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Human ehavior in Organizations
Understanding human behavior is critical in organizations
The existence of an organization does depend on the employees; therefore, it is important to understand human behavior. Understanding human behavior will make it easy to work in an organization composed of employees with different personality, attitudes, values, perception, motives, and abilities. Managers should understand behavior because they work with people; interact with them in terms of communication, and in terms of work. Managers should understand the likelihood of individual differences arising among the employees. When a manager notes a difference, the next thing to do is learning the source of the difference. y so doing, the manager will leverage the difference effectively because the complexity is understood; therefore, managers may understand why people behave differently. This case is evident in organizations with a diverse workforce; therefore, managers should recognize the cultural differences that may exist (rett, ehfar and…
Brett, J., Behfar, K., Kern, C.M., (2006). Managing Multicultural Teams, Harvard Business
Review: Harvard University Press
Fernandez, P.J. (1981). Prejudice in organizations. Racism and Sexism in Corporate Life, Lexington, Mass: DC. Health
Modified Gestalt theory would support the idea that Chris has a strong genetic predisposition for developing schizophrenia, given his brother's illness. He was raised in an unstable home environment, because of his father's alcoholism that may have exacerbated the young Chris' sense of constant stress and his difficulty to perceive the world in a hostile, non-threatening fashion. Chris is rational at times, other times he is paranoid, and goes through various degrees of awareness about his state of rationality (hence the usefulness of the Gestalt stress on the 'present point in time' to describe sanity). A resumption of medication may be necessary, although this may not be necessary for throughout the duration of Chris' life.
Chris has been disturbed by a shift in the relationship of his marriage. His wife wishes to have another child and he has just unexpectedly re-encountered a threatening individual from his past. Psychotic…
Latner, Joel. (1992). "The Theory of Gestalt Therapy." From Gestalt Therapy
Perspectives and Applications. Cleveland: Gestalt Institute of Cleveland (GIC) Press. Nevis, Edwin C. Ed. Retrieved 14 May 2007 at http://www.aagt.org/html/character__psychopathology__an.html
Human Behavior, Physiology and Freedom
What determines exactly where human behavior comes from? Who is the ultimate authority that in effect, evaluates the appropriateness of such behavior? What is freedom and to what extent does behavior influence freedom? What physiological and environmental factors contribute to the assessment of such factors? Is cultural design and the control of freedom and behavior the answer to solving behavioral issues?
The answers to these questions are complicated and involved. Human behavior is the result of many complex biological and physiological processes, including cell growth, adequate nutrition and hormone presence in the body. Does it seem interesting that males and females often are cited as communicating differently? This is in part the result of the prevalence of different hormones in the genetic make up of males and females. Scientifically, it has been proven that a deficiency of nutrients and/or certain proteins in the body can…
The roles that males and females may also vary -- although a woman biologically gives birth to a child, a man may assume more or less care for the child, depending upon the situation of a couple. A man who loses his job and has a wife who must support the family temporarily may care for his child, even though a biological explanation for human behavior might theorize that a man has less of a hormonal attachment to the child, and the species would benefit if males generated more children with a wider range of females.
The psychodynamic approach also examines the interaction between culture and biology but from a more personal perspective, given its origins in psychoanalysis. Freud asked the question of why human beings marry outside of their kinship group, even though the first object of affection for both men and women is the mother, specifically the mother's…
Hofstetter, Fred T. "Cognitive vs. Behavioral Psychology. Excerpts from Chapter
Four of the McGraw-Hill textbook Multimedia Literacy. 1997. 23 Apr 2007. http://www.udel.edu/fth/pbs/webmodel.htm
Rubin, Paul H. "Book Review -- Sense and Nonsense: Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behavior by Kevin N. Laland and Gillian R. Brown, Oxford University Press, 2002." Human Nature Review. Vol. 2: 279-282. 9 July 2002.23 Apr 2007. http://human-nature.com/nibbs/02/rubin.html
Stevenson, David B. "Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development."
Human Behavior: Values, Cultural Design, And Control
We are all controlled by the world in which we live, and part of the world has been and will be constructed by men. The question is this: Are we to be controlled by accidents, by tyrants, or by ourselves in effective cultural design?" - B.F. Skinner
Cultural Design is much like "instrumental conditioning," where people are conditioned to respond favorably to a situation or stimulus that produces positive reinforcement. Pavlov first introduced the idea of conditioning in animals. Conditioning or cultural design however, can also be related to human behavior. How exactly does cultural design relate to the concepts of dignity vs. punishment? Why are moral struggles considered noteworthy to so many people?
The plight of so many individuals is finding purpose and function in life. One may argue that by subjecting persons to punishment, their dignity suffers and thus they are…
Bernhardt, Stephen L. (1997). "Types of Therapy" March 16, 2003, http://www.geocities.com/HotSprings/3628/index9.html
Plato, Timaeus, 30B.
Wilhite and Payne, chapters 3 and 4 and the target article by B.F. Skinner.
The characters of God, Stan, and Jesus are also significant in this epic and because they are considered valuable in their roles in the poem, we can assume that Milton found similar value with these characters in life itself. Through these characters, Milton is presenting not only a hierarchy but also a way in which things should operate. God's supremacy is unquestionable in this realm and demonstrated early in the poem through events leading to Satan's attempt to overthrow him. In addition, Adam and Eve have free will, which also allows us to see the power of God through his creations. He did not create robots but real creatures that can make their own decisions -- even when they will be the worst decision of their lives. This foundation provides the perfect backdrop to the story of man and his behavior as he walks this earth.
Adam and Eve prove…
J. Martin Evans, "Milton's Imperial Epic, in of Poetry and Politics: New Essays on Milton and His World." 1995. GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed March 23, 2009.
Flannagan, Roy. John Milton. New York: Blackwell Publishing. 2002.
Lewalski, Barbara Kiefer. The life of John Milton. New York: Blackwell Publishing. 2002.
Human Behavior and the Social Environment: Family Challenges
Human interactions are guided by the ability of every player to get close to the other in such a manner that allows each of them to handle the issues that affect them. This is mostly witnessed in a family setup, where the people are made to understand the best of what can upset them at all times. This is where the players in a family setup have to consider making up with their desires and addressing everyone's concern for the sake of the family unity. In most instances, the people who must be accommodated are the children because their happiness is premised on the guidance from parents (Papero, 2010). The two most essential theories used to foster our understanding of family relationships are the family systems theory and the attachment theory.
Attachment theory explains how the human beings in every…
Ackerman, N. (2009). A Theory of Family Systems. New York: Gardner Press.
Papero, D. (2010). Bowen Family Systems Theory. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Slade, A. (2014). Attachment Theory. London: Sage
Human Behavior Theories Application
There are several factors that have been used to explain human behavior in the past and there have been accurate instances that these theories have proven to be applicable and true. The subject of this human behavior study application will be a close friend with whom we study in college. Vincent (not real name) has been a friend from the mid childhood years and we have been through high school together and now at the college. He is an engineering student who has all along proven to be very committed to the academics and been leading in position and performance in high school. Vincent is 19 years old and of the African-American race, his family resides in California and most of the extended family members value collective living and not living separately in different cities. He is not from a rich background and depends mostly on…
From issues mundane to issues involving the survival of humankind itself, Prospect Theory helps people to analyze the way they analyze the world in order to come up with a much better understanding of the potential risks and outcomes they are faced with. The assignment of value within the decisions and outcomes has a bearing on the decisions themselves, and as each group of people assigns certain value to both the specific, shorter-term outcomes as well as the aggregate outcomes, the decisions and the human decision making process becomes much more complex.
