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IV-3). Each of these topics represents a crucial part of the larger evacuation plan, because as will be discussed in greater detail below, each single element of the plan influences and affects every other.
All of this information should already be included in the embassy's emergency action plan, but it would likely be supplemented in a noncombatant evacuation plan with information and intelligence available via the Department of Defense and the relevant intelligence agencies and divisions, such as satellite imagery, more in-depth threat assessments, and more recent information regarding security forces and domestic military leadership. This last topic is particularly important, because in many ways the regional commanders of U.S. forces act as a kind of diplomatic corps to the military command of the country in question, so they would likely be able to contribute relevant information to the noncombatant evacuation plan that might not be available through other means.…
CIA. (2012). CIA worldbook: Republic of congo. Retrieved from website:
Department of Defense, (1990). Noncombatant evacuation operations. Retrieved from website:
The Church Committee concluded that these activities made the intelligence community a secret government that was illegal, unethical, and improper and did not reflect the people or the nation of America.
Secret intelligence actions were used to disrupt, harass, and destroy domestic law-abiding citizens and groups. At the time, people were spied on with excessive intrusion with the methods being illegal. In addition, the intelligence agencies carried out secret infiltration and surveillance activities of lawful groups, with mail being illegally opened (McCarthy, 2009). The recommendations to establish the FISA court and Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 have failed following the aftermath of 9/11. Current intelligence agencies are once more intractable as they carry out the decisions of the executive branch of government and legislator (McCarthy, 2009). Like intelligence activities under the rule of President Nixon, intelligence agencies have searched, arrested, and detained many legal citizens and groups in the…
Auerswald, D.P., Campbell, C.C. (2012). Congress and the Politics of National Security. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Best, R.B., Jr. (2011, Dec 16). Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, 7-5700, RL34231.
Dale, C., Serafino, N.M., & Towell, P. (2008, Dec 16). Organizing the U.S. Government for National Security: Overview of the Interagency Reform Debates. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, 7-5700, RL34455.
Halchin, L.E., & Kaiser, F.M. (2012, May 14). Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, 7-5700, RL32525.
The necessity to safeguard intelligence information from parochialism and political pressures will be a strong argument in promoting a centralized and strong capability. This is contrary to leaving decisions that affect critical intelligence related concerns solely to the makers of policy. Centralization of policymaking process faces the politicization risk that stems from the department of DCI. It is only the Congress, the President, and Senior National Security Officials who can assist in protecting against politicization. However, the also do have the potential of politicizing any intelligence. Contrary to business in this scenario, the customer is not always on the right end. Analysis should be decentralized based on concerns that have minimal or no impact on the analysis in question (Halchin & Kaisser, 2010).
American intelligence community can safeguard itself against political pressures by following a competitive analysis regarding controversial issues. Safeguarding from politicization is a fundamental function for the President…
Baldino, D. (2010). Democratic oversight of intelligence services. Annandale, NSW: Federation Press.
Halchin L.E. & Kaisser, F. (2010). Congressional Oversight of Intelligence: Current Structure and Alternatives. CRS
Reed, E.D., & Dumper, M. (2012). Civil liberties, national security, and prospects for consensus: Legal, philosophical, and religious perspectives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Salinas, F.A.M., Samuel, K.L.H., & White, N.D. (2012). Counter-Terrorism: International law and practice. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.
Defining, Identifying and Cultivating Childhood Intelligence
Intelligence is a complex and nuanced subject. Once evaluated under fairly rigid terms using standardized intelligence quotient (IQ) testing, intelligence is now understood in a far more varied and flexible way, with concepts such as emotional intelligence, technical intelligence and artistic intelligence undermining a singular perspective on that which defines the concept. As this subject has widened in its scope, so too have discussions about identifying, cultivating and optimizing intelligence in our children. The discussion here considers some of the implications of the childhood intelligence discussion with specific reference to some of the factors that may or may not impact its development. The aim of this discussion is to produce a meaningful definition for our evolving concept of intelligence.
Of specific importance is a combination of our basic constructs about intelligence with emergent ideas on the subject. Here, the text by Smith et…
Der, G. (2006). Effect of breast feeding on intelligence in children: prospective study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis. BMJ, 333, p. 945.
Dewar, G. (2012). Intelligence in Children: Can We Make Our Kids Smarter? Parenting Science.
Smith, P.K.; Cowie, H. & Blades, M. (2010). Understanding Children's Development. John Wiley & Sons, 5th Edition.
Few concepts in psychology are more hotly debated than the idea of what constitutes human intelligence. The definition of intelligence has become part of current culture wars as well as an area of intense scientific debate. This paper examines one popular theory of intelligence, Howard Gardner's concept of 'multiple intelligences,' which has been proposed as an alternative to the theory of 'general intelligence,' or intelligence as a concept that spans multiple domains of ability.
