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There is a new drug that is used to treat leukemia. The following data represents the remission time in weeks for a random sample of 21 patients using the drug.
State the Null Hypothesis
Let XA represent the mean remission time of the new drug and XB the mean remission time of the previous drug, then the null hypothesis states that the eukemia remission times are not significantly different (Ho: XA = XB) between the two drugs.
State the Alternatice Hypothesis
The alternative hypothesis is that the time to remission is significantly different (H1: XA ? XB) between the two drugs.
State the Level of significance
= .01, two-tailed
State the Test Statistic
Since ? = .01 and this is a two-tailed test, then the value for each tail would be .005. This…
global warming. One of the arguments in favor of this being an issue is that temperatures have increased over time, since humans began burning fossil fuels. There are a number of ways to look at the issue, but one thing that has not received much consideration is that baseline data, which is taken from urban areas, may be skewed by other factors besides anthropogenic global warming. One factor that has not yet been studied is the effect of cloudy days vs. sunny days on the temperature readings. To investigate whether there is any merit to this idea, we need test two hypotheses. The first is whether or not the weather in the region makes a difference to the mean daily temperatures that are recorded. The second is whether or not there has been a change in weather patterns (for example, if the pollution from our cities has brought about more…
No author (2014). Introduction to hypothesis testing. San Jose State University. Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/gerstman/StatPrimer/hyp-test.pdf
-Provide an example of a hypothesis where a one-tailed hypothesis
test would be used.
An example of a one-tailed test is testing the claim that the mean score of the gender male is higher than the scores of the gender female in public institutions.
-Provide an example of a hypothesis where a two-tailed hypothesis
test would be used.
An example in this case is testing the claim that the mean scores between the gender male and the female are different in public high schools in the United States.
-If a researcher has set alpha at 0.05 for a two-tailed hypothesis test,
what is the p-value required to reject the null hypothesis?
The null hypothesis is rejected when the p-value is less than or equal to 0.05
-A researcher has set alpha at 0.05. When the researcher analyzes the
data from the experiment using a software program, she obtains a p-…
Weeks, Matthew. (May 5, 1998) "A Regression Analysis of NBA Player's Salaries." Triangle Net Journal. Retrieved on July 27, 2004 at http://www.trianglenet.net/~weeks/nba/nbasalary.htm
ne common assumption in economics is that salary is directly related to quantitatively established aspects of job performance and the quality of one's education and occupation. But is this true of all professions? To take one extreme case to make a larger point, the example of NBA players can be used to see that player's statistics are not necessarily a reflection on what he is accomplishing on the job.
ne might assume just as in any other business field, a worker's salary is dependent on his performance but the author of this article "used basic statistics such as minutes per game and points per game to determine" if a player's wages could be explained by actual talents, or if the salaries are more due to non-related job…
One common assumption in economics is that salary is directly related to quantitatively established aspects of job performance and the quality of one's education and occupation. But is this true of all professions? To take one extreme case to make a larger point, the example of NBA players can be used to see that player's statistics are not necessarily a reflection on what he is accomplishing on the job.
One might assume just as in any other business field, a worker's salary is dependent on his performance but the author of this article "used basic statistics such as minutes per game and points per game to determine" if a player's wages could be explained by actual talents, or if the salaries are more due to non-related job performance aspects such as agent's strengths and weaknesses. (Weeks, 1998) The "hypothesis going into the project was that a player's statistics have a positive affect on his salary. We decided that minutes per game, assists per game, rebounds per game, and points per game were variables that would affect salary in a positive manner. We felt that minutes per game was important in our analysis because we felt the more minutes the athlete played, the more he should earn. Points per game were included as a variable because we thought it to be a measure of the worth of that player to the team. Rebounds and assists are also important in judging the athlete's worth to the team. Our final analysis was that points per game would be the most significant variable." Yet, "through the use of hypothesis testing, we discovered that the model was significant at an alpha of.05. By performing individual tests, we found that the only variable that has a significant positive affect on salary is points per game. From here, one might want to examine the player's popularity, the impact of their agent, the perceived added income they bring to the team, as well as other, qualitative, variables." (Weeks, 1998)
How does this hypothesis affect daily life? Quite simply it shows that salary is not always contingent upon quantitatively established job performance variables, even in a highly numbers related sport. Other, more subjective factors come into play, no pun intended.
Prison GED Programs
Hypothesis testing of the effectiveness of prison GED programs in reducing recidivism
The effectiveness of prison GED programs in reducing recidivism
Prison GED programs
The General Education Development initialized as GED is a service program of the American Council on Education. The tests in the GED are for measuring the proficiency of the persons taking the test in science, mathematics, writing, social studies and reading (Kaprov & Kaprov, 2009). When the person passes the General Education Development, they acquire a certificate equivalent of the high school certificate credential. This gives the person the chance to enroll in a known university or college to further their skills that enable them to face the world. The tests issued measure the significant knowledge and skills a person can express Van & Salisbury, 2014). This includes the abilities of the person to evaluate, analyze and draw conclusions; and proficiently express ideas…
Gideon, L., & Sung, H.-E. (2011). Rethinking corrections: Rehabilitation, reentry, and reintegration. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE.
Kim, C.Y., Losen, D.J., & Hewitt, D. (2010). The school to prison pipeline: Structuring legal reform. New York: New York University Press.
Kaprov, R.M., & Kaprov, S. (2009). Peterson's Master the GED, 2010. Lawrenceville, NJ:
statistical analysis as well as ensuring the data used is accurate, it is also essential that the appropriate statistical tools are used to undertaken in the analysis. Two similar tests are the t-test and the z-test. In both cases the test is usually applied in a situation where there is a desire to test the means of two samples, or the mean of one sample against a known mean to determine of there is a statistical difference. However, despite the similarities of the purpose of the t-test and the z-test, there are also some differences which mean that the tests are suitable for different types of situation. To appreciate when the different tests should be used, the paper will start buy looking at the z-test, and when it should be used, as well as consider the use of a t-test, which will lead to an understanding of when the less…
Curwin J, Slater R, (2003), Quantitative Methods for Business Decisions, London, Thompson Business Press
Kahn Academy, (2014), Z-statistics vs. T-statistics, retrieved from http://www.khanacademy.org/math/probability/statistics-inferential/hypothesis-testing/v/z-statistics-vs . -- t-statistics
Null Hypothesis and an Alternate Hypothesis
Hypothesizing in business assists leadership in deciding which avenue to take for the overall health of the organization. This is done by allowing the business managers to make decisions after having full research. Business leaders have had to employ hypothesizing to facilitate the implementation of right decisions in their lines of duty. This is an important process because organizations are made or destroyed by the nature of decisions that leaders make. Decisions that leaders make in an organization are critical, for they reflect the current and future success of the business. It is on this account that the business leaders work hard to test the hypothesis of different issues in an organization before making the right decisions (Albright, Winston, & Zappe, 2010).
Null hypothesis vs. alternate hypothesis
In practice, a hypothesis is a proposed explanation for observable phenomenon and often used to explain facts…
Albright, S., Winston, W. & Zappe, C. (2010). Data Analysis and Decision Making. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Cengage Learning
Anderson, D., R. & Sweeney, D.J. & Williams, T.A. (2011). Fundamentals of Business Statistics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Cengage Learning
Owen, J., Levine, D.M., Stephan, D.F., Follett, R., Canavor, N. & Meirowitz, C. (2012). Business Basics: The Skills You Need to Succeed (Collection). London: FT Press
What are the positive aspects of this theory -explain how markets behave? Why?
The positive aspects of this theory are that it identifies changes in the markets early. This helps investors to be able to purchase stocks when everyone has become overly pessimistic (leading to a massive selloff). At the same time, this theory helps to determine when the underlying trends could be changing (with investors becoming overly optimistic). This helps these individuals to reduce their risks and increase the chances of realizing above average returns. (Livingston 2012)
A good example of this occurred in 2008 when the federal government was providing assistance to large financial institutions such as: AIG and Citigroup. At the time, the markets were in a free fall surrounding fears that the issues with housing market will cause a major economic implosion. Moreover, investors were fearful about the possibility of the Big Three Automakers…
Citigroup, 2012, Yahoo Finance. Available from: [16 March 2012].
