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Identity development is a topic that has been studied for some time. There are two main ways to address it: as young children who are just developing an identity and as adults who are changing or developing an identity they never created or did not like as a child. Each person, as he or she grows, develops a distinct and separate identity from other people (Willemsen & Waterman, 1991). While an individual may change over time, there is a part of that person's identity that generally remains the same as it was when it was first developed. The creation of an identity helps to define a person to others, but it also works to define an individual to himself or herself. Everyone has likely heard people say that they need to "find themselves," and that is part of the development and exploration of identity. The identity of a person can…
Grotevant, H.D. (1997). Family processes, identity development, and behavioral outcomes for adopted adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12(1), 139.
Goossens, L. (2008). Dynamics of perceived parenting and identity formation in late adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 31(2), 165-184.
Steinberg, L. (2008). Adolescence. Boston: McGraw Hill.
Willemsen, E., & Waterman, K. (1991). Dynamics of perceived parenting and identity formation in late adolescence. Psychological Reports, 66, 1203-1212.
Williams on Identity
In a series of relatively simple though complexly-worded (out of necessity) thought experiments regarding body-swapping and changes to memory and the mind, Bernard Williams attempts to demonstrate that identity should be identified with the body rather than with the mind when identity is extended into the future (and by extension during the present). Whether or not Williams is successful in this attempt is a matter of much debate, with this author finding some fundamental flaws in the very premise of the comparisons and thus the conclusions, however the argument is fairly elegant and persuasive and certainly worth of closer inspection. A careful reading of the argument might lead one to a conclusion opposite to that which was intended, but is no less rewarding for this unusual quirk.
Williams begins by dispensing with several considerations that are not germane to his argument, and while some could find…
Identity and Access Controls
IAM infrastructures are currently available and can help manage services while resolving numerous user authentication, applications, and authorization challenges that companies face. With the adoption of cloud computing solutions, companies are discovering that they can easily respond to evolving business needs while simultaneously controlling the costs of managing and deploying their applications.
Identity and access control management
An identity and access control is a crucial technology for proper management of resources. With a properly implemented IAM system, a business scan achieves solid management control of its identity resources, improved tools to meet aggressive compliance reporting, record retention, logging, and mechanisms to achieve network access. Most of the companies under Fortune 1000 enterprises implement IAM tools for enhancing boosting their productivity, enhancing their IT operational efficiency, mitigating security threats and improving access and authentication (Strandburg & aicu, 2013).
Company X must control who can access to its…
Strandburg, K.J. & Raicu, D.S. (2013). Privacy and technologies of identity: A cross-disciplinary conversation. New York: Springer Science+Business Media.
However, the security awareness training plan highlights the prominence of auditing and security maintenance of the classified information, since data integrity is the key ingredient of existence for any organization.
The questions like who, what, when and where with respect to the changes made in the operating system is essential when auditing the operating system. These questions ensure that the employees are accountable to the changes they make, as a part of auditing so that data security can be maintained. Furthermore, the audits and security maintenance keeps a check and balance on the internal controls so that the risks of costly security breaches and data robbery can be curtailed.
Security maintenance and audit trail helps the organization in maintaining the record of system activity and application processes. In this manner, the audit trails and security maintenance can easily detect security violations, performance related issues, and bugs in applications by means…
The book is not attempting to explain the details of a biographical life in the way it is traditionally perceived in either the East or the est, but rather is an emotive rather than an intellectual rendering of identity fragmented by a meeting of multiple cultures. This paces it firmly in the postcolonial tradition, where identity is almost entirely based on a negotiation of traditional ethnic identities with esternized stereotypes and perceptions of these identities.
At the same time, the construction of the text itself -- its multiple voices and times without any solid reference points, the fragmented sentences, and perhaps most of all the inconsistent yet regular use of the second person which demands a knowledge or understanding of the reader that the reader simply doesn't possess -- all mark the book as a work shaped largely by postmodern tendencies and attitudes (Spahr). In this context, the very concept…
Cha, Theresa Hak Kyung. Dictee. Berkeley: The University of California Press, 2001.
Cheng, Annie. "Memory and Anti-Documentary Desire in Theresa Hak Kyung Cha's Dictee." MELUS, Vol. 23, No. 4, (Winter, 1998), pp. 119-133. Accessed via JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/467831
Fachinger, Petra. "Cultural and Culinary Ambivalence in Sara Chin, Evelina Galang, and Yoko Tawada." Modern Language Studies, Vol. 35, No. 1 (Spring, 2005), pp. 38-48. Accessed via JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/30039806
Spahr, Juliana. "Postmodernism, Readers, and Theresa Hak Kyung Cha's Dictee." College Literature, Vol. 23, No. 3 (Oct., 1996), pp. 23-43. Accessed via JSTOR: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25112272
In other words, the question that needs to be answered is, how did psycho-social identity differences create such deep rifts in a society that was in fact closely related by intermarriage and years of living closely together. This leads to the conclusion that there are other social and political factors that need to be taken into account in order to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the events, as well as how they impacted on the meaning of identity. .
Social Dominance and other theories
As noted above, the discussion and analysis of the causative features of this conflict and the concomitant effect of this analysis on possible resolution scenarios is largely dependent of the ability of the particular theoretical model to take into account the many variables of this conflict. In order to achieve a more holistic view of the conflict one has to take into account the fact…
Bigagaza J. et al. Land Scarcity, Distribution and Conflict in Rwanda. Retrieved from http://www.iss.co.za/PUBS/BOOKS/Scarcity+Surfeit/Chapter2.pdf .
Bird C. ( 2004) Status, Identity, and Respect. Political Theory, 32 ( 2).
Huddy L. ( 2001) From Social to Political Identity: A Critical Examination of Social Identity Theory. Political Psychology, 22 ( 1).
Identification. Retrieved from http://www.thefederationonline.org/events/Briefings/2006_SPSP_DHS/SPSP_Moreland_Sum.pdf
Identity & Medical Theft
Identity Theft and Medical Theft
Identity theft occurs when a victim's name, social security number, or other personal identifying information gets used to commit fraud or other crimes (Lafferty, 2007). Fraudsters use the information to set up loan accounts, draw from the victim's bank accounts, or set up other charge accounts in the victim's name. Identity theft is governed by the Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act as well as state statutes, such as Florida Statutes section 817.568, to criminalize identity theft. Other laws that govern identity theft are Identity Theft Victims Assistance Act of 2002, Identity Theft Prevention Act of 2001 (Identity Theft Laws) as well as the Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (FACT Act) (Identity Theft Regulations). Identity theft can occur in any setting, including a medical setting, without being medical identity theft. Penalties for identity theft can be brought to organizations for…
Hoffman, S. & . (2007). SECURING THE HIPAA SECURITY RULE. Journal of Internet Law, 10(8), 1-16.
