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In 1754, Anglo-American colonists led by George ashington attempted to expel the French from the upper Ohio Valley, however, ashington was defeated but the defeat captured the attention of British Prime Minister Thomas Pelham-Holles, Duke of Newcastle, who called for a retaliatory strike ("Milestones: 1750-1775"). Eventually, General Edward Braddock was sent to North America but he failed to make alliances with Native Americans and colonial leaders failed to cooperate ("Milestones: 1750-1775"). General Braddock died in a failed attack to capture Ft. Duquesne and the conflict in North America was at a stalemate for the next years, but in 1757, war began to turn in favor of the British as they defeated the French in India, and in 1759, they invaded and conquered Canada ("Milestones: 1750-1775").
Eventually, the conflicts between Prussia and Great Britain and France, Sweden, and Austria came to a close through various treaties including the Treaty of Paris,…
"The French & Indian War." Independence Hall Association. Web. 13 June 2013.
"Milestones: 1750-1775." Office of the Historian, Bureau of Public Affairs. U.S. Department of State. Web. 13 June 2013.
"The Seven Years War Begins." History Channel. 2013. Web. 13 June 2013.
It is hard to conclude whether the solution to the "Indian problem" pursued by the U.S. government in the nineteenth century was successful or not because in this case the definition of "success" is problematic. The exterminationist camp would view killing all Indians as a "success," while for the other camp thoroughly Americanizing Indians was a sign of success. Both goals were problematic, the former calling for a physical genocide and the latter calling for a cultural genocide. The latter policy was adopted by the U.S. government but it was an assault on Native American identity, culture, and the way of life. It also involved violence, as children of American Indians were taken away and placed in the boarding schools by force. It is difficult to speak of a "success" within this context.
But if we accept the definition of "success" as understood by Americans at the time, the policy…
"Tragedy of the Plains Indians: Kill the Indian and Save the Man" (n.d.) Digital History. Retrieved on 15 Dec. 2011 from http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=557>
Of course, Tecumseh's quest to unite the tribes and overcome the American government was a quxotic one.
Ultimately, the polices of the Jackson administration, after Tecumseh's murder in 1813 resulted in the genocide of virtually all of Native American tribes in the area. The remaining native populace was relocated to the estern Territories. But for a reader who does not know much about this period, other than the fact that such a removal occurred, this text provides a powerful introduction to the personalities of the era. It makes what seems a lost culture come to life. Also, it gives individual characteristics to the different personalities of the Indian leaders, and makes it clear that the tribes were not merely a faceless conglomerate of oppressed persons, but warring factions with intertribal conflicts, for which unity was a difficult and considerable achivement.
In contrast, historians who focus on Andrew Jackson and the…
Edmunds, David. Tecumseh and the Quest for Indian Leadership. New York: Longman,
Love, Christopher." Andrew Jackson and His Indian Wars."
Air Force Law Review. Spring 2002. [11 Oct 2006]
...[p. 41] Reasons may be given, why an Act ought to be repeal'd, and yet obedience must be yielded to it till that repeal takes place.
The intent of most colonists, was to create change through the proper channels, as has been described by the Philadelphia congress, as having occurred over the ten years bridging the two previous declarations.
A consummate expert on the War of Independence, writing in the early twentieth century, Van Tyne, stresses that the development of the ideal of democratic representation, was seeded in the ideals of Puritan politics which were spurned by the exposure of ministers to the ideas of John Locke and John Milton, who demonstratively effected the ideas of the American colonists as well as many others all over the colonial world. The idea of a fierce fight against tyranny and unchecked despotism was an essential standard of the day and at some…
Bancroft, Hubert H.. American war for Independence: Early Causes. 2002-2003. http://www.publicbookshelf.com/public_html/The_Great_Republic_By_the_Master_Historians_Vol_II/americanw_bb.html .
Leach, Douglas Edward. Roots of Conflict: British Armed Forces and Colonial Americans, 1677-1763. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1943.
Morison, S.E., ed. Sources and Documents Illustrating the American Revolution, 1764-1788, and the Formation of the Federal Constitution. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923.
The Seven Years War saw Britain established as the greatest colonial power, with control over India and North America seemingly secured, while Prussia emerged as the greatest power on the Continent, and the dominant force inside Germany, reducing still further the power of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Austria. Frederick II of Prussia (the Great) emerges as the most remarkable leader of the war. Prussia was the smallest of the main combatants, and yet Frederick survived year after year of campaigning, and despite coming near to defeat he emerged triumphant (Richard).
Histories of the American Revolution tend to start in 1763, the end of the Seven-Year's War, a worldwide struggle for empire that pitted France against England in North America, Europe, and Asia. Fred Anderson, who teaches history at the University of Colorado, takes the story back a decade and explains the significance of the conflict in American history.…
Because the country was essentially thirteen colonies fighting separately, the British had to deal with battles throughout the country, with people who were fighting for their homes and towns. The American forces knew their surroundings better, and they were motivated to fight well to protect their loved ones and neighbors.
The Declaration of Independence, written in July 1776, indicates how resolved most of the population was to independence from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson, author of the document, wrote that the British government had become "destructive," and people believed they must assert their independence and be free of the country, or their lives would never be free from oppression. He wrote, "That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the ight of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in…
Editors. "Revolutionary War Causes." Son of the South. 2009. 20 Feb. 2009. http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/cause-revolutionary-war.htm .
Gerlach, Larry R., James a. Dolph, and Michael L. Nicholls, eds. Legacies of the American Revolution. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1978.
Sweeney, Jerry K., ed. A Handbook of American Military History: From the Revolutionary War to the Present. 2nd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2006
Ward, Harry M. The War for Independence and the Transformation of American Society. London: UCL Press, 1999.
American evolutionary War
The objective of this study is to write on the causes and major outcomes of the American evolutionary War.
Until the finalization of the Seven Years' War, there were only very few British North America colonists that had objections to their situation in the British Empire and British American Colonists had realized a great many benefits reported from the system of the British imperialists and furthermore paid little in the way of costs for those reported benefits. In fact, the British did not bother the American colonies until the earlier part of the 1760s. However, the 'Seven Years' War" brought about changes with Britain realizing victory over France and their allies at a great cost.
The Seven-Year's War also known as the French and Indian War brought many changes. According to reports "A staggering war debt influenced many British policies over the next decade. Attempts…
The American Revolution (2014) Library of Congress. Retrieved from: http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/timeline/amrev/
The American Revolution (2014) Library of Congress. Retrieved from:
Indian Education/Boarding Schools
Indian boarding schools were designed to assimilate Native American children into the greater American (white) culture. Students at the schools suffered from poor diet, illness and harsh discipline. As a result of these deficiencies, and the high cost of running the boarding schools, they began to disappear from the American landscape in the 1930s.
Indian education from the 1880s to the 1920s was designed to assimilate the American Indian population into the greater American society. This was accomplished by placing Native American Indian children into institutions where the traditional ways of Indian society were replaced by government-sanctioned behaviors and beliefs. Native American children were removed from their families, and enrolled in government-run boarding schools.