Dow Jones Industrial Average, 2012, Yahoo Finance. Available from: [11 March 2012].
Efficient Market Hypothesis, 2012, Investopedia. Available from: [11 March 2012].
For Berkshire Hathaway's Warren Buffett, 2009, Guru Focus. Available from: [ 11 March 2012].
" The authors go on to mention that by comparing the Navajo silent film research with similar research using African-American high school drop-outs in Philadelphia and University of Pennsylvania filmmakers, some "universals" and some differences as well came to light in the relationships between film and "linguistic" and cultural variables.
Zhu Zhifang, "Linguistic Relativity and Cultural Communication," Educational Philosophy and Theory. The author, a horf hypothesis believer, goes to some lengths in this piece to establish that due to globalization, philosophy is no longer universally believed to be the "ultimate foundation of cultural communication" (Zhifang 162). And yet, traditionalists still believe that the "merits of a culture" are given value based on how closely that culture adheres to the "objective truth and ideal morality." And there are two "presuppositions" associated with that view; one is metaphysical ("all cultures share the same worldview"); the second is the "linguistic presupposition that all…
Adai, John; & Wort, Sol. (1967). The Navajo as Filmmaker: A Brief Report of Research in the Cross-Cultural Aspects of Film Communication. American Anthropologist, 69(1), 76-78.
Bedau, Hugo a. (1957). Language, Thought, and Reality: Selected Writings of Benjamin Lee
Whorf by John B. Carroll. Philosophy of Science, 24(3), 289-293.
Bright, Jane O.; & Bright, William. (1965). Semantic Structures in Northwestern California and the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. American Anthropologist, 67(5), 249-258.
Gaia Hypothesis and Daisy World
The development of the Gaia Hypothesis is described with some emphasis on how the concept has evolved in response to other scientist's skepticism. The Gaia concept itself is described and discussed. A possible means for reconciliation of the holistic Gaia hypothesis with reductionist thinking is discussed. I conclude by summarizing what the paper has accomplished.
The Gaia Hypothesis was first published by James E. Lovelock in 1972 (Lovelock, par. 23). It was, at the time, the end product of a series of observations Lovelock had made about Earth, Mars and Venus (Margulis and Lovelock, p. 11(2)).
The premise underlying the Gaia hypothesis is that the entire planet evolves over time because of the interaction of living things with their surrounding environment. Because of the interdependence of the evolution of environment and biome, Lovelock likened the entire planet Earth to a living thing with complex interlocking…
1. Barlow, Connie, and Volk, Tyler. "Gaia and Evolutionary Biology." Bioscience 42.9 (1992): 686-693.
2. Fairbairn, Brett. "History from the ecological perspective: Gaia theory and the problem of cooperatives in turn-of-the-century Germany." American Historical Review 99.4 (1994): 1203-1239.
3. Holden, Constance. "Gaia Guru Wins Blue Planet Prize." Science 276.5321 (1997): 1977.
4. Laurence, William F. "Gaia's Lungs, Are Rainforests Inhaling Earth's Excess Carbon Dioxide?" Natural History 108.2 (1999): 96.
students' absence. My first hypothesis is that the food was contaminated. I base my evidence on the following: Spikes of absence for band class in all four schools fall generally in the middle of the month and towards the ends of the month with a wide outbreak of the flue occurring during that time as well as evidence indicating that the food was improperly cared for.
For at least three schools (Roosevelt, Truman and Jackson) spokes of absence seem to be highest in the Band class particularly around 5/18 (with Jackson showing 33.3 absences on that day, 23.3 and 17.3 on consequent days until gradual reduction is again achieved. In Roosevelt, there are a similar high number of absences on 5/18 with 25.0. Truman's band class shows a huge number of absence on 5/18 (33.3; with 23.3 and 16. 3 on consequent days. Looking at the information on the school…
Developing a researchable question is one of the challenging tasks a researcher encounters when initiating a project. In current clinical practice, both unanswered issues or when experiences dictate alternative therapies may provoke an investigator to formulate a clinical research question. This paper describes PICO (population, intervention, control, and outcomes) criteria in framing a research question. Finally, it assesses the characteristics of a peer-reviewed article on urinary tract infections.
EBM, shorthand for Evidence-Based Medicine, is a core aspect of the medical profession. EBM provides statistical analyses and matters of clinical concern. It is based on research, reading, analysis, and combining many papers generated within the medical fraternity. EBM applications based on research evidence and clinical knowledge and reviews of the system go a long way in improving clinical decisions. Usually, the PICO guideline is applied in developing a comprehensive, focused definition of clinical concern. In such a system,…
Efficient Market Hypothesis
As previously discussed, the weak form efficiency suggests that share prices should follow a random walk, in that each change in share price is unpredictable based on past information. Formally, this is expressed in the following relationship:
where the variables are independent and identically distributed random variables representing equity prices at times 1,2,3…,k. So X is the equity price, the equity price at a point in time n and the change in equity price at any given time is not explained by the past equity price.
The augmented Dickey-Fuller test considers the following model:
where p is the lag order of the process which can be determined by the examination of autocorrelation and autocorrelation plots, and are the factors determined by the regression. The unit root test has the null hypothesis, and the rejection of the null hypothesis implies that the time series is stationary. The variable…
Chen, J. (2008). Variance ratio tests of random walk hypothesis of the euro exchange rate. International Business & Economics Research Journal. Vol. 7 (12) 97-105.
Jamaani, F. & Roca, E. (2015). Are the regional Gulf stock markets weak-form efficient as single stock markets and as a regional stock market? Research in International Business & Finance. Vol. 33 (2015) 221-246.
Wright, J. (2000). Alternative variance-ratio tests using ranks and signs. Journal of Business and Economic Statistics. Vol. 18 (2000) 1-9.
Behavioral Finance Concept v. Efficient Market Hypothesis:
For more than a century, the concept of efficient markets has been the subject of numerous academic researches and huge debates. An efficient market is described as a market with a large number of balanced profit maximizers that are actively competing against each other to forecast the future market values for individual securities. The efficient market is also defined as a market where current information is nearly freely available and accessible to all participants. Generally, in an efficient market, competition will make complete effects of new information on essential values to be reflected instantly in real prices (Singh, 2010). The efficient market hypothesis has developed to become a significant cornerstone of contemporary financial theory even though the market seems to be more modern and characterized by increased inefficiencies. As a result, the standard finance for rational analysis framework has been placed in an…
"Analysis of Behavioral Finance Efficient Market Hypothesis for the Amendment and Innovation." (n.d.). Tastecaste.com. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://www.tastecate.com/freepages336095_Analysis-of-behavioral-finance-efficient-market-hypothesis-for-the-amendment-and-Innovation#
"Behavioral Finance -- A Challenge to the EMH." (2010). Accredited Portfolio Management
Advisor. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://www.cffpinfo.com/pdfs/APMA_Sample.pdf
Cunningham, L.A. (2002, January 6). Behavioral Finance and Investor Governance. Washington and Lee Law Review, 59(3), 767-837. Retrieved from http://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1346&context=wlulr
This is because, the efficiencies in the market are: providing no kind of leverage to these individuals. At which point, any kind of advantage that they may have would be eliminated. This is important, because it provides good insights, as to how efficient the markets really are. As a result, this is what will reduce the underlying returns every single year. The author is an economist with Oxford University. (urton 2005)
The article that was written by Chen (2005), discusses how the EMH theory can be able to provide the most relevant information surrounding stocks. Yet, when this was compared against computer-based programs, they were able to identify changes in prices at least 50% of the time. This is important, because it is showing how the changes in the expectations for stocks, can be more accurate when using various programs. Once this takes place, it meant that traders and investors…
Basu, S, 1977, 'Investment Performance of Common Stocks,' Journal of Finance, vol. 32, no. 3, 663 -- 682.