Identity Theft Laws. (n.d.). Retrieved from Fight Identity Theft: http://fightidentitytheft.com/identity-theft-laws.html
Identity Theft Regulations. (n.d.). Retrieved from MONEY-ZINE.COM: http://money-zine.com/Financial-Planning/Debt-Consolidation/Identity-Theft-Regulations
Lafferty, L. (2007). Medical Identity Theft: The Future Threat of Health Care Fraud is Now. Journal of Health Care Compliance, 9(1), 11-20.
The symbolic interactionist Goffman (1959) views identity in much the same way as behavioral psychologists viewed personality: personal identity is dependent on: (1) the audience (environment), and (2) the basic motives of the "performer." Goffman uses a metaphor for how one presents himself in everyday life as a sort of an actor who can be "sincere" in that they believe in the impressions their performances elicit, or "cynical" in that they're not concerned with these impressions. So Goffman uses terms like the "setting," the "front," the "manner," etc. To describe how one's identity is more or less molded by one's surroundings and one's intent (to a lesser extent as this itself is molded by the surroundings). Thus, intentions can sometimes result in a difference between presentation and setting, self-presentations may not always appear fixed, and we learn to be actors at a young age.
For Marcuse (1964) autonomy of…
Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday
Hall, S. (1996). New ethnicities. In D. Morley & K.-H.Chen (eds.) Critical dialogues in cultural studies (pp. 441-449). London: Routledge.
Marcuse, H. (1964). One-dimensional man: Studies in the ideology of advanced industrial society. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd.
The poet explains that it is very difficult for a multicultural individual to find his or her place in the world, as they are constantly attracted by cultural values present in a variety of civilizations. All of these cultures are present in her mind and she accepts them by becoming a part of a unique community encompassing a wide variety of ideas. Because she does not feel comfortable looking in the past for a cultural identity, she wants to live in the present. This makes it possible for her to identify with a single culture that recognizes her character and that promotes the belief that it is perfectly normal for an individual to live in accordance with customs present in a series of cultures.
Morales considers that culture is more important than race when it comes to the factors that influence a particular individual. A multicultural individual behaves different from…
We all have a need to be loved and to feel we belong somewhere. I think that this need is basic in all humans. I was unconsciously trying to force John to live in my world and I know realize I shouldn't have done that. I was being selfish and I am thankful that he was mature enough to have the commons sense for both of us to know a relationship between us could never work. I now know that just because someone stirs up a desire in me that it doesn't necessarily mean that I am supposed to be with that person. Change is good, but only for the right reasons. Sometimes it is best to stick with what you know. I am comfortable being an Amish. Yes, there are things about this lifestyle that I would like to change but overall, I am happy and my son is…
http://pittsburgh.about.com/cs/pennsylvania/a/amish_2.htm (Accessed on June 29, 2010).
Witness. Dir. Peter Weir. 1999. Paramount Pictures. DVD.
I think I could definitely say that if one's personality were completely changed, then one would cease to function as the same identity and would instead be someone new, even in the same body. And -- to head you off before you ask -- yes, I believe the reverse is also true: the same personality (that is, the same mind) transferred over to a new body would retain the same identity that had previously occupied the original body.
BOB: Now you've complicated things -- is identity of the personality or the mind? Or is the mind the seat of the personality, and also identity? In our first supposition of one who suffers a trauma and undergoes a personality change, suppose also that the memory is unaffected. Would identity have changed here, even though the two personalities share a consistent history?
CIN: Yes, I think that would be a fair assessment…
Identity and racial politics in Europa (1990)
Europa Europa (1990) is the tale of a young German-Jewish boy named Solek who undergoes a series of identity transformations in his efforts to escape the Holocaust. At the beginning of the film, Solek and his family live in Nazi Germany. They decide to flee, first to Poland, and then as it becomes increasingly clear that not even Poland is a safe place, the boys' parents send their sons to the Soviet Union. The U.S.S.R. is ironically a 'safe' place for their children because at least they will not be persecuted as Jews. Solek is separated from his brother and when found by the Nazis in a Soviet orphanage he pretends that he is a German Latvian named Josef Peters. The Nazis adopt him and find him useful, thanks to his fluent German and Russian. Thus, during the period of identity definition of…
Europa Europa. Directed by Agnieska Holland, 1990
Most Elizabethans believed their self-identity was wrapped up in a cosmic paradigm of fate and destiny, and were somehow controlled by the stars and planets and had a power over the baser side of man -- tools of God, but with certain amounts of free will. Thus, a very central idea in Shakespeare is this central view that an individual's identity is set by God, the Planets, the Universe, the Gods, and Nature. But in contrast, the idea of free will for the individual -- or even a single utterance or decision, can change forever the destiny of the individual. A superb example of this is in Romeo and Juliet.
Fate and chance surround the identities of the major and minor characters in RJ almost from the opening scene. Because the audience already believed that their destiny was predetermined, they saw the characters as having very little choice in their…
hen a Social Security number is stolen, contacting the Social Security Administration can help to place a watch on its use as well (SSA 2009). This particular problem can lead to many complications, as obtaining a new Social Security Number can create many difficulties for the victim while keeping the old number might allow the thief to continue using the victim's identity (SSA 2009). Generally, though, a new number is not necessary to stop most identity thieves.
The government also plays a major role both in preventing identity theft and in addressing both the victims and the thieves after the crime has been committed. The Social Security Administration has set limits on the number of replacement cards an individual may obtain, as well as new and more stringent methods of identity verification when fulfilling a request for replacement cards (SSA 2009). Though this can also make things more difficult for…
FTC. (2009). "About Identity Theft." Federal Trade Commission. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/edu/microsites/idtheft/consumers/about-identity-theft.html#shouldyoufileapolicereportifyouridentityisstolen
ITRC. (2009). Identity Theft Resource Center. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://www.idtheftcenter.org/index.html
SSA. (2009). "Identity Theft." Social Security Administration. Accessed 2 October 2009. http://ssa-custhelp.ssa.gov/cgi-bin/ssa.cfg/php/enduser/std_alp.php?p_lva=&p_li=&p_accessibility=0&p_redirect=&p_page=1&p_cv=2.35&p_pv=&p_prods=&p_cats=16%2C35&p_hidden_prods=&cat_lvl1=0&p_search_text=&p_new_search=1&p_search_type=answers.search_nl
USDOJ. (2009). "Identity Theft." United States Department of Justice. http://www.usdoj.gov/criminal/fraud/websites/idtheft.html#whatdoing
Criminals don't always need to have shotguns and masks to threat and rob money; it only takes a social security number, or a pre-approved credit card application from trash to make things according to their wicked way (ID Theft, 2004).
Some consumers have had credit card numbers and Social Security numbers stolen and used fraudulently or identity theft. By taking reasonable steps to protect your personal information, this can mitigate the chance that it may be stolen (What you should know about internet banking, 2007) by identity thieves.
Identity theft is a term used for serious crimes associated with someone uses your name, address, Social Security number, bank or credit card account number or other identifying information without your knowledge to commit fraud. This fraud may only take setting up accounts in your name and make online transactions without you knowing (Get the Upper Hand on Credit Crime, 2004).