Holyoak, Keith J. "Problem Solving." In Smith, Edward E. And Daniel N. Osherson. Thinking,
an Invitation to Cognitive Science. (2nd ed.) pp. 267-296. London: MIT Press, 2004. Print.
Tversky, Amos and Daniel Kahneman. "Advances in prospect theory: Cumulative representation of uncertainty." Journal of isk and Uncertainty, Vol. 5, No. 4. Pp. 297-323. Print.
Markman, Arthur B. And…
Holyoak, Keith J. "Problem Solving." In Smith, Edward E. And Daniel N. Osherson. Thinking,
an Invitation to Cognitive Science. (2nd ed.) pp. 267-296. London: MIT Press, 2004. Print.
Tversky, Amos and Daniel Kahneman. "Advances in prospect theory: Cumulative representation of uncertainty." Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Vol. 5, No. 4. Pp. 297-323. Print.
Markman, Arthur B. And Douglas L. Medin. "What is Decision Making?" In Decision Making,
human behavior to understand the range of behaviors that people show under the influence of emotions, parenting, culture, attitudes, values, ethics, force and genetics. It is understood through this research how the human behavior can be usual or unusual and acceptable or acceptable. The main focus is on the work of social scientists including Finn, Jacobson, and Payne. Finn and Jacobson wrote an article "Just practice: Steps toward a new practice paradigm" and Payne presented "Modern social work theory." The human behavior theories presented in these two articles are offered here for the purpose of analysis and understanding. There are different behavioral elements that a person can show for example respect, discrimination; cooperation and collaboration (Focus on social work, 2009). It is not possible to behave equally with all the human beings because, articles suggest, emotions play an important role in defining human behavior but at least there should be…
Campesino, M., and Schwartz, G.E., (2006), "Spirituality Among Latinas/os Implications of Culture in Conceptualization and Measurement," ANS Advance Nursing Science, 29(1): 69 -- 81
Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers, (2008), Retrieved from:
Crombie, D.L., (1966), "An evolutionary approach to human behavior," Journal of the College
Human ehavior is critical to organizations -- discuss the benefits of self-evaluation/self-assessment as it relates to leaders today 'Understanding human behavior is critical to organizations:'
Discuss the benefits of self-evaluation/self-assessment as it relates to leaders today 'Know thyself.' This principle is not only a vital cornerstone of philosophy and psychology -- it is very important in the world of commerce. Without self-knowledge, a business leader is unable to effectively lead others, particularly persons of different personality types or who come from alternate cultural worldviews. Without engaging in self-assessment, managers cannot understand the needs of subordinates or superiors, customers, or unexpected situational requirements. Self-assessments and self-evaluations, when properly conducted "can lead to the development of a strategic organizational plan with clearly defined short-term and long-term goals, measurable objectives, identified fiscal and personnel resources, and enhanced consumer and community partnerships" (Self-assessments, 2013, NCCC).
To better understand the need for self-assessments, examining an…
DISC. 2013. Changing Minds. Available:
http://changingminds.org/explanations/preferences/disc.htm [7 Oct 2013]
Dunning, D, Heath, C. & Suls, J. 2004. Flawed self-assessment: Implications for health, education, and the workplace. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 5(3) 69-106
Human Behavior And Social Environment
Democracy Now episode critique
Sundance Film Festival
Date of the show: January 24, 2011
Tax Justice Network USA chair Jack Blum; Sheena Joyce, co-director of the new documentary The Atomic States of America, and Robert Redford
This show profiles several movie-makers with features being shown at the Sundance Film Festival. The films deal with areas of social justice. The first speaker appears as a 'talking head' in a documentary entitled We're Not Broke, a film on the widespread phenomenon of corporate tax evasion in America. The second speaker, the director Sheena Joyce, discusses America's long and troubling relationship with the use of nuclear power. The final speaker, Robert Redford, is a well-known actor and director as well as the creator of the Sundance Film Festival. He designed the festival to showcase radical and independent films offering a different perspective upon American…
Much has been said about violence and the media, but media in general is causing extensive health problems for our nation, too. A parenting Web site notes, "Children who consistently spend more than 4 hours per day watching TV are more likely to be overweight. Kids who view violent acts are more likely to show aggressive behavior but also fear that the world is scary and that something bad will happen to them" (Editors, 2010). Most everyone knows that obesity is a substantial problem facing the nation, and childhood obesity is growing dramatically, as well. The sedentary behavior of watching television and playing video games only contributes to this problem, as does the nation's obsession with fast food and processed food. Interestingly enough, the media is rampant with fast food and junk food advertising, and the children watching these ads clamor for the latest junk foods, so while children are…
Editors. (2009). Effects of video game playing on children. Retrieved 30 March 2010 from the National Institute of Media on the Family Web site: http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_effect.shtml .
Editors. (2010). How TV affects your child. Retrieved 30 March 2010 from the KidsHealth.org Web site: http://kidshealth.org/parent/positive/family/tv_affects_child.html .
"Kill Your Television, Prevent Violence." (2008, March/April). Mothering 32.
human behavior a factor in assuring reliable protection?
Because even the most robust and advanced system is not going to work reliability or effectively if the administrators and/or users do not operate and administer it effectively and/or do not know how. Either people know or they do not know and if they do know, the question is do they/will they?
Why is proper understanding so important to effective information security?
Because knowing a rule is one thing. However, understanding why it is necessary and proper is yet another. Knowing why things can or must be done a certain way is important in reinforcing why the procedure is called for or necessary.
How are levels of advanced knowledge reached? Why is a capability hierarchy necessary?
Advanced levels of knowledge can only be effectively reached when lower levels are already learned and firmly in place. A hierarchy is necessary because not unlike…
Human Behavior is critical to organizations - discuss the benefits of self-Evaluation/self-assessment
There are myriad benefits associated with self-evaluations and self-assessments as they relate to leaders today. In fact, one can argue that such assessments help to provide the very foundation of leadership. It is critical for a leader in today's organizations, which have an increasing amount of diversity to contend with (and which is considered "good for business") (Galer, 2014), to determine a leadership style to lead most effectively. Doing so requires understanding the strengths and assets of one's organization, as well as the strengths, assets and weaknesses of one's self. The principle way that self-assessments can help today's leaders is by providing an objective means of measuring the latter.
It is essential for a leader to conduct self-assessments fairly regularly, for the simple fact that there are several mutable factors pertaining to leadership and individual "traits" (eilly, 2013)…
Galer, S. (2014). New study redefines workplace diversity. www.forbes.com Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/sap/2014/01/24/new-study-redefines-workplace-diversity-it-no-longer-means-what-you-think/
Reilly, E.T. (2013). Leadership self-assessment. www.td.org. Retrieved from https://www.td.org/Publications/Blogs/Human-Capital-Blog/2013/01/Leadership-Self-Assessment
Rowold, J. (2014). Instrumental leadership: Extending the transformational-transactional paradigm. Zeitschrift fur Personalforschung. 28(3), 367-390.
Human Behavior and the Social Environment (HBSE) and the life cycle
The Tuck family in the young adult novel Tuck Everlasting is in many ways shut off from the normal processes of development: it is denied the ability to grow older and thus its members remain in the same stage as when they were granted immortality. Most individuals proceed through a period of biological, psychological, and sociological development particular to the individual's life cycle. For example, it would be expected that Jessie Tuck would eventually leave his parents, start his own family, and then begin to age like his mother and father (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman 2009: 7). As parents gradually take on the infirmities expected of those growing older, quite often children will become caretakers of the elderly, restoring the favor the elderly bestowed upon them as children (Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman 2009: 618-619). However, the Tuck family lives…
Babbit, N. (1975). Tuck Everlasting. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux.