Bont, W, 1985, 'Does the Stock Market Overreact,' Journal of Finance, vol. 11, no. 30, 793 -- 804.
Brenner, M, 1977,'the Effect of Model,' Journal of Finance, vol. 32, no. 1, 57 -- 74.
Brenner, M, 1979,'Sensitivity of the Efficient Markets,' Journal of Finance, vol.34, no.4, 915 -- 933.
But few can deny that the Prebisch-Singer is flawed -- as the recent commodity boom in corn demonstrated ("Latin America's Keynes," The Economist, 2009). hile "it is true that real prices have fallen for a large number of commodities in the course of the 20th century" this has not been a continuous trend, certainly not for all commodities and it has proved difficult to forecast the relationships between manufacturing and primary good-producing nations regarding commodities and trade, given the considerable variance exhibited by recent history (Newbald et al. 2005, p. 493).
Nor have all nations that have taken the advice to shift from commodities to manufacturing prospered. One "study observed rapidly rising shares of manufactured and electronic goods in Korea's total exports and a trend decline in Korea's terms of trade" from 1967 -- 2001, but "contrary to the expectation of Prebisch, the increasing proportion of manufactured and electronic goods…
Cuddington, John T., Rodney Ludema, and Shamila A. Jayasuriya. "Prebisch-Singer redux."
Georgetown University. January 2002 draft. May 4, 2009.
Newbold, Paul N., Stephan Pfaffenzeller, & Anthony Rayner. "How well are long-run commodity price series characterized by trend components?" Journal of International Development 17. 4 (May 1, 2005): 479-494. http://www.proquest.com / (accessed May 4, 2009)
INVERTED U. HYPOTHESIS
It has been established that competitive state-anxiety normally follows a certain pattern of one-sided feelings of anxiety as well as inadequacy that combines with increased arousal of automatic nervous system (Fazey, 2008). Accordingly, the theory of Inverted U. hypothesis was formulated to explain this aspect, and it is widely applied in sports psychology. Inverted U. hypothesis a theory that suggest that there is a relative amount of anxiety and arousal that triggers one to perform higher- extremely little arousal or anxiety and too much arousal or anxiety will lead to poorer performance. This present paper briefly discusses the Inverted U. hypothesis in sports psychology.
Until presently, the traditional Inverted theory had been the key model employed by sports psychologists to explain the arousal-performance relationship. Nevertheless, various sport psychology researchers have criticized this relationship, and the modern trend is a change towards a higher multidimensional perspective of…
Fazey, J. (2008). The inverted-U hypothesis: a catastrophe for sport psychology? Leeds, British Association of Sports Sciences.
Pascuzzi, D.L. (2005). The effects of anxiety on gross motor performance a test of the inverted-U hypothesis. Thesis (M.S.) -- Western Illinois University, 1975.
Reeve, J. (2000). Understanding motivation and emotion. Fort Worth, TX, Harcourt College Publishers.
Schnabel, C., & Wagner, J. (2008). Union membership and age: the inverted u-shape hypothesis under test. Luneburg, Univ., Inst. fur Volkswirtschaftslehre.
2 = 11.39
This value does exceed the critical ?2 value for df = 2 at ? = 0.05. Therefore, we can assume that one of the observed values is significantly different from the expected value for that group. Without post-hoc pairwise tests it is impossible to say exactly which group is different. We can make an educated guess, however, that the proportion of 55+ shoppers in store a is statistically different from what would be expected by chance.
3. Collapse the response categories in the following table so that it meets the assumption of the Chi-square test, then perform the test.
Some High School or Below
High School graduate
2 = 6.49. This does not exceed the critical ?2 value for…
efficient market hypothesis and its relation to securities prices, their response to new market information, investor opportunities, and behavioral finance challenges.
hat does the efficient market hypothesis say about a) securities prices?
An efficient market is one in which "the market price of a security is an unbiased estimate of its intrinsic value" (Chandra, 2008). That is not to say that the market price for a security will equal its intrinsic value all the time. But what it does say is that there will be errors in market prices but they are not biased; and it does also say that while the price of securities can and will diverge from the intrinsic value of the securities but that deviation will be (in most cases) random. The divergence of the price from the intrinsic value will not be linked "with any observable variable" (Chandra, 422).
Because the deviations of the market…
Beggs, Jodi. "The Efficient Markets Hypothesis." About.com. Retrieved July 29, 2014, from http://economics.about.com . 2011.
Chandra, Prasanna. Financial Management. Delhi, India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2008.
Kiplinger. "Can you beat the stock averages? Whole-house fans can cut cooling costs.
Singles need estate plans, too." Changing Times. 1980.
If they can bench-press heavy weights, they may emphasize athletics at the expense of academics, in terms of how they prioritize their time. However, it is equally possible that in some schools, high-achieving students also use athletics as a way of bolstering their college resume. Factors such as the school, the degree to which athletics makes demands upon student athletes within the particular environment, and the intelligence of the players may indicate there is no correlation.
Daily air temperature & the average weight of clothing worn
H1: There is a negative correlation between temperature and weight of clothing -- in other words, greater the air temperature, the lighter the clothing.
H0: There is no correlation between temperature and weight of clothing.
Estimate: Negative correlation -1
Analysis: The research hypothesis is likely to be proven, with only small variations for such factors as rain and humidity.
Shuttleworth, Martyn. Null…
Shuttleworth, Martyn. Null hypothesis. Experiment Resources.com. 2008.
September 15, 2009 at http://www.experiment-resources.com/null-hypothesis.html
That residents spend less time teaching ever since promulgation of Duty-Hour estrictions (DH) and that this impacts their well-being and perception of patient-care.
Question 2 What research subjects or data sources did the researchers use in the study? 164 residents in internal medicine in UCSF. A survey was used that was first tested in a pilot study on noninternal medicine house-staff at the medical center and recent graduates of residency programs as well as reviewed by experts in medical education, outcomes research, and psychometrics. esearchers also used 'emotional exhaustion' scale to assess participants' level of exhaustion with their work.
Question 3 What are the specific variables of interest, as well as the possible confounds and covariates the researcher should consider? What are the data types and levels of these variables?
The specific variables of interest were the amount of time residents spent teaching before February 2003 compared to…
Goroll A.H, Sirio C, Duffy FD, et al. (2004). A new model for accreditation of residency programs in internal medicine. Annals of Internal Medicine, 140, 902 -- 9.
In the second hypothesis of the proposed research project, disaster management and emergency response are critical areas which can be explored further in terms of the United States' current performance in this area, applied in the context of national security. he second hypothesis of the study states that, there is a significant relationship between performance/competence in disaster preparedness and emergency response capabilities and the successful implementation of homeland security in the United States.
o test this hypothesis, the important variables that must be taken into consideration are (1) performance or competence in terms of disaster management and emergency response and (2) successful implementation of homeland security in the U.S. o measure performance or competence in terms of disaster management and emergency response, specific measures that could help determine this variable are the following: competency of individuals in agencies and departments responsible for disaster management and emergency response (on…
This journal article explores the disaster preparedness of the government in terms of a medical emergency response in the event that a disaster or attack (such as the September 11 attack) occurs in U.S. territory. One of the identified issues in medical emergency response is the lack of resources (staff and capacity in hospitals) necessary for an effective emergency response to be implemented in hospitals (i.e., from a medical perspective).
Waeckerle, J. (2000). "Domestic preparedness for events involving weapons of mass destruction." Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 293, No. 2.
The article discusses the importance of frequent and intensive trainings as an effective mitigation plan in disaster management and emergency response planning. The discussion centers on preparedness in terms of responding to emergencies related to attacks with weapons of mass destruction or WMDs. The model introduced by the author proposed subsistence to the following steps in curtailing or preventing a WMD attack from escalating, such as: establishment of a surveillance system; specific training for health care personnel; and a central federal coordinating office responsible for spearheading an effective emergency response program, which would include the state and local representatives of law enforcement, fire services, emergency managers, and healthcare professionals.
