Human ehavior in Organizations
Understanding human behavior is critical in organizations
The existence of an organization does depend on the employees; therefore, it is important to understand human behavior. Understanding human behavior will make it easy to work in an organization composed of employees with different personality, attitudes, values, perception, motives, and abilities. Managers should understand behavior because they work with people; interact with them in terms of communication, and in terms of work. Managers should understand the likelihood of individual differences arising among the employees. When a manager notes a difference, the next thing to do is learning the source of the difference. y so doing, the manager will leverage the difference effectively because the complexity is understood; therefore, managers may understand why people behave differently. This case is evident in organizations with a diverse workforce; therefore, managers should recognize the cultural differences that may exist (rett, ehfar and…… [Read More]
Modified Gestalt theory would support the idea that Chris has a strong genetic predisposition for developing schizophrenia, given his brother's illness. He was raised in an unstable home environment, because of his father's alcoholism that may have exacerbated the young Chris' sense of constant stress and his difficulty to perceive the world in a hostile, non-threatening fashion. Chris is rational at times, other times he is paranoid, and goes through various degrees of awareness about his state of rationality (hence the usefulness of the Gestalt stress on the 'present point in time' to describe sanity). A resumption of medication may be necessary, although this may not be necessary for throughout the duration of Chris' life.
Chris has been disturbed by a shift in the relationship of his marriage. His wife wishes to have another child and he has just unexpectedly re-encountered a threatening individual from his past. Psychotic…… [Read More]
Human Behavior, Physiology and Freedom
What determines exactly where human behavior comes from? Who is the ultimate authority that in effect, evaluates the appropriateness of such behavior? What is freedom and to what extent does behavior influence freedom? What physiological and environmental factors contribute to the assessment of such factors? Is cultural design and the control of freedom and behavior the answer to solving behavioral issues?
The answers to these questions are complicated and involved. Human behavior is the result of many complex biological and physiological processes, including cell growth, adequate nutrition and hormone presence in the body. Does it seem interesting that males and females often are cited as communicating differently? This is in part the result of the prevalence of different hormones in the genetic make up of males and females. Scientifically, it has been proven that a deficiency of nutrients and/or certain proteins in the body can…… [Read More]
The roles that males and females may also vary -- although a woman biologically gives birth to a child, a man may assume more or less care for the child, depending upon the situation of a couple. A man who loses his job and has a wife who must support the family temporarily may care for his child, even though a biological explanation for human behavior might theorize that a man has less of a hormonal attachment to the child, and the species would benefit if males generated more children with a wider range of females.
The psychodynamic approach also examines the interaction between culture and biology but from a more personal perspective, given its origins in psychoanalysis. Freud asked the question of why human beings marry outside of their kinship group, even though the first object of affection for both men and women is the mother, specifically the mother's…… [Read More]
Human Behavior: Values, Cultural Design, And Control
We are all controlled by the world in which we live, and part of the world has been and will be constructed by men. The question is this: Are we to be controlled by accidents, by tyrants, or by ourselves in effective cultural design?" - B.F. Skinner
Cultural Design is much like "instrumental conditioning," where people are conditioned to respond favorably to a situation or stimulus that produces positive reinforcement. Pavlov first introduced the idea of conditioning in animals. Conditioning or cultural design however, can also be related to human behavior. How exactly does cultural design relate to the concepts of dignity vs. punishment? Why are moral struggles considered noteworthy to so many people?
The plight of so many individuals is finding purpose and function in life. One may argue that by subjecting persons to punishment, their dignity suffers and thus they are…… [Read More]
The characters of God, Stan, and Jesus are also significant in this epic and because they are considered valuable in their roles in the poem, we can assume that Milton found similar value with these characters in life itself. Through these characters, Milton is presenting not only a hierarchy but also a way in which things should operate. God's supremacy is unquestionable in this realm and demonstrated early in the poem through events leading to Satan's attempt to overthrow him. In addition, Adam and Eve have free will, which also allows us to see the power of God through his creations. He did not create robots but real creatures that can make their own decisions -- even when they will be the worst decision of their lives. This foundation provides the perfect backdrop to the story of man and his behavior as he walks this earth.
Adam and Eve prove…… [Read More]
Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Family Challenges
Human interactions are guided by the ability of every player to get close to the other in such a manner that allows each of them to handle the issues that affect them. This is mostly witnessed in a family setup, where the people are made to understand the best of what can upset them at all times. This is where the players in a family setup have to consider making up with their desires and addressing everyone's concern for the sake of the family unity. In most instances, the people who must be accommodated are the children because their happiness is premised on the guidance from parents (Papero, 2010). The two most essential theories used to foster our understanding of family relationships are the family systems theory and the attachment theory.
