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Hypothesis Essays (Examples)

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Null Hypotheses Height & Weight
Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 15934815
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If they can bench-press heavy weights, they may emphasize athletics at the expense of academics, in terms of how they prioritize their time. However, it is equally possible that in some schools, high-achieving students also use athletics as a way of bolstering their college resume. Factors such as the school, the degree to which athletics makes demands upon student athletes within the particular environment, and the intelligence of the players may indicate there is no correlation.

Daily air temperature & the average weight of clothing worn

H1: There is a negative correlation between temperature and weight of clothing -- in other words, greater the air temperature, the lighter the clothing.

H0: There is no correlation between temperature and weight of clothing.

Estimate: Negative correlation -1

Analysis: The research hypothesis is likely to be proven, with only small variations for such factors as rain and humidity.

orks Cited

Shuttleworth, Martyn. Null…

Works Cited

Shuttleworth, Martyn. Null hypothesis. Experiment 2008.

September 15, 2009 at

Null Directional and Nondirectional Hypotheses
Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 66056033
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Tips on Understanding and emembering the Three Types of Hypotheses

The three types of hypotheses can seem confusing at first, so it is helpful to devise tips for understanding and remembering their differences. The three hypotheses -- null, nondirectional and directional -- can best be described in the following terse manner: null means no relationship between variables; nondirectional means that there is a relationship or difference between variables but the hypothesis is not concerned with the outcome of the relationship/difference -- only with the fact that the relationship/difference exists; and directions means that the outcome is important to the hypothesis. To put it even more simply, null means no relationship/difference; nondirectional means relationship/difference; directional means outcome of relationship/difference (Elwell, 2013).

The tips to remembering these three types of hypotheses can include spending time examining many different examples of hypotheses and identifying their type. For instance, the resource text provides examples…


Elwell. (2013). Cheat Sheet Topic: Hypotheses.

Memory and Mnemonic Devices. (n.d.). Psychcentral. Retrieved from 

Mills, G. E., & Gay, L. R. (2016). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Publishing.

Technological Pragmatism -- Conflict Hypotheses
Words: 349 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47783805
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High school and college students use digital media extensively.

Their typical digital media habits and practices are dangerous.

They often publish personal information that can be used for exploitation.

In many cases, information they publish can harm them in the future.


Willenz, P. (2003). "Internet use involves both pros and cons for children and adolescents: Some youth benefit from Internet use while for others it can exacerbate self-destructive behaviors." American Psychological Association.

etrieved July 10, 2010 from:

Hypothesis # 4

The availability of digital social media has increased the incidence of extramarital affairs by providing a convenient medium for initiating anonymous social overtures.

Digital media have been used extensively to conduct illicit sexual affairs.

The privacy of the medium permits secrecy from spouses and significant others.

The anonymity of digital communications facilitates deception in social overtures.


Hertlein, K.M. And Piercy, F.P. "Internet Infidelity: A Critical eview of…


Hertlein, K.M. And Piercy, F.P. "Internet Infidelity: A Critical Review of the Literature." The Family Journal Vol. 14 (2006): 366-371.

Products What Were the Hypotheses
Words: 567 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92275047
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What were the dependent variables in this experiment?

The dependent variable was the subject's choice of product, based upon package appearance.

How were the dependent variables operationalized?

The identical product was packaged in differently-appearing containers.

Did the results support the stated hypothesis?

The results did find that higher self-monitors were more influenced by package appearance while low self-monitors cared more about quality.


What were the independent variables in this experiment?

The container styles of two different perfumes in a type of container, and the quality of the perfume.

What were the quasi-independent variables in this experiment?

The perfume bottles' relative 'attractiveness' and scent although quantified, is still somewhat subjective and dependent upon another experiment outside of the controlled environment of the study.

What were the dependent variables in this experiment?

The choice of the subjects for either the better-smelling perfume in the less attractive bottle vs. The less attractively…

Data Methods and Hypotheses of Two Studies
Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99189358
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Kottke, J., & Pelletier, K. (2013). Measuring and differentiating perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(3), 415-428. doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1312-8

Davis, A. L., & othstein, H. . (2006). The Effects of the Perceived Behavioral Integrity of Managers on Employee Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, (4). 407.

Locate, download, and print "Empirical esearch Checklist."

For this assignment, selection of quantitative studies is preferred.