Zastrow, C & Kirst-Ashman, K.K. (2009). Understanding human behavior and the social environment. Cengage.
human science sources and human behavior related articles and literature. There will be a deep analysis of what had been written about the sleep trends and the activity of the human brain, the optimum sleep hours required for optimum performance. Some of the search terms that will feature in this research literature will be cognitive ability (Thoracic Sleep Group, 2010) to refer to the extent to which the various participants are able to recognize concepts and imbibe them. Wakefulness is yet another term that will feature to refer to the ability and the duration that participants are able to comfortably pay attention to academic issues in class or library. Sleep deprivation (Steadyhealth, 2007) is yet another term that will be predominantly used in this case to refer to the lack of sleep hours that are equal to the average sleep hours that will have been calculated from the collected data…
Steadyhealth, (2007). Going-To-Bed-Late - Impact on Health and Academic achievement.
Thoracic Sleep Group, (2010). Cognitive function after Sleep Deprivation.
Abnormal psychology, a sub-field of psychology, has no established core theory, unlike other scientific disciplines such as math, physics, or chemistry (Long, 2009). In order to treat patients with psychological disorders, professionals in the field use knowledge gained from clinical psychology studies, particularly information gained from studies related to psychopathology. Beginning in the 1900's, researchers proposed several theories and treatments of abnormal psychology which centered on the relationship of psychological, physical, and social conditions in the individual and society. During its beginnings, psychology was often studied in conjunction with philosophy, but today it is more commonly applied in the fields of neurology and physiology (Comer, 2003). Modern day psychological theories have found practical applications within the areas of business, personal development, computers, health and even sports. This holds true for the field of abnormal psychology as well.
Studies in abnormal psychology follow three different theoretical models (Long, 2009). These…
Comer, R.J. (2003). Abnormal Psychology. Boston: MacMillan Publishing Company. 611 pages.
Hansell, J. & Damour, L. (2005). Abnormal Psychology. New York: Von Hoffman Press.
Long, H.V. (2009, August). Historical Perspectives on Abnormal Psychology. Retrieved from http://www.bukisa.com/articles/45103_historical-perspectives-on-abnormal-psychology
Human behavior observation that will be made here entails observing a willing participant who is a student at a local college. The observation will run through five days with each observation span lasting 30 minutes from 9:00 PM which is the time that the college library closes and 9:30 PM which is the regular time that the participating student indicated that he usually sleep. This timing was deemed appropriate since it would not significantly interfere with the academic activities of the student as the behavior observation exercise was meant to uphold the rights of the student and the ethics necessary. The aim of the observation will be to see if there are any behavioral changes in the participant across the week from Monday through to Friday and to locate the possible causes of these behavioral changes.
The college is located away from any major town and majority of the students…
McLeod S., (2007). Skinner --Operant Conditioning. Retrieved September 30, 2015 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
National Academy of Sciences, (2011). The Science of Adolescent Risk Taking: Workshop Report. Retrieved September 30, 2015 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53409/
Verial D., (2014). The Effects of Environment on a Child's Behavior. Retrieved September 30, 2015 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/122830-effects-environment-childs-behavior/
Human Behavior in the Social Environment
The way human beings behave when they are in a social environment varies as compared to when they are alone. In isolation, people will behave in such a manner that portrays their identity. However, when in the company of many people in a social place, people tend to experience tension and the desire to please other arises. Therefore, the kind of personality people show when in the public watch is likely to be misleading (Dewey, 2013). This study gives an account of what was experienced by the researcher while in the in a church service. In this church session, the worshippers are freely interacting. The observer notes everything about them including their ethnicity.
The interaction session
At the interactive session, the people here noted to be having their discussions in some groupings. These groupings were made up of women, men or children isolated groups.…
Dewey, J. (2013). Human Nature and Conduct: An Introduction to Social Psychology. New York: Modern Library.
Goman, M. (2011). Human-Environment Interactions. New York.
Izard, C. (2010). Human Emotions. New York: Plenum Press
Human elation -- A Social Science Perspective
Fundamental differences between the social sciences and the natural sciences
Science is commonly taken to be an attempt at predicting, understanding, and explaining our world, using distinctive modes of analysis for developing theories. However, defining a collection of attributes that distinguish sciences from religion, fortune telling, astrology and other such disciplines (not categorized under sciences), which also aim at understanding and explaining our world, is not a simple task (Okasha, 2002). Wittgenstein maintained, in the context of games, that no fixed group of features exists for defining a "game" -- one can, however, find a loose collection of common features that most games possess; Okasha feels that sciences can also be explained in a similar manner. On the basis of some common features among sciences, two branches of science -- social and natural sciences -- will be contrasted in this paper (Donmez &…
Allardt, E. (1969). Political Science and Sociology. Scandinavian Political Studies.
Bayer, O. & . (1992). Sozialwissenschaften. In H. & . Seiffert, Handlexikon zur Wissenschaftstheorie. Munchen: Ehrenwirth.
Blunden, A. (2000). What is the most important problem of social science?
Buchel, W. (1992). Naturwissenschaften. In H. & . Seiffert, Handlexikon zur Wissenschaftstheorie. Munchen: Ehrenwirth.
The desire to change itself must be implanted with schooling, and may have its roots in genetic factors. However, it is equally impossible to predict with absolute certainty, even given known genetic and environmental circumstances, who will flourish. hat of the 40% of individuals with the same genetic makeup and social influences who do not become schizophrenic? Unlike a stamp-imprinter, a human being apparently 'set' at an early age can make a surprisingly unique and better 'stamp' than its designers might expect. Additionally, many individuals with favorable life circumstances do not succeed, despite the stamp label manufacture's belief that their imprint is perfect, given the care put into the design.
Of course, Hospers would say this is due to other factors beyond the individual's control or the observer's perception -- but ultimately, the way his philosophy of determinism functions seems like a self-fulfilling prophesy and only works when rationalizing backwards…
Fay, Thomas. "Chapter IX: Metaphysics of the Person -- Determinism and Responsibility."
St. Johns' University. April 19, 2009.
The question that Caine struggles with is whether life has any real meaning, taking into account the ugly, cruel, but still unimaginably changeable circumstances under which many people are able to live -- "in particular, young black men caught in a web of presumption and prejudice about their alleged natures and what they might be capable of -- becomes the fundamental question" (Flory 2008) for Caine and for the entire film.
environmental perspective. Less than thirty minutes into the Menace II Society, Caine's grandfather asks him if he even cares if he lives or dies. This question is a philosophical topic, as suggested by Camus, but it is also a psychological question because what happens when a person becomes ambivalent about their life? And what drives them to become so? There is some suggestion that focusing on race by delineating how a presumed guilt of African-Americans and other related conditions…
Banks Gregerson, Mary. (2009) the cinematic mirror for psychology and life coaching.
Springer; 1st edition.
Carroll, Grace. (1998) Environmental stress and African-Americans. Praeger.
Erikson, Erik H. (1994) Identity and the life cycle.
Social Influences on Human Behavior
Patterns of attachment
Four main patters of attachment seen among children exist. The first is the secure pattern of attachment where the child exhibits sadness and is unable to carry out any task when his/her mother leaves. In this case, the child becomes very delighted when the mother returns. The mother to the child is a safe haven and a good base from which he/she can survey the environment. The next is ambivalent attachment and in this case the child shows extreme sadness on the departure of the mother. Fear of strange faces is equally common in this form of attachment. When the child is reunited with the mother, he/she will move close to her but won’t stay with her for long. The children in this form of attachment have a tendency to cry and explore more. The next is the avoidant attachment; in this…
Goldstein, H. (Ed.). (2000). Joe the king: A study of strengths and morality.