Attachment theory explains how the human beings in every…… [Read More]
Human Behavior Theories Application
There are several factors that have been used to explain human behavior in the past and there have been accurate instances that these theories have proven to be applicable and true. The subject of this human behavior study application will be a close friend with whom we study in college. Vincent (not real name) has been a friend from the mid childhood years and we have been through high school together and now at the college. He is an engineering student who has all along proven to be very committed to the academics and been leading in position and performance in high school. Vincent is 19 years old and of the African-American race, his family resides in California and most of the extended family members value collective living and not living separately in different cities. He is not from a rich background and depends mostly on…… [Read More]
From issues mundane to issues involving the survival of humankind itself, Prospect Theory helps people to analyze the way they analyze the world in order to come up with a much better understanding of the potential risks and outcomes they are faced with. The assignment of value within the decisions and outcomes has a bearing on the decisions themselves, and as each group of people assigns certain value to both the specific, shorter-term outcomes as well as the aggregate outcomes, the decisions and the human decision making process becomes much more complex.
Holyoak, Keith J. "Problem Solving." In Smith, Edward E. And Daniel N. Osherson. Thinking,
an Invitation to Cognitive Science. (2nd ed.) pp. 267-296. London: MIT Press, 2004. Print.
Tversky, Amos and Daniel Kahneman. "Advances in prospect theory: Cumulative representation of uncertainty." Journal of isk and Uncertainty, Vol. 5, No. 4. Pp. 297-323. Print.
Markman, Arthur B. And…… [Read More]
human behavior to understand the range of behaviors that people show under the influence of emotions, parenting, culture, attitudes, values, ethics, force and genetics. It is understood through this research how the human behavior can be usual or unusual and acceptable or acceptable. The main focus is on the work of social scientists including Finn, Jacobson, and Payne. Finn and Jacobson wrote an article "Just practice: Steps toward a new practice paradigm" and Payne presented "Modern social work theory." The human behavior theories presented in these two articles are offered here for the purpose of analysis and understanding. There are different behavioral elements that a person can show for example respect, discrimination; cooperation and collaboration (Focus on social work, 2009). It is not possible to behave equally with all the human beings because, articles suggest, emotions play an important role in defining human behavior but at least there should be…… [Read More]
Human ehavior is critical to organizations -- discuss the benefits of self-evaluation/self-assessment as it relates to leaders today 'Understanding human behavior is critical to organizations:'
Discuss the benefits of self-evaluation/self-assessment as it relates to leaders today 'Know thyself.' This principle is not only a vital cornerstone of philosophy and psychology -- it is very important in the world of commerce. Without self-knowledge, a business leader is unable to effectively lead others, particularly persons of different personality types or who come from alternate cultural worldviews. Without engaging in self-assessment, managers cannot understand the needs of subordinates or superiors, customers, or unexpected situational requirements. Self-assessments and self-evaluations, when properly conducted "can lead to the development of a strategic organizational plan with clearly defined short-term and long-term goals, measurable objectives, identified fiscal and personnel resources, and enhanced consumer and community partnerships" (Self-assessments, 2013, NCCC).
To better understand the need for self-assessments, examining an…… [Read More]
Human Behavior And Social Environment
Democracy Now episode critique
Sundance Film Festival
Date of the show: January 24, 2011
Tax Justice Network USA chair Jack Blum; Sheena Joyce, co-director of the new documentary The Atomic States of America, and Robert Redford
This show profiles several movie-makers with features being shown at the Sundance Film Festival. The films deal with areas of social justice. The first speaker appears as a 'talking head' in a documentary entitled We're Not Broke, a film on the widespread phenomenon of corporate tax evasion in America. The second speaker, the director Sheena Joyce, discusses America's long and troubling relationship with the use of nuclear power. The final speaker, Robert Redford, is a well-known actor and director as well as the creator of the Sundance Film Festival. He designed the festival to showcase radical and independent films offering a different perspective upon American…… [Read More]
Much has been said about violence and the media, but media in general is causing extensive health problems for our nation, too. A parenting Web site notes, "Children who consistently spend more than 4 hours per day watching TV are more likely to be overweight. Kids who view violent acts are more likely to show aggressive behavior but also fear that the world is scary and that something bad will happen to them" (Editors, 2010). Most everyone knows that obesity is a substantial problem facing the nation, and childhood obesity is growing dramatically, as well. The sedentary behavior of watching television and playing video games only contributes to this problem, as does the nation's obsession with fast food and processed food. Interestingly enough, the media is rampant with fast food and junk food advertising, and the children watching these ads clamor for the latest junk foods, so while children are…… [Read More]
human behavior a factor in assuring reliable protection?
Because even the most robust and advanced system is not going to work reliability or effectively if the administrators and/or users do not operate and administer it effectively and/or do not know how. Either people know or they do not know and if they do know, the question is do they/will they?
Why is proper understanding so important to effective information security?
Because knowing a rule is one thing. However, understanding why it is necessary and proper is yet another. Knowing why things can or must be done a certain way is important in reinforcing why the procedure is called for or necessary.
How are levels of advanced knowledge reached? Why is a capability hierarchy necessary?