Instructors will be scoring your submission based on the number of correct identifications of empirical articles as noted in the checklist submitted. To be accepted as an empirical article, at least 13 of the 15 characteristics identified in the checklist must be present.


ead the Kottke and Pelletier article in the topic materials.

ead the articles in detail.

Complete the Empirical esearch Checklist for each article by giving the page number where the characteristic is found or marking an "X" in the…

References used in the study are presented.

Variables Hypotheses and Relations
Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87068702
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Human Trafficking

The goal to eradicate human trafficking in today's modern society is an admirable one, and one that should be attainable. As Gallagher states in a 2011 study "The TVPA lays down minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking as well as detailed criteria for evaluating the performance of states" (Gallagher, 2011, p. 381). Gallagher goes on to compare the TVPA with similar international laws and finds that on an international basis "The international machinery available to expose the many ways in which individuals exploit each other for private profit, to identify government toleration of or complicity in that exploitation and to evaluate national responses is weak and highly compromised" (p. 396). However, the same study determined that most governments are working diligently on a year-to-year basis to up their performance and take seriously the problem of human trafficking, and therefore there is a light at the end of…

Works Cited

Gallagher, A.; (2011) Improving the effectiveness of the international law of human trafficking: A vision for the future of the U.S. Trafficking in Persons Reports, Human Rights Review, Vol. 12, Issue 3, pp. 381 -- 400

Wheaton, E.M.; Schauer, E.J.; Galli, T.V.; (2010) Economics of Human Trafficking, International Migration, Vol. 48, Issue 4, pp. 114 -- 141

Norway Brand Statistical Summary and
Words: 1712 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Data Analysis Chapter Paper #: 34937089
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Perceptions of sustainability improved slightly in the experimental group, however this change was not significant and the null hypothesis is not rejected (p=.32). The flag exposure did not improve perceptions of sustainability to a noteworthy degree.


Once more, there was statistically significant change -- and once more, it was so significant that the null hypothesis would be almost certainly rejected (p-value is effectively 0) -- but that this change was again in the wrong direction. Flag perception (or possibly the confounding variable of healthy eating desires, though that seems far less likely for this item) is correlated with a significant decrease in perceptions of traditionality, not an increase as predicted in the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis remains in place, therefore.


With one confounding variable between the groups, the examination of the given experimental variable (i.e. The inclusion of the flag on the product image) and its…

Kmt's Candidate and Current Mayor
Words: 958 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Hypothesis Paper #: 47541793
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the PRC and Taiwan have significantly increased economic and cultural ties as both nations' economies have experienced tremendous growth. Taiwan would lose economically if they were to militate against the PRC. This they would not be ready to do.

3. Least likely to occur: [enter here and use a "Term of Estimative Probability" (see below) to describe it ]

Unlikely 16-34% chance:

U representatives warned both presidential candidates that under the current circumstances, the U.. could not guarantee political or let alone military support should a confrontation with the PRC occur. aid one high ranking U.. official "should hu claim independence, there is no way the U.. President will send U.. forces near Taiwan."

Despite a series of efforts by several members of Congress to oppose the measure, in October 1971 the United Nations adopted Resolution 2758 calling for the PRC to be recognized as the legitimate government of China.…

Sources of Intelligence. Furthermore, my reasons for conclusions properly describe quality and reliability of underlying sources. I also properly distinguished between underlying intelligence and analyst's assumptions and judgments.

Finally, I used logical argumentation.

John and Sons Company Null
Words: 370 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6605294
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To test whether the research results are statistically significant an appropriate test of statistical significance should be run. A chi-square "goodness-of-fit test is used to determine whether a set of proportions have specified numerical values" (Hypothesis testing, 2009, Quick MBA). However, in this specific instance, since it is likely that multiple batch tests for defects will be run, an ANOVA test would be more appropriate: "The primary purpose of ANOVA is to test for differences between multiple means. Whereas the t-test can be used to compare two means, ANOVA is needed to compare three or more means. If multiple t-tests were applied, the probability of a TYPE I error (rejecting a true null hypothesis) increases as the number of comparisons increases" (Hypothesis testing, 2009, Quick MBA). A one-way ANOVA examines whether multiple means differ. "ANOVA calculates the ratio of the variation between groups to the variation within groups" (Hypothesis testing,…


Hypothesis testing. (2009). Quick MBA. Retrieved December 9, 2009 at 

Lane, David M. (2009). Null hypothesis. Hyperstat: Online contents.

