use of punishment being effective in controlling impulsive and undesirable behavior. These traits and appropriate settings for the same have to be seen in the general light of the literature in psychology over the issue. For example researchers have gone deep into the exact use of discriminative control and response is still in infancy, and using the background of mental retardation, Doughty et al. (2007) have researched the results of the use of differential punishment and the antecedent stimulus using three adults with mental retardation without automatic reinforcement behavior. The stereotypy occurred frequently in the presence of a stimulus correlated with and without punishment of stereotypy. Latency measures according to the researchers show that the antecedent stimulus correlated with punishment helped in the growth of the suppression of stereotypy. These can thus indicate that discriminative…… [Read More]


Biderman, Albert D; Zimmer, Herbert. (1961) "The Manipulation of Human Behavior." John

Wiley & Sons: New York.

Brown, Judson Seise. (1961) "The Motivation of Behavior."

McGraw-Hill: New York.
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Human Response to Physical Structure Environmental Psychology

Words: 1448 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99517516

Human Response to Physical Structure:

Environmental psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on explaining human behavior in relation to the physical environment. In this case, the physical environment basically incorporates plants, animals, and material objects that have a significant impact on behavior at various levels. However, this branch of psychology does not focus on the interactional procedures among people as emphasized on other branches of psychology. In analyzing human behavior, it adopts a systems approach that has become the main approach in modern science.

Impact of Physical Structure on Human Behavior:

According to various theories, the physical environment or structure affects human behavior at various levels with instant behavior acting as a function of settings with which it happens (Matthew, n.d.). The individual personality traits of people within a specified country are largely influenced by the nature and type of physical environment that these individuals are subject to for a long period of time. This physical environment consists of various elements including climatic conditions, soil, topography, available materials, and various competitors in the realm.

On the other hand, there are social environments that are developed by the various elements in the physical environment. These elements that act as…… [Read More]


Goode, J.P. (n.d.). 'The Human Response to the Physical Environment.' The Elementary School

Teacher, 4(5), pp. 271-282. Retrieved from

"Importance of Sustainable Architecture in 21st Century." (2010, June 21). Architecture Student

Chronicles. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from
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Human Biological Variation Is Human

Words: 2690 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55012786

Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least to some extent across human and nonhuman mammalian species, and possibly across other vertebrates as well" he notes, which would indicate that fear is not cultural, in fact, but physical, gene-based rather than a product of society. On the other hand, he also encompasses the familiar Pavlovian model in his…… [Read More]

Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database,

Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;

Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database,
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Human Nature Allows a Person to Demonstrate

Words: 3708 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34709070

Human nature allows a person to demonstrate the cognitive, social and emotional behaviors that enable him or her to function in society and satisfy biological, psychological and emotional needs. The drive to display such behaviors is inborn but is shaped through environmental forces. New behaviors are learned and unlearned through experience and instruction. Functional human beings are able to read the situation, identify their goals and select from a repertoire the most appropriate behaviors to satisfy their needs. Psychodynamic theory explores how the conflict between inner drives and social expectations determine human behavior. Redecision theory attempts to influence human behavior through an exploration of childhood experiences and identifying dysfunctional decisions to replace them with more productive and relevant ones. Finally, constructivist theory seeks to increase the individual's level of consciousness and personal responsibility to encourage functional behavior learning.


A number of theories such as psychodynamic theory, redecision theory and constructivist theory are used to explain how human nature and behavior are shaped through the interaction of hereditary, environment and personal volition. These theories prescribe enriching explanations of how early childhood experiences may create impressions, meaning patterns and decisions that become rooted in…… [Read More]


Brabender, V.A., Fallon, A.E., & Smolar, A.I. (2004). Essentials of group therapy. John Wiley & Sons.

Bronson, M.B. (2000). Self-Regulation in Early Childhood: Nature and Nurture. New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Carducci, B.J. (2009). The psychology of personality. (2nd ed.). Wiley-Blackwell.

Cardwell, M, Flanagan, C. (2005). Psychology AS: The Complete Companion. Cheltenham, GL: Nelson Thornes.
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Human Factors in Aviation Safety

Words: 3281 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50742327

Human Factors in Aviation Safety

The human beings with their immense capabilities, imagination, creativity, and cleverness have transformed the world into an industrial world that is surrounded by numerous inventions, innovations, and advancements in various facets of life. Aviation industry is also one of the developments of the human beings, which was imagined as an attempt to emulate bird flight. Human beings were engaged in this phenomenon for centuries prior to the emergence of the first flight, which resulted in outstanding civil transport in the form of spaceflight (Campbell & Bagshaw, 2008). However, it is wise to note that the human life is one integral aspect that should not be ignored when any mode of transportation is concerned. To have a safe journey during flights it is demonstrated that aviation safety is essential. Aviation safety principally signifies that prevention techniques in the form of regulation, education, and training should be applied in order to avoid aircraft failures. Aviation safety also refers to the process where flight failures are categorized so that it could be prevented in the future. This also brings the fact into the light that human factor is the core aspect involved and engaged in the aviation industry…… [Read More]


Abeyratne, R. (2012). Strategic Issues in Air Transport: Legal, Economic and Technical Aspects. USA: Springer.