Convenience Factors. (2002). Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://jobfunctions.bnet.com/whitepaper.aspx?docid=50925
Bank Information - Internet and Online Banking. (2005). Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://www.uk-bank-account.co.uk/online.html
Einhorn, Monique F. (2005). Coping with identity theft: imagine discovering that someone has opened credit card accounts or secured a home equity or car loan under an assumed name: yours. Consider receiving an IRS W-2 form reporting wages earned by someone else who has used your name and Social Security number (Cover Story). Partners in Community and Economic Development. Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-132841950.html
Get the Upper Hand on Credit Crime - Protect Your Identity With a Few Simple Tips; Your Credit Card Companies Alerts Consumers About Ways to Fight Back Against Identity Theft Scams. (2004). Retrieved March 14, 2007. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-893980/Get-the-Upper-Hand-on.html
The system that Networks Update critiques is IMAG ("Identity Managed Access Gateway") by Apere, Inc.
The way it works is by an innovative way of permitting or denying access to applications that are critical to a business; the IMAG systems knows who should and who should not have access to those critical files and applications because it has "auto discovery capabilities" that immediately click into place when any attempt is made to enter into privileged files.
But what makes this system unique - in an IT world that already has firewalls and other seemingly effective preventative measures - is that, according to the Mark Rhodes-Ousley, author of the book Network Security, The Complete Reference, IMAG automatically creates and manages "...access policies based on all sources of identity information in the network," and avoids wasteful use of IT resources "for manual network access provisioning and policy management."
hile the future success…
Congress Daily. (2006). Reid Becomes Victim Of Identity Theft. Retrieved 29 August, 2006 from http://www.congressdaily.com.
Foust, Dean; & Ryst, Sonja. (2006). ID Theft: More Hype Than Harm. Business Week, Issue
3991, p. 34-36.
Kiernan, Vincent. (2006). New Center at Utica College will Study Identity Theft. Chronicle of Higher Education, 52(45).
In essence I am a very gregarious person with many friends. I enjoy the company of others and I am especially devoted to my family. I feel that family life is the core of the positive aspects of modern civilization. On the other hand I am also very concerned about social ills, homelessness and the contravention of basic human rights that occur daily in our word. Another area of concern that defines me as a person is my concern for the environment and the damage that has been done to our ecosystems by what I see as the exploitation and greed of a few.
In short, I am a concerned individual who views personal growth and identity as something that carries with it a responsibility towards others and the world around us. I feel that while it is important to be personally ambitious, success should not come at the expense…
Identity quotes. Retrieved from http://thinkexist.com/quotations/identity/
Sebald, H. (1977). A Social Psychological Analysis.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
According to David Scott (2009) traditionally, White men, as well as other men, are socialized to equate self-worth with economic terms. They are taught to function at all costs and to be in control. These power issues are linked to the salience of their race and gender. In American culture people are ranked on their proximity to the normal referents of society: White, male, middle-class, Christian, heterosexual, and able-bodied persons. The current economic conditions, along with the constant pressure to live up to the masculine stereotype, such as no emotions and family provider continue to be ripe for ongoing oppression and racism by White men in the work place. As unemployment rises, White men are losing jobs and finding it harder to secure employment. These conditions can lead to frustration and anger by White men who are becoming disillusioned by the American dream. This paper will be an…
Howard, J.A. (2000). Social psychology of identities. Annual review of sociology, Vol. 26, Issue 1, 367- 393. Retrieved September 5, 2011, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=9d41e83e-4e0b-4b27-8fe3-a0aa7ed2dc5c%40sessionmgr111&vid=4&hid=127
Newman, D.M. (2005) Identities and inequalities: Exploring the intersections of race, class, gender and sexuality, 7th ed. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
Scott, D.A. (2009) White male identity development and the world of work: Using the key model. In G.R. Walz, J.C. Bleuer, & R.K. Yep (Eds.), Compelling counseling interventions. VISTAS 2009. 21-29. Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association. Retrieved September 5, 2011, from http://counselingoutfitters.com/vistas/vistas09/Article_3_Scott.pdf
The practices significantly support the development of the immigrant children. The research indicates of the children experiencing interactions that are complex. This is with the respective peers when engaging in creative activities inclusive of gross motor and language arts (Donald et al., 2007). The creative activities reflect on open-ended aspects with the resultant stratification in shaping the initial academic progress of the immigrant children possibility. The application of the developmentally suitable practices in the primary setting of the immigrant children society positively influences the outcomes of the children (Donald et al., 2007).
The challenge faced in defining the developmentally fit strategies emphasizes on the child-centered approaches. The approaches relate to the developmental theory with the society directed instructions originating from the behaviorist perspective of the immigrant children. As a result of the theoretical course from which the child-centered practices derives, they reflects on the synonymous view with the appropriate practices.…
Bornstein, Marc H. And Cote, Linda R. (2004). Mothers' Parenting Cognitions in Cultures of Origin, Acculturating Cultures, and Cultures of Destination. Child Development,
January/February 2004, Volume 75, Number 1, Pages 221 -- 235. Retrieved from http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/pp/01650254.html
Capps, R., Kenny, G., & Fix, M. (2003). Health insurance coverage of children in mixedstatus immigrant families (Snapshots of America's Children, No. 12).
Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Aspects of identity that might have been denied or denigrated because of colonial mentalities can resurface and be admired. Discourse on gender and social class has also deepened and enabled identity constructions to flourish outside the confines of proscribed gender roles. Culture changes, and so too does identity. The values placed on identity aspects like religion have shifted too, making religion a less salient part of people's identity. On the other hand, sexual orientation and gender identity have both become more important. Gender roles have changed to such a great degree as to transform the definition and meaning of family, love, or sex.
Therefore, a number of issues affect the way we understand and create identities. Academia reflects broader changes in social values and norms. In some cases, academia inspires those social and political transformations. Regardless of the directions of the relationship between academia and social values, the two interact…
Of course, most people will call their banks, credit card companies, and other institution at the first sign that identity theft has occurred, but what happens to those victims who do not realize it immediately?
People need to be aware of what identity theft is, how it is committed, what can happen when such information is stolen, and what should be done when identity theft has occurred. It is not a bunch of hype and it does cause a lot of harm, not only to the victims, but also to the victim's family. Evidently, Foust is trying to calm the reader by saying that most information that is stolen is never used. Rather it is used or not, the fact that someone has or can be a victim of identity theft is cause for concern.
Dean Foust is correct in saying that most information is not ever turned into financial…
Foust, Dean. (7/3/2006). ID Theft: More Hype than Harm. Business Week Magazine.
Betrayed by the American compatriots whom he helped, he languished in England in his climactic years, poor and lodged by a prostitute aided by a former student, until he died on a sea voyage back home. His death was mysterious in that shortly before his death he demonstrated signs of both depression and optimism.
Reasons for his depression were unclear. His optimism may have been due to the fact that he had prospects on the horizon.
Why then did he commit suicide, as details seemed to indicate? Or was he killed by his friend who was a double spy? There are numerous details of his life that will forever be unknown since they remain beyond our lens of experience.
Another story that is riddled with mystery is that of Mary Rogers.