Boarding schools first became vogue prior to the American Civil ar. During this time, idealistic reformers put forth the idea that Indians could become "civilized" with the proper education and treatment. Prior to…
Marr, Carolyn J. Assimilation Through Education: Indian Boarding Schools in the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Libraries. Digital Collections. 19 October 2002. http://content.lib.washington.edu/aipnw/marr/biblio.html
Kelley, Matt. The Associated Press. American Indian boarding schools: 'That hurt never goes away'. Wednesday, April 28, 1999. 19 October 2002. http://www.canoe.ca/CNEWSFeatures9904/28_indians.html
It was also discovered that the Moderates did not have sufficient representation in Congress. The Moderates were aware of Tilak's loyalty to the Congress but did not appreciate it. They even thoroughly resisted his entry and that of his friends to it. Tilak then cooperated with Annie esant in forming two home rule leagues, one in Maharashtra and the other in Madras. Their Lucknow Congress in 1916 healed the division. oth sides wanted to restore the old and honorable conditions. After agreeing on some membership conditions, the Moderates accepted the extremists. The Lucknow Congress honored and recognized Tilak as a the sole political hero of the time. The Moderates could have offered Tilak the presidency of the Congress but Tilak was known to have a pledge of self-denial. He withdrew his name from the 1907 Nagpur Congress and suggested that it be replaced by the name of Lala Laipat Rai.…
British Broadcasting Corporation. Mohandas Gandhi. Historic Figures. BBC.Co.Uk, 2007. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/gandhi_mohandas.shtml
Edidin, Peter. 1947: the End of the Raj. New York Times Upfront: the Scholastic, Inc., January 30, 2006
Indian National Congress. The Congress and the Freedom Movement. AICC, 2004. Retrieved May 10, 2007 at http://aicc.org.in/the_congress_and_the_freedom_movement.htm
Leathem, Rebecca. Mahatma Gandhi. Business Asia: First Charlton Communications Pty, Ltd., February 15, 1999
India / Theoretical / Foreign Policy Shyness (Pant, 2009, p. 251). Pant's latest scholarship on India's foreign policies (2009, p. 253) is far more forceful and impactful than the narrative in his 2008 book. He chides India for not letting go of its Cold ar foreign policy strategy. "The Cold ar officially ended almost two decades ago,"
Pant writes (p. 253), and yet India continues to debate "the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)." That attitude among India's elite foreign policy experts "…is merely the clearest sign of the intellectual sloth that has infected the foreign policy discourse," Pant states. "Intellectual sloth?" Nowhere in Pant's 2008 book are there phrases so vigorous and persuasive. He stresses that it is "irresponsible and dangerous" for India to "cling to ideas that served a different strategic context" (p. 253).
Theoretical Approach / India Foreign Policy (Robert Gilpin / John J. Mearsheimer):
Works Cited / Bibliography
Gilpin, Robert, 1983, War and Change in World Politics, Cambridge University Press: New York.
Mearsheimer, John J. 2003, the Tragedy of Great Power Politics, W.W. Norton & Company: New York.
Pant, Harsh V., 2008, Contemporary Debates in Indian Foreign and Security Policy: India Negotiates Its Rise in the International System. Palgrave / Macmillan: New York.
Pant, Harsh V. 2009, 'A Rising India's Search for a Foreign Policy', Orbis, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 250-265.
An Analysis of the History and Origins of "Belly Dancing"
Indian Dance is described in the est as "belly dancing," but the name "belly dancing" does not do justice to the style of dance which the title conveys. Indian and Middle Eastern dance actually has more of a history to it than what the est views merely as a kind of erotic show. Described as "danse du ventre" by the French in the Victorian Age, the English translation has come to signify the Indian dance, which in Arabic is known as raqs sharqi or raqs baladi -- the former meaning "Dance of the Near East" and the latter meaning "Folk dance." Essentially, what esterners have identified as "belly dancing" is actually the traditional folk dance of the Middle East and India. This paper will discuss the origins and history of Indian Dance, or "belly dancing," and show how…
"Belly Dancing." Eijkhout.net. 2000. Web. 12 Oct 2011.
Deagan, Andrea. "In Search of the Origins of Dance." UNCW. Web. 12 Oct 2011.
Jusserand, J.J. English Wayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Chatham, UK: W&J Mackay & Co. Ltd., 1950. Print.
Wright, Marisa. "Origins of Belly Dance." HubPages. 2009. Web. 12 Oct 2011.
How valuable is history if it is truly written by the victors of war? What remains of the historical account are only tiny fragments of what the true and whole story encapsulated. What we are left with are scraps of stories that are fragmented and skewed to the current power structures that run the institutions. Understanding this skeptical attitude is extremely important when judging an historical account.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss the removal of Native Americans from the region east of the Mississippi in the time of 1830. This essay will examine both sides of the argument and address the ethical, moral, philosophical and legal aspects to this complex and sophisticated subject. This essay will ultimately try to distinguish that the removal of these people's land, while extremely expedient and profitable, was a clear violation of the human ethic and should be remembered as…
Reflection activity: Ashoka
hy is the reign of the third Mauryan emperor, Ashoka, important to the study of early Indian and Buddhist art?
Ashoka was one of India's greatest emperors whose reign covered a vast region. He conquered Kallinga which had not been done by any of his predecessors. However, this conquest claimed massive numbers of casualties and was destructive. He later converted to Buddhism after some of his experiences in the war which introduced Buddhism and its art to a vast population in India.
Discussion activity: Stupas
To what extent do these examples share the core characteristics of all stupas, and in what ways do they differ from each other? Bodhnath, Nepal (example 1) and Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka (example 2)
The stupa generally has six parts that have symbolic meaning that the stupas share. The Bodhnath stupa appears to be more modern and contains cables that connect…
British Museum. (N.d.). Sandstone figure of the seated Buddha. Retrieved from British Museum: http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_objects/asia/s/sandstone_figure_of_the_seated.aspx
Dhejia, V. (1990). On Modes of Visual narration in Early Buddhist Art. The Art Bulletin, 374-392.
Smart History. (N.d.). The Stupa. Retrieved from Smart History: http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/the-stupa.html
The ge of Colonialism was drawing to a close, as the spirit of nationalism swept over the subcontinent. s similar political movements took place throughout Europe and other parts of sia, India found itself in a unique position. India had been a diverse, heterogeneous region for centuries; even millennia. The nationalist movement highlighted the differences between the various ethnic groups in the subcontinent, revealing their core differences in political and social philosophy. Initial nationalist movements were led by the Indian National Congress Party, as well as the Muslim League. The Indian National Congress Party did not start out as being a Hindu organization, and never officially declared itself as such. Yet over time, the Congress Party became associated with Hindu goals. The Congress Party was founded as early as 1885, when it was a umbrella group for a diverse constituency. Their only shared goal seemed to be the…
Although most Muslims did support the Indian National Congress Party, a large number sought more robust representation in the nationalist movement and supported instead the All-India Muslim League. Conflicts between Hindu and Muslim Indians started brewing during the early 20th century. In 1905, the state of Bengal was divided -- partitioned along religious lines. Indians did not approve of the British interference with their nationalist movement, seeking instead of more holistic political rubric under which to form a new nation. The populist revolt forced the British to reunify Bengal. After British conscripted Indian soldiers to fight in World War One, the anger against the colonialist government grew. The British passed ever-stricter acts in an attempt to quell the civic unrest. Protests that began peacefully ended in violence on the part of the British government.
Gandhi's model was appealing to Indians on many levels and from many backgrounds. Satyagraha hearkened to the roots of Indian philosophy, which transcended sectarian beliefs. Non-violence and peaceful coexistence with neighbors had been part of the Indian culture for centuries prior to the Raj. The Raj seemed to exacerbate ethnic and religious differences, as if a "divide and conquer" methodology was used by the Crown in order to rule over the complex colony. The Indian Nationalist movement therefore became linked inextricably with Gandhi's nonviolence movement. Gandhi became a model for India's future: one that was free of colonial rule but which would also be poised to be a world leader.
Unfortunately, continued clashes between Hindu and Muslim citizens led to an imperfect solution in the subcontinent: partition. As early as the 1930s, the foundation for Pakistan was laid. There were many stones left unturned in the northern subcontinent, though: as Bangladesh later separated itself and the Kashmir issue has yet to be solved peacefully.
In what ways are the form and function of the Buddhist stupa and Hindu temple similar to or different from the Islamic mosque?
The Buddhist Stupa, the Hindu Temple, and the Islamic Mosque all have social, cultural, and religious functions. Their physical forms are more similar than they are different, in that each boasts tapered and often rounded edifices. However, Hindu temples are more likely to have angular features and involve the use of straight lines and parallel planes; both stupas and mosques prefer curvilinear elements and bulbous forms. Hindu temples and Muslim mosques will also have larger interior spaces devote to personal prayer.