McLeod, S. A. (2008). Mary Ainsworth. Retrieved on September, 18, 204.
Rose, J., & O’Reilly, B. (2016). A systematic review of attachment-based psychotherapeutic interventions for adopted children. Early Child Development and Care, 1-19.
Humans Behavior: Discriminative Control of Punished Stereotyped Behavior
The problem of controlling behavior in humans who are challenged in their mental scope is of concern. While the majority of people shun the use of force, and punishments and the modern thinking on enforcing appropriate behavior is leaning to therapeutic and learning modes, altering the environment and peer pressure, there could be some truth in the use of punishment being effective in controlling impulsive and undesirable behavior. These traits and appropriate settings for the same have to be seen in the general light of the literature in psychology over the issue. For example researchers have gone deep into the exact use of discriminative control and response is still in infancy, and using the background of mental retardation, Doughty et al. (2007) have researched the results of the use of differential punishment and the antecedent stimulus using three adults with mental retardation…
Biderman, Albert D; Zimmer, Herbert. (1961) "The Manipulation of Human Behavior." John
Wiley & Sons: New York.
Brown, Judson Seise. (1961) "The Motivation of Behavior."
McGraw-Hill: New York.
Theory to Social Concerns or Human Behaviors
The Theory of Social Concerns or Human Behaviors provides a broad framework into which more narrowly focused research can be viewed from. This analysis will consider three individual research journal articles and first provide an overview of the work that was conducted. Then this analysis will try to relate the study and its results to the broader theories mentioned. The external factors related to a child's development can have a substantial influence on their development as well as be highly correlated with MEB issues later in life. The paper will conclude with a short discussion of why this research is important to society in regard to public health initiatives.
Parenting a Child with a Disability
Parents who have children with disabilities often have additional challenges that are presented in the situation when compared to the responsibilities of parents when their children…
Glanz, K., & Bishop, D. (2010). The Role of Behavioral Science Theory in Development and Implementation of Public Health Interventions. Annual Review of Public Health, 399-418.
Ha, J., Greenberg, J., & Seltzer, M. (2011). Parenting a Child With a Disability: The Role of Social Support for African-American Parents. The Journal of Contemporary Social Services, 405-411.
Herrenkohl, T., Lee, J., Kosterman, R., & Hawkings, J. (2012). Family Influences Related to Adult Substance Use and Mental Health Problems: A Developmental Analysis of Child and Adolescent Predictors. Journal of Adolescent Health, 129-135.
Yoshikawa, H., Aber, J., & Beardslee, W. (2012). The Effects of Poverty on the Mental, Emotional, and Behavioral Health of Children and Youth. American Psychologist, 272-284.
Mottern (2008) writes that Dr. William Glasser's internal control approach labeled as 'Choice Theory' postulates that the following five fundamental needs drive all of human behavior -- a physiological need to survive and 4 psychological needs (belongingness or love or acceptance; authority or acknowledgement or accomplishment; independence, or individuality or choice; and learning or excitement or enjoyment. To sum up, choice theory basically suggests that one's behavior is one's own choice.
People develop all through the course of their lifespan. In this context, the term 'development' may be defined as: one's capacity of making progressively better choices with regard to fulfilling one's fundamental needs. A choice will then be "good" if it brings one nearer to satisfying fundamental needs in a harmless manner (both to ourselves and others). A less effectual or "bad" choice would be one that fails to bring one nearer to satisfying fundamental needs, or one that…
However, unlike Leucippus, Holbach is not simply interested in the science of materialism, and is more apt to entertain different explanations for specific types of matter. There is more to be understood than mere appearance in the rearrangement of material essences: "Determinism is universal, in Holbach's view, but different sorts of bodies may have peculiar properties that require peculiar explanations. Despite his avowed materialism, Holbach does not demand the sorts of reductive explanations of mental events that materialism might ordinarily seem to require (LeBuffe 2002). For Holbach, there is more interesting unpredictability in the behavior of types of matter, and the observation of what Leucippus might call mere surface differences.
Berryman, Sylvia. "Leucippus." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.
LeBuffe, Michael. "Holbach." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.
Berryman, Sylvia. "Leucippus." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.
LeBuffe, Michael. "Holbach." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2002. April 18, 2009.
Bacon's work is less centered on the individual himself as the center of reality and of the mechanism of understanding reality. His rational explanation of the world focuses on nature. His preface of Novum Organum gives some interesting details about his perception of the Nature as the common denominator of understanding reality, the basic premise and concept of all subsequent understanding. Similar to the understanding of Nietzsche and Darwin related solely on the individual, Nature is also very difficult to pinpoint, shouldn't be dogmatized through its unpredictability and capacity to remain a differentiated entity.
Bacon proposes a method that includes "determining certain degrees of certainty" and, a definite element of rationality, using the mind as the main instrument of identifying and understanding the reality surrounding us, although the senses are also something that should be taken into consideration into the equation of understanding reality. Thus, through Nature, using his mind…
As we can see, the absence of a Supreme Being from the discussion around understanding the reality around us leads to the necessity of finding another point of reference. In some cases, this point of reference is the individual (Nietzsche, Darwin), in others, it is the existing society (Plato) or nature itself (Bacon). It is from different perspectives that all these writers and philosophers attempt to understand and describe the same surrounding realities. The differences most likely comes from the different instruments used.
Darwin, Charles. 1871. Descent of Man. On the Internet at http://www.infidels.org/library/historical/charles_darwin/descent_of_man/chapter_01.html.Last retrieved on September 17, 2008
Bacon, Francis. 1620. Novum Organum. On the Internet at http://history.hanover.edu/texts/Bacon/novorg.html.Last retrieved on September 17, 2008
" (ND, p.1) According to Ryan the human brain is an "evolved system" and one that is organized "to an underlying evolutionary logic." (ND, p.1) It is the claim of evolutionary psychologists that "the human brain has not changed" and furthermore, that it has not been "under any evolutionary pressure to do so -- in any significant way over the past 100,000 years, and therefore, modern man maintains the 'mind' of his Stone Age ancestors." (ND, p.1)
Lynch (2004) author of 'The Neuro Revolution: How rain Science is Changing Our World" states that "emotions and feelings are mediated by distinct neural systems. Whereas emotions are automatic responses to stimuli, feelings are 'private, subjective experiences' that emerge from the cognitive processing of an emotion eliciting state."(p.1) Therefore, it can be understood that indeed human brains are to some extent hardwired however, the individual's cognitive processing capacity has a great deal to…
Clark, William R. & Grunstein, Michael. Are We Hardwired?: The Role of Genes in Human Behavior. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 2000.
Benderly, B.L. Are We Hardwired? The Role of Genes in Human Behavior. Genome News Network. 2000 Nov 3. Online available at: http://www.genomenewsnetwork.org/articles/11_00/Hardwired_review.php
Tancredi, L. Hardwired Behavior. What Neuroscience Reveals about Morality. 2005. Cambridge University Press. Online available at: http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/60017/sample/9780521860017ws.pdf
Ryan, Terry. Review: How Hardwired is Human Behavior? The 21st Century Learning Initiative. Online available at: http://www.21learn.org/archive/articles/ryan_nicholson.php
Human behavior with respect to communal property is a critical issue of our time. The individual profit-maximizing activities of each individual all contribute to the erosion of critical common resources. There are a number of perspectives that help to explain why this occurs.