The theory of multiple intelligences
Few concepts are as contentious and fraught as that of intelligence in modern-day life. Questions of how to measure intelligence is intermeshed with current debates over race and gender, as well as more general concepts of human worth. One of the most popular conceptions of intelligence to emerge in recent years is the theory of multiple intelligences, as advocated by Howard Gardner of Harvard University. However, within the field,…
Barnard, L., & Olivarez, A. (2007). Self-estimates of multiple, g factor, and school-valued intelligences. North American Journal of Psychology, 9(3), 501-510. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/197988283?accountid=10901
Gottfredson, Linda S. (2011) The general intelligence factor. Scientific American. Retrieved:
Helding, L. (2009). Mindful voice: Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Journal of Singing - the Official Journal of the National Association of Teachers of Singing, 66(2),
Many divergent global forecasts relating to the Intelligence Community have been fronted where relative harmony dominates market economies and democracies but the use of military force is diminishing among internationally relating nations. This is driven by rising political, military and economic competition along the borders of major culture and civilization, increasing the breakdown of order as states implodes, rogue states arming themselves with unconventional weaponry and competition among multiple great powers akin to post major world wars. The rising global insecurity has force the United States to adopt stringent measures of protecting its citizens. This study has focused on three areas where it can collaborate with other global partners in order to ensure that is security is bolstered. This study further confirms that the U.S. cannot go alone in this battle and the quest of enhancing it intelligence community (Berkowitz, 2010).
Complicating matters of the U.S. intelligence community…
Bean, H. (2011). No more secrets: Open source information and the reshaping of U.S. intelligence. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
Sims, J.E. & Gerber, B. (2010). Transforming U.S. intelligence. Georgetown, Washington: D.C.
Berkowitz, P. (2010). The future of American intelligence. Stanford, Calif: Hoover Institution Press.
Johnson, L.K. (2012). Bombs, bugs, drugs, and thugs: Intelligence and America's quest for security. New York: New York University Press.
Yaphe compares America's invasion with that of the British experience, at the end of orld ar I. According to Yaphe, he parallels between the two are remarkable, showing how Iraq's ethno diverse territory gives rise to violence and cruelty against others. hat Yaphe saw was a common course of political division that was present in both Britain 1917 incursion in Iraq, as well as in America's 2003 invasion. The different religious interests within the nation compounded the sectarian split. The three political groups, Kurds, Shia and Sunni, each had a claim on the wealth of Iraq, and the formerly empowered Sunni did not give up their power easily.
Yaphe is a senior research fellow for the Institute of National Strategy Studies at the National Defense University, in ashington DC, as well as works with the Department of Defense, and therefore is a solid government source for academic knowledge. Her study…
Betts, R. (2004). The New Politics of Intelligence: Will Reforms Work This Time? Foreign Affairs, Vol. 83, No. 3 (May -- June, 2004), 2-8.
Byman, D. (2006). Friends like These: Counterinsurgency and the War on Terrorism. International Security, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Autumn, 2006), 79-115.
Hegghammer, T. (2010). The Rise of Muslim Foreign Fighters. International Security, 35(3), 53-94.
Klein, M. (2007). Hamas in Power. Middle East Journal, Vol. 61, No. 3 (Summer, 2007), 442-459.
hen most people think the concept of "intelligence," they think of how "smart" an individual might be. Typically associated with academic success, many imagine that intelligence has a lot to do with how well one did (or did not do) in school, and later, by how much money one can make in its exercise. However, as many people know, there are many different kinds of intelligence -- from the "book smart" to the "street smart," from practical knowledge and common sense (both work-related and social), to the heights of technical or scientific learning. Thus, in my conceptualization of the "perfect" definition of intelligence, I imaging a melding of the "types," a kind of sum total of the common and social sense, combined with the ability to grasp complex logical, mathematical and spatial concepts.
However, even in my perfect definition, one must ask, but what of the "other" realms of…
Gardner, H. (1982). Art, Mind and Brain. New York: Basic Books.
Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Books.
IIDB. (2002). "Intelligence Tests: Personal Experiences." Web site. Retrieved on April 25, 2005, from, http://www.iidb.org/vbb/showthread.php?t=37342
Karney, Kat. (2002). "Blanks' life not letter perfect." CNN Online. 26 Nov. Retrieved from Web site on April 25, 2005, from, http://edition.cnn.com/2002/HEALTH/09/26/hln.bio.billy.blanks/
The U.S. realized how devastating that could be, but yet the country still had enough power to work with the U.S.S.. And Cuba to reach an agreement (Frankel, 2005). If it were not for intelligence that indicated that those bases were being built, the U.S. might not have known what was taking place there and the missiles could have been fired, which would have destroyed much of the United States.
Who knows, at that point, what would have happened to the world? Much of the intelligence that was provided to the U.S. during that time came from people and organizations that were already in place because of the Cold War (Frankel, 2005). Had they not been there, things might have gone much differently, so the Cold War was a vital part of the intelligence that was provided during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The Cold War - Its ole in Cuban…
Diez Acosta, T. (2002). October 1962: The 'Missile' Crisis as Seen From Cuba; Pathfinder Press, New York.