Abu-Taieh, E.M.O., El-Sheikh, A.A. & Jafari, M. (2012). Technology Engineering and Management in Aviation: Advancements and Discoveries. Information Science Reference.

Ben-Daya, M. (2009). Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering. USA: Springer.

Campbell, R.D. & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human Performance and Limitations in Aviation. 3rd Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
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Human Development

Words: 3069 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63515348

Human Development

In order to learn about the development of males in their late teenage stage, between the ages seventeen and twenty, an eighteen-year-old male was interviewed. An individual of this age was chosen since it is believed as the age that acts as a transitory period between teenage and adulthood thus the developmental features are explicitly displayed at this age within the period targeted. The individual interviewed was a student undertaking his A-level studies in a public university. A student at this age was appropriate since common teenagers are still at this level of education apart from a few who could have got a chance in full employment or probably dropped at some level for various reasons. The individual has an African origin but has been brought up in a western culture and he totally adapted to the culture.

In the current society there are a number of emerging issues with regard to sexual orientation, a lot of debates have come up on whether to legalize any other sexual orientation other than the common male-female orientation. In regard to this it was important that this is put into consideration when picking the interviewee and in order to avoid any…… [Read More]


Alderfer, C. (1969). An Empirical Test of a New Theory of Human Needs. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol. 4, pp. 142 -- 175

Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and Personality. New York: Harper & Row

Porter, L. & Lawler, E. (1968). Managerial Attitudes and Performance. Homewood, Ill.: Dorsey Press
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Human Nature Has Been a

Words: 2811 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19110160

He exemplifies by saying that anyone witnessing a child about to fall in a well would immediately turn to rescue the child without seeking any advantages in doing so. But while this position has been argued on the grounds that "such an example is not intended to prove that all men will actually take some action in such circumstances" (Allinson apud Chan 1996), Chan has defended Mencius by emphasizing that what the philosopher "intends to show in the child-falling-into-the-well example is that all men will at least be moved to compassion by such a sight" (Chan 1996). Chan further explains "that all we need to prove the statement is that we carry out some sort of self-examination or thought-experiment. Once we are convinced, that's the proof. We don't need the results of others to confirm our result. That's a case for science." (Chan 1996)

From the conversation above, we can also depict Kao Tzu's position in regards to the nature of man, specifically that it "is indifferent to good and evil," that is to say that man's nature is neither good nor bad. Kao Tzu is said to have built his construction of man's character "out of that realization of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chan, C.W., 1996. Good and Evil in Chinese Philosophy, the Philosopher. Vol. LXXXIV. Available at: Last accessed 21 May 2013.

Creel, Herrlee G., 1953. Chinese Thought from Confucius to Mao Tse-Tung. London: The University of Chicago Press.

Hwong, P.H., 1979. What is Mencius' Theory of Human Nature. Philosophy East and West. 29 (2), 201-209.

Lai, W., 1984. Kau Tzu and Mencius on Mind: Analyzing a Paradigm Shift in Classical China. Philosophy East and West. 34 (2), 147-160.
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Human Learning and Memory Learning

Words: 869 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29447726

When the behavior is followed by a favorable consequence, the behavior is more likely to recur over and over. However, if the behavior is followed by a negative consequence or a painful consequence, then the behavior is less like to happen again.

The third type of learning is Motor Learning. Carlson says that motor learning is "the establishment of changes within the motor system." (433). He claims that this type of learning is a component of the stimulus-response type of learning. However, this type of learning must involve some form of sensory guidance from the environment and it elicits a reaction from the body.

Finally, the fourth type of learning that Carlson describes is Relational Learning. This is the most complex type of learning and it "involves learning the relationship among individual stimuli." (431) Relational Learning involves spatial learning which is the actual process of identifying similarities and differences among stimuli and episodic learning which involves remembering the sequence of events.

Researchers and scientists believe that memory formation takes place when a connection between neurotransmitters in the brain is strengthen by some form of outside stimuli. Carlson claims that memory formation occurs when one or more of the learning types…… [Read More]


Carlson, Neil. Physiology of Behavior, Ninth Edition. Published by Allyn and Bacon in Institute of Perceptual Learning. How Perceptual Learning Works. Retrieved on December 10, 2009 from .

