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Null Hypotheses Height & Weight

Words: 335 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 15934815

If they can bench-press heavy weights, they may emphasize athletics at the expense of academics, in terms of how they prioritize their time. However, it is equally possible that in some schools, high-achieving students also use athletics as a way of bolstering their college resume. Factors such as the school, the degree to which athletics makes demands upon student athletes within the particular environment, and the intelligence of the players may indicate there is no correlation.

Daily air temperature & the average weight of clothing worn

H1: There is a negative correlation between temperature and weight of clothing -- in other words, greater the air temperature, the lighter the clothing.

H0: There is no correlation between temperature and weight of clothing.

Estimate: Negative correlation -1

Analysis: The research hypothesis is likely to be proven, with only small variations for such factors as rain and humidity.

orks Cited

Shuttleworth, Martyn. Null…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Shuttleworth, Martyn. Null hypothesis. Experiment 2008.

September 15, 2009 at
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Null Directional and Nondirectional Hypotheses

Words: 665 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 66056033

Tips on Understanding and emembering the Three Types of Hypotheses

The three types of hypotheses can seem confusing at first, so it is helpful to devise tips for understanding and remembering their differences. The three hypotheses -- null, nondirectional and directional -- can best be described in the following terse manner: null means no relationship between variables; nondirectional means that there is a relationship or difference between variables but the hypothesis is not concerned with the outcome of the relationship/difference -- only with the fact that the relationship/difference exists; and directions means that the outcome is important to the hypothesis. To put it even more simply, null means no relationship/difference; nondirectional means relationship/difference; directional means outcome of relationship/difference (Elwell, 2013).

The tips to remembering these three types of hypotheses can include spending time examining many different examples of hypotheses and identifying their type. For instance, the resource text provides examples…… [Read More]


Elwell. (2013). Cheat Sheet Topic: Hypotheses.

Memory and Mnemonic Devices. (n.d.). Psychcentral. Retrieved from 

Mills, G. E., & Gay, L. R. (2016). Educational research: Competencies for analysis and applications (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Publishing.
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Technological Pragmatism -- Conflict Hypotheses

Words: 349 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47783805

High school and college students use digital media extensively.

Their typical digital media habits and practices are dangerous.

They often publish personal information that can be used for exploitation.

In many cases, information they publish can harm them in the future.


Willenz, P. (2003). "Internet use involves both pros and cons for children and adolescents: Some youth benefit from Internet use while for others it can exacerbate self-destructive behaviors." American Psychological Association.

etrieved July 10, 2010 from:

Hypothesis # 4

The availability of digital social media has increased the incidence of extramarital affairs by providing a convenient medium for initiating anonymous social overtures.

Digital media have been used extensively to conduct illicit sexual affairs.

The privacy of the medium permits secrecy from spouses and significant others.

The anonymity of digital communications facilitates deception in social overtures.


Hertlein, K.M. And Piercy, F.P. "Internet Infidelity: A Critical eview of…… [Read More]


Hertlein, K.M. And Piercy, F.P. "Internet Infidelity: A Critical Review of the Literature." The Family Journal Vol. 14 (2006): 366-371.
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Products What Were the Hypotheses

Words: 567 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92275047

What were the dependent variables in this experiment?

The dependent variable was the subject's choice of product, based upon package appearance.

How were the dependent variables operationalized?

The identical product was packaged in differently-appearing containers.

Did the results support the stated hypothesis?

The results did find that higher self-monitors were more influenced by package appearance while low self-monitors cared more about quality.


What were the independent variables in this experiment?

The container styles of two different perfumes in a type of container, and the quality of the perfume.

What were the quasi-independent variables in this experiment?

The perfume bottles' relative 'attractiveness' and scent although quantified, is still somewhat subjective and dependent upon another experiment outside of the controlled environment of the study.

What were the dependent variables in this experiment?

The choice of the subjects for either the better-smelling perfume in the less attractive bottle vs. The less attractively…… [Read More]

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Data Methods and Hypotheses of Two Studies

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99189358

Kottke, J., & Pelletier, K. (2013). Measuring and differentiating perceptions of supervisor and top leader ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 113(3), 415-428. doi:10.1007/s10551-012-1312-8

Davis, A. L., & othstein, H. . (2006). The Effects of the Perceived Behavioral Integrity of Managers on Employee Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis. Journal of Business Ethics, (4). 407.

Locate, download, and print "Empirical esearch Checklist."

For this assignment, selection of quantitative studies is preferred.

Instructors will be scoring your submission based on the number of correct identifications of empirical articles as noted in the checklist submitted. To be accepted as an empirical article, at least 13 of the 15 characteristics identified in the checklist must be present.


ead the Kottke and Pelletier article in the topic materials.

ead the articles in detail.