Dobbs, M. (2008). One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Brink of Nuclear War; Alfred a. Knopf, New York.
Faria, M.A., (2002). Cuba in Revolution -- "Escape from a Lost Paradise. Hacienda Publishing, Macon, Georgia.
Frankel, M. (2005). High Noon in the Cold War; Ballantine Books, 2004; Presidio Press (reprint).
The report mentions that almost 3-4% of the keys could not be resolved. Thereby, it can be argued here that great advantages were gained when Americans decoded Japanese conversation
2. Radio Traffic Unit
There is a naval intelligence installed at the Pearl Harbor was using the radio traffic unit and it was working to find out and analyze the location of Japanese ships. In this case, the Japanese messages could not be decoded by the Americans. When Japanese ships started to settle in, the radio units could not follow the tracks of these ships.
3. American ambassador in Tokyo
Ambassador Grew was one of the most important sources of information. ut the information obtained in this case was only related to the state of mind and ideology of the Japanese people and the level of hostility that the Japanese have against the Americans
Methodology and Research Strategy
In order to…
Bradley, N. John., Bradley, H. John., Buell, B. Thomas., and Dice, W. Jack. The Second World War: Asia and the Pacific, West Point Military History Series, Volume 2 of the Second World War, Square One Publishers, Inc., 2002.
Colonel Hughes-Wilson, John. Military Intelligence Blunders and Cover-Ups: New Revised Edition. Constable & Robinson Ltd., 2012.
Garthoff, F. Douglas. Directors of Central Intelligence as Leaders of the U.S. Intelligence Community. Potomac Books, Inc., 2007.
Grolier, M.S. Perspectives on Intelligence. Nova Publishers, 2002.
Intelligence in Older Adulthood
Psychologists describe two basic types of intelligence: Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. The idea that intelligence is static -- that it is a fundamental personal attribute that is immutable long ago fell out of disfavor with scientists. Current research suggests that fluid intelligence does begin to lessen in the over the life span, with adolescence being the watershed years. Crystallized intelligence, however, can continue to increase throughout the lifespan. The concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence were proposed by aymond Cattell, who later worked with John Horn to further develop the theory. What is now known as the Cattell-Horn theory of fluid and crystallized intelligence proposes that various abilities interact with a synergy that generates what is known as overall individual intelligence.
Fluid intelligence. The ability to problem-solve and reason abstractly independent of prior learning, experience, and education or training is considered to be fluid intelligence.…
Belsky, J. (1999). The Psychology of Aging: Theory, Research, and Interventions (3rd ed).
Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks Cole Publishing.
Cherry, K. (2011). Fluid and crystallized intelligence, Psychology, About.com. Retrieved http://psychology.about.com/od/cognitivepsychology/a/fluid-crystal.htm
Horn, J.L. And Cattell, R.B. (1967). Age differences in fluid and crystallized intelligence, Acta Psychologists, 26, 107-129.
Many scholars have signified that timely availability of both creative and financial resources leads to effective problem solving. Many scholars have given a great deal of emphasis to the creative aspect of counterterrorism policy making. They assert that policy makers have got to get inside the heads of the terrorists to figure out what they plan to do, what their ideology is and how they are going to execute their plans of hurting American interests. Jacobson (2006) provided seven dimensions of creativity, which are as follows:
Enthusiasm; and Independence.
He asserts that the policy makers should not create rigid process that on one hand discourages independent and on the spot decision making and on the other makes their intelligence gathering efforts into a routine. Instead, he asserts the policy makers should encourage:
Open and friendly to creative thought
Free of disapproval and favorable to out-of-the-box thinking.…
Higgie, D. (2005). Combating Terrorism: Dell Higgie Surveys the International Counter-Terrorism Scene. New Zealand International Review. 30: 1.
Donohue, L.K. (2006). Anglo-American Privacy and Surveillance. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 96: 3.
Anderson, K. (2006). Law and Terror. Policy Review, 139.
Donohue, L, K,. (2006). Anglo-American Privacy and Surveillance. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 96: 3.
Unfortunately, some in the intelligence community fear that this level of cooperation will ultimately dissolve as the memory of September 11 dulls over time. hether or not this fear proves to be the case, for the moment the intelligence community in the United States has recognized that they must re-prioritize their position on terrorism and take action to facilitate interagency cooperation, especially with the law enforcement agencies that will have to act on the intelligence that they are gathering.
This alteration in the structure of the intelligence community because of new analytic and operational needs has altered the mission and capabilities of the intelligence community as a whole. In theory, the greater coordination between intelligence agencies and with law enforcement agencies should make the intelligence community more effective in preventing further terrorist attacks. However, the combination of law enforcement and intelligence has significantly threatened the civil liberties of U.S. citizens…
Martin, Kate. "Intelligence, Terrorism and Civil Liberties." Human Rights Magazine. Winter 2002. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.abanet.org/irr/hr/winter02/martin.htm .
The Terrorist Threat to the U.S. Homeland." National Intelligence Estimate. Director of National Intelligence. 17 July 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.dni.gov/press_releases/20070717_release.pdf .