Motor Teaching and Motor Learning. Retrieved December 10, 209 from
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Human Influences on the Environment

Words: 1486 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32190946

Human Behavior and the Environment

Environmental psychology makes an attempt to discover and understand the manner in which human behavior influences the environment both positively and negatively (De Young, 2013). The purpose of this paper will be to gain insight on how the environment is affected by human behavior. The focus will be to elucidate the manner in which environmental cues influence behavior, as well as to assess the manner in which behavior can be transformed to nurture sustainability, and how this can ultimately decrease adverse effects on the environment. The paper will also discuss the manner in which social norms have an impact on behavior and beliefs about the environment. Thereafter a number of solutions that could positively alter behavior and practices so as to decrease adverse environmental impact will be provided.

Environmental Cues and how they shape Human Behavior

In accordance with Steg (2013), environmental cues can be described as components in the environment that communicate significant information or instigate an emotional response. Cues are deemed to be an imperative aspect of the manner in which the environment impacts behavior because they stir people to action in association with the environment. Thus, environmental cues tend to shape the…… [Read More]


De Young, R. (2013). Environmental psychology overview. In S.R. Klein and A.H. Huffman (Eds.) Green Organizations: Driving Change with IO Psychology.

EPA (n.d.). Sustainability.

Hecter, M., Opp, K. (2001). Social Norms. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Kinzig et al. (2013). Social Norms and Global Environmental Challenges: The Complex Interaction of Behaviors, Values, and Policy. BioScience, 63(3):164-175.
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Human Geography Urban or Local

Words: 1680 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44879380

According to the Oregon Environmental Council the estimated cost per year of environmentally attributed cancer is around $131 million for both adults and children. Much about cremation is unknown but it is believed that the process of cremation emits several harmful chemicals into the air including benzene, mercury (from mercury fillings) and persistent organic pollutants. Modern crematoriums, like any burning industry are regulated by laws and standards that require the removal of certain smells and ash waste from the smoke that is emitted but like any other industry enforcement is spotty if present and standards are not checked after initial certification unless there are overt violations and complains. Self report is the manner in which crematoriums are permitted initially and on an ongoing basis every five years. "Crematoriums are regulated through the Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). They must adhere to emission regulations as well as obtain an operating permit. Particulate matter, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrochloric acid (HCL) are the regulated emittants. Mercury and dioxin are two other end products of the cremation process that are not regulated at the present time." (University of Florida Environmental Engineering Website: Crematorium Regulations, 2001)


The air quality in Portland is overall…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chea, Terrance."Cremation Pollution? Neighbors Nervous " 2007 at: .

Herzog, Beth. "Adult and Childhood Cancer" Oregon Environmental Council 2007 at: .

Knight, William "Air Quality: Burning and Smoke" Oregon Department of Environmental Quality 2007 at: .

University of Florida Environmental Engineering Website: Crematorium Regulations, 2001 at: .
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Human Factor in Aviation

Words: 2295 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64063261

Moreover, the study compares the effect on human factors on different types of aircraft. The study also reveals the correlation between the anomalies and type of aircrafts.

Human factors cause of Aircraft Accidents

The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that situational awareness is the most contributing human factor to aircraft accidents with the Mean =112. Moreover, the Mean value of the communication breakdown is 80 which rank second as the human factors problem to aircraft incidents. Typically, communication breakdown occurs when the pilot or other aircraft crew is unable to communicate with terminals. Communication is very critical for effective operations of aircraft, a pilot will require to constantly making radio communication when on air to ensure the aircraft safety and the aircraft is on the right direction. Confusion as human factor ranks third with the Mean =70. The descriptive statistics table shows other important human factors that cause the commercial aircraft accidents which include distraction, human,-machine interface and trouble shooting.

Table 2: Global Commercial Jet Fleet

Type of Operation

All Accidents

Fatal Accidents

Onboard Fatalities and / (External Fatalities)

Hull Loss Accidents (Aircraft damage beyond repair)













-790…… [Read More]


Balk, A.D. & Bossenbroek, J.W. (2010). Aircraft Ground and Human Factors, A comparative study of the perceptions by ramp staff and management. NLR Air Transport Safety Institute.

Boeing (2013). Commercial Jet Statistical Summary of the Airplane Accidents Worldwide Operations 1959 -- 2012. Boeing 707.