In 1841, Mary Cecilia Rogers, a 21-year-old beautiful Connecticut-born girl disappeared from her mother's new York City boarding house.…
Davidson JW & Lytle, MH. The strange death of Silas Deane, 1992
Srebnick, Amy Gilman. The Mysterious Death of Mary Rogers. Oxford University Press, 1995.
identity is a means of classifying an individual when it comes to private matter and the government. How a government identifies someone or an institution, is through the use of an identity card. An identity card has a serial number and a picture that helps law enforcement, government agencies and other organizations identity an individual for potential jobs, loans, and even for medical care. However there are some issues with identity cards. For instance, are can people who have access to this information treat individuals unfairly, will there be higher instances of identity theft? Can "Big Brother" use this as a means of spying on civilians? It's important to look at this issue from various angles.
The UK has, for a number of years, set in motion creation of a system to update their identity card regulations and procedures. "A law was passed which established the intention to create a…
Andreouli, E. And Howarth, C. (2012). National Identity, Citizenship and Immigration: Putting Identity in Context. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 43(3), pp.361-382.
Beynon-Davies, P. (2011). The UK national identity card. Journal of Information Technology Teaching Cases, 1(1), pp.12-21.
When Brian Graetz began to write about class and inequality, he opened his work by quoting: "Australia is the most egalitarian of countries..." (153) As it turns out, this claim does not say much in the absolute sense, for Graetz (like others before and after him) continues on to prove vast and terrible inequalities in Australia's capitalist system. It appears that, popular opinion non-withstanding, there exists in Australia a strong and self-reproducing class system, by which the accident of birth may dictate the entire future of a man or woman. Unfortunately, academics do not appear to be entirely certain as to how this system is comprised, or by what function it reproduces. It appears that the class system somewhat resembles the ancient conception of wind -- that which is all about us, and moves us, and yet cannot be pinned down, captured, or dissected. Social scientists from Marx to…
identity, stories interrelate. Along talking structure book (. book consists family, friends strangers Yo allowing voice defend )..
Julia Alvarez's novel "Yo" puts across a series of points-of-view regarding the protagonist in the book -- Yolanda Garcia -- told from the perspective of people who have interacted with her and who consider that she had an effect on them. Apparently as a result to issue a response to the fact that Yolanda had just written a book relating to them, the narrators express their own opinion concerning the girl. The speakers are relatives and acquaintances of Yolanda and appear interested in expressing an exclusive insight into the girl's character and indirectly tell more about themselves by doing this.
"Yo" practically takes away Yolanda's ability to speak for herself and leaves her at the mercy of the narrators. A series of individuals want to take advantage of the opportunity to…
This construction gave credence to the concept of class consciousness. Class consciousness is really class identity; it is the way entire groups of people conceive themselves as belonging to a whole. This understanding permeates the corpus and unites the initiated into a common group think. This group or class view is reinforced through the economic determinants that are at the foundation of the group's position. These determinants reinforce inequalities and class identities.
The challenge to class as a locus of identity formation; results from the assertion that contemporary society is too layered and complex for class identity to be relevant. The discussion centers not on the existence of inequalities but the explanation of those inequalities. In the postmodern context the inequalities that exist are not anchored in an a priori formulation of class structure. This formulation considers the development of a classless society. This is not to be interpreted as…
Becker H.S. (2003).The Politics of Presentation: Goffman and Total Institutions Symbolic
Interaction, 26 (4):659-669.
Bottero, W. (2004). Class Identities and the Identity of Class. Sociology 38 (5): 985-1003.
Burnhill, P., Garner, C., McPherson, a. (1990). Parental Education, Social Class and Entry to Higher Education 1976-86. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series a (Statistics
cultures and identities in today's world. The author explores the different dimensions that influence individuals and identities and how it impacts the way society operates in the world. There were five sources used to complete this paper.
As the world continues to evolve, societal changes are taking place. Globalization contributes to the melting pot called earth and as societal barriers come down, people have a chance to learn about other cultures throughout the globe. Wars, religions, education aspirations and other elements of daily life are impacted by one's identity. Whether one wants to be a scientist, housewife, rabbi or actor their personal identity has an impact on that desire being developed. Another important factor in how identity develops is the culture in which one is raised. Cultural differences play a strong part in the development of identity. They are similar yet different as their individual elements overlap and separate to…
The reasons behind Iraq's rebellion; The Iraqis felt liberated, not defeated, and there is a powerful Muslim reluctance to be ruled by non-Muslims
Jewish Advocate, The; April 22, 2004; Pipes, Daniel
The Middle East: some new realities and old problems.
International Social Science Review; June 22, 2003; Bargeron, Carol L.
He brought it back and presented it to Emily who was thrilled, as were the grandparents and other relatives and friends who had gathered at the hospital to congratulate the new parents.
Then something happened. The babies were brought into Emily's room, one wrapped in pink and the other in blue. Rob picked up his son and held him for several minutes, walking and swaying around the room. Then he blurted, "I can't do it to him. I can't name him the III." Emily explained that they had not picked out any other boy names, but Rob said they would just have to come up with another name. "I want my son to have his own name," said Rob.
For two days Rob and Emily searched for a name in the baby-name book that they both liked. Finally, on the day she and the babies were to be discharged, they…
4. File your complaint with the FTC. The FTC maintains a database of identity theft cases used by law enforcement agencies for investigations. Filing a complaint also helps us learn more about identity theft and the problems victims are having so that we can better assist you. (FCC, 2006)
II. SIGNS OF IDENTITY THEFT
The FCC consumer alert entitled: "What To Do If Your Personal Information Has een Compromised" states that signs of identity theft having occurred are inclusive of:
receiving credit cards that you didn't apply for;
being denied credit, or being offered less favorable credit terms, like a high interest rate, for no apparent reason; and getting calls or letters from debt collectors or businesses about merchandise or services you didn't buy." (FCC Consumer Alert, 2005)
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The article reviewed has clear and concise steps the individual should take if they believe that identity theft may…
What To Do If Your Personal Information Has Been Compromised (2005) March Online available at http://www.ftc.gov/bcp/conline/pubs/alerts/infocompalrt.htm .
Welcome to the Federal Trade Commission: Your Resource about Identity Theft" (2006) Online available at http://www.consumer.gov/idtheft/ .