Retrieved December 9, 2009 at

Identification Landrum R Eric 2009
Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49881925
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Part-time faculty are likely to be less experienced and uncertain of what standards to apply in grading, and might even want to ensure that their students 'liked' them more, so they could gain a permanent full-time position at an institution. Part-time faculty tend to have less institutional support, such as permanent offices. They may lack university telephone and email accounts, which can facilitate student contact and thus improve ratings.

However, much to Landrum's surprise, the evident dedication of part-time faculty and their high student ratings did not support his hypothesis. Not only do the part-time instructors lack technical support and have less experience teaching, they also "teach a greater proportion of lower-division students compared to full-time faculty, who may be less enthusiastic about the academic process" yet results showed no significant deviation in terms of part-time teacher evaluations or the course grades they awarded to students (Landrum 2009, 24).



Landrum, R. Eric. (2009, Winter). "Are there instructional differences between full-time and part-time faculty." College Teaching. 57(1): 23-26.

Group Will Behave We Make
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69154780
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Given that hypothesis testing holds the potential to provide keen business insights, the question that immediately arises is 'how does one conducts a hypothesis test?' It is a five step process.

1. First we formulate the null hypothesis (Ho), the statement or claim that will be tested. Using our earlier widget example, the null hypothesis (Ho) would be "Productivity is low in the widget making department because morale is low" (Bushman, 2007).

2. Next we formulate the alternative hypothesis (Ha), the exact opposite of the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis (Ha) would be "productivity is unrelated to morale."

3. We then identify a test statistic that can be used to measure the truth of the null hypothesis (more on this shortly).

4. We determine the P-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis…

Human Factors Affecting Safe Operation
Words: 3372 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 56781991
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To define the safety objectives of the UAV, it is essential to evaluate the current level of safety necessary for the human-piloted aircrafts. While manned pilot aircrafts consider the safety of the pilots and the people on board to be important, however, the safety of the UAV is considered relatively to the hazard that that it will cost to the community. Thus, the intervention of human related aviation safety is still critical to enhance overall safety of the UAV. Although, the UAV accidents may lead to the zero loss of pilot's life, nevertheless, the financial investments that the governments or private organizations provide for the development of the UAV is huge, and the implementation of maximum safety to realize the objective of UAV is very essential. The human related aviation safety is still essential.

The thesis investigates selected human factors affecting safe operation of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. The thesis…


Dixon, S. & Wickens, C.D.(2003). Imperfect Automation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Control. Technical Report Aviation Human Factors Division Institute of Aviation University of Illinois.

Hou, M. Kobierski, R.D. & Brown.M. (2007). Intelligent Adaptive Interfaces for the Control of Multiple UAVs. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 1( 3): 327-362

Johnson, C.W. & Shea, C. (2007). The Hidden Human Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow.

Rutley, M. (2010). On Target - Human Factors UAV's. Royal Air Canadian Force. Canada.

Theoretical Models and Path Diagramming
Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63513936
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Path Diagrams of Research Models


This current research developed and tested a model of work engagement contagion in which the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and competitive behaviors of coworkers influence employees' engagement with their jobs. In a sample of 1,422 departments of an insurance firm, multilevel analysis revealed that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors explain variance in individual work engagement over and above that explained by other individual and group-level predictors. Broadly speaking, these results suggest that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors play critical roles in explaining why people are more engaged with their work. Implications are discussed.

Hypothesis 1: Coworkers' OCB is positively related to work engagement.

Hypothesis 2: Coworkers' competitive behaviors mediate the positive relationship between coworkers' OCBs and focal employee work engagement.



The OCB's are the independent variables. The employees' competitive behaviors are the mediators. The…

Business Organizational Studies Benefits From Interaction With
Words: 3327 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6047172
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Organizational studies benefits from interaction with other areas of study. The articles and research questions in the paper reflect a curiosity of the connection among media, technology, and behavior. Each article and set of authors approaches this question from a different perspective and in conjunction with another school of thought to help problem solve and with which to cooperate. The paper selects and uses three heuristics as way to explore research questions and hypotheses further and better. The paper substantiates the validity of the proposed research question. The paper also describes the context within which the proposed research would fit.