In what ways may the Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi be considered an Islamic (ate) building and an Indic one in terms of its construction and its design?
The Quwwat al-Islam Mosque in Delhi is clearly Islamic because of the minaret, as well as…
ar on AIDS
Affordable retroviral drugs now!
Fighting the 'good fight' against AIDS in Africa
It's one of the most long-standing theoretical ethical debates: you know someone is dying, and will die if they do not get a certain kind of medicine. However, the medicine is prohibitively expensive. Do you steal this all-important medication? Or do you allow the person to wither and die, because stealing is wrong -- or rather, because the pharmaceutical companies 'deserve' to make a profit? Of course, you ensure that the individual has the medication, ideally by pressuring the store or company to give you the medicine for free. But although this moral impulse may seem like a 'no brainer' on an individual level, on a mass level, people are still dying in record numbers from AIDS in Africa, in a way that would be unacceptable, if it took place in the so-called developing world.…
Colebunders R. et al. (Oct 2005). "Free Antiretrovirals Must Not Be Restricted Only to Treatment-Naive Patients." PLoS Medicine. 2(10). Retrieved 14 Feb 2008 at http://medicine.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.0020276
Global Access to HIV Therapy Tripled in Past Two Years, But Significant Challenges
Remain." (2007). WHO: World Health Organization Retrieved 14 Feb 2008 at http://www.who.int/hiv/mediacentre/news57/en/index.html
Miller, Charles & Kenneth Goldman. "Merck, AIDS, and Africa." (23 Oct 2003).
However, it is the cable technician and a lone previously un-promotable Air Force pilot, flying a recovered alien ship, and downloading a computer virus into the mother ship that spells the ultimate downfall of the aliens and saves mankind.
The War of the Worlds' Influence on Independence Day:
Anyone who has watched these two movies can draw immediate similarities. Both are built around the premise that aliens have come to invade Earth, yet, in the end, mankind survives. The most critical comparison of the two movies, faults Independence Day for figuratively stealing the ending from War of the Worlds. Of course in Independence Day the "virus" that kills of the aliens is electronic and not microbial, but the symbolism is simply too obvious.
Just as in War of the Worlds, Independence Day has the nations uniting under the common threat. No longer are national boundaries of relevance, when the fate…
Hunt, KC. Plot Summary for War of the Worlds (1953). 2004. Internet Movie Database. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0046534/plotsummary .
Molin, Gustaf. Plot Summary for Independence Day (1996). 2004. Internet Movie Database. November 9, 2004 http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0116629/plotsummary .
The War of the Worlds (1953 Movie). 24 Sept 2004. Wikipedia.org. November 9, 2004 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_War_of_the_Worlds_%281953_movie%29 .
Looking at one of Kulkarni's pieces, a Peasant in the City, oil on canvas done sometime in the 1960s, we see a trend in modern Indian art in which the protagonist is featured as a part of an abstract background. Literally, the piece is a snapshot of a man and a beast, at night in a large urban area. The man is downcast, downtrodden, with no discernible ethnicity or age. He is a mixture of gray, and his elongated facial features suggest that he is, or has been, weeping. The single animal by his side could be a dog, a cow, or a representation of simply an "animal." The animal's front leg is extended, ostensibly onto the fence in which the man is leaning. The houses are abstract, made up of geometric lines and some color, designed it seems to indicate that they are lit. The moon is full, but…
Datta, S. (2006). K.S. Kulkarni: Life of Form in Art. Kumargallery. Retrieved from: http://www.kumargallery.com/forthcomingexhibitions/kskulkarni/kskulkarnireview.htm
Krishna Shamrao Kulkarni -- Profile. (2012). Saffronart. Retrieved from: http://www.saffronart.com/artist/artistprofile.aspx?artistid=260&a=Krishna%20Shamrao%20Kulkarni
Chapter 17 entitled "In the Wake of War," chronicles the political aftermath of the American Civil War, the Reconstruction Era, and the settlement of the American West during the latter half of the 19th century. In the words of the chapter, although civil conflict had been stemmed in America, there were just as many new problems for the emerging union as there were new, proffered solutions regarding racial tensions in the wake of reunification. Many of these problems were 'solved' with political half-measures as the triumphs of self-interest of politicians wishing to capitalize upon the South's weakened state became ascendant over the real interests of Blacks in the union. The promises made to African-Americans were eventually subsumed to the perceived needs of a unified nation and an ascendant federal congress.
The ultimate aftermath of the war saw only a technically freed African-American people, but a people whose rights were…
Cheyenne Indians and the Ghost Dance
The Cheyenne people are Native Americans of the Algonquian language family. They are of the Great Plains culture area. The name Cheyenne means 'people of an alien speech,' and was given to them by the Sioux.
The Cheyenne call themselves Tsetschestahase or Tsistsistas, which means 'beautiful people' or 'our people.'
Originally farmers, hunters, and gatherers in the land that is now central Minnesota, however, during the late 17th century, the Cheyenne were driven out of the area by the Sioux and Ojibwa tribes.
Gradually they migrated westward and settled in the area that is now North Dakota, but were forced to move south when the Ojibwa destroyed their settlement in 1770.
When the Cheyenne reached the lack Hills of South Dakota, they changed from farming and hunting and living in permanent villages to a nomadic life following the uffalo herds.
When the horse was…
The Cheyenne Indians
Narragansett warriors ambushed Captain Michael Pierce's column here
in one of the greatest victories for the Native Americans in the war."
(Pike, 1) The victories of the natives would also extend to the total
destruction and colonial abandonment of Providence as marauding native
alliances gathered the steam of righteous resistance against the Europeans.
Still, the Europeans were very effective at exploiting existing
tensions with historical roots between different native tribes.
Accordingly, "the Pequots remained allies of the English during King
Philip's ar, as did the Mohegan and the Eastern Niantic. On December 17,
1675, the Connecticut contingent that joined inslow to attack the
Narragansett included about 150 Mohegan and Pequot led by Oneco." (Pike, 1)
This would help the Europeans to turn the tide against the natives,
ultimately chasing them into a massive swamp fort where one of the most
notorious and bloody battles of the war would be fought.…
Cronon, W. (1983). Changes in the Land; Indians, Colonists, and the
Ecology of New England. Hill and Wang.
Dorsey, B. (1685). Edward Randolph's Description of King Philips's War.
Pike, J. (2008). King Philip's War. Global Security.org. Online a t
Empire of the Summer Moon -- Non-Fiction American History Book
hat The Book Is About
In the various books about Native Americans published over the years and the myriad history classes students have taken, a great deal of information about Native Americans and their activities has been presented. Much has been written and chronicled about the Sioux and Apache tribes, but how many students who took high school history classes can name the Comanche Tribe as the most powerful Indian tribe in American history? And how many alert readers of the history of the American est can recall that the last and greatest chief of the Comanches was the mixed blood son of Caucasian pioneer woman Cynthia Ann Parker? These facts are all contained in the wonderfully written book by S.C. Gwynne, Empire of the Summer Moon.
The Comanche tribe -- according to the best accounts available to the author…
Gwynne, S.C. Empire of the Summer Moon. New York: Scribner. 2010.
United States War Analysis 1877-To Date
Many wars have been fought in the world since 1877 to date and the U.S. has not been spared from these wars. The main wars have been the World War One and World War Two. However, America has also been involved in the Cold War, the War in Vietnam and the Korean War. These wars have had a major impact on the economies of many nations. Whether the impact has been good or bad has remained a question yet to be answered. Ashby and Babson (2011) state that a large number of people in the United States believed that the economy improved during times of war when there was heightened military spending.
This paper will thus aim to highlight the effects of war on the economy, the social environment, the political environment and the intellectual environment, as these are inevitably always affected by war…
Ashby, S., & Babson, S. (2011). The Unfinished Struggle: Turning Points in American Labor, 1877-Present. The Journal of American History, 88(1), 241. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2675005
Browne, R., & Kreiser, L. (2010). The detective as historian. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.