Advanced levels of knowledge can only be effectively reached when lower levels are already learned and firmly in place. A hierarchy is necessary because not unlike…… [Read More]
Human Behavior is critical to organizations - discuss the benefits of self-Evaluation/self-assessment
There are myriad benefits associated with self-evaluations and self-assessments as they relate to leaders today. In fact, one can argue that such assessments help to provide the very foundation of leadership. It is critical for a leader in today's organizations, which have an increasing amount of diversity to contend with (and which is considered "good for business") (Galer, 2014), to determine a leadership style to lead most effectively. Doing so requires understanding the strengths and assets of one's organization, as well as the strengths, assets and weaknesses of one's self. The principle way that self-assessments can help today's leaders is by providing an objective means of measuring the latter.
It is essential for a leader to conduct self-assessments fairly regularly, for the simple fact that there are several mutable factors pertaining to leadership and individual "traits" (eilly, 2013)…… [Read More]
Human Behavior and the Social Environment (HBSE) and the life cycle
The Tuck family in the young adult novel Tuck Everlasting is in many ways shut off from the normal processes of development: it is denied the ability to grow older and thus its members remain in the same stage as when they were granted immortality. Most individuals proceed through a period of biological, psychological, and sociological development particular to the individual's life cycle. For example, it would be expected that Jessie Tuck would eventually leave his parents, start his own family, and then begin to age like his mother and father (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman 2009: 7). As parents gradually take on the infirmities expected of those growing older, quite often children will become caretakers of the elderly, restoring the favor the elderly bestowed upon them as children (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman 2009: 618-619). However, the Tuck family lives…… [Read More]
human science sources and human behavior related articles and literature. There will be a deep analysis of what had been written about the sleep trends and the activity of the human brain, the optimum sleep hours required for optimum performance. Some of the search terms that will feature in this research literature will be cognitive ability (Thoracic Sleep Group, 2010) to refer to the extent to which the various participants are able to recognize concepts and imbibe them. Wakefulness is yet another term that will feature to refer to the ability and the duration that participants are able to comfortably pay attention to academic issues in class or library. Sleep deprivation (Steadyhealth, 2007) is yet another term that will be predominantly used in this case to refer to the lack of sleep hours that are equal to the average sleep hours that will have been calculated from the collected data…… [Read More]
Abnormal psychology, a sub-field of psychology, has no established core theory, unlike other scientific disciplines such as math, physics, or chemistry (Long, 2009). In order to treat patients with psychological disorders, professionals in the field use knowledge gained from clinical psychology studies, particularly information gained from studies related to psychopathology. Beginning in the 1900's, researchers proposed several theories and treatments of abnormal psychology which centered on the relationship of psychological, physical, and social conditions in the individual and society. During its beginnings, psychology was often studied in conjunction with philosophy, but today it is more commonly applied in the fields of neurology and physiology (Comer, 2003). Modern day psychological theories have found practical applications within the areas of business, personal development, computers, health and even sports. This holds true for the field of abnormal psychology as well.
Studies in abnormal psychology follow three different theoretical models (Long, 2009). These…… [Read More]
Human behavior observation that will be made here entails observing a willing participant who is a student at a local college. The observation will run through five days with each observation span lasting 30 minutes from 9:00 PM which is the time that the college library closes and 9:30 PM which is the regular time that the participating student indicated that he usually sleep. This timing was deemed appropriate since it would not significantly interfere with the academic activities of the student as the behavior observation exercise was meant to uphold the rights of the student and the ethics necessary. The aim of the observation will be to see if there are any behavioral changes in the participant across the week from Monday through to Friday and to locate the possible causes of these behavioral changes.
The college is located away from any major town and majority of the students…… [Read More]
Human Behavior in the Social Environment
The way human beings behave when they are in a social environment varies as compared to when they are alone. In isolation, people will behave in such a manner that portrays their identity. However, when in the company of many people in a social place, people tend to experience tension and the desire to please other arises. Therefore, the kind of personality people show when in the public watch is likely to be misleading (Dewey, 2013). This study gives an account of what was experienced by the researcher while in the in a church service. In this church session, the worshippers are freely interacting. The observer notes everything about them including their ethnicity.
The interaction session
At the interactive session, the people here noted to be having their discussions in some groupings. These groupings were made up of women, men or children isolated groups.…… [Read More]
Human elation -- A Social Science Perspective
Fundamental differences between the social sciences and the natural sciences
Science is commonly taken to be an attempt at predicting, understanding, and explaining our world, using distinctive modes of analysis for developing theories. However, defining a collection of attributes that distinguish sciences from religion, fortune telling, astrology and other such disciplines (not categorized under sciences), which also aim at understanding and explaining our world, is not a simple task (Okasha, 2002). Wittgenstein maintained, in the context of games, that no fixed group of features exists for defining a "game" -- one can, however, find a loose collection of common features that most games possess; Okasha feels that sciences can also be explained in a similar manner. On the basis of some common features among sciences, two branches of science -- social and natural sciences -- will be contrasted in this paper (Donmez &…… [Read More]
The desire to change itself must be implanted with schooling, and may have its roots in genetic factors. However, it is equally impossible to predict with absolute certainty, even given known genetic and environmental circumstances, who will flourish. hat of the 40% of individuals with the same genetic makeup and social influences who do not become schizophrenic? Unlike a stamp-imprinter, a human being apparently 'set' at an early age can make a surprisingly unique and better 'stamp' than its designers might expect. Additionally, many individuals with favorable life circumstances do not succeed, despite the stamp label manufacture's belief that their imprint is perfect, given the care put into the design.