The general field of human resources has become more and more difficult as well as more perilous. That is not just a simple generalized statement made for dramatic effect and just for the purpose of setting up the introduction of this paper. Indeed, there are some questions that can and should be posed by human resources professionals that do not have clear answers because of how complicated and how contradictory the field's body of work has become. The ethical implications and obligations pertaining to human resources have been made very muddled by contradicting laws and guidelines thus making real compliance beyond a reasonable doubt very hard to pull off.
The hypothesis that underlies this report comes down to one main statement, and that is as follows:
The different ethics, laws and vagueness that exists in both has made it possible to become completely and reliably compliant with the…
Bruoden, B.C. (1989). TAX FACTORS IN CHOOSING THE CORRECT CORPORATE STATUS. Journal Of Financial Planning, 2(2), 75.
Charen, M. (2011, July 22). What Else Will ObamaCare Mandate? | RealClearPolitics. What Else Will ObamaCare Mandate? | RealClearPolitics. Retrieved October 26, 2013, from http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2011/07/22/it_should_ all_be_free_110669.html
FoxNews.com. (2013, October 23). Teachers' unions fight bill that would bar sex offenders from schools. Fox News. Retrieved October 26, 2013, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/10/23/teachers-unions-fight-bill-that-would -
The same variables of the cranial and caudal sacs would be observed in order to determine if the sounds being produced where indeed coming from these organs or not. It may be that these two organs are either the source of the sound or are in someway related to the sound that these researchers heard during the tank experiment coming from the swimbladder.
Did the newspaper article describe the research article correctly? Explain.
The newspaper article "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish" by Bhanoo (2011) did a good job in describing the research article correctly. It described how the researchers used piranhas to study and how they used a hydrophone to record underwater sounds coming from the piranhas. It described how the sounds made were recorded during fighting, charging and frontal display. The author explained how it was previously believed that piranhas produced only a single barking sound,…
Bhanoo, S.N. 2011. "Hearing the Repertoire of a Very Fearsome Fish." Web. Available at:
Millot, S., Vandewalle, P. & Parmentier, E. 2011. "Sound production in red-bellied piranhas
(Pygocentrus nattereri, Kner): an acoustical, behavioural and morphofunctional study." The Journal of Experimental Biology, 214, 3613-3618.
These wee distibuted in goup settings. Paticipating individuals wee available at all times to povide claification o answe questions if needed. Completed packets wee etuned to the investigato.
Specifically, questionnaie instuments included open-ended questions inviting paticipants to povide thei leisue activity pefeences. Responses typically povided at least thee items that students enjoyed duing thei leisue time. These wee clusteed into seven activity categoies, including Geneal Inteest, Health/Fitness, Outdoo, pefoming Ats, Wate Activities/Aquatics, Spots/Athletics, and Social.
The eseach design was Pe-expeimental, as the study was conducted via static goup compaisons between goups of diffeent gendes and ethnicity.
VI the esponse ate was 100%, but two packets had to be discaded as a esult of incomplete infomation.
VII Banett, Lynn a (2006). "Accounting fo Leisue Pefeences fom Within: The Relative Contibutions of Gende, Race o Ethnicity, Pesonality, Affective Style, and Motivational Oientation." Jounal of Leisue Reseach, Fouth Quate. Database: FindAticles. Available at…
references from Within: The Relative Contributions of Gender, Race or Ethnicity, Personality, Affective Style, and Motivational Orientation." Journal of Leisure Research, Fourth Quarter. Database: FindArticles. Available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3702/is_200610/ai_n17193796/pg_1
sufficient evidence for its hypothesis or claim?
The paper is clear int hat it provides us with Introduction, body, and conclusion. The theme is simple too: health care providers (the paper tells us) need to respect, acknowledge, and understand the challenges that the 3 religions -- Judaism, Islam, and Shintoism -- can provide to th health care system. The health system needs to know how to satisfy adherents of these religions in order to optimize their medical care.
The paper then goes through a brief description of each religion (in Judaism's case, of Orthodox Jews) particularly as touches on their medical care and cursorily describes how medical practitioners can meet these needs. There are many more points that can be mentioned, particularly in the case of Orthodox Judaism where the profession may be riddled with many more challenges, such as kosher (and food regulation exist with Islam too). In the…
Self-Concept & Self-Esteem
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem Study
State your hypothesis (remember correlation ? causation, so don't hypothesize that one causes the other):
Main Hypothesis: There is a significant relationship between self-esteem and self-concept, or the individual's sense of self or identity.
There is a significant relationship between an individual's level of self-esteem and his/her level of achievement motivation.
There is a significant relationship between an individual's level of self-esteem and his/her perceived degree of self-accomplishment.
Enter your data (feel free to add columns if you need to for your hypothesis).
Statement Test variable:
- Achievement Motivation
Perceived degree of self-accomplishment
No achievement motivation mentioned
Mentioned achievement motivation and positive report on self-accomplishment
Mentioned positive report on self-accomplishment
No achievement motivation mentioned
Negative report on self-accomplishment
Do you see the pattern that you hypothesized?
Salient in this self-concept…
Ursin, H. And H. Eriksen. (2004). "The cognitive activation theory of stress." Psychoneuroendocrinoloy, Vol. 29.
Tips on Understanding and emembering the Three Types of Hypotheses
The three types of hypotheses can seem confusing at first, so it is helpful to devise tips for understanding and remembering their differences. The three hypotheses -- null, nondirectional and directional -- can best be described in the following terse manner: null means no relationship between variables; nondirectional means that there is a relationship or difference between variables but the hypothesis is not concerned with the outcome of the relationship/difference -- only with the fact that the relationship/difference exists; and directions means that the outcome is important to the hypothesis. To put it even more simply, null means no relationship/difference; nondirectional means relationship/difference; directional means outcome of relationship/difference (Elwell, 2013).
The tips to remembering these three types of hypotheses can include spending time examining many different examples of hypotheses and identifying their type. For instance, the resource text provides examples…
Elwell. (2013). Cheat Sheet Topic: Hypotheses.
Memory and Mnemonic Devices. (n.d.). Psychcentral. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/memory-and-mnemonic-devices/
Mills, G. E., & Gay, L. R. (2016). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Publishing.
Technical Analysis in the Implication of Efficient Market Hypothesis on Silver Market
The thesis is for the study of simple commonly used technical trading rules, which are applied on silver market. It covers years 1989 to 2005. A famous study carried out by Lakonishok, Lebaon and in year, 1992 has clearly shown that technical analysis can lead to abnormal prices when compared with buy-and-hold strategy. Other studies have been carried out and found out that technical trading rules cannot over-rule passive investment management strategy. The study uses Brock et al.'s methodology. Several trading rules are discussed (Dawson & Steeley 2003).
In financial theory, efficiency of financial silver market is highly disputed. This has led to many attempts to explain efficiency of silver markets. Eugene.F. Fama formulated the most famous definition in 1970 referred to as the, Efficient Silver market Hypothesis (EHM). The basis of the hypothesis is that…
Alexander, S.S. (1964) 'Price Movements in Speculative Markets: Trends or Random Walks'. Industrial management Review 5 (2), 25-46
Brock, W., Lakonishok, J., & LeBaron, B. (1992) 'Simple Technical Trading Rules and the Stochastic Properties of Stock Returns'. Journal of finance 4, (5), 1731-1764
Chang, P.H., & Osler, C.L. (1999) 'Methodical Madness: Technical Analysis and the Irrationality of Exchange Rate Forecasts'. Economic Journal 109 (458), 636-661
Dawson, E.R., & Steeley, J. (2003) 'On the Existence of Visual Technical Patterns in the Uk Stock Market'. Journal of Business Finance and Accounting 30 (1-2), 263-293
High school and college students use digital media extensively.
Their typical digital media habits and practices are dangerous.
They often publish personal information that can be used for exploitation.
In many cases, information they publish can harm them in the future.
Willenz, P. (2003). "Internet use involves both pros and cons for children and adolescents: Some youth benefit from Internet use while for others it can exacerbate self-destructive behaviors." American Psychological Association.
etrieved July 10, 2010 from:
Hypothesis # 4
The availability of digital social media has increased the incidence of extramarital affairs by providing a convenient medium for initiating anonymous social overtures.