Issues of Law: Identity Theft
Names are important and so this has been proved in countless ways in different societies. In some traditional societies, for example, names are believed to have some connection with a child's destiny or future. If he is given a name with good meanings, he is believed to grow up being just that- a good person. There may be little truth in this connection of names with character or destiny, still naming is an art that every society wants to excel in. some people are of the view that if we rename an object or person, there is a chance that he or she might start acting differently, as if they had suddenly developed a new personality. This happens to Santha in 'By any other name' whose name is changed to Cynthia in an English school thereby giving birth to a new changed person who felt she was living in…
Cliff Thompson - Article Title: Inventing our names, our selves. Magazine Title: Commonweal. Volume: 122. Issue: 6. Publication Date: March 24, 1995
Santha Rama Rau, By any other name, Borzoi College Reader, page 146-151
identity, and how that is related to place. The articles are, well, they are interesting in that they all seem to start from a specific straw man narrative about the big evil dominant culture. Yosso (2005) begins with the assumption that everybody only thinks the dominant culture has capital, in order to argue her point that other cultures have capital, too. The underlying assumption that there is a research lens that has a deficit view of "communities of color" as places of cultural poverty is one I, as a person who comes from a very multicultural place, have not heard in a long time. So she is right that all cultures have capital, and that it would benefit everybody to respect and tap into that capital, she falls into a couple of intellectual traps. First, she assumes a monolithic dominant culture that defines everything for everybody -- not in the…
Identity and Intercultural Communication
This paper will briefly explore the concept of identity as it relates to intercultural communication. It is important for one to understand the many factors that influence the development of an identity. It is these factors that make each and every one of us an individual and unique in personality. These factors include such elements of character like age, gender, race, religion, class and culture that help decide one's point-of-view when communicating. For the purpose of this paper, it is safe to assume that individually each of us has acquired different methods of communicating due these factors. The paragraphs below will explore how these factors influence communication across cultures.
In order to better understand, intercultural communication, one must first understand the concept of identity. Only then will one begin to realize that much of how we see ourselves has a direct relationship with communication…
Consumer Beware: The Growing Problem of Identity Theft
American consumers today are increasingly concerned, with good reason, about how to avoid joining the ranks of unfortunate millions who are already victims of the newest, most widespread national financial crime: identity theft. According to the web article "The Crime of Identity Theft": It can happen to anyone. The phone rings and a collection agency demands that you pay past-due accounts for goods you never ordered. The supermarket refuses your checks because you have a history of bouncing them." Stealing (most often by strangers) of personal information about individual consumers (e.g., full name; birth date; social security number; bank account numbers; credit card numbers, and other confidential data) has in recent years become epidemic. ithin the United States in particular (one reason for the phenomenon of identity theft in America in particular is that the United States is the only nation with…
Bellah, Ashley. Personal Interview. June 22, 2005.
'The Crime of Identity Theft. Coping with Identity Theft: Reducing the Risk of Fraud. Privacy Rights Clearinghouse. Retrieved June 23, 2005, from:
'Groups Push for More Protection Against Identity Theft. Freep: The Detroit Free
She was greatly disturbed by the hite Buffalo deer hunting party because she identified and sympathised with the deer. Unlike the rash temper Bernard Jr. displayed in times of conflict, Meteke was almost silent in her pain and anguish, to the point that her husband begged her to talk to him, resorting to offers for tea, food, and foot massages to ease her tensions and cheer her (Raboteau, Professor's 72). Professor Lester was fairly clueless about what ailed her, as she chose to steer around his questioning rather than answer him directly. One evening in bed she turned away from him, and when he asked why she seemed upset she responded "I'm tired," rather than confiding in him her fear for the dear (Raboteau, Professor's 83). The reader saw very little of who Meteke was before she married Professor Lester, so her identity was only really articulated in her response…
Bardelson, Susanne, and Jackie Gropman. "The Professor's Daughter: A Novel." School
Library Journal Sep 2005: 244-245. Academic Search Premier. 2010. EBSCO
Industries Inc. 4 Dec. 2010
Identity Themes in Praisesong for the idow by Paule Marshall and Confessions of a Mask by Mishima
As marginalized people from around the world gain their voice in print, contemporary interpretations of identity become especially timely and relevant. Indeed, in an increasingly globalized world where multiculturalism is the norm rather than the exception, an analysis of how identity is perceived by these diasporic peoples is timely and relevant. To this end, this paper provides a comparative analysis of the identity themes in Praisesong for the idow by Paule Marshall and Confessions of a Mask by Mishima, including an examination of these issues in the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature. Finally, a summary of the research concerning these identity themes and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Review and Analysis
Praisesong for the idow by Paule Marshall
Although people form an individual sense of identity over time, this sense change can…
Alexander, Simone A. Mother Imagery in the Novels of Afro-Caribbean Women. Colombia, MO:
University of Missouri Press, 2001.
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge,
Identity in Emerging Adulthood
Title an exploration of employment selection behaviors and the link to identity development.
Area of study
This study considers the employment selection behaviors of emerging adults. Employment selection is a critical element of the development process. It influences and structures the ability to take care of oneself in the present and the future. However, more significantly employment is an indicator of independence and display of the ability to commit to a usually a long-term experience. Independence and commitment are skills that in adulthood can establish the way in which one lives. In this framework, employment can be viewed as one of the indicators that reflect an individual's development in these areas. This is beyond the individuals self-perception that they are not adults (Nelson et al. 2000).
In the modern context, self-determination requires the individual to have some form of employment and access to legitimate forms…
Arnett, J.J. Emerging (2000). Adulthood: A Theory of Development From the Late Teens
Through the Twenties American Psychologist 55(5):469-480. DOI: 10.1037//0003-
Nelson L.J., Padilla-Walker, L.M., Carroll J.S. Madsen, S.D. Barry, C.M. & Badger, S.
As Erik Erikson noted, the "primary task of adolescence" is to identify one's identity (Berger, 2014, p. 434). Thus, as I reflect on my own personal journey in dealing with the period of identity statuses, I realize that I myself spent a good deal of my adolescence forming who I was. But in a way, I also believe that part of the way that I was formed had a lot to do with my parents and my friends. For instance, I wanted to be a cheerleader in school because that is what my friends did and I enjoyed cheering on the boys as they played sports. But I was also on the honor roll and this is because my parents taught me the importance of getting good grades and excelling at school. So my peers and my family both influenced my adolescent decisions, which in turn shaped my identity…
Berger, K. S. (2014). The Developing Person through the Life Span, 9th Edition. NY:
Identity theft is a kind of theft that involves someone stealing the identity of someone else by assuming that person's identity (Lai, Li, & Hsieh, 2012). This is usually a method of gaining access to the person's resources like credit cards and other things in the person's name. This is considered a white-collar crime and it has gained popularity amongst criminals. Identity theft does not involve any physical theft. Therefore, the victim might not realize the theft until significant damage has occurred. Identity thieves make use of a variety of methods, and not all of them are computer based. Thieves can go through the person's trash or mail searching for bank and credit card information, statements, and tax information. The information stolen can then be used to commit crimes like accessing credit under the person's name and using their details. Another method used to steal information is stealing the person's…
Lai, F., Li, D., & Hsieh, C.-T. (2012). Fighting identity theft: The coping perspective. Decision Support Systems, 52(2), 353-363.
Tajpour, A., Ibrahim, S., & Zamani, M. (2013). Identity Theft Methods and Fraud Types. International Journal of Information Processing & Management, 4(7).
GENDE IDENTITY Explain interaction hormones behavior interactions affect determination gender identity. Address paper: Include roles biological factors - nature- environmental influences-nutrue- sexual differentiation gender identity.