Of course, Hospers would say this is due to other factors beyond the individual's control or the observer's perception -- but ultimately, the way his philosophy of determinism functions seems like a self-fulfilling prophesy and only works when rationalizing backwards…… [Read More]
The question that Caine struggles with is whether life has any real meaning, taking into account the ugly, cruel, but still unimaginably changeable circumstances under which many people are able to live -- "in particular, young black men caught in a web of presumption and prejudice about their alleged natures and what they might be capable of -- becomes the fundamental question" (Flory 2008) for Caine and for the entire film.
environmental perspective. Less than thirty minutes into the Menace II Society, Caine's grandfather asks him if he even cares if he lives or dies. This question is a philosophical topic, as suggested by Camus, but it is also a psychological question because what happens when a person becomes ambivalent about their life? And what drives them to become so? There is some suggestion that focusing on race by delineating how a presumed guilt of African-Americans and other related conditions…… [Read More]
Social Influences on Human Behavior
Patterns of attachment
Four main patters of attachment seen among children exist. The first is the secure pattern of attachment where the child exhibits sadness and is unable to carry out any task when his/her mother leaves. In this case, the child becomes very delighted when the mother returns. The mother to the child is a safe haven and a good base from which he/she can survey the environment. The next is ambivalent attachment and in this case the child shows extreme sadness on the departure of the mother. Fear of strange faces is equally common in this form of attachment. When the child is reunited with the mother, he/she will move close to her but won’t stay with her for long. The children in this form of attachment have a tendency to cry and explore more. The next is the avoidant attachment; in this…… [Read More]
Humans Behavior: Discriminative Control of Punished Stereotyped Behavior
The problem of controlling behavior in humans who are challenged in their mental scope is of concern. While the majority of people shun the use of force, and punishments and the modern thinking on enforcing appropriate behavior is leaning to therapeutic and learning modes, altering the environment and peer pressure, there could be some truth in the use of punishment being effective in controlling impulsive and undesirable behavior. These traits and appropriate settings for the same have to be seen in the general light of the literature in psychology over the issue. For example researchers have gone deep into the exact use of discriminative control and response is still in infancy, and using the background of mental retardation, Doughty et al. (2007) have researched the results of the use of differential punishment and the antecedent stimulus using three adults with mental retardation…… [Read More]
Theory to Social Concerns or Human Behaviors
The Theory of Social Concerns or Human Behaviors provides a broad framework into which more narrowly focused research can be viewed from. This analysis will consider three individual research journal articles and first provide an overview of the work that was conducted. Then this analysis will try to relate the study and its results to the broader theories mentioned. The external factors related to a child's development can have a substantial influence on their development as well as be highly correlated with MEB issues later in life. The paper will conclude with a short discussion of why this research is important to society in regard to public health initiatives.
Parenting a Child with a Disability
Parents who have children with disabilities often have additional challenges that are presented in the situation when compared to the responsibilities of parents when their children…… [Read More]
Mottern (2008) writes that Dr. William Glasser's internal control approach labeled as 'Choice Theory' postulates that the following five fundamental needs drive all of human behavior -- a physiological need to survive and 4 psychological needs (belongingness or love or acceptance; authority or acknowledgement or accomplishment; independence, or individuality or choice; and learning or excitement or enjoyment. To sum up, choice theory basically suggests that one's behavior is one's own choice.
People develop all through the course of their lifespan. In this context, the term 'development' may be defined as: one's capacity of making progressively better choices with regard to fulfilling one's fundamental needs. A choice will then be "good" if it brings one nearer to satisfying fundamental needs in a harmless manner (both to ourselves and others). A less effectual or "bad" choice would be one that fails to bring one nearer to satisfying fundamental needs, or one that…… [Read More]
However, unlike Leucippus, Holbach is not simply interested in the science of materialism, and is more apt to entertain different explanations for specific types of matter. There is more to be understood than mere appearance in the rearrangement of material essences: "Determinism is universal, in Holbach's view, but different sorts of bodies may have peculiar properties that require peculiar explanations. Despite his avowed materialism, Holbach does not demand the sorts of reductive explanations of mental events that materialism might ordinarily seem to require (LeBuffe 2002). For Holbach, there is more interesting unpredictability in the behavior of types of matter, and the observation of what Leucippus might call mere surface differences.
Berryman, Sylvia. "Leucippus." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.
LeBuffe, Michael. "Holbach." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.
http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/holbach/#2… [Read More]
Bacon's work is less centered on the individual himself as the center of reality and of the mechanism of understanding reality. His rational explanation of the world focuses on nature. His preface of Novum Organum gives some interesting details about his perception of the Nature as the common denominator of understanding reality, the basic premise and concept of all subsequent understanding. Similar to the understanding of Nietzsche and Darwin related solely on the individual, Nature is also very difficult to pinpoint, shouldn't be dogmatized through its unpredictability and capacity to remain a differentiated entity.