Digital media have been used extensively to conduct illicit sexual affairs.
The privacy of the medium permits secrecy from spouses and significant others.
The anonymity of digital communications facilitates deception in social overtures.
Hertlein, K.M. And Piercy, F.P. "Internet Infidelity: A Critical eview of…
Hertlein, K.M. And Piercy, F.P. "Internet Infidelity: A Critical Review of the Literature." The Family Journal Vol. 14 (2006): 366-371.
The case of the Hispanic race was no different from the black Americans'. One of the rapidly increasing minority groups in the country, even surpassing the African-American minority group, Hispanics had experienced similar conditions that made them a colonized minority group. Hispanics demonstrate the characteristics that Blauner argued as illustrative of the African-American experience: firstly, they (Hispanics) belong to the economic periphery and secondly, they become susceptible to greater racial discrimination.
Hispanics are a colonized minority group because they are not given sufficient economic support in the society. Most members of this minority group engage in labor with lower-than-the-minimum wages; this is a result of Hispanics being illegal migrants in the country. As a result of these low incomes, Hispanics move further towards the economic periphery due to lack of opportunities, such as availing proper health services and attaining higher educational attainment.
Apart from becoming part of the socio-economically…
Blauner, B. (2001). Still the Big News: Racial Oppression in America. NY: Temple University Press.
Such a presence can contributes to the media-generated stereotype of the limited aspirational level of the community in the so-called 'white world,' much in the same way that negative portraits of African-Americans create a form of internal colonialization through media fixations upon Black criminals, for example, as opposed to Black civic and professional leaders, although such leaders exist. (Moore, 1997)
The possibility of some community individuals being affected by internal colonialization should not be lightly dismissed, even if some Hispanic communities have been able to counteract its effects with cultural neighborhood pride. Even groups such as immigrant Hispanics, that may vocally manifest strong group pride and idenitification may still, through the process of internal colonialism, assume that whites are more apt to become professionals and to suceed within the context of certain professions. Although much criticized today as self-defeating in nature, Blauner's hypothesis at the time the author first advanced…
Blauner, Robert. 1969. "Internal Colonialism and Ghetto Revolt." Social Problems. 16:393-408.
Moore, Joan. (1997) "Latino/a Studies: The Continued Need for New Paradigms."Occasional Paper 29. The Rand Group. Retrived 24 Oct 2005 at http://www.jsri.msu.edu/RandS/research/ops/oc29.html
What were the dependent variables in this experiment?
The dependent variable was the subject's choice of product, based upon package appearance.
How were the dependent variables operationalized?
The identical product was packaged in differently-appearing containers.
Did the results support the stated hypothesis?
The results did find that higher self-monitors were more influenced by package appearance while low self-monitors cared more about quality.
What were the independent variables in this experiment?
The container styles of two different perfumes in a type of container, and the quality of the perfume.
What were the quasi-independent variables in this experiment?
The perfume bottles' relative 'attractiveness' and scent although quantified, is still somewhat subjective and dependent upon another experiment outside of the controlled environment of the study.
What were the dependent variables in this experiment?
The choice of the subjects for either the better-smelling perfume in the less attractive bottle vs. The less attractively…
In a separate study, researchers at Brandeis University concluded that aging adults with moderate hearing loss may spend cognitive energy on hearing accurately to the extent that their ability to remember spoken language suffers (Medical, 2005).
Although the studies above may have determined that age has some effect on loss of cognitive function, no definitive determination has been made as to whether hearing loss is the cause or simply a part of the reason for loss of cognitive function.
The research proposed will examine the effects of hearing loss on cognitive function regarding verbal recognition and performance of auditory processing. Whether hearing loss in individuals of any age affects their loss of cognitive function will be determined by testing 60 subjects who have experienced hearing loss due to aging or other reasons, compared to a control group of comparable subjects without hearing loss by administering the same test to them.…
Andersson, U. 2002, Deterioration of the phonological processing skills in adults with an acquired severe hearing loss. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, Vol 14, Jul 2002, 335-352.
Balota, D.A. (Ed.). 2004, Cognitive Psychology, New York: Psychology Press.
Gates, G.A. Rees, T, S, 1997, Hear ye? Hear ye! Successful auditory aging. West J. Med. Oct. 1997, 167(4): 247-252.
McArthur, G.M. And Bishop, D.V.M. 2004. Which people with specific language impairment have auditory processing deficits? Cognitive Neuropsychology. Vol www.informaworld.com1, Feb 2004.
In other words, if the study is inordinately time-consuming for the purpose of doing something non-academic or otherwise beneficial, is it responsible research to ask young people to participate?
External validity concerns "whether results from experiments in one setting (time and place) will be obtained in other settings" (Maxfield and Babbie 122). One external concern is the use of a middle-class suburban neighborhood. If this study was done in an upper-class neighborhood, a rural neighborhood, an urban neighborhood, or a low-income neighborhood, the results might vary greatly. In terms of internal validity, the causality of aggressive video games for aggressive behavior might be difficult to prove given all the other stimuli that can potentially cause aggression in children (including violence in other media like music, television, and film, violent or aggressive living circumstances which may not be disclosed to the researcher, etc.).
If boys are found to be…
Maxfield, Michael G., and Earl R. Babbie. Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 2009.
Assumptions were made regarding the individual state-level view about the punishment -- it is far more utilitarian to support capital punishment in states that have rising crime rates and proportionally higher rates of murder. Further, because the racial aspect of the death penalty is so controversial, and for some the main focus of the debate, the study measured racial composition in the data as the percentage of nonwhites to the overall state population. Factors regarding levels of urbanization and religion were also factored into the results. Despite these rather rigorous variable sets being included, any sociologist will confirm that cultural factors like urbanization, religiosity, and even political leanings have undergone a massive shift since the 1940s and 1950s; in most cases liberalizing the population factors that approve of the death penalty.
Certainly, this study is both robust and detailed in the sorting and statistical applications run on the data. The…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Dargie, R. (2007). Ancient Greece: Crime and Punishment. Compass Point Books.
Gibbs, Jack. (1975). Crime, Punishment and Deterrence. Elsevier Science Publishers.
Macionis, J. (2006). Society: The basics (8th ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall.
Muhlhausen, D. (2007). "The Death Penalty Deters Crime and Saves Lives." the
Management Strategy to Utilize Meta-Analysis Technique for Nuclear Energy and Waste Disposal and Create Social Sustainability
This research proposal explores the link between public perceptions of nuclear power, how those perceptions are formed, and what influence those opinions have on energy policy. These issues are important in light of two realities. First, nuclear energy is declining in its share of global energy. Second, nuclear energy offers what might well be the best solution to climate change. Given the threat posed by climate change, it makes sense that nuclear power would be increasing in share, not decreasing. This esearch proposal seeks to look at some of the issues facing nuclear power, and how it can overcome these issues to increase share going forward.
Table of Contents
Table of Contents v
List of Tables viii
List of Figures vii
Chapter One: Introduction 1
Topic Overview 7…
Abokeng, A.K. (2005). Understanding Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 90, 845-848.
Alic, J. (2012). Six things to do with nuclear waste: None of them ideal. Oil Price.com. Retrieved June 17, 2015 from http://oilprice.com/Alternative-Energy/Nuclear-Power/6-Things-to-do-with-Nuclear-Waste-None-of-them-Ideal.html
Alley, W. & Alley, R. (2013). Too hot to touch: The problem of high-level nuclear waste. Review by Konikow, L. (2013). Hydrogeology Journal.