If these people had been given a fully rounded education, that is, I believe the skills in areas in which they are "lacking" would be greatly improved. This does not mean that every math prodigy could also be an award winning poet, as I believe there are different aptitudes for different subjects and areas of learning, but I believe that anyone with high intelligence in one area could also demonstrate at least average if not above average skills in other areas, as well. Critical thinking is a function that serves people well in many different areas of learning, and I believe that it is a sign of the general intelligence factor and can be used to increase aptitude in many areas.
Based on the intelligence scores provided, I would expect the child that took this test to have difficulties recognizing and manipulating patterns, due to the low scores on verbal…
The questions seen on the test prove to be inventive and good quality (Brown YEA). Although the goal of the test is not to reflect an entire curriculum, it aims at "focus[ing] deliberately on skills and conceptual strategies of knowing rather than upon the content of the knowledge," (Brown YEA). Thus, the Bristol Tests aim to gauge a student's capabilities of knowledge and methodologies of storing and retaining that knowledge, rather than particular elements of a curriculum study. Tests depend on the grade of the student taking it, and were designed with psychological, pedagogical, and curriculum concepts at hand (Brown YEA). Two forms of the test, Form a and B, are given at different durations of the school year to help track the changing abilities of the student from the beginning of the school year to the end. The two versions of these tests then prove to have significantly different…
Brown, F.G. (YEAR). Bristol achievement tests. EBSCO Publishing.. Retrieved January
Fehriinger, Heather M. (2004). Contributions and limitations of Cattell's sixteen
Personality factor model. Personality Research. Retrieved January 23, 2009 at http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/fehringer.html .
Hiltonsmith, Robert W. (YEAR). MIDAS: the multiple intelligences development assessment scales [revised]. EBSCO Publishing.. Retrieved January 21, 2009.
Intelligence is a general mental capability that involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend ideas and language, and learn (Intelligence). Some researchers such as Charles Spearman have proposed that intelligence is a single quantity or concept, but others such as Howard Gardner assert that intelligence really consists of a set of relatively independent abilities. While there is much debate over the validity of the two theories, Spearman's theory of intelligence is more accepted by psychology today.
According to Spearman's two-factor theory of intelligence, the performance of any intellectual act requires some combination of "g," a general intellectual ability which is available to the same individual to the same degree for all intellectual acts, and of "specific factors" or "s" which are specific to that act and which varies in strength from one act to another (Charles Spearman, Human Intelligence). Spearman concludes that the most important information…
Charles Spearman. Human Intelligence. Retrieved January 24, 2005 from Indiana University Web site: http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/spearman.shtml
Gottfredson, L. (1998). Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. Retrieved January 24, 2005 from Web site: http://www.lrainc.com/swtaboo/taboos/apa_01.html
Gottfredson, L. (2004). Intelligence: Is it the epidemiologists' elusive "fundamental cause" of social class inequalities in health?. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Vol. 86, No. 1,174-199. Retrieved January 24, 2005 from Web site: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cdha/seminars/docs/soc995_04Nov03_2.pdf
Intelligence. Retrieved January 24, 2005 from Web site: http://www.portaljuice.com/intelligence_1.html
The two domains meet, as pointed out, in the domain of information. This is very complex, because at this level the information flows and factors such as the media become extremely important in disseminating the information with the population, for example. Additionally, the information domain is where intelligence is formed about who were the attackers, what are their demands, possible scenarios of action etc.
In the case of terrorist attacks in Israel and the Occupied Territories, for example, the mapping of the terrorist acts on the three domains can be done in the following manner. A suicide bombing, for example, is done in one of the suburbs in Jerusalem by a Palestinian terrorist. The reaction of terror is produced at the level of the cognitive domain, generated by a sensation of lack of security in the city and the perception that everyone is at risk. However, at an informational level,…
1. Heuer, Richard. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis. History Staff Center for the Study of Intelligence Central Intelligence Agency. 1999. On the Internet at http://inzax.files.wordpress.com/2007/08/psychologyofintelligenceanalysis.pdf.Last retrieved on October 27, 2007
Heuer, Richard. Psychology of Intelligence Analysis. History Staff Center for the Study of Intelligence Central Intelligence Agency. 1999. On the Internet at
Some researchers such as Charles Spearman have proposed that intelligence is a single quantity or concept, but others such as Robert Sternberg assert that intelligence really consists of a set of relatively independent abilities. While there is much debate over the validity of the two theories, the exploration of academic and everyday intelligence indicates that intelligence has many dimensions.
According to Spearman's theory of intelligence, the performance of any intellectual act requires some combination of "g," a general intellectual ability which is available to the same individual to the same degree for all intellectual acts, and of "specific factors" or "s" which are specific to that act and which varies in strength from one act to another (Charles Spearman, Human Intelligence). Spearman concludes that the most important information to determine a person's intellectual ability is an estimate of their "g" because it pervades all tasks.