Davidson, J. (2010). After the Fact: The Art of Historical Detection, Volume II, 6th ed (6th ed.).
Digital History. (2014). The War's Consequences. Retrieved from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=2&psid=3469
Finally it also represented an important means of conducting the foreign policy from the point-of-view of the French occupation. In this sense, "the North America fur trade of the 17th and 18th centuries had usually been viewed, until recently, as merely another commercial enterprise governed by the premise "buy cheap, sell dear" in order to rip the maximum of profit. Of late the Canadian end of the trade has come to be regarded as having been more a means to a noncommercial end than a pursuit conducted solely for economic gain. As European penetration and dominance of the continent progressed, the trade, which had begun as an adjunct of the Atlantic shore fishery, became a commercial pursuit in its own right. After 1600 (...) it became a means to finance and further the tragic drive to convert the Indian nations to Christianity."
Aside from the Algonquin tribes, the Huron tribes…
Eccles, W.J. "The fur trade and eighteenth- century imperialism." William and Mary Quarterly.
3rd Ser., Vol. 40, No. 3. pp. 341-362.
Jenkins, P. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections vol. XXXIV.
Rather, the Union argues, Washington was ill-informed in its preparations for the campaign. Furthermore, the paper condemns Washington for seeking to force the removal of the Modocs from their native country in which they co-exist successfully with the whites.
Another example of the paper being protective of the military occurs on January 10, 1873, when the army was having little success flushing the Indians out of 'Lava Bed.' The Army cavalry was made to retreat after an attempted advance. The Union described this failed mission in a five sentence article. The last sentence of the article noted that the Army was expecting the arrival of Howitzer guns the following week. The title of the article, did not reference the failed offensive, but instead read was The Modoc War- The Howitzers Coming.
Most of the articles give daily updates as to the war. If there was any combat the previous day,…
"The Modocs: A Blundering War," Sacramento Daily Union, May 12, 1873
"Massacre of Modoc Prisoners," Sacramento Daily Union, June 10, 1873
"The Modocs," Sacramento Daily Union, June 6, 1873
American Experience With War
Which historian - David M. Kennedy, or John Shy - best represents the American experience with war?
While reading Kennedy's - and Shy's - essay discussions, it's necessary to put their writings in the context of time. Kennedy penned his essay in 1975, and Shy wrote his in 1971. In terms of world events subsequent to both essays - in particular the advent of terrorism on a colossal and destructive scale, (9/11/01) - veritable light years of military and political change has emerged.
But notwithstanding the tumultuous global changes since the 1970s, the assigned essays are timeless in their intelligent analysis, very important in terms of their forthright accuracy of U.S. history and war, and hence, provide valuable reading for any and all students of the times. However, the essay by Kennedy, in this writer's opinion, best reflects the big picture view of America, its peoples,…
Coser, Lewis A. Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. Toronto: The
MacMillan Company, 1969.
Kennedy, David M. "War and the American Character." The Nation (1976),
Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
military topic; exclude civil war. (I chose Special Forces) • All Research Papers 8 1/2 x
white paper, margins 1" x 1." • The Research Papers a minimum 4 pages typed information exceed 6 pages
There is much controversy concerning the U.S. Special Operations Forces (SOF) and the missions that they perform on a daily basis because the mass-media tends to distort people's understanding about the military organization. Some might be inclined to consider that the Special Forces take most of the good men in the army and put them in a community that typically performs actions that most military groups would be capable of doing. Moreover, many believe that these people basically take advantage of the government's determination to keep the Special Forces in operation. However, most people fail to understand the training that these people go through on a daily basis, the fact that they have the ability…
Hamilton, John, "Special Forces," (ABDO, 10.01.2007)
North, Robert, "American Heroes: In Special Operations," (B&H Publishing Group, 01.11.2010)
Olson, Eric T., "U.S. Special Operations: Context and Capabilities in Irregular Warfare," Retrieved November 16, 2012, from the National Defense University Website: http://www.ndu.edu/press/lib/images/jfq-56/8.pdf
Pushies, Fred J., "United States Army Special Forces," (Zenith Imprint, 01.10.2001)
America at War 1865-Present
A Survey of America at War from 1865 to Present
Since the Civil War, America has seldom seen a generation of peace. In fact, a nonstop succession of wars has kept what Eisenhower termed "the military industrial complex" in lucrative business. From the Indian Wars to the World Wars to the Cold War to the war on Terror, Americana has expanded its foothold as an imperial power every step of the way -- even when isolationism appeared to be momentarily in vogue following World War I. This paper will look at the history of the progression of war in America from 1865 to present, showing how that history -- through social, economic, literary, political, and religious changes -- has both shaped and been shaped by American foreign and domestic policy.
Unit Once: 1865-1876
The Civil War had just ended on the home front, but that did…
Boyd, J.P. (2000). Indian Wars. Scituate, MA: Digital Scanning, Inc.
Jarecki, E. (2008). The American Way of War. NY: Free Press.
Jones, E.M. (2000). Libido Dominandi. South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Morehouse, M. (2007). Fighting in the Jim Crow Army: Black Men and Women
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…
growth and development of the United States military from its origination to its present status in the 21st century. It will specifically examine the fostering of both the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force. Moreover, these two branches -- which will serve as case studies for the overall development tendencies of the military in general -- will get deconstructed in the context of the martial encounters that were most seminal for them: The evolutionary War and the War of 1812, and World War I and World War II, respectively.
this paper will delineate the history of the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Air Force to indicate how military sophistication has paralleled the developments in technology and applications knowledge of America itself.
B.U.S. Naval History
The American evolutionary War
The War of 1812 and the establishment of the U.S. Naval Academy
C.U.S. Air Force History
1947 Third branch of the…
Deeben, J.P. (2012). Stoking the fires: The impressments of Seaman Charles Davis by the U.S. Navy. Prologue Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2012/summer/1812-impressment.html This is an excellent source which helps to contextualize the sentiment that contributed to the War of 1812, It not only covers the events of that time period at a macro level, but also includes a number of salient personal details as well. This source emphasizes the importance of the Navy in this war.
Dzurec, D. (2013). Prisoners of war and American self-image during the American Revolution. War in History. 20(4), 430-451. This source provides an explanation for much of the anti-British sentiment during the Revolutionary War. It principle does so by discussing the experience of those captured by the British in this encounter.
National Archives. (2010). Teaching with documents." www.archives.gov. Retrieved from http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/369th-infantry / This source provisions a decent overview of World War I. It does so largely through a consideration of the involvement of African-American troops. These troops were necessary to implement in combat situations for the simple fact that the U.S. did not have enough men without their addition. It illustrates some of the wider social implications of this war and its effect both within and outside of the military.
United States Naval Academy (2015). A brief history of USNA. www.usna.edu Retrieved from http://www.usna.edu/USNAHistory / This source provides a fairly detailed history of the development of the United States Naval Academy. As such, it provides an overview of the history of the navy as well. By emphasizing the level of development that the academy underwent since its inception, this source indicates the sort of improvement that characterizes the military in general through the years.
Indians'Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans, (Salisbury, 1996) details how many of the characterizations that have been presented about the Native American cultures in the United States have been incorrect. The author explains that historians have treated the coming of the Europeans to North America as the beginning of history about the people in North America, whereas, in realty, the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492 and the onslaught of other Europeans who followed was merely a blip in the history of North America. Native Americans and their complex cultures and nations had occupied the North American continent for centuries preceding Columbus' arrival and historians have done these cultures a major disservice by minimizing their existence.
The article also suggests that the fact that historians have either minimized or ignored the contributions of the Native Americans brings into question the accuracy and validity of these historians' assessment…
Salisbury, N. (1996). The Indians' Old World: Native Americans and the Coming of Europeans. William and Mary Quarterly, 435-458.
The underlying beliefs from which their entire cultures were based on stemmed from the exact same teachings of religious hierarchy, explanations about an unfamiliar world, and beliefs that brought social order to their respective societies.