Bacon proposes a method that includes "determining certain degrees of certainty" and, a definite element of rationality, using the mind as the main instrument of identifying and understanding the reality surrounding us, although the senses are also something that should be taken into consideration into the equation of understanding reality. Thus, through Nature, using his mind…… [Read More]
" (ND, p.1) According to Ryan the human brain is an "evolved system" and one that is organized "to an underlying evolutionary logic." (ND, p.1) It is the claim of evolutionary psychologists that "the human brain has not changed" and furthermore, that it has not been "under any evolutionary pressure to do so -- in any significant way over the past 100,000 years, and therefore, modern man maintains the 'mind' of his Stone Age ancestors." (ND, p.1)
Lynch (2004) author of 'The Neuro Revolution: How rain Science is Changing Our World" states that "emotions and feelings are mediated by distinct neural systems. Whereas emotions are automatic responses to stimuli, feelings are 'private, subjective experiences' that emerge from the cognitive processing of an emotion eliciting state."(p.1) Therefore, it can be understood that indeed human brains are to some extent hardwired however, the individual's cognitive processing capacity has a great deal to…… [Read More]
Human behavior with respect to communal property is a critical issue of our time. The individual profit-maximizing activities of each individual all contribute to the erosion of critical common resources. There are a number of perspectives that help to explain why this occurs.
The tragedy of the commons explains this phenomenon. Hardin (1968) notes that individuals seek to maximize their outcomes -- this could be wealth or it could be utility. In either case, such behavior is strictly oriented to one's own personal well-being. The concept of perfect rationality is applied only in a narcissistic context. This is true even in collectivist societies, because such societies seldom view the human race as the collective unit. Thus, nobody makes their decisions with the good of the entire species in mind. The tragedy is that the cost of things is not reflected in our decision-making. In economics, the concept is…… [Read More]
Unfortunately, hormone effects and interactions can be so complex that even the best known hormones are not completely understood." (MacDougall) Hormones are most often discussed in connection with sexual behavior. But they are responsible for almost every reaction and action. When a person takes on too much stress, stress hormones are to blame and these hormones cause the behavior from that. Similarly during a phase of depression when a person is undergoing acute pessimism, the production of endorphins stopped or is lowered which is the really cause of depression. For this reasons, medication is given which balances chemical reactions in the body to normalize behavior. Human behavior is thus a sum total of different influences including heredity, hormones, environment and psychology. Dr. Leary has explained this in an apt manner when he said:
The science of human behavior in the largest sense of the word behavior, the sense which includes…… [Read More]
Mind and Human Behavior
Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness
Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).
The Quantum Theory of Consciousness
The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…… [Read More]
psychology, theories of personality abound. Two of the most significant theories of personality include psychodynamic and humanistic/existential theories. Although these two theories share some features in common, they are based on widely different assumptions about human nature and human behavior. Each describes the way personality impacts human behavior under certain situations. However, psychodynamic theory presumes that human personality is static and less likely to change. Humanistic and existential theories are built on the assumption that human personality is dynamic. The differences between psychodynamic and humanistic theories of personality also have an impact on their approaches to treatment interventions and therapy.
Psychodynamic theories of personality are based on the theories of Sigmund Freud, who believed that human personality is determined by subconscious factors and the person's psycho-sexual nature. The personality is divided into three main and immutable components according to the psychodynamic worldview. Those three components include the id, ego, and…… [Read More]
Appreciating Diverse Views on Abnormal Behavior
Experience and genetic inheritance influence human behavior. The manner in which individuals grow is driven by social circumstances and experiences within the setting of their inherited genetic potential (Walker, 2002). The scientific concern is just how the hereditary potential and experience interact to generate human behavior. The text illustrates that abnormal behavior is that behavior that deviates from the normal or what is expected. Most people avoid what they define for themselves as abnormal behavior. For instance, we will probably opt not to sit next to a person acting in an odd manner or dressed in weird clothes in a train or bus. People hate individuals who smell dirty, and if possible we try to stay away from them. Based on this, the abnormal behavior seems to be that which is outside the parameters of the norm in the society.
Every individual is born…… [Read More]
rose when determining the human behavior lead to varying answers depending on the presupposed paradigm. (VASILACHIS DE GIALDINO, 1992). In the paper presented by Peterson Armour, I think the topic had the tendency to answers the raised questions differently, depending on whether the Epistemology of the subject is rejected or accepted. The author has tried his best to form a conclusion, which is independent from his personal views.
To discuss the ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions made by the author made in this study, a few questions need to be analyzed. How this 'reality' can be realized? What is the association between the knower (in this case the author and the respondents of the survey) and the known (the effects homicide on family members)? What principles, personality and assumptions guide the process of determining the achievements of this study? What is the possibility that this research will be repeated by…… [Read More]
Human esponse to Physical Structure:
Environmental psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on explaining human behavior in relation to the physical environment. In this case, the physical environment basically incorporates plants, animals, and material objects that have a significant impact on behavior at various levels. However, this branch of psychology does not focus on the interactional procedures among people as emphasized on other branches of psychology. In analyzing human behavior, it adopts a systems approach that has become the main approach in modern science.