In sharp contrast to…
Charles Spearman. Human Intelligence. Retrieved January 24, 2005 from Indiana University Web site: http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/spearman.shtml
Sternberg, R. (1988). The triarchic mind: A new theory of human intelligence. New York: Viking.
" The subsets include "Memory for Block Designs," studying a printed design that is briefly exposed, then constructing the design using six cubes and a formboard. It can also serves as an alternate subtest for the Core Battery Fluid Scale. "Famous Faces" involves "naming people of current or historical fame, based on their photographs and a verbal clue and also serves as an alternate subtest for the Core Battery Crystallized Scale. ebus ecall involves reading phrases and sentences composed of rebuses that were learned earlier during the administration of ebus Learning, and finally auditory recall that involves answering literal and inferential questions about news stories that were heard during administration of auditory comprehension.
The test administrator calculates scores for all components, and the final IQ score yields an assessment of both fluid and crystallized as well as general intelligence. "Each of the ten subtests yields age-based scaled scores with a…
Flanagan, D.P., Alfonso, V.C., & Flanagan, R. (1994). A review of the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test: An advancement in cognitive assessment? School Psychology Review, 23, 512-525.
Flanagan, D.P., & McGrew, K.S. (1998). Interpreting intelligence tests from contemporary Gf-Gc theory: Joint confirmatory factor analysis of the WJ-R and KAIT in a non-White sample. Journal of School Psychology, 36, 151-182.
KAIT. (2005) Official Test Website of the Kaufman Adolescent & Adult Intelligence Test. Retrieved 14 Feb 2005. http://www.agsnet.com/Group.asp?nGroupInfoID=a3650
cops.usdoj.gov) (p. 45).
Intelligence-Led Policing and Theories of Criminology
Rational choice, as defined by Larry Seigel, is when an offender makes a rational choice to break the law to either improve his personal situation or to further a value he holds as important. The rational choice to break the law is partly based on "…how efficient the local police happen to be…" and in the case of ILP, if the police and the community are united and the signs of cooperation are clearly evident, it may prevent the potential criminal from taking action.
In the case of the psychological trait theory, psychologists will be incorporated into the Intelligence-Led Policing because their expertise can provide important clues as to what to expect from criminals vis-a-vis behaviors that reflect their intentions. Further, the psychological traits of police officers can make a difference in becoming familiar with the various personalities in the community.…
Plotnik, Rod, and Kouyoumdjian, Haig. (2010). Introduction to Psychology. Florence, KY:
Regoli, Robert M, and Hewitt, John D. (2009). Exploring Criminal Justice: The Essentials.
Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
[footnoteRef:5] the coordination required to produce a document also is problematic given the hostilities which exist between different agencies. This can result in gridlock or groupthink, depending on the parties involved. [5: Rosenbach, 2009]
A more serious allegation is the politicization of the intelligence-gathering process. This was particularly noteworthy during the debriefings after the Iraq War, in which Democrats accused the ush Administration of deliberately fabricating a threat from Iraq to justify the invasion and divert attention away from the Administration's failures in Afghanistan and its mismanagement of the economy. However, both Democratic and Republicans alike have been accused of playing politics with the process. "IC accusation of politicization surfaced after the key judgments of NIEs on the ballistic missile threat to the United Sates changed between 1993 and 1995. Some Republicans claimed the IC politicized the findings to support President Clinton's policy against missile defense systems.[footnoteRef:6]" [6: Rosenbach, 2009]…
Rosenbach, Eric. "National Intelligence Estimates." Belfer Center. [12 May 2013]
Intelligence Analyst - Policy Maker Relations
Policymakers & Analysts
To paraphrase Sherman Kent, the relationship between analysts and policymakers "does not fall naturally in place, but requires careful thought to set right and constant efforts to keep effective" (Strategic Intelligence for National World Policy, 1949, sited in Davis). It is the nature of that careful thought and constant effort that is the subject of this paper.
Policymakers and analysts agree that "the quality and policy utility of analysis" must improve if intelligence is to help policymakers do their jobs[footnoteRef:1]. The desired improvements are unlikely to happen unless analysts can simultaneously achieve two important objectives: protection of the professional tradecraft and closer connections with policy action[footnoteRef:2]. The disconnection between the charge of policymakers and the deliverables of analysts has been an enduring one, and since the 1990s, a number of tactics have been implemented to address this matter. For example, analysts…
Jack Davis. "Improving CIA Analytic Performance: Analysts and the Policymaking Process" (Sherman Kent Center for Intelligence Analysis, Occasional Papers: Volume 1, Number 2, n.d.), 1. Available https://www.cia.gov/library/kent-center-occasional-papers/pdf/OPNo2.pdf
Jack Davis. "Tensions in Analyst-Policymaker Relations Opinions, Facts, and Evidence"
(Sherman Kent Center for Intelligence Analysis, Occasional Papers: Volume 2, Number 2, n.d.), Retrieved
Roger Z. George, Robert D. Kline. Intelligence and the National Security Strategist: Enduring Issues and Challenges. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005.