Family life was an aspect that both united and differentiated the Indians from the Europeans. Early on it was evident to the Europeans that family life was vastly essential to the Indians who valued their family more than anything. To the Indians, outsiders were just that: outsiders. As Kupperman stated, "whereas in England most children left home in early adolescence, Indian parents kept them at home until they were adults" (Kupperman a. 153). This notion was viewed as something novel to the English who saw their own family unit and respect as deteriorating (Kupperman b. 133). The Indians depended on one another for virtually everything. Indian parents cared for their children in such a way…
DuVal, Kathleen. The Native Ground: Indians and Colonists in the Heart of the Continent. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 2006. Print.
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Indians and English: Facing off in Early America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell UP, 2000. Print.
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Major Problems in American Colonial History: Documents and Essays. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. The Atlantic in World History. New York: Oxford UP, 2012. Print.
Indian tribes in the Eastern United States. At the time, the nation was expanding westward and there were concerns that the Indians could begin attacking civilized areas. After the end of the Black Hawk War, is when these worries increased exponentially. As a result, different states began to pass laws that restricted and limited the power of Indian tribes. (emini, n.d., pp. 107 -- 119)
Once this occurred, is when the Cherokee became worried about being forced westward. This was problematic, as they had adopted civilized practices including: establishing a functioning democracy, they had their own language, newspaper and Constitution. These areas led many to believe that the Cherokee would remain in the region. As they were not: a threat to society and believed they had the support of the American people. (emini, n.d., pp. 107 -- 119)
Moreover, the Cherokee were able to win two favorable Supreme Court decisions…
Remini, R. (n.d.). Andrew Jackson vs. The Cherokee Nation.
Imagine living in 18th Century America. What would a person encounter during that time period? Would the diverse social and political backgrounds impact a person positively or negatively during this era? Can a person prepare for what may occur with the upcoming Seven Years War? How would the outcomes of this war affect America in general? One will study these issues in depth from the perspective of an individual existing in the past.
During the 18th Century, I experienced a number of things that are worth mentioning. I went to the south at one time and noticed that slavery is an issue. Many of these individuals are poor, and a select few became land owners despite becoming exposed to various diseases. When I saw this I was devastated and wanted to help each person but I could not. However, these people after fifty years of service were promised their…
Bailyn, Bernard. To Begin the World Anew: The Genius and Ambiguities Of the American
Founders (Knopf, 2002), 185p.
HistoryKing. (2011). The social classes in 18th century colonial america. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from History King: http://www.historyking.com/American-History/The-Social-Classes-In-18th-Century-Colonial-America.html.
University of Southern Mississippi. (2011). Seven years war. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from University of Southern Mississippi: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:wvJvJ2QbbaIJ:ocean.otr.usm.edu/~w416373/HIS%2520360/HIS%2520360%2520Lsn%25204%2520Seven%2520Years%2520War.ppt+seven+years+war+outcomes&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESj8az8UYbRUpHVHP_TzWTpeTtDvq1m5BPG-RFmHHgEmQzzbC .
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…
Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.
Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-
Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
he introduction of various kinds of technology for the railroad, cattle ranching and mining of gold and silver, and ecological disturbance resulting from agrarianism were among the major factors in the near-extinction of the buffalo. Permanent railroad tracks, the depletion of trees for railroad ties and bridges and the decrease in wild animal population marked the lasting foreign presence in the Native West. Recent estimates revealed that there were 15-60 million buffaloes before the Europeans settled in 1500s. he animal population was severely depleted by the construction of the transcontinental railroad to the Western homeland of Plain Indian tribes. he buffalo was said to have reach near-extinction by the end of the 1870s when it numbered less than 1,000. Rapid American expansion in less than 50 years was behind it and other dismal results to the Continent (Fixico).
IV. Cost: But more and more evidence has been coming up, which…
The Aztecs had a well-structured and highly codified government, led by a very powerful emperor (Birklid 2010). He strictly required taxes from those he conquered. Then distributed land to his people, especially the warriors. The Aztecs became the largest empire in Mexico by 1473 through conquest of neighboring tribes. The capital, Tehnochtitlan, was described as a beautiful city, consisting of pyramids, long floating roads, aqueducts, brisk marketplaces and about a hundred thousand residents (Birklid).
The Aztecs used a 365-day calendar, similar to the one used by the Mayans (Birklid 2010). They used symbols to write and create sentences. Their most important god was white-faced Quetzacuatl, the god of intelligence and creation (Birklid).
They engaged in regional politics and entered into alliances with neighboring tribes, who were also expanding (Birklid 2010). These allies were the Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco, northwest of Tenochtitlan. They had skilled warriors and skilled diplomats. In 1428, they
ceremonies of the Hopi tribe of the American Southwest, and the Assiniboine of the Northern Plains. The Assiniboine engage in the Sun Dance as one of their major ceremonies, while the Hopi engage in the Snake Dance as one of theirs. These dance ceremonies share many commonalities, but they contain major differences, as well. The Hopi were largely agricultural, living on mesas devoid of much moisture, while the Assiniboine were hunters, subsisting off the buffalo of the plains. These differences make up the disparity in their ceremonies, and they are important clues to their identity and way of life.
The Hopi Nation is one of the oldest Native American tribes in North America. They can trace their history in Northern Arizona, where their reservation is located, back to the 12th century, but they believe their history goes back much further than that. They are believed to have migrated to the…
Dances with Wolves is a movie that clearly shows the moral and political dilemmas that existed in those times and it also represents that fairly savage policy that the United States had against Indians and those that sided with the same. It also proved that skin color alone is not enough to keep people separated, as proven by Costner's character and the white woman he eventually took as his wife. However, it also became clear to Costner's character that he was in a no-win situation and that he could not stay with the Sioux even though he wanted to and the Sioux felt the same way. While a lot has changed since the days of the Civil War, some things remain stubbornly the same.
Since the settlers from other countries including Britain, France and Spain came to the shores of what is now the United States starting in the late…
The name Seminole is derived from the Spanish word "cimarron" meaning "wild men." Seminoles were originally given this name since they were Indians who had escaped from slavery in the British-controlled northern colonies. hen they arrived in Florida, they were not known as Seminoles as they were in reality Creeks, Indians of Muskogee derivation. The Muskogean tribes made up the Mississippian cultures which were temple-mound builders. "Among the Muskogean tribes were the Creeks, Hitichis and Yamasees of Georgia, the Apalachees of Florida, the Alabamas and Mobiles of Alabama, and the Choctaws, Chickasaws and Houmas of Mississippi" (Murray, n.d.).
It is believed that the Seminole tribe settled in Florida as far back as 10,000 BC. For hundreds of years, the Seminole Indians essentially ruled almost all of Florida. Even when the Europeans arrived, at first they were not concerned in the area of Florida, but displayed more inquisitiveness toward…
Murray, D.J. n.d. "The Unconquered Seminoles." Web. 5 February 2012. Available at:
"Seminole." n.d. Web. 6 February 2012. Available at:
The Nazis, however, were seriously mistaken. According to Thomas D. Morgan, "No group that participated in orld ar II made a greater per capita contribution, and no group was changed more by the war." Native Americans willingly enlisted in the war more than any other group in America. Native American tribes that had a long tradition of warrior culture took up arms to defend the American nation. They also served as communication liaison agents who befuddled German and Japanese code-breakers.
Native American contribution fundamentally changed hite's attitude toward American Indians. Many soldiers referred to Native Americans as "Chefs," as a sign of respect. Holm explains: "hites, who made Indian policies at the time, came out of the war with new, or at least different, images of Indian people. These changed views created an atmosphere in which men of varying motives and goals could institute the termination policy under the cloak…
"America at War: World War II." Digital History. Web. 23 May 2012
Black, Helen K., and William H. Thompson. "A War Within a War: A World War II Buffalo Soldier's Story." Journal of Men's Studies 20.1 (2012): 32-46. Web. 23 May 2012.
Clive', Alan. "Women Workers in World War Ii." Labor History 20.1 (1979): 44. Web. 23 May 2012.