The tragedy of the commons explains this phenomenon. Hardin (1968) notes that individuals seek to maximize their outcomes -- this could be wealth or it could be utility. In either case, such behavior is strictly oriented to one's own personal well-being. The concept of perfect rationality is applied only in a narcissistic context. This is true even in collectivist societies, because such societies seldom view the human race as the collective unit. Thus, nobody makes their decisions with the good of the entire species in mind. The tragedy is that the cost of things is not reflected in our decision-making. In economics, the concept is…
Durham, (1991). Neutrality and opposition: From cultural reason to cannibalism. In possession of the author.
Feeny, D., Berkes, F., McCay, B. & Acheson, J. (1990). The Tragedy of the Commons: Twenty-Two Years Later. Human Ecology. Vol. 18 (1) 1-19.
Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science, Vol 162, 1243-1248/
Unfortunately, hormone effects and interactions can be so complex that even the best known hormones are not completely understood." (MacDougall) Hormones are most often discussed in connection with sexual behavior. But they are responsible for almost every reaction and action. When a person takes on too much stress, stress hormones are to blame and these hormones cause the behavior from that. Similarly during a phase of depression when a person is undergoing acute pessimism, the production of endorphins stopped or is lowered which is the really cause of depression. For this reasons, medication is given which balances chemical reactions in the body to normalize behavior. Human behavior is thus a sum total of different influences including heredity, hormones, environment and psychology. Dr. Leary has explained this in an apt manner when he said:
The science of human behavior in the largest sense of the word behavior, the sense which includes…
Leary, Daniel B., Modern Psychology: Normal and Abnormal, Philadelphia and London, J.B. Lippincott Co., I928
Peter MacDougall, UBC archives. Accessed online 10th Jan, 2006 from, http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/432/THE432_1988_02_10.pdf
Mind and Human Behavior
Define and discuss a particular theory of consciousness
Consciousness can be best grasped in context as a facet of an interactive wakeful state wherein most cognitive processing occurs non-consciously. However, on combining non-conscious and conscious processing in the wakeful state, how can we differentiate one from the other, how can consciousness be defined, and what purpose does it serve? The conclusions drawn with respect to the former question critically influence how the latter question is answered. What property makes a state non-conscious rather than conscious? This section will support the argument that, out of all possible answers commonly put forth (i.e., accessibility, intentionality, reflexivity, subjectivity), the element-- reflexive, auto noetic-consciousness -- is the only one observed solely in the state of consciousness (Peters, 2013).
The Quantum Theory of Consciousness
The consciousness issue has opposed traditional approaches, in which the human brain is perceived as a computer…
Albensi, B.C. and Janigro, D. (2003).Traumatic brain injury and its effects on synaptic plasticity. Brain Inj. 17(8): p. 653-63.
Anderson, J. R. (1990). Cognitive psychology and its implications. New York: Freeman.
Cerasoli, C. P., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic Motivation, Performance, and the Mediating Role of Mastery Goal Orientation: A Test of Self-Determination Theory.JournalOf Psychology, 148(3), 267-286. doi:10.1080/00223980.2013.783778
Eccles, J. S., & Wigfield, A. (2002).Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132.
psychology, theories of personality abound. Two of the most significant theories of personality include psychodynamic and humanistic/existential theories. Although these two theories share some features in common, they are based on widely different assumptions about human nature and human behavior. Each describes the way personality impacts human behavior under certain situations. However, psychodynamic theory presumes that human personality is static and less likely to change. Humanistic and existential theories are built on the assumption that human personality is dynamic. The differences between psychodynamic and humanistic theories of personality also have an impact on their approaches to treatment interventions and therapy.
Psychodynamic theories of personality are based on the theories of Sigmund Freud, who believed that human personality is determined by subconscious factors and the person's psycho-sexual nature. The personality is divided into three main and immutable components according to the psychodynamic worldview. Those three components include the id, ego, and…
"A Comparison of Psychodynamic and Humanistic Therapy," (2015). Retrieved online: http://sulcatamandy.hubpages.com/hub/psychodynamic-therapy-vs.-humanistic-therapy
"Humanistic Theories of Personality," (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://home2.fvcc.edu/~rhalvers/psych/Personality3.htm
McLeod, S. (2007). Psychodynamic approach. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/psychodynamic.html
Appreciating Diverse Views on Abnormal Behavior
Experience and genetic inheritance influence human behavior. The manner in which individuals grow is driven by social circumstances and experiences within the setting of their inherited genetic potential (Walker, 2002). The scientific concern is just how the hereditary potential and experience interact to generate human behavior. The text illustrates that abnormal behavior is that behavior that deviates from the normal or what is expected. Most people avoid what they define for themselves as abnormal behavior. For instance, we will probably opt not to sit next to a person acting in an odd manner or dressed in weird clothes in a train or bus. People hate individuals who smell dirty, and if possible we try to stay away from them. Based on this, the abnormal behavior seems to be that which is outside the parameters of the norm in the society.
Every individual is born…
Kleinman, A., & Lin, T.-Y. (2001). Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Chinese Culture. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
Plante, T. G. (2006). Mental Disorders of the New Millennium. Westport, Conn: Praeger.
Walker, S. S. (2002). Ceremonial Spirit Possession in Africa and Afro-America: Forms, Meanings, and Functional Significance for Individuals and Social Groups. Leiden: Brill.
rose when determining the human behavior lead to varying answers depending on the presupposed paradigm. (VASILACHIS DE GIALDINO, 1992). In the paper presented by Peterson Armour, I think the topic had the tendency to answers the raised questions differently, depending on whether the Epistemology of the subject is rejected or accepted. The author has tried his best to form a conclusion, which is independent from his personal views.
To discuss the ontological, axiological, and epistemological assumptions made by the author made in this study, a few questions need to be analyzed. How this 'reality' can be realized? What is the association between the knower (in this case the author and the respondents of the survey) and the known (the effects homicide on family members)? What principles, personality and assumptions guide the process of determining the achievements of this study? What is the possibility that this research will be repeated by…
Armour, P. M, (2002), Journey of Family Members of Homicide Victims: A Qualitative study of their post homicide Experience, Austin, Educational Publishing Foundation
Creswell, J.W. (2005). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.
Flick, Uwe (1998). An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage.
Morse, Janice M. (2002). Intuitive inquiry. Qualitative Health Research, 12(7), 875.
Human esponse to Physical Structure:
Environmental psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on explaining human behavior in relation to the physical environment. In this case, the physical environment basically incorporates plants, animals, and material objects that have a significant impact on behavior at various levels. However, this branch of psychology does not focus on the interactional procedures among people as emphasized on other branches of psychology. In analyzing human behavior, it adopts a systems approach that has become the main approach in modern science.