Bangert-Drowns, Robert L. & Rudner, Lawrence M. (1991).Meta-analysis in educational research.Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 2(8). Retrieved September 4, 2008 from http://PAREonline.net/getvn.asp?v=2&n=8
Ultra violet light affects many people, and several experiments may be done to either support or disapprove the hypothesis. Approval of the hypothesis forms a theory that people who are highly exposed to ultra violet light have higher chances of getting skin cancer. Theories on some scientific approach may serve as sources for theories. Observation of people's behavior may lead to development of hypothesis. This includes looking at how people dress during certain times or what they do at certain times of the year. esults obtained over a research or experiment may lead to development of a theory. Experience of the scientists in their work may be a source of hypothesis and theory. Many things happen around that nobody can explain them scientifically. The scientists come with a hypothesis about something and do numerous tests and observations to know how some things happen Eberhardt, 2003()
ole of hypothesis and theory…
Dembo, a., & Peres, Y. (1994). A Topological Criterion for Hypothesis Testing. The Annals of Statistics, 22(1), 106-117.
Eberhardt, L.L. (2003). What Should We Do about Hypothesis Testing? The Journal of Wildlife Management, 67(2), 241-247.
Loosen, F. (1997). A Concrete Strategy for Teaching Hypothesis Testing. The American Statistician, 51(2), 158-163.
Moschopoulos, P.G., & Davidson, M.L. (1985). Hypothesis Testing in Anova under Multinomial Sampling. Sankhy?: The Indian Journal of Statistics, Series B (1960-2002), 47(3), 301-309.
There is a risk of loss as a result of nationalization).Transfer risk ( when a foreign authority restricts the transfer and delivery of foreign currencies), settlement risks, legal risks, market risks as well as liquidity risks.
Hedge funds are therefore not suitable for investors because they effectively underperform other hedge funds. This fact that there are tighter constraints, stricter regulations as well as lower incentives should deter retail investors from investing in hedge funds. The disadvantages and risks associated with hedge funds makes them unsuitable investment vehicles for retail investors.
Agarwal, V., Nicole M. Boyson.,NM and Naik, N (2007)Hedge funds for retail investors -- An examination of hedged mutual funds
C o n n o r, Gre g o ry and Mason Wo o (2003), "An Introduction to Hedge Funds," working p a p e r, Financial Markets Group, London School of Economics.
Cottier, P (1996) 'Hedge Funds…
Agarwal, V., Nicole M. Boyson.,NM and Naik, N (2007)Hedge funds for retail investors -- An examination of hedged mutual funds
C o n n o r, Gre g o ry and Mason Wo o (2003), "An Introduction to Hedge Funds," working p a p e r, Financial Markets Group, London School of Economics.
Cottier, P (1996) 'Hedge Funds and Managed Futures - Performance, Risks, Strategies and Use in Investment
Portfolios,' Thesis, http://www.aima.org/aimasite/indexfrm.h
The author of this report has been asked to answer three broad questions about certain statistical terms and concepts. The first one of those will be standard deviation. The second of the three will be hypothesis testing. The final question will center on standard error and what it means. While statistics may be daunting and intimidating, the concepts and terms used in statistics parlance are not hard to understand or comprehend so long as they are explained and quantified carefully.
The first overall question is what precisely standard deviation happens to be. To put it simply, standard deviation is how dispersed a set of numbers are. For example, the numbers 1, 2 and 3 are very close together so the standard deviation value would be rather small. However, the numbers 1, 1000 and 1,000,000 would have a very large standard deviation because the overall range of the numbers…
Investopedia. (2007). Null Hypothesis Definition | Investopedia. Investopedia. Retrieved 4 July 2015, from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/n/null_hypothesis.asp
Investopedia. (2010). Standard Error Definition | Investopedia. Investopedia. Retrieved 4 July 2015, from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/standard-error.asp
Math Is Fun. (2015). Standard Deviation and Variance. Mathsisfun.com. Retrieved 4 July 2015, from http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/standard-deviation.html
Stat Trek. (2015). Alternative Hypothesis: Definition. Stattrek.com. Retrieved 4 July 2015, from http://stattrek.com/statistics/dictionary.aspx?definition=alternative_hypothesis
Kottke, J., & Pelletier, K. (2013). Measuring and differentiating perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(3), 415-428. doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1312-8
Davis, A. L., & othstein, H. . (2006). The Effects of the Perceived Behavioral Integrity of Managers on Employee Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, (4). 407.
Locate, download, and print "Empirical esearch Checklist."
For this assignment, selection of quantitative studies is preferred.
Instructors will be scoring your submission based on the number of correct identifications of empirical articles as noted in the checklist submitted. To be accepted as an empirical article, at least 13 of the 15 characteristics identified in the checklist must be present.
ead the Kottke and Pelletier article in the topic materials.
ead the articles in detail.
Complete the Empirical esearch Checklist for each article by giving the page number where the characteristic is found or marking an "X" in the…
References used in the study are presented.
In this week what was interesting in the realm of hypothesis testing is the t-test.
All areas of science make use of t-test. One of the major applications of that t-test is to provide means to research questions. In hypothesis building, it is very important to form correct and factual research questions. Along with the formation, researchers also need to have a broad idea of the possible answers to the hypothesis which can help identify the direction of the research. Sometimes referred to as "Student's t-test," it was named after the person who helped in the study of the distribution of the means from within a small sample way back in 1890. The student was a pseudo name of William Gosset found out that the means are normally distributed only is cases when it is possible to know the actual standard deviation in the population in case of all…
Gordon Lan, K., Soo, Y., Siu, C., & Wang, M. (2005). The Use of Weighted Z -Tests in Medical Research. Journal Of Biopharmaceutical Statistics, 15(4), 625-639. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/bip-200062284
Witte, R. & Witte, J. (2004). Statistics. [Hoboken, NJ]: J. Wiley.
Mason Sexton is trying to renovate the house he inherited located in Charlottesville. The area is a prime location, and with the proposed construction of a multi-storey building, it will attract a good number of tenants. Sexton is not experienced in real estate development, and he has been making calculations based on the research he has carried out. The costings he has come up with are not viable since no financial institution is willing to back his project by offering him a loan. Sexton has managed to carry out most of the investigative, conceptual, and planning stages by himself. However, he runs into problems due to his inexperience in the initial planning stages. He has not managed to obtain funding for the project, and he has to spend money to create the plans and obtain a certificate of occupancy. Sexton has underestimated the construction costs, and he has…
Maybe there is a reason for these great apes to fling things at us in the zoo through the bars of the cage. There but for the grace of Darwin go I.
As the A's, C's, G's and T's switch on an off, it's fascinating to think about the minor and major changes, environmental and otherwise that could have made things different. The stray transcription factor would make the difference. Is there such a thing as counterfactual evolution (like counterfactual history)? It is fun to think about this.
Most of the 2% differential applies to factors we would absolutely expect, such as olfaction and reproduction. Sapolsky points out a fascinating fact that what makes the human and chimpanzee brains different. A neuron in a sea slug and a neuron in a human are essentially the same. Both chemically and physiologically are the same. As he points out, the number of…
Sapolsky, Robert. "The 2% Difference." Discover April 2006: 42-45.
Zyga, Lisa. "Cro Magnon Skull Shows That Our Brains Have Shrunk." Physorg.com.
Physorg.com, 15 March 2010. Web. 13 Apr 2010. .
The goal to eradicate human trafficking in today's modern society is an admirable one, and one that should be attainable. As Gallagher states in a 2011 study "The TVPA lays down minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking as well as detailed criteria for evaluating the performance of states" (Gallagher, 2011, p. 381). Gallagher goes on to compare the TVPA with similar international laws and finds that on an international basis "The international machinery available to expose the many ways in which individuals exploit each other for private profit, to identify government toleration of or complicity in that exploitation and to evaluate national responses is weak and highly compromised" (p. 396). However, the same study determined that most governments are working diligently on a year-to-year basis to up their performance and take seriously the problem of human trafficking, and therefore there is a light at the end of…
Gallagher, A.; (2011) Improving the effectiveness of the international law of human trafficking: A vision for the future of the U.S. Trafficking in Persons Reports, Human Rights Review, Vol. 12, Issue 3, pp. 381 -- 400
Wheaton, E.M.; Schauer, E.J.; Galli, T.V.; (2010) Economics of Human Trafficking, International Migration, Vol. 48, Issue 4, pp. 114 -- 141
Aborigines are Australia's original inhabitants and until the late 1700's -1800's the aborigine had little contact with Western civilization. Local dialects and the territorial nature of bands provided the different social groups their distinctive identity. The Mardudjara (Mardu) aborigines are part of the Western Desert cultural block in Australia (Tonkinson, 1978). The Mardu culture, societal system, etc. has never been recorded in its pristine state as anthropologic researchers did not study the group until well after alien influences had occurred. Nonetheless, the nomadic lifestyle of the Mardu was dictated by the harsh climate in which they live and they are an extremely interesting group. Nomadic groups like the Mardu often have a perception of gender or a cultural gender schema that fits in functionally with their lifestyle and is based on a division of labor and status that allows the group to maintain an identify, clearly defined roles, and survive…
Bird, R. (1999). Cooperation and conflict: The behavioral ecology of the sexual division of labor. Evolutionary Anthropology, 8 (2), 65-75.