De Graaf, Lawrence B. "Significant Steps on an Arduous Path: The Impact of World War II on Discrimination Against African-Americans in the West." Journal of the West 35 (1996): 24-33. Web. 23 May 2012.
Carlisle Indian School: founded 1879; Indian boarding school; Pennsylvania; forced assimilation of native children; abuse of children
11. Cheyenne Tribe: Plains Indians; a Sioux name for the tribe; currently comprises two tribes; ties with Arapaho; hunters; ghost dance
12. ed Cloud: leader of Ogala Lakota; fierce warrior opposed U.S.; ed Cloud's War 1866-1868; Wyoming, Montana; became leader on reservation
13. Comanche Tribe: Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklahoma; Plains Indians; hunter-gatherers; about 14,000 remain; speak Uto-Aztecan language related to Shoshone
14. Joseph Brant: Thayendanegea; Mohawk; American evolution fought with British to help Indians; became Mason; active political leader for Six Nations
15. Trail of Tears: massive relocation of Native Americans; affected Choctaw, Cherokee and other southern Indians; move to Oklahoma Indian Territory; 1830s; related to Indian emoval Act; represented treaty violations
16. Pontiac's War: 1763; Great Lakes region; Pontiac was Odawa leader; war against British after Seven Years War; British…
"Red Cloud." PBS. Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/i_r/redcloud.htm
Saunders, R. (2007). "Chief Pontiac's War -- 1763." Retrieved Mar 26, 2009 from http://colonial-america.suite101.com/article.cfm/chief_pontiacs_war_1763
American Indian Movement
The poorest people in America are the American Indians and it is also a fact that Indian reservations have unique laws that has made it a nation by itself within the United States. The modern movements focus on the American Indian reservations being empowered by self-determination. This is important for the economic, social and cultural improvement of the American Indians. It was with the Nixon administration that the welfare of the tribes became the focus of the government. The subsequent administrations encouraged the Indians to adapt to a policy of political and economic self-determination. Today many reservations have become economic hubs with tax and regulation havens for investment. Thus as of now the Mescalero and White Mountain Apaches "have become premier private managers of multiple-use forest resource economies." (Legters; Lyden, 1994)
However it must be stated that only during the eagan administration that there were major reports…
Bolt, Christine. (1990) "American Indian Policy and American Reform: Case Studies of the Campaign to Assimilate the American Indians" Routledge. Pages: 250, 298
Fritz, Henry E. (1963) "The Movement for Indian Assimilation, 1860-1890." University of Pennsylvania Press: Philadelphia. Page Number: 15, 34, 56,138
Louvigny returned to Quebec and was considered by Canadians to have ended the first Fox War. He returned to the area in 1717 to continue the policing of the Meskwaki forces, yet made little progress in making contact or forcing the provisions of the previous treaty. In later communication with the government, Meskwaki chiefs expressed their own desire for peace. During the period between 1714 and 1727, the French were able to reopen waterways and move freely throughout the areas previously hindered by the danger of Indian encounters. However, other communications between the French and the American Indians were failing. Among these, the greatest failure was the inability of the French to include the Indian groups in the agricultural settlements they had attempted, including the one at Detroit.
Though the city groups of Indians and white men did not last, the area remained secure enough for the French and Americans…
Edmunds, R. David, and Joseph L. Peyser. The Fox Wars: The Mesquakie Challenge to New France. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1993.
Hagen, William Thomas. The Sac and Fox Indians. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1958.
Jones, George O, and Norman S. McVean. History of Wood County, Wisconsin. Publication details unknown, 1923, accessed 22 October 2006; available at http://www.scls.lib.wi.us/mcm/wood_county/ .
Kay, Jeanne. "The Fur Trade and Native American Population Growth." Ethnohistory 31, no. 4 (1984): 265-287.
American Indians struggled against the oppression of the White Man for nearly another seventy years but Chief Black Hawk's 1832 surrender speech epitomizes the frustration felt by the various tribes that once dominated the American landscape. From text of this speech, Kent State history professor, Phillip Weeks, drew the title for his book, Farewell, My Nation (Weeks, 2000). To his fellow Sac and Fox tribesmen, Chief Black Hawk stated, in part, "The white men do not scalp the head; but they do worse - they poison the heart....Farewell, my nation!"
Black Hawk's speech occurs fairly early in the process but it characterizes how the White Man broke the spirit of the American Indians as they continuously displaced the Indians from the land that they had occupied for thousands of years. In his book, Weeks chronicles how the United States government progressively enforced its policy of expansion while completely disregarding the…
Weeks, P. (2000). Farewell, My Nation: The American Indian and the United States in the Nineteenth Century (2nd Edition). Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson.
Farewell, My Nation
THE BLACKFEET NATION INDIANS
This is a five page paper dealing with the Blackfeet Nation Indians. It will explore the tribe's history and early lifestyles. It will also cover the health and education of the tribe now. Problems facing the tribe and methods used in preserving their culture will also be addressed. There are seven references used.
The Blackfeet Indians are a Native American tribe that live in Northern Montana. They have a history rich in traditions and rituals. There is some controversy on how they became known as Blackfeet, but many believe it is because of the black moccasins they wore. It's not sure how these moccasins became black, but two suggestions are the Indians painted them or they were darkened by prairie fire (www.blackfeetnation.com).
The original home of the Blackfeet is believed to have been in the eastern woodlands "north of the Great Lakes (www.blackfeetnation.com)."…
(Origins and Early History of the Blackfeet (accessed 10-01-2002) http://
Ritter, John. "Blackfeet plan USA's only offshore bank." USA Today. (2000): 03 April.
Nijhuis, Michelle. "Tribal immersion schools rescue language and culture." The Christian
Science Monitor. (2002): 11 June.
East From Indian Country
This summarizes Chapter 6 of "Facing East from Indian Country," by Daniel ichter. This chapter talks about the race for Indian lands after the evolutionary period was over, and how there were really two wars for independence, one by the Native Americans trying to hold on to their land, and one by the white colonists seeking more land and opportunities. ichter believes the continual takeover of Native lands was a form of ethnic cleansing, and refers to that often throughout the chapter, comparing it to other areas where ethnic cleansing took place, such as wanda, and these dual wars began in 1763.
He details two examples of these revolutionary wars, one waged by the Delaware Indian Pontiac against Fort Pitt and other locations, and the other by the "Paxton Boys" of Pennsylvania who fought the Indians near Lancaster and Philadelphia. He describes the hatred each group…
Richter, Daniel K. Facing East from Indian Country. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001.
Often, treaties were signed, and then as more people moved into the area, they were ignored.
By 1834, the BIA was working with warring Indian tribes attempting to keep the peace, and the scope of government involvement in this area continued to grow. Jackson's Indian policies were much more dramatic than any of the others before him. During his presidency, he authorized military campaigns against the Indians, the Indian emoval Act of 1830 allowed the government to remove Indians to lands far west, even further than earlier relocations, and the reservations of warring tribes were often place near each other. In short, the Federal Indian policies throughout this period were all about the government, and had little valid concern for the Natives.
Editors. 2009. Federal Indian Policy Timeline. Washington State Historical Society. http://stories.washingtonhistory.org/treatytrail/context/policy-timeline-1.htm.
Campbell, John. 2006. The Seminoles, the "Bloodhound War" and Abolitionism, 1796-1865. Journal of Southern History 72,…
Editors. 2009. Federal Indian Policy Timeline. Washington State Historical Society. http://stories.washingtonhistory.org/treatytrail/context/policy-timeline-1.htm.
Campbell, John. 2006. The Seminoles, the "Bloodhound War" and Abolitionism, 1796-1865. Journal of Southern History 72, no. 2: 259+.