Complete the Empirical esearch Checklist for each article by giving the page number where the characteristic is found or marking an "X" in the…… [Read More]

References used in the study are presented.
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Variables Hypotheses and Relations

Words: 644 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87068702

Human Trafficking

The goal to eradicate human trafficking in today's modern society is an admirable one, and one that should be attainable. As Gallagher states in a 2011 study "The TVPA lays down minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking as well as detailed criteria for evaluating the performance of states" (Gallagher, 2011, p. 381). Gallagher goes on to compare the TVPA with similar international laws and finds that on an international basis "The international machinery available to expose the many ways in which individuals exploit each other for private profit, to identify government toleration of or complicity in that exploitation and to evaluate national responses is weak and highly compromised" (p. 396). However, the same study determined that most governments are working diligently on a year-to-year basis to up their performance and take seriously the problem of human trafficking, and therefore there is a light at the end of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gallagher, A.; (2011) Improving the effectiveness of the international law of human trafficking: A vision for the future of the U.S. Trafficking in Persons Reports, Human Rights Review, Vol. 12, Issue 3, pp. 381 -- 400

Wheaton, E.M.; Schauer, E.J.; Galli, T.V.; (2010) Economics of Human Trafficking, International Migration, Vol. 48, Issue 4, pp. 114 -- 141
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Norway Brand Statistical Summary and

Words: 1712 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Data Analysis Chapter Paper #: 34937089


Perceptions of sustainability improved slightly in the experimental group, however this change was not significant and the null hypothesis is not rejected (p=.32). The flag exposure did not improve perceptions of sustainability to a noteworthy degree.


Once more, there was statistically significant change -- and once more, it was so significant that the null hypothesis would be almost certainly rejected (p-value is effectively 0) -- but that this change was again in the wrong direction. Flag perception (or possibly the confounding variable of healthy eating desires, though that seems far less likely for this item) is correlated with a significant decrease in perceptions of traditionality, not an increase as predicted in the alternative hypothesis. The null hypothesis remains in place, therefore.


With one confounding variable between the groups, the examination of the given experimental variable (i.e. The inclusion of the flag on the product image) and its…… [Read More]

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Kmt's Candidate and Current Mayor

Words: 958 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Hypothesis Paper #: 47541793

the PRC and Taiwan have significantly increased economic and cultural ties as both nations' economies have experienced tremendous growth. Taiwan would lose economically if they were to militate against the PRC. This they would not be ready to do.

3. Least likely to occur: [enter here and use a "Term of Estimative Probability" (see below) to describe it ]

Unlikely 16-34% chance:

U representatives warned both presidential candidates that under the current circumstances, the U.. could not guarantee political or let alone military support should a confrontation with the PRC occur. aid one high ranking U.. official "should hu claim independence, there is no way the U.. President will send U.. forces near Taiwan."

Despite a series of efforts by several members of Congress to oppose the measure, in October 1971 the United Nations adopted Resolution 2758 calling for the PRC to be recognized as the legitimate government of China.…… [Read More]

Sources of Intelligence. Furthermore, my reasons for conclusions properly describe quality and reliability of underlying sources. I also properly distinguished between underlying intelligence and analyst's assumptions and judgments.

Finally, I used logical argumentation.
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John and Sons Company Null

Words: 370 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6605294

To test whether the research results are statistically significant an appropriate test of statistical significance should be run. A chi-square "goodness-of-fit test is used to determine whether a set of proportions have specified numerical values" (Hypothesis testing, 2009, Quick MBA). However, in this specific instance, since it is likely that multiple batch tests for defects will be run, an ANOVA test would be more appropriate: "The primary purpose of ANOVA is to test for differences between multiple means. Whereas the t-test can be used to compare two means, ANOVA is needed to compare three or more means. If multiple t-tests were applied, the probability of a TYPE I error (rejecting a true null hypothesis) increases as the number of comparisons increases" (Hypothesis testing, 2009, Quick MBA). A one-way ANOVA examines whether multiple means differ. "ANOVA calculates the ratio of the variation between groups to the variation within groups" (Hypothesis testing,…… [Read More]


Hypothesis testing. (2009). Quick MBA. Retrieved December 9, 2009 at 

Lane, David M. (2009). Null hypothesis. Hyperstat: Online contents.

Retrieved December 9, 2009 at
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Identification Landrum R Eric 2009

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49881925

Part-time faculty are likely to be less experienced and uncertain of what standards to apply in grading, and might even want to ensure that their students 'liked' them more, so they could gain a permanent full-time position at an institution. Part-time faculty tend to have less institutional support, such as permanent offices. They may lack university telephone and email accounts, which can facilitate student contact and thus improve ratings.