Holmes, L.D., & Holmes, E.R. (1992) Samoan Village (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Tonkinson, R. (1978). The Mardudjara aborigines: Living the dream in Australia's desert. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Perceptions of sustainability improved slightly in the experimental group, however this change was not significant and the null hypothesis is not rejected (p=.32). The flag exposure did not improve perceptions of sustainability to a noteworthy degree.
Once more, there was statistically significant change -- and once more, it was so significant that the null hypothesis would be almost certainly rejected (p-value is effectively 0) -- but that this change was again in the wrong direction. Flag perception (or possibly the confounding variable of healthy eating desires, though that seems far less likely for this item) is correlated with a significant decrease in perceptions of traditionality, not an increase as predicted in the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis remains in place, therefore.
With one confounding variable between the groups, the examination of the given experimental variable (i.e. The inclusion of the flag on the product image) and its…
the PRC and Taiwan have significantly increased economic and cultural ties as both nations' economies have experienced tremendous growth. Taiwan would lose economically if they were to militate against the PRC. This they would not be ready to do.
3. Least likely to occur: [enter here and use a "Term of Estimative Probability" (see below) to describe it ]
Unlikely 16-34% chance:
U representatives warned both presidential candidates that under the current circumstances, the U.. could not guarantee political or let alone military support should a confrontation with the PRC occur. aid one high ranking U.. official "should hu claim independence, there is no way the U.. President will send U.. forces near Taiwan."
Despite a series of efforts by several members of Congress to oppose the measure, in October 1971 the United Nations adopted Resolution 2758 calling for the PRC to be recognized as the legitimate government of China.…
Sources of Intelligence. Furthermore, my reasons for conclusions properly describe quality and reliability of underlying sources. I also properly distinguished between underlying intelligence and analyst's assumptions and judgments.
Finally, I used logical argumentation.
To test whether the research results are statistically significant an appropriate test of statistical significance should be run. A chi-square "goodness-of-fit test is used to determine whether a set of proportions have specified numerical values" (Hypothesis testing, 2009, Quick MBA). However, in this specific instance, since it is likely that multiple batch tests for defects will be run, an ANOVA test would be more appropriate: "The primary purpose of ANOVA is to test for differences between multiple means. Whereas the t-test can be used to compare two means, ANOVA is needed to compare three or more means. If multiple t-tests were applied, the probability of a TYPE I error (rejecting a true null hypothesis) increases as the number of comparisons increases" (Hypothesis testing, 2009, Quick MBA). A one-way ANOVA examines whether multiple means differ. "ANOVA calculates the ratio of the variation between groups to the variation within groups" (Hypothesis testing,…
Hypothesis testing. (2009). Quick MBA. Retrieved December 9, 2009 at http://www.quickmba.com/marketing/research/
Lane, David M. (2009). Null hypothesis. Hyperstat: Online contents.
Retrieved December 9, 2009 athttp://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/A29337.html
Part-time faculty are likely to be less experienced and uncertain of what standards to apply in grading, and might even want to ensure that their students 'liked' them more, so they could gain a permanent full-time position at an institution. Part-time faculty tend to have less institutional support, such as permanent offices. They may lack university telephone and email accounts, which can facilitate student contact and thus improve ratings.
However, much to Landrum's surprise, the evident dedication of part-time faculty and their high student ratings did not support his hypothesis. Not only do the part-time instructors lack technical support and have less experience teaching, they also "teach a greater proportion of lower-division students compared to full-time faculty, who may be less enthusiastic about the academic process" yet results showed no significant deviation in terms of part-time teacher evaluations or the course grades they awarded to students (Landrum 2009, 24).
Landrum, R. Eric. (2009, Winter). "Are there instructional differences between full-time and part-time faculty." College Teaching. 57(1): 23-26.
Given that hypothesis testing holds the potential to provide keen business insights, the question that immediately arises is 'how does one conducts a hypothesis test?' It is a five step process.
1. First we formulate the null hypothesis (Ho), the statement or claim that will be tested. Using our earlier widget example, the null hypothesis (Ho) would be "Productivity is low in the widget making department because morale is low" (Bushman, 2007).
2. Next we formulate the alternative hypothesis (Ha), the exact opposite of the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis (Ha) would be "productivity is unrelated to morale."
3. We then identify a test statistic that can be used to measure the truth of the null hypothesis (more on this shortly).
4. We determine the P-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis…
causes of terrorism have attracted huge concern among policymakers and the public given the increase in terror attacks across the globe in the recent past. The modern society has been characterized by the increased emergence of terrorist groups and organizations in various places in the world. These organizations have continued to use sophisticated methods to accomplish their goals due to rapid technological advancements. Some of the major examples of terrorist groups include Baader-Meinhof, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and the alleged Iranian state-sponsored terrorism. Following my analysis of these groups, I have chosen as my theoretical framework, Margolin's argument that, 'much terrorist behavior is a response to the frustration of various political, economic, and personal needs or objectives' (Joseph Margolin, 1977, 273-4).
My discussion will involve analysis of three terrorist groups across three categories i.e. ideological, nationalist, and religious terrorism. I will use Baader-Meinhof gang, the Liberation Tigers of…
Brynjar, L. & Katja, S. (2000). Why Terrorism Occurs -- A Survey of Theories and Hypotheses
on the Causes of Terrorism. Retrieved September 21, 2014, from http://www.ffi.no/no/rapporter/00-02769.pdf
"Chapter 3: State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview." (2013, May 30). Office of the Coordinator
for Counterterrorism. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State website: http://www.state.gov/j/ct/rls/crt/2012/209985.htm
To define the safety objectives of the UAV, it is essential to evaluate the current level of safety necessary for the human-piloted aircrafts. While manned pilot aircrafts consider the safety of the pilots and the people on board to be important, however, the safety of the UAV is considered relatively to the hazard that that it will cost to the community. Thus, the intervention of human related aviation safety is still critical to enhance overall safety of the UAV. Although, the UAV accidents may lead to the zero loss of pilot's life, nevertheless, the financial investments that the governments or private organizations provide for the development of the UAV is huge, and the implementation of maximum safety to realize the objective of UAV is very essential. The human related aviation safety is still essential.
The thesis investigates selected human factors affecting safe operation of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. The thesis…
Dixon, S. & Wickens, C.D.(2003). Imperfect Automation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Control. Technical Report Aviation Human Factors Division Institute of Aviation University of Illinois.
Hou, M. Kobierski, R.D. & Brown.M. (2007). Intelligent Adaptive Interfaces for the Control of Multiple UAVs. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 1( 3): 327-362
Johnson, C.W. & Shea, C. (2007). The Hidden Human Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow.
Rutley, M. (2010). On Target - Human Factors UAV's. Royal Air Canadian Force. Canada.
Path Diagrams of Research Models
This current research developed and tested a model of work engagement contagion in which the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and competitive behaviors of coworkers influence employees' engagement with their jobs. In a sample of 1,422 departments of an insurance firm, multilevel analysis revealed that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors explain variance in individual work engagement over and above that explained by other individual and group-level predictors. Broadly speaking, these results suggest that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors play critical roles in explaining why people are more engaged with their work. Implications are discussed.