Prucha, Francis Paul. 1984. The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
The Navajo Indians also referred to as Dine are semi-nomadic people. It is interesting to note that Navajo people are at times known as 'Holy Earth People (Iverson, 2002). This comes from their beliefs in supernatural beings as well as traditional practices of ritual songs and dance. Navajo people are found in north-eastern areas of Arizona and north-western region of New Mexico (Iverson, 2002) .the regions where the Navajo people live in arid and desert areas that have minimal rainfall. The Navajo people are highly family oriented people, and have a rich culture that is full of ceremonies and other traditions. This paper looks at the history of pastoralists of the Navajo people, their beliefs and religious practices and kinship, sickness and healing, which are important elements with the culture of Navajo people.
The traditions and practices of a society, which are to some…
Haile, B (1993). Origin Legend of the Navaho Enemy Way: Text and Translation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Iverson, P. (2002). Dine: A History of the Navajo. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
Kluckhohn, C and Leighton, D (1960). The Navaho. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Sander, D (1979). Navaho Symbols of Healing. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Geronimo, War Hero
Geronimo was in many ways an exemplary human being. He was brave, loyal, passionate, spiritual, truthful, strong, and wise. aised in the Apache tradition, his real name was Goyathlay (meaning one who yawns). The name Geronimo was given him by his enemies (the Spanish-Mexicans, who called out to St. Jerome -- or Jeronimo -- when Goyathlay attacked (Welker, 2011). To the Spanish-Mexicans and the Americans, the man they dubbed Geronimo was a savage, but to his own people -- and indeed to many Americans who met him after his surrender -- Geronimo was a noble soul and a great leader as opposed to the villain the propagandists tried to make him out to be. This paper will show what made Geronimo such a noble man.
The war between the Mexicans and the Apache was indeed brutal. But it was a war over land -- and both sides…
Geronimo. (1906). Geronimo's Story of His Life. NY: Duffield and Company.
Old Apache Chief Geronimo is Dead. (1909). The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0616.html
Weiser, K. (2010). Legends of America. Retrieved from http://www.legendsofamerica.com/na-geronimo.html
Welker, G. (2011). Geronimo. Indigenous People. Retrieved from http://www.indigenouspeople.net/geronimo.htm
More recently two schools of military history have developed that attempt to consider its object from a more eclectic, objective perspective, dubbed the "New Military History" and "War and Society" history. New Military History "refers to a partial turning away from the great captains, and from weapons, tactics, and operations as the main concerns of the historical study of war," and instead focusing on "the interaction of war with society, economics, politics, and culture."
New Military History is a relatively broad category, and its perspective can be evinced both on the level of a particular methodology and ideology.
Along with the "War and Society" school of thought, New Military History seeks to uncover the multifarious factors driving and influencing military conflict, with a particular view towards the interaction between these factors and the actual practice of war. That is to say, these schools of thought do no entirely abandon any…
Alexander, Joseph G. "The Truth about the Opium War." The North American Review (1821-
1940) 163, (1896): 381-383.
Bello, David. "The Venomous Course of Southwestern Opuim: Qing Prohibtion in Yunnan,
Sichuan, and Guizhou in the Early Nineteenth Century." The Journal of Asian Studies.
limited and total war, and the factors leading to either type of wars.
States will escalate a limited war to total warfare only in cases where they do not have certain limitations.
Key discussion areas:
A definition and a discussion of limited and total wars
A discussion of the Koreas war and how major world powers (the Soviet Union and the United States ) were fighting their own proxy wars in the conflict
A discussion of military imperatives such as nuclear weapons and their scale of destructions and why their possession and use is restricted. And how nuclear asymmetry affects modern warfare.
A discussion of the four main factors limiting war and why such factors are important to making defense policy decisions for nations in the modern day world
Summary of main points:
Limited and total war
Military imperatives; nuclear weapons and military factors
Factors limiting war
What are the…
Conway, 2013. Limited vs. Total War. [Online]
Available at: http://www.mconway.net/page20/files / [Accessed 16 September 015].
Salavrakos, I.-D., 2014. The Defence Economics of Total War 1870-1918: A Literature Review
Article. Global Journal of Arts Humanities and Social Sciences, 2(1), pp. 23-45.
1857 Indian Rebellion been elusive to characterize as "The first war of Indian independence?"
Lack of Strategy
Shortage of Military Skills
Unity in Communities
The first war of Indian independence in 1857 is also characterized in terms of mutiny and the movement of civil disobedience. A brief about the historic events taking place during 1957 revile that the movement started with a notion to refuse using the cartridges used by the ritish Military. The greased cartridges were provided to the native soldiers of the military. The solider MangalPanday of arrackpur in engal refused to use these cartridges on 28th April 1957 and he also shot two of his superior officers of ritish military. He was caught and hanged for instigating a single-handed revolt on 8th April, 1957. He is also named as the first martyr of freedom movement. [2: .RaghunathRai. Themes in Indian History (New Delhi: VK Publications,…
Bibliography:Alison Blunt. "Embodying war: British women and domestic defilement in the Indian -- Mutiny --, 1857 -- 8.," Journal of Historical Geography 26, no. 3 (2000): 403-428.Andrew Ward. Our Bones Are Scattered: The Cawnpore Massacres and Indian Mutiny of 1857, London: John Murray Publishers, 1996.Bipan Chandra, eds. India's Struggle for Independence: 1857-1947, New Delhi: Penguin Books India, 1989.Clare Anderson. The Indian Uprising of 1857-8: Prisons, Prisoners and Rebellion, New York: Anthem Press, 2007.George Bruce Malleson and Colonel Malleson. Kay's and Malleson's History of the Indian Mutiny of 1857-8, Vol. 1, London: Hesperides Press, 2006.Mukherjee, Rudrangshu. Awadh in revolt, 1857-1858: a study of popular resistance, New Delhi: Permanent Black, 2002.Pati, Biswammy, eds. The Great Rebellion of 1857 in India: Exploring Transgressions, Content, and Direction New York: Rutledge, 2010.Rai, Raghunath.Themes in Indian History, New Delhi: VK Publications, 2011.Richard Collins. The Great Indian Mutiny: A dramatic account of the Sepoy Rebellion, USA: Dutton & Co, 1964.SailendraNath Sen. History Of Freedom Movement In India (1857-1947), New Delhi: New Age, 2009.Samuel Matrin Burke and Salin al-din Quraishi.The British raj in India: A Historical Review, London: Oxford University Press, 1997. Simon Paul Mackenzie. Revolutionary armies in the modern era: a revisionist approach, New York: Routledge, 1997.Taylor, P.J.O. What really happened during the mutiny: a day-by-day account of the major events of 1857-1859 in India, New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1997.The Great Mutiny: India 1857. Christopher Hibbert; Viking Press, 1978.]
The rebellion events of the 1857 war were started through a soldier revolting the orders of its superiors and killing the officials of British authority. The results of violent actions against the rebel soldier sparked a wave of revolution and instigated the rebel activities. The later review of the reasons and motives behind the rebel actions provides an account elaborating these actions. The actions of the soldiers were primarily religious. The reasons of disobedience were that the soldiers believed that the cartridges provided to them are coated with the pig and cow fat which is not allowed in their religion.
The religious ground so the revolt soon turned into a national revolt after the execution of the rebel soldier. The soldiers of his regiment and others showed their solidarity with the forces and started a revolt movement. The movement soon turned into a violent activity as soon the locals joined the forces to ensure that the British forces are fought and sent back to their country. The local lords and land holders did not patronize with the revolutionary forces and sided with the British occupation. The turning point of the movement from purely a religiously motivated action into a national independence war is observed when the unsatisfied locals aided the rebel soldiers. The locals fought side by side with the forces and captured various strategic and symbolic places of the foreign establishment.
The question rises that the rebel actions and nationalized efforts of locals to regain their freedom from the British forces remains acts of revolt and rebellion events. They fall short of a national movement and a nationwide war for independence. More importantly the actions of the rebels also remained unaccepted as to be noted as the first war of Indian independence. The historians provide various reasons after the review of events and the effects of the war. The major reasons are described as the lack of national motive, bad generalship, and lack of war skills.
King Philip's ar
Section 1(Intro to Chapter 3)
ho was King Philip and why was he important?