Impact of Physical Structure on Human Behavior:
According to various theories, the physical environment or structure affects human behavior at various levels with instant behavior acting as a function of settings with which it happens (Matthew, n.d.). The individual personality traits of people within a specified country are largely influenced by the nature and type of physical environment that these individuals are subject to…
Goode, J.P. (n.d.). 'The Human Response to the Physical Environment.' The Elementary School
Teacher, 4(5), pp. 271-282. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/pdfplus/992499.pdf?acceptTC=true
"Importance of Sustainable Architecture in 21st Century." (2010, June 21). Architecture Student
Chronicles. Retrieved October 22, 2011, from http://www.architecture-student.com/sustainable-design/importance-of-sustainable-architecture-in-21st-century/
Another psychological approach studied the physical basis for emotion. LeDoux (1995, p. 209+) noted, "Scientists concerned with human nature have not been able to reach a consensus about what emotion is and what place emotion should have in a theory of mind and behavior." He proposed, however, that "findings about the neural basis of emotion might also suggest new insights into the functional organization of emotion that were not apparent from psychological findings alone. The brain, in other words, can constrain and inform our ideas about the nature of emotion." This would seem to play into any discussion of genetics vs. culture as emotion is viewed, accurately or not, as a construct of societal norms in large part. Because fear is a common part of human life, LeDoux uses it to investigate his theories. "The expression of fear is conserved to a large extent across human cultures and at least…
Moore, J. (2002). Some thoughts on the relation between behavior analysis and behavioral neuroscience. The Psychological Record, 52(3), 261+. Retrieved November 19, 2004, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Suh, Eunkook M. 2002. Cultural influences on personality. Annual Review of Psychology;
Retrieved November 19, 2004 from Highbeam database, http://www.highbeam.com .
Human Factors in Aviation Safety
The human beings with their immense capabilities, imagination, creativity, and cleverness have transformed the world into an industrial world that is surrounded by numerous inventions, innovations, and advancements in various facets of life. Aviation industry is also one of the developments of the human beings, which was imagined as an attempt to emulate bird flight. Human beings were engaged in this phenomenon for centuries prior to the emergence of the first flight, which resulted in outstanding civil transport in the form of spaceflight (Campbell & Bagshaw, 2008). However, it is wise to note that the human life is one integral aspect that should not be ignored when any mode of transportation is concerned. To have a safe journey during flights it is demonstrated that aviation safety is essential. Aviation safety principally signifies that prevention techniques in the form of regulation, education, and training should be…
Abeyratne, R. (2012). Strategic Issues in Air Transport: Legal, Economic and Technical Aspects. USA: Springer.
Abu-Taieh, E.M.O., El-Sheikh, A.A. & Jafari, M. (2012). Technology Engineering and Management in Aviation: Advancements and Discoveries. Information Science Reference.
Ben-Daya, M. (2009). Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering. USA: Springer.
Campbell, R.D. & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human Performance and Limitations in Aviation. 3rd Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
hen the behavior is followed by a favorable consequence, the behavior is more likely to recur over and over. However, if the behavior is followed by a negative consequence or a painful consequence, then the behavior is less like to happen again.
The third type of learning is Motor Learning. Carlson says that motor learning is "the establishment of changes within the motor system." (433). He claims that this type of learning is a component of the stimulus-response type of learning. However, this type of learning must involve some form of sensory guidance from the environment and it elicits a reaction from the body.
Finally, the fourth type of learning that Carlson describes is Relational Learning. This is the most complex type of learning and it "involves learning the relationship among individual stimuli." (431) Relational Learning involves spatial learning which is the actual process of identifying similarities and differences among…
Carlson, Neil. Physiology of Behavior, Ninth Edition. Published by Allyn and Bacon in Institute of Perceptual Learning. How Perceptual Learning Works. Retrieved on December 10, 2009 from http://www.perceptuallearning.com/plearn.php.
Motor Teaching and Motor Learning. Retrieved December 10, 209 from http://moon.ouhsc.edu/dthompso/mtrlrng/mtrlrng.htm
Human Behavior and the Environment
Environmental psychology makes an attempt to discover and understand the manner in which human behavior influences the environment both positively and negatively (De Young, 2013). The purpose of this paper will be to gain insight on how the environment is affected by human behavior. The focus will be to elucidate the manner in which environmental cues influence behavior, as well as to assess the manner in which behavior can be transformed to nurture sustainability, and how this can ultimately decrease adverse effects on the environment. The paper will also discuss the manner in which social norms have an impact on behavior and beliefs about the environment. Thereafter a number of solutions that could positively alter behavior and practices so as to decrease adverse environmental impact will be provided.
Environmental Cues and how they shape Human Behavior
In accordance with Steg (2013), environmental cues can be…
De Young, R. (2013). Environmental psychology overview. In S.R. Klein and A.H. Huffman (Eds.) Green Organizations: Driving Change with IO Psychology.
EPA (n.d.). Sustainability. http://www.epa.gov/sustainability/
Hecter, M., Opp, K. (2001). Social Norms. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Kinzig et al. (2013). Social Norms and Global Environmental Challenges: The Complex Interaction of Behaviors, Values, and Policy. BioScience, 63(3):164-175.
Moreover, the study compares the effect on human factors on different types of aircraft. The study also reveals the correlation between the anomalies and type of aircrafts.
Human factors cause of Aircraft Accidents
The results of the descriptive statistics reveal that situational awareness is the most contributing human factor to aircraft accidents with the Mean =112. Moreover, the Mean value of the communication breakdown is 80 which rank second as the human factors problem to aircraft incidents. Typically, communication breakdown occurs when the pilot or other aircraft crew is unable to communicate with terminals. Communication is very critical for effective operations of aircraft, a pilot will require to constantly making radio communication when on air to ensure the aircraft safety and the aircraft is on the right direction. Confusion as human factor ranks third with the Mean =70. The descriptive statistics table shows other important human factors that cause the…
Balk, A.D. & Bossenbroek, J.W. (2010). Aircraft Ground and Human Factors, A comparative study of the perceptions by ramp staff and management. NLR Air Transport Safety Institute.
Boeing (2013). Commercial Jet Statistical Summary of the Airplane Accidents Worldwide Operations 1959 -- 2012. Boeing 707.
Eldredge, D. Mangold, S.J. & Dodd, R.S. (1992). A Review and Discussion of Flight Management System Incidents Reported to the Aviation Safety Reporting System. U.S. Department of Special Programs & Transportation Research Administration
Deitz, S.R. & Thomas, W.E (1991). Pilots, Personality and Performance: Human Behavior & Stress in the Skies.
The use of the word MY also suggests that the speaker feels a sense of possession towards the assistant, thus the assistant's departure is seen as a loss of control, not merely a setback to the project as he says.
7. it's an animal urge, Puff. it's nothing to be ashamed of (65)
The word Puff suggests an animal, even if Puff is not an animal -- Puff is being assured that acting like an animal is natural, and not worthy of shame, despite Puff's feelings to the contrary and the ambiguous quality of Puff's name.
8. Remember, when in doubt: don't ever do what you really want to do (69)
This statement goes against the assurances of the naturalness of human behavior and impulses -- go against one's human or animal nature, it suggests, and repress and resist gut instincts. Instead, follow societal dictates and one's own superego.
Because of this discovery, scientists and politicians across the world have banded together in order to fight emissions and the use of products that contain CFCs. Most are aware of the grim forecast that awaits humankind if action is not taken -- a world consumed by ocean. Still, some do not believe that human behavior plays a role in global warming. hatever one's opinion, one can be sure that the worldwide attempts to implement responsible human interaction with the environment has a favorable political outcome -- globalization and the banding together of the world. In the future, history may write that chemistry was at the heart of a global political peace.
"Chemical of the eek: Ozone." University of isconsin -- Madison. n.d. Chemistry
"The Ozone Layer." Environmental Literacy Council. 7 April 2008. 16 May 2009.
"Chemical of the Week: Ozone." University of Wisconsin -- Madison. n.d. Chemistry
"The Ozone Layer." Environmental Literacy Council. 7 April 2008. 16 May 2009.
7. Fenn, P., & Ashby, S., 2004. Workplace risk, establishment size, and union density. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 42, 461 -- 480.
8. Griffin, M.A., & Neal, A., 2000. Perceptions of safety at work: A framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 347 -- 358.
9. Neal, A., Griffin, M.A., & Hart, P.M., 2000. The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science, 34, 99 -- 109.