Hypothesis 1: Coworkers' OCB is positively related to work engagement.
Hypothesis 2: Coworkers' competitive behaviors mediate the positive relationship between coworkers' OCBs and focal employee work engagement.
OCB (+1) WORK ENGAGEMENT
OCB (+2) COMPETITVE BEHAVIORS WORK ENGAGEMENT
The OCB's are the independent variables. The employees' competitive behaviors are the mediators. The…
Organizational studies benefits from interaction with other areas of study. The articles and research questions in the paper reflect a curiosity of the connection among media, technology, and behavior. Each article and set of authors approaches this question from a different perspective and in conjunction with another school of thought to help problem solve and with which to cooperate. The paper selects and uses three heuristics as way to explore research questions and hypotheses further and better. The paper substantiates the validity of the proposed research question. The paper also describes the context within which the proposed research would fit.
Generating Research Questions & Hypotheses
Part 1 - DeLorme, D.E., Huh, J., Reid, L.N., & An, S. (2010) The state of public research on over-the-counter drug advertising. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, (3), 208 -- 231.
DeLorme et al. propose several key research questions and hypotheses. One…
4. Orlikowski, W.J., & Barley, S.R. (2001) Technology and Institutions: What can Research on Information Technology and Research on Organizations Learn from Each Other? MIS Quarterly, 25(2), 145 -- 165.
We argue that because of the important epistemological differences between the fields of information technology and organization studies, much can be gained from greater interaction between them. In particular, we argue that information technology research can benefit from incorporation institutional analysis from organization studies, while organization studies can benefit even more by following the lead of information technology research in taking the material properties of technologies into account. We further suggest that the transformations currently occurring in the nature of work and organizing cannot be understood without considering both the technological changes and the institutional contexts that are reshaping economic and organizational activity. Thus, greater interaction between field of information technology and organization studies should be viewed as more than a matter of enrichment. In the intellectual engagement of these two fields lies the potential for an important fusion of perspectives, a fusion more carefully attuned to explaining the nature consequences of the techno-social phenomena that increasingly pervade our lives.
At which point, workers are either fired or arrested by the police. The subcontractor will then, hire other people to work in the place of employees that are creating problems. Over the course of time, this can cause feelings of animosity inside the community. Moreover, there are no social responsibility practices for these regions. This means that no one is focusing on understanding the social, economic and environmental impact of the company's activities on different areas. Once this occurs, is when there is the possibility that there will be some kind of backlash from these issues. This information is showing how Apple and its third party suppliers are walking a thin line when it comes to their practices in regions such as China. Therefore, this source is supporting the hypothesis that was presented earlier. (Stonebreaker, 2009, pp. 161 -- 177)
The different sources that were examined are showing how…
New, S. (2011). Harvard Business Review on Managing Supply Chains. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.
Stonebreaker, P. (2009). Weak Links in the Supply Chain. Journal of Manufacturing Technology, 20 (2), 161 -- 177.
Yuan, Y. (2012). Risk Transmission Mechanism. Technology for Education and Learning 136, 95 -- 102.
Harassment, including sexual and other types as well, is also a common type of formal complaint that must be taken very seriously by contemporary businesses. More extensive employee training can help better inform employees of appropriate work behavior, so that there are less incidences of harassment between employees unknowingly.
etter trained employees makes for a more efficient work environment with less complications. Therefore, the research showed that "many organizations within it industries focus on providing "extensive retraining of employees," especially "as reengineering efforts go forward it is important to define and redefine performance goals and objectives, maintain a strong commitment to the vision, break the barriers between the departments, and be flexible as the business environment changes."
More extensive formal training can help with "nipping negativity before it derails morale" by reassuring the proper procedures but also by explaining appropriate company policy more directly and intimately so that all…
Alexander Hamilton Institute. "Bad Attitudes & Complaints: Handling Workplace Negativity." Business Management (2012). Web. http://www.businessmanagementdaily.com/19426/bad-attitudes-complaints-handling-workplace-negativity
Attaran, Moshen. "Exploring the Relationship between Information Technology and Business Process Reengineering." Information & Management 41 (2004), 585-596.
Bartel, Ann P. "Measuring the Employer's Return on Investments in Training: Evidence from the Literature." Industrial Relations 39, no. 3 (2000), 502-525.
Batt, Rosemary, Colvin, Alexander, & Keefe, Jeffrey. "Employee Voice, Human Resource Practices, and Quit Rates: Evidence from the Telecommunications Industry." Industrial and Labor Relations Reviews 55, no. 4 (2002), 573-595.
. This as a major development of the industry is bound to come out in the analysis.
ecession and the Performance of Banking Industry
ecession worked negatively on the banking industry especially so because the industry was still at its initial growth stage. The industry has reformed and change significantly following changes in observed. The data analyzed is expected to show how much recession influenced the changes in policy and regulations. It will also show that banks had a lesson to learn as far as the economic performance and trends were concerned. To date, given the trends banking industry are seen as most susceptible to the economic downturn and the key resolving this is to make changes as a safe guard measures. This is expected to come out in the data analyzed showing the existence of policy and operation changes and strategies adopted in light of economic performance.
Avery, et al. "Consolidation and Bank Branching Patterns." Journal of Banking and Finance 23.2-4 (1999): 497-532. Print.
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Boyd, John H., Sungkyu Kwak, and Bruce Smith. "The Real Output Losses Associated with Modern Banking Crises." Journal of Money, Credit and Banking 37.6 (2005): 977-99. Print.
Mishkin, Frederic S., and Philip E. Strahan. What Will Technology Do to Financial Structure? . Washington Brookings Institution 1999. Print.
A lot of companies are resorting to marketing one-to-one or concentrating on a narrow niche. For this reason, the respective corporations find it preferable to make use of direct communication with their clients who are typically a small targeted group that are considered after much thought. Direct communication helps the companies in obtaining a quick feedback from the clients that quickens the pace of their decision making. Over the years, the paradigm of direct communication has come a long way because of the dramatic evolutions in technologies and because of the introduction of new marketing media, particularly the usage of Internet.
Direct mailing and electronic catalogs, facilitated by Internet technologies have allowed for the implementation of models related to direct marketing (Jonker, Piersma, & Potharst, 2006; Liao & Chen, 2004; 2011). esearchers in the past have made use of direct communication as a model of complete business or…
Bolton, Ruth N., P.K. Kannan, and Matthew D. Bramlett (2000), Implications of Loyalty Program Membership and Service Experiences for Customer Retention and Value, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Winter), 95 -- 108.
Bowman, Douglas and Das Narayandas (2001), Managing Customer-Initiated Contacts with Manufacturers: The Impact on Share of Category Requirements and Word-of-Mouth Behavior, Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (August), 281 -- 97.
Coughlan, A.T., & Grayson, K. (1998). Network marketing organizations: Compensation plans, retail network growth, and profitability. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 15(5), 401 -- 426.
De Wulf, Kristof, Gaby Odekerken-Schroder, and Dawn Iacobucci (2001), Investments in Consumer Relationships: A CrossCountry and Cross-Industry Exploration, Journal of Marketing, 65 (October), 33 -- 50.
Ethics in Criminal Justice:
The police function has continued to be the most needed elements since the beginning of the existence of human societies because social coordination and harmony have never prospered without some kind of supervisory authority. The supervisory authority or power has usually been shared among several agencies or departments including policing. These various departments have been planned and synchronized to provide the service efficiently and effectively. Since its inception, policing have been mandated with the task of identifying and convicting criminals. However, the police have been expected to have an increasingly wider social role in acting as crisis managers or problem busters. As the police have been faced with numerous moral challenges, there are various theories that have been developed to describe ethics within the field of criminal justice.
Slippery Slope and Gratuities:
One of the long-standing and controversial practices within the police force is police gratuities…
Andrews, W.C. (2004, June). Police Gratuities, Public Perception after September 11, 2001.
Retrieved April 12, 2013, from http://www.clearwaterpolice.org/articles/andrews.asp
Delattre, E.J. (2002). Character and cops: ethics in policing (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.:
American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.