Generating Research Questions & Hypotheses

Part 1 - DeLorme, D.E., Huh, J., Reid, L.N., & An, S. (2010) The state of public research on over-the-counter drug advertising. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, (3), 208 -- 231.

DeLorme et al. propose several key research questions and hypotheses. One…

4. Orlikowski, W.J., & Barley, S.R. (2001) Technology and Institutions: What can Research on Information Technology and Research on Organizations Learn from Each Other? MIS Quarterly, 25(2), 145 -- 165.


We argue that because of the important epistemological differences between the fields of information technology and organization studies, much can be gained from greater interaction between them. In particular, we argue that information technology research can benefit from incorporation institutional analysis from organization studies, while organization studies can benefit even more by following the lead of information technology research in taking the material properties of technologies into account. We further suggest that the transformations currently occurring in the nature of work and organizing cannot be understood without considering both the technological changes and the institutional contexts that are reshaping economic and organizational activity. Thus, greater interaction between field of information technology and organization studies should be viewed as more than a matter of enrichment. In the intellectual engagement of these two fields lies the potential for an important fusion of perspectives, a fusion more carefully attuned to explaining the nature consequences of the techno-social phenomena that increasingly pervade our lives.

Members of Apple One of
Words: 2236 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 79771296
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At which point, workers are either fired or arrested by the police. The subcontractor will then, hire other people to work in the place of employees that are creating problems. Over the course of time, this can cause feelings of animosity inside the community. Moreover, there are no social responsibility practices for these regions. This means that no one is focusing on understanding the social, economic and environmental impact of the company's activities on different areas. Once this occurs, is when there is the possibility that there will be some kind of backlash from these issues. This information is showing how Apple and its third party suppliers are walking a thin line when it comes to their practices in regions such as China. Therefore, this source is supporting the hypothesis that was presented earlier. (Stonebreaker, 2009, pp. 161 -- 177)


The different sources that were examined are showing how…

New, S. (2011). Harvard Business Review on Managing Supply Chains. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.

Stonebreaker, P. (2009). Weak Links in the Supply Chain. Journal of Manufacturing Technology, 20 (2), 161 -- 177.

Yuan, Y. (2012). Risk Transmission Mechanism. Technology for Education and Learning 136, 95 -- 102.

Training Levels and Number of
Words: 3726 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 73371699
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Harassment, including sexual and other types as well, is also a common type of formal complaint that must be taken very seriously by contemporary businesses. More extensive employee training can help better inform employees of appropriate work behavior, so that there are less incidences of harassment between employees unknowingly.

etter trained employees makes for a more efficient work environment with less complications. Therefore, the research showed that "many organizations within it industries focus on providing "extensive retraining of employees," especially "as reengineering efforts go forward it is important to define and redefine performance goals and objectives, maintain a strong commitment to the vision, break the barriers between the departments, and be flexible as the business environment changes."

More extensive formal training can help with "nipping negativity before it derails morale" by reassuring the proper procedures but also by explaining appropriate company policy more directly and intimately so that all…


Alexander Hamilton Institute. "Bad Attitudes & Complaints: Handling Workplace Negativity." Business Management (2012). Web. 

Attaran, Moshen. "Exploring the Relationship between Information Technology and Business Process Reengineering." Information & Management 41 (2004), 585-596.

Bartel, Ann P. "Measuring the Employer's Return on Investments in Training: Evidence from the Literature." Industrial Relations 39, no. 3 (2000), 502-525.

Batt, Rosemary, Colvin, Alexander, & Keefe, Jeffrey. "Employee Voice, Human Resource Practices, and Quit Rates: Evidence from the Telecommunications Industry." Industrial and Labor Relations Reviews 55, no. 4 (2002), 573-595.

Forces Leading to Changes in
Words: 1665 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 75679544
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. This as a major development of the industry is bound to come out in the analysis.

ecession and the Performance of Banking Industry

ecession worked negatively on the banking industry especially so because the industry was still at its initial growth stage. The industry has reformed and change significantly following changes in observed. The data analyzed is expected to show how much recession influenced the changes in policy and regulations. It will also show that banks had a lesson to learn as far as the economic performance and trends were concerned. To date, given the trends banking industry are seen as most susceptible to the economic downturn and the key resolving this is to make changes as a safe guard measures. This is expected to come out in the data analyzed showing the existence of policy and operation changes and strategies adopted in light of economic performance.