10. Hechanova-Alampay, R.H., & Beehr, T.A., 2001. Empowerment, span of control and safety performance in work teams after workforce reduction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 275 -- 282.
11. Kaminski, M., 2001. Unintended consequences: Organizational practices and their impact on workplace safety and productivity. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 127 -- 138.
Turner, N., & Parker, S.K., 2004. The effect of teamwork on safety processes and…
In that regard, absolute fairness would always require that individuals be trustworthy, that they treat others with the same respect and care they would hope to receive, and that they would conduct themselves within any community as a citizen who recognizes the rights and sensibilities of all other citizens. Therefore, it is not necessarily that fairness is the most important; rather, it is that fairness is the single pillar that could be most accurately described as encompassing all of the others.
As a manager, I would implement a moral compass by presenting my employees with the principles and values expected by the organization first, without reference to specific policies. I would introduce the specific policies only afterwards and, in that process, I would make sure to connect the principles to the policies. As an employee, I would be more comfortable following principles (and principle-based policies) than strict policies without the…
Berman, E.M. And West, J.P. (2006). The Ethics Edge (2nd edition). Washington, D.C.
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
As one of ten children, my family structure reflects my unique cultural background. All ten of us were raised by my mother alone; we struggled financially but rarely emotionally because of the immense love and support given to us by my mother. Having a strong maternal influence in my life might also reflect the Hispanic and Christian culture in which I was raised. Both Christianity and Puerto Rican culture impacted my world growing up. For instance, my mother imparted her religious beliefs to her kids, beliefs that were strongly rooted in the Christian tradition. In addition to my mother, I had various role models who helped forge my identity and behaviors. Christianity also serves to link our otherwise oppressed minority community with the dominant culture in America. Although I grew up in an environment that supported bilingualism and respected Hispanic culture, I occasionally met with biases and prejudices in…
We don't really know everything a newborn infant is capable of, but we know that mother and infant relate to each other within the first few minutes of life (Klaus, 1998). When we think of infancy, in my opinion we have to keep in mind that we cannot observe brain activity. The baby that can reach for a toy at seven months was learning things all along that brought him or her to that point. So I believe infancy to be a crucial part of child development.
If this is true, then the role of the caregiver is crucial. We know that babies are cared for in different ways by members of different cultures. In the United States, a mother is likely to place the baby in some kind of stroller and push the child in front of her. However in some African and Asian cultures, the mothers carry…
Gonzalez-Mena, Janet. 1997. "The cultural context of infant caregiving. Childhood Education, Sept. 22.
Klaus, Marshall. 1998. "Mother and Infant: Early Emotional Ties." Pediatrics 102:5, November.
Mogilner, Celly. 1995. "Maternal social and physical contact: links to early infant attachment behaviors." Journal of Genetic Psychology, December.
Small, Meredith F. 1997. "Making connections (adult-infant connections) (1997). American Scientist, November.
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.
Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.
Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).
Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.
Basic Concepts of Human Interaction
Conformity & Obedience
Human interaction is the phenomenon which takes place when two humans have a tendency to have an effect over one another. Individuals are mainly unaware of the fact that they are responding to the external factors and are adapting to the surroundings. Every situation requires the humans to react differently and thus demands a different mannerism altogether. A simple example of such behavior is individual's behavior which shows professionalism in the work-related settings whereas the same individual will exhibit different behavior when found with friends or family. Hence, every situation requires individual to consider the external factors requiring thorough analysis of what to say and how to respond. The two fundamental examples of such behavior are conformity and obedience. These two terms may sound the same however individuals exhibit these two sets of behavior differently in different situations.
Burke, T., Kassin, S. & Fein, S. Braham, S.S. (1999). Social psychology. 6th ed. Wadsworth Publishing Co.
Fiske, S.T. Social Beings. (2004). Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Freud, A. (1936). The ego and the mechanisms of defense. Madison, CT: International Universities Press.
Jatten, J. & Postmes, T. (2006). Individuality and the group: Advances in social identity. Sage Publications.
Whatever the needed equipment is the company should provide the best possible so that the employees have a reduced chance of accident.
In addition, when a company provides the best possible equipment to the employees it sends them a strong message about the importance of a safety culture at work.
Modeling this way of thinking from management down to the employees will help to promote the safety culture the companies' desire.
Having a team effort to promote the safety culture of any company can only serve to boost the employee moral, save money on workman's compensation claims and reduce the number of accidents within that workplace environment.
For many years, employers were not to concerned with the safety factor of their employees and employees, by human nature would use risk taking behaviors to get their jobs done. This combination of human high risk behavior and lack of company care…
Goodman, Fay (1999) Business: Small Talk - Way to avoid accidents caused by too much bottle.(News) the Birmingham Post (England)
Lanoi, Paul (1992) Safety regulation and the risk of workplace accidents in Quebec.
Southern Economic Journal
Ware, Brandy (2005) Selecting healthy hand tools: choosing the right hand tool for a job can protect workers from painful injuries and improve productivity at the same time.(Prevention of workplace accidents) Occupational Hazards
ole of Human esources in Organization
ealization of Importance of Human esource
Vision for using Human esources for Organizational Success
ole of H Manager in Workplace Environment Creation and Motivation
Importance of Merritt-based Promotions
ealization of Importance of Human esource
Companies and organizations can gain market leverage and achieve competitive advantages through effective management of its human resource. Thus, it plays a critical role in an organization or a company. Given the cut-throat competition in the global and the local markets as well as the declining importance of the impact of outside forces on stability, organizational effectiveness and development become critically dependent on management of human resources (Mondy, Noe & Gowan, 2005).
Most of the companies in the modern business require to function and develop in a relatively constant volatile environment and market condition. It is important that companies improve continuously for the purpose of creation of a sustainable competitive…
Ang, S. (2006). Personality Correlates of the Four-Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence. Group & Organization Management, 31(1), 100-123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1059601105275267
Armstrong, M., & Armstrong, M. (2009). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. London: Kogan Page.
Camps, J., & Luna-Arocas, R. (2009). High involvement work practices and firm performance. The International Journal Of Human Resource Management, 20(5), 1056-1077. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09585190902850273
Edwards, M. (2009). HR, perceived organisational support and organisational identification: an analysis after organisational formation. Human Resource Management Journal, 19(1), 91-115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1748-8583.2008.00083.x
humans have been intrigued by the workings of the human mind. Philosophers and physiologists pondered the questions that psychology, as an independent science, now addresses. Psychology is the study of mind and behavior, both in humans and animals. There exist many subfields within this discipline and as such, supporters of each may alter the aforementioned definition to emphasize their area of concentration.
Developmental psychology examines changes and growth over the lifespan. Child and adolescent psychology along with gerontology are subdisciplines of developmental psychology. The influence and effect others have on our feelings, behaviors, and thoughts describes social psychology. Personality psychology is the study of stable characteristics that influence behavior. Traits include aggressiveness, anxiety, and sociability to name a few. Experimental psychology, as the name implies, relies on the experimental method in its proceedings. Fields of research include cognition, sense perception, and memory. iological processes are the central concerns in physiological…
Cardwell, Mike (1996). Schaum's A-Z Psychology. United Kingdom: The McGraw-
Schultz, Duane & Schultz, Sydney Ellen (1994). Theories of Personality. California:
Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.
Human Psychology Drives Economy
Animal Spirits - How Human Psychology Drives Economy - the Theory ehavioral Economics Particularly work authors Robert Shiller ( Akerlof) Yale Richard Thaler Chicago. Shiller a web.