According to the Federation of American Scientists – FAS (2020), “the Intelligence Cycle is the process of developing raw information into finished intelligence for policymakers to use in decision making and action.” As FAS, further points out, at present, the intelligence cycle is made up of a total of 5 systematic steps. These have been identified as planning and direction, collection, processing, analysis and production, and dissemination. It is important to note that one of the criticisms that have been leveled against this particular cycle is that it tends to present the intelligence process as an overly simplified process.
To a large extent, the present cycle fails to take into consideration the fact that in contemporary settings, the amount of information to be analyzed has increased. This is more so the case given the increase in variables as well as related data from multiple sources. Next, the intelligence cycle also…
Frini, A. (2011). An intelligence process model based on a collaborative approach. Retrieved from https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a547105.pdf
Federation of American Scientists – FAS (2020). The Intelligence Cycle. Retrieved from https://fas.org/irp/cia/product/facttell/intcycle.htm
Franks (along with the Bush war cabinet, including Vice President Dick Chaney) "met repeatedly" to plan the attack on Iraq. It was groupthink through and through. At the same time Bush was saying publicly he was "pursuing a diplomatic solution" (Hamilton, 2004), "intensive war planning" was going on during the whole year 2002. It "created its own momentum" in the administration, Hamilton wrote.
In oodward's book, which was recognized as conveying authentic details about the Bush war planning and strategies, he covers much of the pre-war discussions Bush had with top members of his administration, along with decisions Bush made on his own and with help from people like his Foreign Policy Advisor, Condoleezza Rice. But according to an excerpt from oodward's book, Bush waited until the last minute (among his top staff) to brief Secretary of State Colin Powell, who had not been an advocate of going to war,…
Bar-Joseph, Uri, and Levy, Jack S. 2009, 'Conscious Action and Intelligence Failure', Political Science Quarterly, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 461-489.
Bar-Joseph, Uri. 1995, Intelligence Intervention in the Politics of Democratic States: The United States, Israel, and Britain. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania.
Gentry, John a. 2008, 'Intelligence Failure Reframed', Political Science Quarterly, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 247-260.
Hamilton, William. 2004. 'Bush Began to Plan War Three Months After 9/11.' Washington Post, April 17, 2004, p. A01.
It was also a pivotal tool in discovering the ussian nuclear missile sites that sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The U.S. also gained spy satellites in 1960, and combined with the U-2 and other tools, American technological superiority began to assert itself. The spy satellites were a direct result of rocketry experimentation during and after World War II, and many German rocket scientists transplanted to America helped create the rockets that would launch the satellites. The scope of the intelligence operations was growing, and so were the technological advances that helped the agencies grow and learn more every day.
There are many who believe that factors such as the Cold War may help develop new agencies, but they have little to do with how the agencies evolve. Author Zegat continues, "The truth is that international factors such as the onset of the Cold War may catalyze the…
Andres, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only. (New York: HarperPerennial), 1996.
Bamford, James. Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency from the Cold War Through the Dawn of a New Century. New York: Doubleday, 2001.
Painter, David S. The Cold War: An International History. London: Routledge, 1999.
Powers, Thomas. Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to al-Qaeda. New York: New York Review Books, 2002.
One recent study defined purpose as "an extraordinary achievement" (Moran, 2009, p. 143), yet the there are many individuals in the world who believe that the purpose of intelligence is to prevent surprise. Contemplating the contradiction, the question that could be asked is "how then does an extraordinary achievement translate into everyday intelligence?" This author believes that the purpose of intelligence is not to prevent surprise, instead that the purpose of intelligence is to determine a pathway for the life of the individual.
Measuring the successful pathway of an individual life can be a difficult venture, especially if such measurements are based on the person's intelligence. My belief is that preventing a surprise by showing intelligence can be applied to these type of scenarios with very limited success. There are a myriad of methods used to determine ones intelligence, including but certainly not limited to: measuring intelligent quotient as…
Anderson, R.; (2006) Body intelligence scale: Defining and measuring the intelligence of the body, The Humanistic Psychologist, Vol. 34, Issue 4, pp. 357 -- 367
Bond, M.; (2009) It's how you use it that counts, New Scientist, Vol. 204, Issue 2732, pp. 36 -- 39
Hardy, J.B.; Welcher, D.W.; Mellits, E.D.; Kagan, J.; (1976) Pitfalls in the measurement of intelligence: Are standard intelligence tests valid instruments for measuring the intellectual potential of urban children? Journal of Psychology, Vol. 94, Issue 1, pp. 43-52
Moran, S.; (2009) Purpose: Giftedness in intrapersonal intelligence, High Ability Studies, Vol. 20, Issue 2, pp. 143 -- 159
The idea that common sense and emotional intelligence are the same thing, however, is a very common misconception. Common sense is a thought process that can generally be taught and learned through experience, while emotional intelligence is something that individuals are born with, and the degree of emotional intelligence that a person possesses will affect much of what he or she does in life, especially within the area of leadership (Samra-Fredericks, 2004). This is due to the fact that individuals with higher emotional intelligence are able to relate to others better overall than those that have lower levels of emotional intelligence.