Impact of Physical Structure on Human Behavior:
According to various theories, the physical environment or structure affects human behavior at various levels with instant behavior acting as a function of settings with which it happens (Matthew, n.d.). The individual personality traits of people within a specified country are largely influenced by the nature and type of physical environment that these individuals are subject to…… [Read More]
Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…… [Read More]
Human Factors in Aviation Safety
The human beings with their immense capabilities, imagination, creativity, and cleverness have transformed the world into an industrial world that is surrounded by numerous inventions, innovations, and advancements in various facets of life. Aviation industry is also one of the developments of the human beings, which was imagined as an attempt to emulate bird flight. Human beings were engaged in this phenomenon for centuries prior to the emergence of the first flight, which resulted in outstanding civil transport in the form of spaceflight (Campbell & Bagshaw, 2008). However, it is wise to note that the human life is one integral aspect that should not be ignored when any mode of transportation is concerned. To have a safe journey during flights it is demonstrated that aviation safety is essential. Aviation safety principally signifies that prevention techniques in the form of regulation, education, and training should be…… [Read More]
hen the behavior is followed by a favorable consequence, the behavior is more likely to recur over and over. However, if the behavior is followed by a negative consequence or a painful consequence, then the behavior is less like to happen again.
The third type of learning is Motor Learning. Carlson says that motor learning is "the establishment of changes within the motor system." (433). He claims that this type of learning is a component of the stimulus-response type of learning. However, this type of learning must involve some form of sensory guidance from the environment and it elicits a reaction from the body.
Finally, the fourth type of learning that Carlson describes is Relational Learning. This is the most complex type of learning and it "involves learning the relationship among individual stimuli." (431) Relational Learning involves spatial learning which is the actual process of identifying similarities and differences among…… [Read More]
Human Behavior and the Environment
Environmental psychology makes an attempt to discover and understand the manner in which human behavior influences the environment both positively and negatively (De Young, 2013). The purpose of this paper will be to gain insight on how the environment is affected by human behavior. The focus will be to elucidate the manner in which environmental cues influence behavior, as well as to assess the manner in which behavior can be transformed to nurture sustainability, and how this can ultimately decrease adverse effects on the environment. The paper will also discuss the manner in which social norms have an impact on behavior and beliefs about the environment. Thereafter a number of solutions that could positively alter behavior and practices so as to decrease adverse environmental impact will be provided.
Environmental Cues and how they shape Human Behavior
In accordance with Steg (2013), environmental cues can be…… [Read More]
Moreover, the study compares the effect on human factors on different types of aircraft. The study also reveals the correlation between the anomalies and type of aircrafts.
Human factors cause of Aircraft Accidents
The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that situational awareness is the most contributing human factor to aircraft accidents with the Mean =112. Moreover, the Mean value of the communication breakdown is 80 which rank second as the human factors problem to aircraft incidents. Typically, communication breakdown occurs when the pilot or other aircraft crew is unable to communicate with terminals. Communication is very critical for effective operations of aircraft, a pilot will require to constantly making radio communication when on air to ensure the aircraft safety and the aircraft is on the right direction. Confusion as human factor ranks third with the Mean =70. The descriptive statistics table shows other important human factors that cause the…… [Read More]
The use of the word MY also suggests that the speaker feels a sense of possession towards the assistant, thus the assistant's departure is seen as a loss of control, not merely a setback to the project as he says.
7. it's an animal urge, Puff. it's nothing to be ashamed of (65)
The word Puff suggests an animal, even if Puff is not an animal -- Puff is being assured that acting like an animal is natural, and not worthy of shame, despite Puff's feelings to the contrary and the ambiguous quality of Puff's name.
8. Remember, when in doubt: don't ever do what you really want to do (69)
This statement goes against the assurances of the naturalness of human behavior and impulses -- go against one's human or animal nature, it suggests, and repress and resist gut instincts. Instead, follow societal dictates and one's own superego.
9.…… [Read More]
Because of this discovery, scientists and politicians across the world have banded together in order to fight emissions and the use of products that contain CFCs. Most are aware of the grim forecast that awaits humankind if action is not taken -- a world consumed by ocean. Still, some do not believe that human behavior plays a role in global warming. hatever one's opinion, one can be sure that the worldwide attempts to implement responsible human interaction with the environment has a favorable political outcome -- globalization and the banding together of the world. In the future, history may write that chemistry was at the heart of a global political peace.
"Chemical of the eek: Ozone." University of isconsin -- Madison. n.d. Chemistry
"The Ozone Layer." Environmental Literacy Council. 7 April 2008. 16 May 2009.… [Read More]
7. Fenn, P., & Ashby, S., 2004. Workplace risk, establishment size, and union density. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 42, 461 -- 480.
8. Griffin, M.A., & Neal, A., 2000. Perceptions of safety at work: A framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 347 -- 358.
9. Neal, A., Griffin, M.A., & Hart, P.M., 2000. The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science, 34, 99 -- 109.