However, much to Landrum's surprise, the evident dedication of part-time faculty and their high student ratings did not support his hypothesis. Not only do the part-time instructors lack technical support and have less experience teaching, they also "teach a greater proportion of lower-division students compared to full-time faculty, who may be less enthusiastic about the academic process" yet results showed no significant deviation in terms of part-time teacher evaluations or the course grades they awarded to students (Landrum 2009, 24).

The…… [Read More]


Landrum, R. Eric. (2009, Winter). "Are there instructional differences between full-time and part-time faculty." College Teaching. 57(1): 23-26.
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Group Will Behave We Make

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69154780

Given that hypothesis testing holds the potential to provide keen business insights, the question that immediately arises is 'how does one conducts a hypothesis test?' It is a five step process.

1. First we formulate the null hypothesis (Ho), the statement or claim that will be tested. Using our earlier widget example, the null hypothesis (Ho) would be "Productivity is low in the widget making department because morale is low" (Bushman, 2007).

2. Next we formulate the alternative hypothesis (Ha), the exact opposite of the null hypothesis. The alternative hypothesis (Ha) would be "productivity is unrelated to morale."

3. We then identify a test statistic that can be used to measure the truth of the null hypothesis (more on this shortly).

4. We determine the P-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis…… [Read More]

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Terrorist Groups

Words: 2750 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 71392632

causes of terrorism have attracted huge concern among policymakers and the public given the increase in terror attacks across the globe in the recent past. The modern society has been characterized by the increased emergence of terrorist groups and organizations in various places in the world. These organizations have continued to use sophisticated methods to accomplish their goals due to rapid technological advancements. Some of the major examples of terrorist groups include Baader-Meinhof, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, and the alleged Iranian state-sponsored terrorism. Following my analysis of these groups, I have chosen as my theoretical framework, Margolin's argument that, 'much terrorist behavior is a response to the frustration of various political, economic, and personal needs or objectives' (Joseph Margolin, 1977, 273-4).

My discussion will involve analysis of three terrorist groups across three categories i.e. ideological, nationalist, and religious terrorism. I will use Baader-Meinhof gang, the Liberation Tigers of…… [Read More]


Brynjar, L. & Katja, S. (2000). Why Terrorism Occurs -- A Survey of Theories and Hypotheses

on the Causes of Terrorism. Retrieved September 21, 2014, from 

"Chapter 3: State Sponsors of Terrorism Overview." (2013, May 30). Office of the Coordinator

for Counterterrorism. Retrieved from U.S. Department of State website:
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Human Factors Affecting Safe Operation

Words: 3372 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Multiple Chapters Paper #: 56781991

To define the safety objectives of the UAV, it is essential to evaluate the current level of safety necessary for the human-piloted aircrafts. While manned pilot aircrafts consider the safety of the pilots and the people on board to be important, however, the safety of the UAV is considered relatively to the hazard that that it will cost to the community. Thus, the intervention of human related aviation safety is still critical to enhance overall safety of the UAV. Although, the UAV accidents may lead to the zero loss of pilot's life, nevertheless, the financial investments that the governments or private organizations provide for the development of the UAV is huge, and the implementation of maximum safety to realize the objective of UAV is very essential. The human related aviation safety is still essential.

The thesis investigates selected human factors affecting safe operation of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. The thesis…… [Read More]


Dixon, S. & Wickens, C.D.(2003). Imperfect Automation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Flight Control. Technical Report Aviation Human Factors Division Institute of Aviation University of Illinois.

Hou, M. Kobierski, R.D. & Brown.M. (2007). Intelligent Adaptive Interfaces for the Control of Multiple UAVs. Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 1( 3): 327-362

Johnson, C.W. & Shea, C. (2007). The Hidden Human Factors in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Department of Computing Science, University of Glasgow.

Rutley, M. (2010). On Target - Human Factors UAV's. Royal Air Canadian Force. Canada.
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Theoretical Models and Path Diagramming

Words: 589 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63513936

Path Diagrams of Research Models


This current research developed and tested a model of work engagement contagion in which the organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) and competitive behaviors of coworkers influence employees' engagement with their jobs. In a sample of 1,422 departments of an insurance firm, multilevel analysis revealed that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors explain variance in individual work engagement over and above that explained by other individual and group-level predictors. Broadly speaking, these results suggest that coworkers' OCBs and competitive behaviors play critical roles in explaining why people are more engaged with their work. Implications are discussed.

Hypothesis 1: Coworkers' OCB is positively related to work engagement.

Hypothesis 2: Coworkers' competitive behaviors mediate the positive relationship between coworkers' OCBs and focal employee work engagement.



The OCB's are the independent variables. The employees' competitive behaviors are the mediators. The…… [Read More]