George, J.M. (2000). Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence. Human Relations, 53(8), 1027-1055.
Hein, S. (2005). Introduction to emotional intelligence. Retrieved at http://eqi.org/history.htm#Potential%20EI%20vs.%20Actual%20EI%20Skills%20(EI%20vs%20EQ)
Samra-Fredericks, D. (2004). Managerial elites making rhetorical and linguistic 'moves' for a moving (emotional) display. Human Relations, 57(9), 1103-1143.
Simpson, P. & French,…
George, J.M. (2000). Emotions and leadership: The role of emotional intelligence. Human Relations, 53(8), 1027-1055.
Hein, S. (2005). Introduction to emotional intelligence. Retrieved at http://eqi.org/history.htm#Potential%20EI%20vs.%20Actual%20EI%20Skills%20 (EI%20vs%20EQ)
Samra-Fredericks, D. (2004). Managerial elites making rhetorical and linguistic 'moves' for a moving (emotional) display. Human Relations, 57(9), 1103-1143.
Simpson, P. & French, R. (2006). Negative capability and the capacity to think in the present moment: Some implications for leadership practice. Leadership, 2(2), 245-255
By 1945, the OSS was abolished and by 1947 the National Security Act had completely transferred the task of espionage and intelligence from military to civilian hands ("United States Intelligence"). This transfer set the stage for the successes and failures of the U.S. intelligence community during the early Cold ar. It meant that U.S. intelligence was much more greatly coordinated and more aggressively implemented during that period to some apparent success. But it also meant that these new civilian agencies did not have the legacy of experience with espionage that existed within the military intelligence community. The end result was a higher degree of coordination during the early Cold ar, which improved the level of intelligence and communication and helped create the U.S.'s first true intelligence community.
United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. 2007. 4 Oct. 2007 http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html.
United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. 2007. 4 Oct. 2007 http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html .
This flexibility gave U.S. intelligence agencies an advantage over their Soviet counterparts, who were unable to demonstrate a similar capacity for rapid and effective responses to the circumstances of the crisis ("Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis"). Finally, and most surprisingly, the U.S. intelligence community retained a remarkable ability to take actions that were not heavily influenced by the political climate of the nation. Rather than being influenced by the political platforms of politicians, the intelligence community focused on the matter at hand, to great effect ("Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis"). These three factors were most influential in the successful actions of the U.S. intelligence community during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis." The atson Institute for International Studies. 1998. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.watsoninstitute.org/pub_detail.cfm?id=139.
Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis." Everything2. 23 Feb. 2006. 15 Oct. 2007 http://everything2.com/index.pl-node_id=17884497.
Intelligence and the Cuban Missile Crisis." The Watson Institute for International Studies. 1998. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.watsoninstitute.org/pub_detail.cfm?id=139.
Intelligence in the Cuban Missile Crisis." Everything2. 23 Feb. 2006. 15 Oct. 2007 http://everything2.com/index.pl-node_id=17884497 .
Intelligence Unit Memo
Police Chief I.B. Friendly
Incorporating Intelligence Unit into Department
In modern law enforcement, the sophistication of modern criminal activity, particularly post-September 11th, causes a necessary paradigm shift for 21st century police departments. This shift requires that departments rethink the power of information -- the manner in which it is collected, analyzed, and then used to fulfill the goals of the department. In fact, in 2007, the National Strategy for Information Sharing released by the hite House describes the need for fusion information centers as a vital way to succeed in modern law enforcement and critical to the safety of the local community as well as the nation (Porter, 2008).
Historical Background - Prior to 1960, even large, urban Police Departments did not have intelligence units. Resources were combined so that Detectives were at the hierarchy of information analysis; and every member of the department was open to…
Corrections - Report of the National Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals. (1973, March). Retrieved from ncjrs.gov: http://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=10865
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2011, June). Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System. Retrieved from FRI.gov:
6). The question then becomes, who protects the American public from the CICC?"
Currently law enforcement groups at all levels are protective of the information singularly gathered. If these groups were to share all information at every level the information, whether true or not, can be used in a manner that would take away the constitutional right of American citizens to be considered innocent until proven guilty. In today's world of capable technology assisting law enforcement, analysis of criminal intent and mischief is readily available to all entities.
Sharing the resulting information from such analysis with all other law enforcement will open the door to mismanagement and corruption. Such corruption is already evident in many law enforcement entities and to provide them with additional cannon fodder would be a huge mistake.
Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A national plan for intelligence-led policing at the local, state and federal levels (2002)…
Criminal Intelligence Sharing: A national plan for intelligence-led policing at the local, state and federal levels (2002)
http://www.theiacp.org/documents/pdfs/Publications/intelsharingreport.pdf , Accessed December 15, 2007
Shortly after, the Navy successfully cracked the Japanese military code in Operation Magic, which allowed U.S. forces to turn the tide of the war in the Pacific by 1942 ("United States Intelligence").