The interaction between hormones and behavior
Essentially, the difference in the brain of males and females is mostly realized in the concepts of sex and gender aspects. Most of these realizations have been made in the recent years as researchers have focused on the structure and functionalism of the human brain. In this regard, it is realized that particular human characteristics realized in certain individuals usually relate to a particular structure of the brain of such individuals. For instance, it has been established that most students who are good in mathematics will usually have a particular brain structure coupled with certain complexities like allergies and shortsightedness Garrett, 2003.
Such unrelated characteristics usually result out of certain conditions both prenatal and postnatal.
Studies have demonstrated that…
Bronson, P., & Merryman, A. (2009). NurtureShock: new thinking about children. New York: Twelve.
Chrisler, J.C., & McCreary, D.R. (2010). Handbook of gender research in psychology. New York: Springer.
Damon, W. (2001). Handbook of child psychology (5th ed.). New York: J. Wiley.
. The Determination of Gender Identity and Biopsychology | Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). (n.d.). Beate Landgraf -- " Praxis fur Psychotherapie (HPG). Retrieved July 19, 2012, from http://www.praxis-landgraf.de/2011/10/the-determination-of-gender-identity-and-biopsychology/
acial Identity: Blessing or Curse?
Today, in the United States, cultural and ethnic and racial sensitivity are all approached from the perspective of inclusiveness and equality. In that sort of social climate, the notion of racial identity has more positive connotations than negative ones, as everyone is encouraged to celebrate his or her heritage and to respect and value those of others. In that respect, racial identity is a positive thing that allows all of us to maintain a psychological familial connection to our ancestors and to our heritage in a positive way that adds value to our lives. However, racial identity is only beneficial when it is something of our own choosing and when we live in a society that values all people equally in that respect. It is quite another thing entirely when our racial identity is something that is foisted upon us, as members of a racial…
Hurston, Zora. (1928). "How It Feels To Be Colored Me." Retrieved Online:
Rodriquez, Richard "Aria: A Memoir of A Bilingual Childhood." Occasions for Writing: Evidence, Idea, Essay. Eds. Robert DiYanni & Pat C. Hoy II. Boston, MA: Thomson Heinle, 2007. 501-508. Print.
Over the years, regional identity has played a major part in helping specific regions to embrace their culture and traditions. In many cases, these views are often expressed in different forms of literature and songs. However, as globalization has become more dominant, these beliefs have come into conflict with other regional influences. This is because many of these traditions are being replaced by new ideas that are attempting to impose their values and ideas upon everyone inside a specific area. To fully understand what is taking place, there will be a focus on the songs Allentown and here I Come From in conjunction with insights from Fetterley. This will be accomplished by determining if these songs are resisting the mainstream, examining if they cite local identity in order to advance cultural imperialism (according to Fetterley) and the differences between them. Together, these elements will provide insights that will…
"Allentown." You Tube, 1982. Web. 28 Oct. 2012
"Where I Come From." You Tube, 2011. Web. 28 Oct. 2012
Fetterley, Judith. Writing Out of Place. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2003. Print.
The factors that mediate and account for gender identity and sex differentiation include those attributed to nature, such as hormones and genes, and those attributed to nurture, such as environment. esearch has demonstrated that hormones and genetics play an integral role in gender identity and associated behaviors (Wilson, 1999; Hines, 2006; Hines (2008). What are these hormones and how exactly have they been determined to influence gender identity? The following outlines scientific findings surrounding nature and its involvement in the development of gender identity.
Gender identity and human sexual behavior are involved in perceptions of oneself as male or female, gender role behaviors, and how sexuality is communicated to others (Wilson, 1999). How gender identity manifests and expresses itself is inherently different in men and women (Wilson, 1999). esearch has demonstrated that testosterone exposure during early periods of development that are considered critical result in permanent behavior change…
Hines, M. (2006). Prenatal testosterone and gender-related behavior. European Journal of Endocrinology, 155, S115-S121.
Hines, M. (2008). Early androgen influences on human neural and behavioural development. Early Human Development, 84(12), 805-7.
Wilson, J.D. (1999). The role of androgens in male gender role behavior. Endocrine Reviews, 20(5), 726-37.
George's marriage to Ella is his second one; his first wife was from an arranged marriage in Pakistan that left him unhappy. Yet he was able to incorporate aspects of development theory within his own life to find a new wife who he is (mostly) pleased with in a Western environment, and even owns a successful fish and chips restaurant. In his romantic life and in his economic life, George is able to evince some of the best qualities of development theory and modernization by taking his best assets and (literally) marrying them with those from a Western society to update and contemporize his life and his source of income.
However, what George does not take account of is the fact that he must allow the same degree of leniency from his religion and tradition that he permitted himself in marrying Ella to his children. In this sense, East is…
Diasporic Identities: In Othello and Heart of Darkness
The issue of Diaspora is often associated with only a single culture, that of the Jews who were challenged by the secular and Islamic leaders of their "homeland" to flee for their lives and believe that they are in constant wandering upon the earth. Yet the concept of Diaspora is much broader than that, as individuals and groups often feel disconnected from their homeland both figuratively and really in literature and life. In the two works, Shakespeare's Othello and Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness one can clearly see the literary expression of diasporic identities. This work will argue that each of these works, Othello and Heart of Darkness demonstrates the reality of the challenges one faces when one uproots him or herself from the origin culture and begins to wander the earth without a home and the feeling of security that the…
Conrad, Joseph. "Heart of Darkness: And the Congo Diary." Westminster, MD, USA: Modern Library, 2000.
Shakespeare, William. "Othello: The Moor of Venice." Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press: 2006.
Language and Identity
A large part of culture has to do with the language that people speak. It is a unifying concept that allows a group of people to identify one another as belonging to the same group. It does matter how the group is bounded, usually more by geographical bounds than ethnic of racial, it matters more how the person related to the world through the spoken word. This paper looks at the culture of the Caribbean, especially those people who were brought to the region as slaves from the African continent, and how they have maintained their identity through the commonality of language.
Many examples exist in literature that solidify the notion that language and identity are very closely intertwined. As a matter of fact, one author states "Language and identity are inseparable. The quest for identity is another prevalent concern in Caribbean literature" (Dance 5). hy…
Bennett-Coverly, Louise. "Colonization in Reverse." 1966. Web.
Dance, Daryl Cumber. Fifty Caribbean Writers: A Bio-Bibliographic-Critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, Inc., 1986. Print.
Morris, Mervyn. "On Reading Miss Lou Seriously." Caribbean Quarterly 28.1/2 (1982): 44-56.
Narain, Denise DeCaires. Contemporary Caribbean women's Poetry: Making Style. London: Routledge, 2002. Print.
identity institutionalized in mainstream culture?