Avery, et al. "Consolidation and Bank Branching Patterns." Journal of Banking and Finance 23.2-4 (1999): 497-532. Print.

Barzun, J., and H. F Graff. The Modern Researcher 6th Ed. Belmont CA: Thomson Wadsworth 2004. Print.

Boyd, John H., Sungkyu Kwak, and Bruce Smith. "The Real Output Losses Associated with Modern Banking Crises." Journal of Money, Credit and Banking 37.6 (2005): 977-99. Print.

Mishkin, Frederic S., and Philip E. Strahan. What Will Technology Do to Financial Structure? . Washington Brookings Institution 1999. Print.

Direct Selling a Lot of Companies Are
Words: 2546 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70870066
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Direct Selling

A lot of companies are resorting to marketing one-to-one or concentrating on a narrow niche. For this reason, the respective corporations find it preferable to make use of direct communication with their clients who are typically a small targeted group that are considered after much thought. Direct communication helps the companies in obtaining a quick feedback from the clients that quickens the pace of their decision making. Over the years, the paradigm of direct communication has come a long way because of the dramatic evolutions in technologies and because of the introduction of new marketing media, particularly the usage of Internet.

Direct mailing and electronic catalogs, facilitated by Internet technologies have allowed for the implementation of models related to direct marketing (Jonker, Piersma, & Potharst, 2006; Liao & Chen, 2004; 2011). esearchers in the past have made use of direct communication as a model of complete business or…


Bolton, Ruth N., P.K. Kannan, and Matthew D. Bramlett (2000), Implications of Loyalty Program Membership and Service Experiences for Customer Retention and Value, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 28 (Winter), 95 -- 108.

Bowman, Douglas and Das Narayandas (2001), Managing Customer-Initiated Contacts with Manufacturers: The Impact on Share of Category Requirements and Word-of-Mouth Behavior, Journal of Marketing Research, 38 (August), 281 -- 97.

Coughlan, A.T., & Grayson, K. (1998). Network marketing organizations: Compensation plans, retail network growth, and profitability. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 15(5), 401 -- 426.

De Wulf, Kristof, Gaby Odekerken-Schroder, and Dawn Iacobucci (2001), Investments in Consumer Relationships: A CrossCountry and Cross-Industry Exploration, Journal of Marketing, 65 (October), 33 -- 50.

Ethics in Criminal Justice The Police Function
Words: 1056 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97518654
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Ethics in Criminal Justice:

The police function has continued to be the most needed elements since the beginning of the existence of human societies because social coordination and harmony have never prospered without some kind of supervisory authority. The supervisory authority or power has usually been shared among several agencies or departments including policing. These various departments have been planned and synchronized to provide the service efficiently and effectively. Since its inception, policing have been mandated with the task of identifying and convicting criminals. However, the police have been expected to have an increasingly wider social role in acting as crisis managers or problem busters. As the police have been faced with numerous moral challenges, there are various theories that have been developed to describe ethics within the field of criminal justice.

Slippery Slope and Gratuities:

One of the long-standing and controversial practices within the police force is police gratuities…


Andrews, W.C. (2004, June). Police Gratuities, Public Perception after September 11, 2001.

Retrieved April 12, 2013, from

Delattre, E.J. (2002). Character and cops: ethics in policing (5th ed.). Washington, D.C.:

American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research.

Basic ANOVA Study
Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 98220447
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The focus of this proposal is to use the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test whether the video games influence behavior. There has been a general public concern on the risk factor of video games on the youth's behavior especially children under 18 years of age. Science Daily (2013) shows that video games are the risk factors to aggression and criminal behavior. Despite this assertion, there still a paucity of valid and reliable academic research on the risk factors of video games on behavior. This proposal attempts to fill the gap by using ANOVA to test whether the video games influence behavior.

Do video games influence the aggressive or criminal behavior?

ANOVA is an appropriate statistical test for the proposal because it will be used to test for a significant difference of two means. Using the ANOVA for the proposal, the researcher will be able to produce valid…


Jackson, S.L. (2012). Research methods and statistics: A critical thinking approach (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Office of the Surgeon General. (2001).Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgeon General. National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. USA.

Science Daily (2013). Violent Video Games Are a Risk Factor for Criminal Behavior and Aggression, New Evidence Shows. Science News.