Colonists gave the youngest son of Massasoit, the Indian leader Metacom, the name King Philip (Fitzgerald, 1998), who during their early years in Plymouth had helped save the Pilgrims from starvation. However, the deterioration in relations between the colonists and the native tribes led to King Philip's war (Fitzgerald, 1998).
Thus, Philip became the Grand Sachem of the ampanoags. In Kawashima's book, he opined that King Philip could have been a great leader, but situations occurred at that time prevented him from leading a united Indian front (Fitzgerald, 1998). However, he was an important leader, as he was the one who foresighted that the English would not halt their spreading out and if left unchecked it would be the end of the ampanoags (Fitzgerald, 1998).
Thus, Philip in an attempt to stop the…
Fitzgerald, Brian. Book review. King Philip's War: BU professor's book explores New
England's forgotten war. 13 March 1998. Vol. I, No. 23. BU Bridge. www.bu.edu
Ranlet, Philip. Reviews of Books. A Seventeenth-Century Murder Mystery. Hunter College. October 2002. The William & Mary Quarterly.
Sun Chief: Autobiography of a Hopi Indian is a book written by Don C. Talayesva, a Hopi who learned the ways of white people. Talayesva and Simmons write to educate the reader about the Hopi culture. The book is told from only one man's point-of-view and yet Talayesva writes in a way that introduces all readers to the unique ways of life shared by all the Hopi people. Although the narrative is told from a man's point-of-view, the reader understands what it means to be both a man and a woman in the Hopi society. In addition to discussing matters of gender, the author also delves into issues related to sexuality. hat makes Sun Chief: Autobiography of a Hopi Indian remarkable is the way that the book discusses Hopi culture in relation to the white oppressor. Talayesva writes for a white audience, and is deliberately provocative so that white people…
Talayesva, Don C. And Simmons, Leo William. Sun Chief: Autobiography of a Hopi Indian. Yale University Press: 1963.
While I agree with all of the points that Kaimal makes, I was most interested in her examination of the way in which a single writer -- indeed, a single essay -- can have such a dramatic influence on the way in which art is seen. Coomaraswamy's writing seems to me -- admittedly many generations after he wrote it -- to be rather underwhelming, short on substance and long on rather overly elaborate style. His vision of India is startlingly -- given his own biography -- Orientalist and certainly Romantic. His vision of Shiva (and therefore one might guess of India) is in some ways an overly subtle one: By emphasizing the way in which Hindu thought and iconography posits the constant and simultaneous creation-destruction-recreation of the universe, Coomaraswamy is emphasizing the most metaphysical aspects of Hinduism. This is not surprising, not because Hinduism is metaphysical (of course it is…
Why does Strand believe that "The Crying Indian" commercial is so powerful?
The commercial was powerful because it capitalized on colonialist stereotypes of Native Americans to promote a vision of environmental stewardship. The "Keep America Beautiful" campaign linked social responsibility with collective white guilt. Moreover, the "Keep America Beautiful" theme cuts to the core of the environmentalist movement, which is to reduce materialistic attitudes and consumerism.
Who created "The Crying Indian" commercial? What was their goal?
The "Crying Indian" commercial was created by the Ad Council and the Keep America Beautiful organization. Although the organization promoted itself as being environmentally friendly and denounced littering to "Keep America Beautiful," it was just a front for the beverage industry. The American Can company and other organizations that manufactured disposable containers for the soft drink and beer industry were coming under pressure to reduce litter, and the ad campaign was a…
The precariousness of their relationship with the Dakota was evidenced in 1843, when "the Omaha and the Ponca were considering a union, 'to live together as one people' [….] no doubt as a defensive strategy against the Dakota" (Wishart 1994, 85). However, this ultimately never came about, "and the Ponca again joined the Dakota to raid the Omaha," because "in the chaotic years of the 1840s when starvation confronted all the Indians, warfare became the primary means of the spreading the subsistence base," and allying with the Dakota, who were one of the most powerful tribes in the region, made the most sense (Wishart 1994, 85).
Despite the Ponca's alliances with the Dakota, the latter group became increasingly hostile, resulting in the Ponca gradually returning to their ancestral base near the mouth of the Niobara river, "likely [because] the Dakota had cut them off from the bison range and forced…
Wishart, David. An Unspeakable Sadness: The Dispossession of the Nebraska Indians. Lincoln:
University of Nebraska Press, 1994.
Treaty with the Ponca 1825. Accessed November 23, 2011.
Clearly, at the time when the dam was being built, no one cared if it would have had devastating effects on certain communities, since it had been certain that no white community would have been affected by the construction. One could go as far as claiming that the Native Americans have been discriminated, and, that they had no eyes in favor of the people that have approved the dam's construction in the territory.
The American government would come across several problems when being put against the ancient burial ground ethical dilemma. Leaders normally pay great importance to getting as much people as they can to vote them. Thus, if the present American president would continue to ignore the demands made by the Native American tribe, it would ruin his reputation among Native American tribes across the U.S.
The Federal Government will lose large amounts of money if it were to…
1. Coffey, Louis. (2006). Mediated Settlement of a Native American Land Claim. The CPA Journal. Questia, Web, 21 Feb. 2010.
2. Grigg, William Norman, (2002, July 15) Protector of the Nez Perce: Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce Tribe Excelled as a Military Strategist, Courageously Fought as a Warrior, and Valiantly Protected Those Entrusted to His Care," the New American, Questia, Web, 21 Feb. 2010.
3. Kay Roels, Starla, (1998) Borrowing Instead of Taking: How the Seemingly Opposite Threads of Indian Treaty Rights and Property Rights Activism Could Intertwine to Restore Salmon to the Rivers. Environmental Law 28.2: 375, Questia, Web, 21 Feb. 2010.
4. Simms, Andrew, (2003, September 15). Who Owns the World? Everything-From Land, Water and Plant Seeds to Folk Stories and Football Results-Can Now Be Claimed as Private Property. Andrew Simms on the New Enclosures," New Statesman, Questia, Web, 21 Feb. 2010.
Mughal Empire and the Indian Identity
In a certain regard, the Mughal Empire was inherently foreign when it assumed the seat of power that would see India through several hundred years. Descendent from the same Mongolian seat of power which produced Genghis Kan and the Tartars, heavily influenced in its culture by the Persians and initiated by a royal descendent ruling in Afghanistan, the Mughal Empire is something of a hybrid. It is thus that its claims to 'Indian' heritage are called into question. However, a consideration of Indian culture today and in a retrospective regard suggests that our current understanding of the Indian identity is necessarily shaped at least in part by the Mughal influence. Therefore, as to the discussion of the Mughal Empire's claim to Indian identity, it is appropriate to suggest that it would be a prime determinant of the Indian identity as we know it today.…
Abrams, H.N. & Welch, S.C. (1963). The Art of Mughal India. New York City: The Asia Society, Inc.
Bowle, J. (1962). Man Through the Ages. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Lane-Poole, S. (1970). Mediaeval India Under Mohammedan Rule (A.D. 712-1764). Haskell House Publishers, Ltd.
Malik, H. (1963). Moslem Nationalism in India and Pakistan. Public Affairs Press.
Unlike the more committed New England settlers who were fueled by a desire to practice their faith and farm and to create a 'shining city on a hill,' settlements in the southern regions of North America were made up of single men, unused to labor and farming as well as taking orders. Despite certain famous incidents from this period of history, such as the friendship established between Powhatan and Pocahontas with Captain illiam Smith, settlements like Jamestown floundered (Davis & Mintz 52). The Puritans, for all of the criticism leveled upon them, fared better, perhaps because they brought a form of government and a structured ideology to sustain them as a people, although the struggles that beset this community (not the least of which was the Salem 'witch scare') in terms of tilling unfamiliar soil and surviving a harsh climate cannot be underestimated.
Eventually, all of the colonies began prosper.…
Davis, David Brion & Steven Mintz. The Boisterous Sea of Liberty: A Documentary History of America from Discovery Through the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press,