Belonging to a group differentiated by character and trait best defines the identity of an individual. Identity can also be distinguished in a qualitative and quantitative approach by means of identifying the disposition and similarity of a person. The state of being as "I'm" denotes the individuality of a man in a common state within a group since the individual is all but one. Such that, a man can be qualitatively identical to another man by means of his trait but can never be identical to another man in terms of individuality or the state of being one. Wikipedia further explains this by citing:
"Examples of this might be two wine glasses made in the same wine glass factory on the same production line ... (at least, for a relaxed standard of exact similarity)
For example, Clark Kent is numerically (quantitatively) identical with Superman in…
Identity-Norms-Individual, Wikipedia (2005),
Extracted, Aug. 15, 2005 Website
Personal Identity (2003), Stanford Education (2003-2005)
They are about as related as say the Italians are to the Irish. The modern population of Egypt is largely composed of what anthropologists refer to as people of "Eastern-Hamitic Stock." This means that modern (as well as ancient) Egyptians are more closely related to the North African Berbers, Tuaregs, Fulas, and Tibbus than to Negroes. Egyptian Negroes live in the southern part of the country (which borders on ancient Nubia) and account for less than 1% of the modern population of Egypt.
This may seem a blow to the "out of Africa" advocates regarding the emergence of Western Civilization (so-called) but it really isn't. These Eastern-Hamitic people have their origins in Africa, so it doesn't really change anything, and yes, they are predominantly black. The ancient word the Egyptians used for their own country was KMT -- pronounced Kemet -- and it means "black land," and may refer to…
A widely quoted and interesting functioning definition has been provided by Geert Hofstede who suggests that culture should be considered as software of a person's mind. He is reported to have said that each individual possesses certain patterns and forms of contemplation, emotions and possible acting that they have probably acquired during their life (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
Most of these patterns have been obtained through their early childhood experiences as those are the time when an individual is most likely to acquire learning and build on it. Just the way a computer regards its "thought processes" and functioning as its software, the patterns or formations of thinking, experiencing and carrying out psychological processes in an individual can be referred to as the software program of the mind (Hofstede and Hofstede, 2005).
However, this does not imply, most definitely that individuals are supposed to function or behave as a computer…
Valentine, V. (1995). Opening up the Black Box: Switching the Paradigm of Qualitative Research. ESOMAR Seminar, Paris, 6-8th December, 25-47. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
Waterman, a.S. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development: A contemporary statement. Developmental Review, 19, 591 -- 621. Taken from SETH, J.H., et al. (2010). The Relationships of Personal and Cultural Identity to Adaptive and Maladaptive Psychosocial Functioning in Emerging Adults. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150(1), 1 -- 33
Williams, R. (1976), Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society, Fontana, London. Corbu, N. (2010). Cultural Identity as a System: Toward the Crystallization of a European Cultural Identity. Romanian Journal of Communication and Public Relations. 12(1), 121-132.
al. 11). In the same way that European colonialism itself depended on a limited view of the world that placed colonial subjects under the rule of their masters, European theory was based on a view of literature and identity that had no place for the identities and literature of colonized people. Postcolonial theory is the ideal basis for this study, because in many ways the process of developing a new, hybrid identity born out of the conflicting experiences of first and second-generation immigrants is analogous to the process of developing postcolonial theory in the first place.
In particular, this paper draws most heavily on the notion of hybrid identity, a complicated subject that has arisen within postcolonial studies. The term is difficult to define precisely due to the fact that hybridity itself suggests something complicated and heterogeneous, and at the same time, "if hybrid identity is seen as formed at…
Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice
in Post-Colonial Literatures. New York: Routledge, 2002.
Ball, John. Satire and the Postcolonial Novel. New York: Routledge, 2003.
Bhabha, Homi. Nation and Narration. London: Routledge, 1990.
Each outside label has an affect on that individuals own conception of them, effectively rising or lowering self-image. These categories allow individuals of the same label to sometimes band together in order to further develop their own unique identities away from the labeling and discrimination from the larger group who may view them as abnormal, (Oxoby & McLeish, 2007: 13). Once inside a more specific group, these individuals have the capacity to flourish, and gain more and more self-esteem, (Handler, 1991: 223). However, when placed outside of these smaller groups into the larger population, this identity is once again viewed in a discriminatory manner, (Taylor & Moghaddam, 1994: 134). This occurs mainly due to the xenophobia each group portrays towards other groups, which then creates a hostile environment for the establishment of strong individual identities.
One way to examine the formations of deaf and queer identities using the Social Identity…
Adam, B. 2000. "Love and Sex in Constructing Identity Among Men Who Have Sex
With Men." International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies 5(4).
Barry, P. (2002). Lesbian and gay criticism. Beginning Theory: An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Bourdieu, P. & Passeron, J.-C. (1977) Reproduction in Education, Culture and Society,
Gender and Identity
Perhaps the most important question facing any human, be they male or female, is that of the discovery of their own identity. The majority of child development theories, from Freud onward, have dealt with the way in which children must learn to disengage their own identity from that of their parents (mothers in particular) and discover who they are as adults. Yet this process is far from over when one reaches physical maturity, and one may even see many other psychological theories, from Maslow to the existentialists, as exploring the stages through which one continues to define one's true identity as distinct not only from one's parents but also from one's biological and social circumstances. It is somewhat ironic that the word identity which was originally used to note categories of same-ness and unity (Connell 2002) is now so vitally bound up with defining distinctness. At the…
Bessant, J. And Watts, R. (1999) 'Sex and Gender in Australia' (Chapter 7) in J. Bessant and R. Watts (eds) Sociology Australia, Sydney: Allen and Unwin, pp. 164-193
Connell, R.W. (2002) Gender, Oxford: Blackwell. (Chapters 1, 2 and 5).
Connell, R.W. (1995) 'The Social Organization of Masculinity' (Chapter 3) in R.W. Connell (ed) Masculinities, Sydney: Allen and Unwin. pp. 67-86.
Kidd, W. (2002) 'Feminism, Gender, and Sexuality' (Chapter 11) in W. Kidd (ed) Culture and Identity, New York: Palgrave. pp. 171-189.
Identity and Identity Construction
Identity is socially constructed, a process that begins at an early age. Child rearing practices at home and school and community socialization begin the process of identity construction (Rogoff, 2003). As the individual constructs his or her own identity, exogenous forces also shape that individual's identity such as reactions to the way a person's appearance. For visible minorities, belonging to closely-knit communities in small groups can greatly enhance the process of identity construction, particularly for minority youth (Bratt, 2015). This remains true throughout the young person's life, including the person's transition from adolescence into young adulthood. Adolescence remains the critical point of identity construction, holding "a special role in virtually all cultures as a time of transition between childhood and adulthood," (Cauce, Cruz, Corona, & Conger n.d., p. 14). Therefore, it makes sense to focus on adolescence and young adulthood when investigating biculturality among Muslim American…
According to Phinney and Alipuria (1987), ethnic self-identity is the sense of self that an individual feels; being a member of an ethnic group, along with the behavior and attitudes with that feeling (p. 36). The authors point out that the development of ethnic identity is an evolution from the point of an ethnic identity that is not examined through an exploration period, so as to resonate with a specified and attained ethnic identity (p. 38).