10. Hechanova-Alampay, R.H., & Beehr, T.A., 2001. Empowerment, span of control and safety performance in work teams after workforce reduction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 275 -- 282.
11. Kaminski, M., 2001. Unintended consequences: Organizational practices and their impact on workplace safety and productivity. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 127 -- 138.
Turner, N., & Parker, S.K., 2004. The effect of teamwork on safety processes and…… [Read More]
In that regard, absolute fairness would always require that individuals be trustworthy, that they treat others with the same respect and care they would hope to receive, and that they would conduct themselves within any community as a citizen who recognizes the rights and sensibilities of all other citizens. Therefore, it is not necessarily that fairness is the most important; rather, it is that fairness is the single pillar that could be most accurately described as encompassing all of the others.
As a manager, I would implement a moral compass by presenting my employees with the principles and values expected by the organization first, without reference to specific policies. I would introduce the specific policies only afterwards and, in that process, I would make sure to connect the principles to the policies. As an employee, I would be more comfortable following principles (and principle-based policies) than strict policies without the…… [Read More]
As one of ten children, my family structure reflects my unique cultural background. All ten of us were raised by my mother alone; we struggled financially but rarely emotionally because of the immense love and support given to us by my mother. Having a strong maternal influence in my life might also reflect the Hispanic and Christian culture in which I was raised. Both Christianity and Puerto Rican culture impacted my world growing up. For instance, my mother imparted her religious beliefs to her kids, beliefs that were strongly rooted in the Christian tradition. In addition to my mother, I had various role models who helped forge my identity and behaviors. Christianity also serves to link our otherwise oppressed minority community with the dominant culture in America. Although I grew up in an environment that supported bilingualism and respected Hispanic culture, I occasionally met with biases and prejudices in…… [Read More]
We don't really know everything a newborn infant is capable of, but we know that mother and infant relate to each other within the first few minutes of life (Klaus, 1998). When we think of infancy, in my opinion we have to keep in mind that we cannot observe brain activity. The baby that can reach for a toy at seven months was learning things all along that brought him or her to that point. So I believe infancy to be a crucial part of child development.
If this is true, then the role of the caregiver is crucial. We know that babies are cared for in different ways by members of different cultures. In the United States, a mother is likely to place the baby in some kind of stroller and push the child in front of her. However in some African and Asian cultures, the mothers carry…… [Read More]
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Stanley…… [Read More]
Basic Concepts of Human Interaction
Conformity & Obedience
Human interaction is the phenomenon which takes place when two humans have a tendency to have an effect over one another. Individuals are mainly unaware of the fact that they are responding to the external factors and are adapting to the surroundings. Every situation requires the humans to react differently and thus demands a different mannerism altogether. A simple example of such behavior is individual's behavior which shows professionalism in the work-related settings whereas the same individual will exhibit different behavior when found with friends or family. Hence, every situation requires individual to consider the external factors requiring thorough analysis of what to say and how to respond. The two fundamental examples of such behavior are conformity and obedience. These two terms may sound the same however individuals exhibit these two sets of behavior differently in different situations.
Human behavior…… [Read More]
Whatever the needed equipment is the company should provide the best possible so that the employees have a reduced chance of accident.
In addition, when a company provides the best possible equipment to the employees it sends them a strong message about the importance of a safety culture at work.
Modeling this way of thinking from management down to the employees will help to promote the safety culture the companies' desire.
Having a team effort to promote the safety culture of any company can only serve to boost the employee moral, save money on workman's compensation claims and reduce the number of accidents within that workplace environment.
For many years, employers were not to concerned with the safety factor of their employees and employees, by human nature would use risk taking behaviors to get their jobs done. This combination of human high risk behavior and lack of company care…… [Read More]
ole of Human esources in Organization
ealization of Importance of Human esource
Vision for using Human esources for Organizational Success
ole of H Manager in Workplace Environment Creation and Motivation
Importance of Merritt-based Promotions
ealization of Importance of Human esource
Companies and organizations can gain market leverage and achieve competitive advantages through effective management of its human resource. Thus, it plays a critical role in an organization or a company. Given the cut-throat competition in the global and the local markets as well as the declining importance of the impact of outside forces on stability, organizational effectiveness and development become critically dependent on management of human resources (Mondy, Noe & Gowan, 2005).
Most of the companies in the modern business require to function and develop in a relatively constant volatile environment and market condition. It is important that companies improve continuously for the purpose of creation of a sustainable competitive…… [Read More]
humans have been intrigued by the workings of the human mind. Philosophers and physiologists pondered the questions that psychology, as an independent science, now addresses. Psychology is the study of mind and behavior, both in humans and animals. There exist many subfields within this discipline and as such, supporters of each may alter the aforementioned definition to emphasize their area of concentration.