The essay is based upon behavioral economics and how human behavior or rather psychology act as an economic driver, thou this theory or opinion hasn't been fully accepted by all economist and authors the essay intends to explore more into behavioral theory or economic and at the end give its own conclusion about the topic.
The essay will first introduce the topic of study then look at some of the economic drivers that have been suggested by other authors and economist to understand more on what an economic driver is. After looking at some of the economic drivers that have been laid out, the essay embarks on the sub-topic which is the theory of behavioral economic in a manner…
Ainslie, G. (1992). Picoeconomics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ainslie, G. (1975). "Specious Reward: A Behavioral / Theory of Impulsiveness and Impulse Control." Psychological Bulletin 82 (4): 463 -- 496.
Alkerlof & Shiller (2009) Animal Spirits: How Human psychology drives economy and why it matters for global capitalism
Arrow, Kenneth and Gerard Debreu. (1954). "Existence of a Competitive Equilibrium for a Competitive Economy." Econometrica 22, no. 3 (1954): 265-90.
Core affect (CA) on the other hand refers to a neurophysiological state which is accessible consciously as very simple and yet nonreflective feeling which forms an integral part of hedonistic as well as arousing values. The hedonistic values are responsible for the feeling of pleasure and displeasure while the arousal feelings are activated by sleep. In the study of affect, it became clear that its core characteristics are many. Some of the characteristics are valence which is the extent, to which an individual feels bad. Arousal, which is the sleep-activated value denoting to the extent to which one feels energized. Affects exists in each and every person without the need of any form of stimulus. Affects is a primitive aspect of every being and is noted to be university as well as ubiquitous. Affect is the center of all human laden events and called in various names as pointed out…
Zhang, P (2011a).Organizational & Business Context
Zhang, P (2011b).Interactive Technologies
Zhang, P (2011c).Physical Engineering
Zhang, P (2011d).Cognitive Psychology & Cognitive Engineering
Fifteen questions used to measure willingness to AC were assembled into a questionnaire designed to examine the personality measures and items regarding employee response to various safety issues, adequacy of safety training, and attitudes toward other safety related issues. The most pertinent questions relating to AC were:
If I know a coworker is going to do a hazardous job, I am willing to remind him/her of the hazards (even if the employee is familiar with the job),
I am willing to warn my peers about working unsafely am willing to do whatever I can to improve safety, even confronting my peers about their unsafe acts.
The responses to these questions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale, were added to attain an AC score. The Likert technique presents a set of attitude statements. Subjects are asked to express agreement or disagreement of a five-point scale. Each degree of agreement is given…
Asfahl, C.R. (1999) Industrial safety and health management, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: Freeman.
Curtis, S.L., (1995) "Safety and total quality management," Professional Safety, Jan., pp.18-20
DiPadova, L.N., and Faerman, S.R. (1993). "Using the competing values framework to facilitate managerial understanding across levels of organizational hierarchy," Human Resource Management, 32(1), 143-174
Accounting for Intangible Assets in the Transnational Manufacturing Industry
The international business world has worked to break down barriers that formerly existed to allow businesses to more easily expand their operations to new markets. Much of this trend has been fueled by globalization which has allowed for the increasing connectedness of markets and resources through technological developments in many areas including, but not limited to, information and communications technology, advances in shipping, and a political environment largely accepting of deregulation. However, as companies have acted to expand into new opportunities in foreign markets, many have found that there is a plethora of different challenges that present by the cultural and social factors, among others, that are present in these markets. The main functions of business include operations, marketing, and accounting and there are many aspects of these functions that must be adjusted to effectively carry out international expansions.…
Cagliano, A., Marco, A., & Rafele, C. (2013). The Impact of Near Sourcing on Global Dynamic Supply Chains: A Case Study. Dynamics in Logistics, 489-498.
Chung, C., Park, H., Lee, J., & Kim, K. (2015). Human capital in multinational enterprises: Does strategic alignment matter? Journal of International Business Studies, 806-829.
Hofstede Center. (N.d.). France . Retrieved from Hofstede Center: https://geert-hofstede.com/france.html
Jensen, M., & Barfield, C. (2012). Global Value Chains and the Continuing Case for Free Trade. American Enterprise Institute, 1(1), 1-15.
Human Behavior Social Environment
This paper begins with an observation of a 4-year-old boy at the train station setting. The surrounding company is the family that consists of father, mother, a son, and three-daughters. The goal of the observation is to establish the boy's entire behavior together with his reaction to punishment and reinforcement. The method used was the Systematic Observation consisting of event sampling and specimen record that lasted for 53 minutes.
The report gathered information through "Systematic Observation." I formulated the design through the simple form of recording data through event sampling and specimen record. In most cases, researchers can record descriptions of the entire scope of behavior using this method (Hutchison, 2008). Further, the particular behavior instances of the specified period were recorded.
The Piaget Cognitive Development Theory was used in analyzing the behavior of the child. The child is at proportional stages of between two…
Freeman, K.A. (Spring 2000). Positive behavior support: Expanding the application of applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst 23 (1): 85 -- 94.
Germaine, C.B and Bloom, M. (1999). Human Behavior in the Social environment: an ecological view. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different voice: psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Greene, R.R. (2008). Human behavior theory and social work practice. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Publishers
Human rights are the activities, freedoms and conditions that all human are entitle to enjoy, and these rights include economic, political, cultural and social rights. Putting differently, human rights are inalienable, inherent, indivisible and interdependent, which cannot be taken away, must be respected, and which the governments are to put in places the instrument to regulate laws and policies for human rights protection. Similarly, international human rights are the set of rules that guide the conducts of state's behaviors. Globally, countries enter into treaties to guarantee certain rights and refrain from violating these rights within their jurisdictions. (IJRC, 2016). The historical facts of human rights started from the declaration of universal human right rights in 1948, and the expressions are referred as aggregate rights of humans. The UDHR ("Universal Declaration of Human Rights") (IJRC 2016 p 1) was ratified by 48 countries with some Muslim countries such as Iran, Iraq,…
Human Services Assistant
The main job of human service assistants is to help people overcome very difficult times, or get more support. They give assistance to co-workers, like social workers, and help customers discover community services or benefits (Social and Human Service Assistants: Occupational Outlook Handbook: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics).
Educational equirements: High school diploma or its equivalent. Some employers would rather hire workers with more academic qualifications and experience. Advancement opportunities are limited without additional education (Social and Human Service Assistants: Occupational Outlook Handbook: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics).
Works with the section of the population that is either suffering or in need of additional support (Social and Human Services Assistants: Occupational Outlook Handbook: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics).
Average Salary: $28, 850 per annum (Social and Human Service Assistants: Occupational Outlook Handbook: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics).
Potential Challenges / ewards: The job of a social service…
Acosta, G. (2013, October 15). "USC Social Work." The Benefits of a Career in Social Work. Retrieved October 1, 2015, from http://msw.usc.edu/mswusc-blog/the-benefits-of-a-career-in-social-work/
(n.d.). Career Search -- Jobs, Career Profiles, Descriptions & Career Training. Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Psychologist. Retrieved October 1, 2015, from http://www.careerprofiles.info/advantages-disadvantages-psychology-career.html
Moro, M. (n.d.). EHow -- How to - Discover the expert in you! Job Description for a Social Services Assistant -- eHow. Retrieved October 1, 2015, from http://www.ehow.com/about_6073278_job-description-social-services-assistant.html
(n.d.). Study.com -- Take Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. School Counselor Career Info, Job Duties and Requirements. Retrieved October 1, 2015, from http://study.com/school_counselor_career.html