Ethnic identity refers to a feeling, attitude and identification of one with the behavior and character of people of a specified culture and cultural ethos. They often have a common origin, values, beliefs, practices, customs and other commonalities. Therefore, as opposed to the race concept in which the physical traits are the main controlling factor, ethnicity relates to the common values, beliefs and concepts help by a group of people (Yeh & Huang,…
If the identity crisis is caused by a lack of self-certainty, one must work to become consistent in their self-image as it pertains to the image one presents to others. A role experimentation identity crisis is resolved by trying out new roles in order to find the role that feels most comfortable to use. An anticipation of achievement identity crisis can be resolved by evaluating one's actual chances of success in their role and adapting their role, or their expectations, accordingly in order to create more achievement and success.
An identity crisis can also be caused by a sexual identity crisis. A sex identity crisis is often best resolved by personally evaluating one's persona, asking whether he or she is comfortable with being male or female and in dealing with others of the other sexes.
When leadership polarization occurs, an identity crisis can follow. This type of identity crisis occurs…
Erikson, Erik. (1980): Identity and the Life Cycle. New York.
Friedman, Lawrence J. (1999): Identity's Architect: A Biography of Erik H. Erikson. Oxford.
Hoare, Carol Hren. (2002): Erikson on Development in Adulthood: New Insights from the Unpublished Papers. New York.
Marcia, J.E. (1966): "Development and Validation of Ego Identity Status." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2, pp. 551-58.
Jewish Identity in Modern Times: Jonathan Sacks, in an article Love, Hate and Jewish Identity appropriately sums up the dilemma of Jewish self-identity in modern times by stating: "Until the beginning of the 19th century, Jews defined themselves as the people loved by God. Since then most Jews...have defined themselves as the people hated by Gentiles." This is probably because in pre-modern times, the Jewish child felt no significant 'identity conflict' as he grew up into adulthood in isolated, self-contained Jewish communities. This state of relatively secure Jewish 'self-identity' was, however, severely disrupted by the advent of enlightenment in modern times, which forced the Jewish community to interact with the political, cultural, and economic forces outside their limited, self-contained Jewish society.
Jewish self-identity in modern times, however, is not as simplistic as stated by Sacks. According to Michael a. Meyer, apart from enlightenment (which is an ongoing process), the other…
History of the Jews." (n.d.) History World. Retrieved on April 5, 2007 at http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=413&HistoryID=aa42
Meyer, M.A. (1990). Jewish Identity in the Modern World. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Sacks, J. (1997, November). "Love, Hate and Jewish Identity." First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 26+.
The negative Jewish identity also gave rise to Jewish self-hatred; Karl Marx, himself a Jew, once wrote that Judaism was not a religion or a peoplehood but the egoistic desire for gain, and the love of money. (Meyer, 40)
A number of studies have been done in recent years to explore the unique effects of a bicultural identity, how a bicultural identity is formed, and what forms a bicultural identity will take. Research integrates assimilation theories as well as social constructionism. The reasons for the emerging literature include improving psychological health and well-being, improving social and cultural health, and also reducing or eliminating racism and negative stereotyping. Elashi, Mills & Grant (2009) point out "83% of Muslim individuals reported an increase in implicit racism and discrimination following September 11th," making the Muslim-American cultural, ethnic, and religious cohort one of the most important populations in America to understand through sociological data (Elashi, Mills & Grant, 2009, p. 379). Discrimination may be related to the dominant or white culture's fear of non-integration of existing or new immigrants and perceived threats to an imaginary cohesiveness of the dominant culture -- something that…
Even strong women are feminized in the media and in advertising. Burton Nelson notes, "In a Sears commercial, Olympic basketball players apply lipstick, paint their toenails, rock babies, lounge in bed, and pose and dance in their underwear" (Nelson Burton 442). These are all very feminine characteristics, and women feel they must be feminine not only to fit in society but also to catch a man, and that is what the media tells women they should aspire to - catching a man. These messages begin very early, and children buy into them wholeheartedly. Children mimic the role models they see on television, and young women strive to be like the women they admire - thin, petite, beautiful, and often witless. The media celebrates all of these things by glorifying women like Paris Hilton, Britney Spears, and Lindsay Lohan. These and many other young women are role models for many young…
Blum, Deborah. "The Gender Blur: Where Does Biology End and Society Take Over?" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 475-482.
Burton Nelson, Mariah. "I Won. I'm Sorry." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 439-445.
Craig, Steve. "Men's Men and Women's Women." Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 161-173.
Devor, Aaron. "Gender Role Behaviors and Attitudes" Signs of Life in the U.S.A., 5th ed. Maasik & Solomon, eds. New York: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2006. 458-464.
62), a society with "shallow-rooted" norms (p. 177), a "meager and difficult place" as opposed to the expansive way Ruth wishes to grow as a woman. (p. 178) Helen's storm inside, this mother's crisis of identity, has parallels not with Baldwin's women, but with characters such as the Reverend Henry, whose anger at hite society can only be expressed in a eulogy over his beloved son's casket. Extremity in both the apparently placid Henry and Helen brings forth rage and despair, but while at least Henry's male rage is life-affirming, urging his community to go on in the face of the death of a young person, Helen's actions are regressive, infantile, returning to her father, and do not occur as an act of social protest.
The gendered constructions of mourning and identity formulation for Helen's daughters Ruth and Lucille also indicate the limited repertoire the Housekeeping society provides for women…
Baldwin, James. "Blues for Mister Charlie." New York: Vintage, 2001.
Robinson, Marilynn. Housekeeping. New York: Farrar, Strauss, and Giroux, 1981.
Hall vs. Goffman
Goffman (1959) defines identity in a metaphoric manner as a type of theatrical performance that is shaped by the motives of the actor and the audience. Thus, person's identity is dependent on the social and relational aspects of the situation. There is degree as to how much someone actually believes that the performance one is giving represents reality. At one extreme, a person/performer believes whatever they are doing represents reality and at the other extreme the performer has no belief at all that their actions stand for anything sincere or real. Goffman's analogy is an attempt to relay the notion that identity is social in nature and a social construction.
A central concept in Goffman's analogy is the concept of front, the standardized expressive equipment that people use to define situations in a fixed way. There are several components of a front: The setting represents the environmental…
Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. New York: Doubleday
Hall, S. (1996). New ethnicities. In D. Morley & K.-H.Chen (eds.) Critical dialogues in cultural studies (pp. 441-449). London: Routledge.
trace development Hamlet's Identity play. If choose option, define "identity" clear ways extent
Destroying Hamlet's Identity
The titular character in illiam Shakespeare's well noted play Hamlet has fascinated audiences and literary critics for quite some time. In order to understand his characterization and the development of his identity throughout this work, one must fully understand the situation with which this young man is presented at the outset of the play. Hamlet, after all, is a mere student -- albeit he is also the prince of Denmark. All of a sudden, the young man encounters the ghost of his father, learns that the latter has been murdered, and then is charged with becoming both murderer and avenger by destroying part of his family -- his uncle Claudius. Such a task would be enormous for anyone, let alone a young man recently removed from adolescence. As such, Hamlet has to redefine his…
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. www.shakespeare.mit.edu / 1602. Web. http://shakespeare.mit.edu/hamlet/full.html