Developmental psychology examines changes and growth over the lifespan. Child and adolescent psychology along with gerontology are subdisciplines of developmental psychology. The influence and effect others have on our feelings, behaviors, and thoughts describes social psychology. Personality psychology is the study of stable characteristics that influence behavior. Traits include aggressiveness, anxiety, and sociability to name a few. Experimental psychology, as the name implies, relies on the experimental method in its proceedings. Fields of research include cognition, sense perception, and memory. iological processes are the central concerns in physiological…… [Read More]
Human Psychology Drives Economy
Animal Spirits - How Human Psychology Drives Economy - the Theory ehavioral Economics Particularly work authors Robert Shiller ( Akerlof) Yale Richard Thaler Chicago. Shiller a web.
The essay is based upon behavioral economics and how human behavior or rather psychology act as an economic driver, thou this theory or opinion hasn't been fully accepted by all economist and authors the essay intends to explore more into behavioral theory or economic and at the end give its own conclusion about the topic.
The essay will first introduce the topic of study then look at some of the economic drivers that have been suggested by other authors and economist to understand more on what an economic driver is. After looking at some of the economic drivers that have been laid out, the essay embarks on the sub-topic which is the theory of behavioral economic in a manner…… [Read More]
Core affect (CA) on the other hand refers to a neurophysiological state which is accessible consciously as very simple and yet nonreflective feeling which forms an integral part of hedonistic as well as arousing values. The hedonistic values are responsible for the feeling of pleasure and displeasure while the arousal feelings are activated by sleep. In the study of affect, it became clear that its core characteristics are many. Some of the characteristics are valence which is the extent, to which an individual feels bad. Arousal, which is the sleep-activated value denoting to the extent to which one feels energized. Affects exists in each and every person without the need of any form of stimulus. Affects is a primitive aspect of every being and is noted to be university as well as ubiquitous. Affect is the center of all human laden events and called in various names as pointed out…… [Read More]
Finally, these changes established the practice of deferring to previous decisions issued by courts that in modern times is recognized as the concept of legal precedent that is essential to the American system of justice in both the realm of civil and criminal law.
It is believed that the first King of ancient Egypt, Menes, established the first national system of government more than 3,000 years before the Common Era. In addition to uniting Upper and Lower Egypt during his reign of more than six decades, King Menes also established what is believed to be the first centralized system of national government headquartered near modern-day Cairo, still the capital of Egypt almost five thousand years later.
Prior to his reign, there was no such thing as a centralized national government system or a national capital city that united political authority over an entire nation. The dynasty established by…… [Read More]
Fifteen questions used to measure willingness to AC were assembled into a questionnaire designed to examine the personality measures and items regarding employee response to various safety issues, adequacy of safety training, and attitudes toward other safety related issues. The most pertinent questions relating to AC were:
If I know a coworker is going to do a hazardous job, I am willing to remind him/her of the hazards (even if the employee is familiar with the job),
I am willing to warn my peers about working unsafely am willing to do whatever I can to improve safety, even confronting my peers about their unsafe acts.
The responses to these questions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale, were added to attain an AC score. The Likert technique presents a set of attitude statements. Subjects are asked to express agreement or disagreement of a five-point scale. Each degree of agreement is given…… [Read More]
Accounting for Intangible Assets in the Transnational Manufacturing Industry
The international business world has worked to break down barriers that formerly existed to allow businesses to more easily expand their operations to new markets. Much of this trend has been fueled by globalization which has allowed for the increasing connectedness of markets and resources through technological developments in many areas including, but not limited to, information and communications technology, advances in shipping, and a political environment largely accepting of deregulation. However, as companies have acted to expand into new opportunities in foreign markets, many have found that there is a plethora of different challenges that present by the cultural and social factors, among others, that are present in these markets. The main functions of business include operations, marketing, and accounting and there are many aspects of these functions that must be adjusted to effectively carry out international expansions.…… [Read More]
Human Behavior Social Environment
This paper begins with an observation of a 4-year-old boy at the train station setting. The surrounding company is the family that consists of father, mother, a son, and three-daughters. The goal of the observation is to establish the boy's entire behavior together with his reaction to punishment and reinforcement. The method used was the Systematic Observation consisting of event sampling and specimen record that lasted for 53 minutes.
The report gathered information through "Systematic Observation." I formulated the design through the simple form of recording data through event sampling and specimen record. In most cases, researchers can record descriptions of the entire scope of behavior using this method (Hutchison, 2008). Further, the particular behavior instances of the specified period were recorded.
The Piaget Cognitive Development Theory was used in analyzing the behavior of the child. The child is at proportional stages of between two…… [Read More]
Human rights are the activities, freedoms and conditions that all human are entitle to enjoy, and these rights include economic, political, cultural and social rights. Putting differently, human rights are inalienable, inherent, indivisible and interdependent, which cannot be taken away, must be respected, and which the governments are to put in places the instrument to regulate laws and policies for human rights protection. Similarly, international human rights are the set of rules that guide the conducts of state's behaviors. Globally, countries enter into treaties to guarantee certain rights and refrain from violating these rights within their jurisdictions. (IJRC, 2016). The historical facts of human rights started from the declaration of universal human right rights in 1948, and the expressions are referred as aggregate rights of humans. The UDHR ("Universal Declaration of Human Rights") (IJRC 2016 p 1) was ratified by 48 countries with some Muslim countries such as Iran, Iraq,…… [Read More]