Eldredge, D. Mangold, S.J. & Dodd, R.S. (1992). A Review and Discussion of Flight Management System Incidents Reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. U.S. Department of Special Programs & Transportation Research Administration

Deitz, S.R. & Thomas, W.E (1991). Pilots, Personality and Performance: Human Behavior & Stress in the Skies.
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Human Resource Management

Words: 1761 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88603311

Human Resource Management

Description of the overall operations and role of the HR department

The HR manager interviewed gave the following points as having the most priority in his department and the functions performed (Campbell Clark, S (2001))

Recruitment and selection

How to follow best practice in drawing up the relevant documentation from advertising a vacancy and formulating a job description through to interviewing and making a sound

Decision in appointing the correct candidate.

Engagement procedure

Providing contracts of employment, written particulars and a staff handbook to meet all legal requirements and give employees all the information they need.

Record keeping

The collection of information in manual or computerized form to enable the company to plan and monitor.

Performance management range of activities to develop and reward good performance and manage poor performance and disciplinary issues.

Dealing with absence

Monitoring and controlling short- and long-term absence to ensure good attendance.


Looking at salary and benefits packages to reward and motivate staff.

Dismissal and other termination

Looking at valid reasons for dismissal, procedures and employment tribunals.

Description of the HR function you explored in-depth

Increasingly it is recognized that the motivation and development of staff, and the retention of high…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Campbell Clark, S (2001), Work Cultures and Work / Family Balance, Journal of Vocational Behavior, vol 58, p.348-365.

Campbell, I and Charlesworth, S (2003), 'Family friendly benefits in Australia: Are they Adequate?'in M. Baird and J. Burgess (eds) Employee Entitlements in Australia, Employment Studies Centre Monograph No.3/2003, University of Newcastle.

Currie, G and Proctor, S (2001), 'Exploring the relationship between HR and middle managers', Human Resource Management Journal, vol.11, no.1, pp53-69.

Dex, S and Scheibl, F (2001), Flexible and family friendly working arrangements in UK-Based SMEs:Business Cases, British Journal of Industrial Relations, vol.39, no.3, pp411-431.
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Human Concern Global Warming A

Words: 372 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49816227


Because of this discovery, scientists and politicians across the world have banded together in order to fight emissions and the use of products that contain CFCs. Most are aware of the grim forecast that awaits humankind if action is not taken -- a world consumed by ocean. Still, some do not believe that human behavior plays a role in global warming. Whatever one's opinion, one can be sure that the worldwide attempts to implement responsible human interaction with the environment has a favorable political outcome -- globalization and the banding together of the world. In the future, history may write that chemistry was at the heart of a global political peace.

Works… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Chemical of the Week: Ozone." University of Wisconsin -- Madison. n.d. Chemistry

Department. < >

"The Ozone Layer." Environmental Literacy Council. 7 April 2008. 16 May 2009.

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Human Nature Reading Comprehension Test

Words: 681 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83511196

The use of the word MY also suggests that the speaker feels a sense of possession towards the assistant, thus the assistant's departure is seen as a loss of control, not merely a setback to the project as he says.

7. it's an animal urge, Puff. it's nothing to be ashamed of (65)

The word Puff suggests an animal, even if Puff is not an animal -- Puff is being assured that acting like an animal is natural, and not worthy of shame, despite Puff's feelings to the contrary and the ambiguous quality of Puff's name.

8. Remember, when in doubt: don't ever do what you really want to do (69)

This statement goes against the assurances of the naturalness of human behavior and impulses -- go against one's human or animal nature, it suggests, and repress and resist gut instincts. Instead, follow societal dictates and one's own superego.

9. There is nothing that makes you feel dirtier than finally deciding to sell your soul and finding no buyer (76)

After giving up one's morals, and repressing and resisting one's natural impulses, the speaker finds it frustrating that there are no 'takers' to indulge in this corruption.

10. Please, if…… [Read More]

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Behavior-Based Safety Bbs Is a

Words: 2139 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89601095

7. Fenn, P., & Ashby, S., 2004. Workplace risk, establishment size, and union density. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 42, 461 -- 480.

8. Griffin, M.A., & Neal, A., 2000. Perceptions of safety at work: A framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 347 -- 358.

9. Neal, A., Griffin, M.A., & Hart, P.M., 2000. The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science, 34, 99 -- 109.

10. Hechanova-Alampay, R.H., & Beehr, T.A., 2001. Empowerment, span of control and safety performance in work teams after workforce reduction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 275 -- 282.

11. Kaminski, M., 2001. Unintended consequences: Organizational practices and their impact on workplace safety and productivity. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 127 -- 138.

Turner, N., & Parker, S.K., 2004. The effect of teamwork on safety processes and outcomes. In J. Barling & M.R. Frone (Eds.), The psychology of workplace safety (pp. 35 -- 62). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

12. Section 6: Timetable of Activity. You should complete the GANTT chart below.

Part-time students will undertake the dissertation over 30 weeks, full-time students over 18 weeks.

Make…… [Read More]