One of the chief actions taken during this period was the creation of the Office of Strategic Services by FDR in 1942. During orld ar II, the OSS coordinated all of the information through collection and analysis that was used for clandestine operations up until 1945 ("United States Intelligence"). The development of the OSS, though short-lived, demonstrates that the role of the intelligence community in United States foreign policy was growing significantly. Before this period, U.S. espionage was limited at best and primarily a domestic affair. By 1945, the role of the intelligence community had greatly expanded and become a more central part of life in the United States.
United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia…
United States Intelligence, History." Espionage Information: Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence, and Security. 2007. 4 Oct. 2007 http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html .
Emotional Intelligence (EI) Defined. Despite the common usage of defining intelligence in terms of numbers there are many psychologists that do not agree with the concept that intelligence is measurable and quantifiable and representative strictly on the basis of cognition. Some theorists believe that intelligence not only includes analytical and problem solving ability but creativity and practical problem solving components as well. In fact there are even some theorists who have totally abandoned the idea of measuring intelligence and purport that intelligence is not measurable visa via a pencil and paper test. These particular theorists believe that ethnicity, cultural heritage, and even religious factors (i.e., Emotional Intelligence factors) have a tremendous influence on that which is commonly called the Intelligence Quotient. More than likely the safest way in which to view intelligence is to consider the concept as one being influenced by dietary factors, physical and mental exercise, emotional states,…
Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experimental Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Mayer, J.D., DiPaolo, M.T., and Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality.
Assessment. 54: 772-781.
Salovey, P., and Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9: 185-211.
Short to military dances. The book is riddled with anecdotes such as these that indicate the military was ill prepared for a surprise attack, and in fact were arrogant in their ignorance.
In fact, Clausen's investigation showed the American military knew Japanese codes but ignored them in seeking intelligence; the agencies were unprepared for war or a surprise attack. As the author notes, "Although vested with high commands and responsibilities, they were surprised by the attack. They were unprepared for war. Thus, they were really guilty of criminal neglect of duty" (Clausen & Lee, 1992, p. 228). There was little joint action between the services during and after the attack, and that had a midnight message been decoded, it might have prevented the attack. In short, Pearl Harbor was a series of bungles that resulted in the most horrific naval losses the U.S. has ever endured.
Clausen, H.C. And…
Clausen, H.C. And Lee, B. (1992). Pearl Harbor: Final Judgement. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.
At the same time, Hitler had very old-fashioned ideas when it came to his behavior towards the opposite sex. He believed that women belonged in the home, and had no role in public life of the Reich. Their main role was to mother racially pure Aryan children.
If Hitler were to have removed himself to a German-speaking part of Argentina in order to pursue an art career rather than remain in Europe and become leader of the Third Reich, one can only assume that he would have limited his contacts to Argentineans of German descent. Hitler felt that Jews, Slavs, and other racial "undesirables" were polluting the purity of the German race. Add to that his repressed nature that surfaced in the form of traditional attitudes towards sex and procreation, and it seems readily apparent that he would attempt to ground his Argentinean art career among German-speaking "pure" Argentineans.
Welch, David. Hitler: Profile of a Dictator (London and New York: Routledge, 1998), 79.
Victor, George. 1998. Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (Dulles, Virginia: Brassey's), 13-20.
Victor 1988, 62.
And we are no stranger to the fact that smart people do very well in the practical world.
In practical world, no one really cares about your GPA. It doesn't matter how much you got in Statistics or Math but they sure do care about application. In businesses around the globe, every single employer would want an employee who is a quick learner but who doesn't simply learn from books. He is a learner in the true sense and learns from observations, experiences, and other stimuli. This is a gift that all smart people possess. Intelligent people may or may not have this kind of learning habit since they are limited to books.
I consider myself smart and intelligent both. And being smart is a gift that I cherish. it's a gift I thank God for because not everyone in my class could be called smart. I generally love to…
Those who are not familiar with such conditions can hardly imagine the results, especially when the mutual differences express themselves in the form of brutal attacks on the part of the father towards the mother or to assaults due to drunkenness." (Langer, "Mind of Adolf Hitler"). He also seems ha have been his mother's favorite and the beneficiary of generous flows of love from her part, contrary to his father's severity. Langer also draws the conclusion that Hitler was influenced in a very serious degree by his father's personality and often confusing way of behaving. His father's deeds seem to contradict themselves in his attempt to present an entirely different image to the society than what he really was at home: an unreliable drunk who physically and verbally abused all the members of his family.
As Langer also points out in his study, Hitler looked in his first adult years…
Kershaw, I.(2000). Hitler. 1936-1945: Nemesis. London, England. Penguin Books.
Langer, W.C.(ca. 1934) a Psychological Analysis of Adolphe Hitler. His Life and Legend.. Retrieved: September 5, 2007. from the Nizkor Project 1991-2005. Web site: http://www.nizkor.org/hweb/people/h/hitler-adolf/oss-papers/text/profile-index.html
Waite, R.G.L.(Winter 1971). Adolf Hitler's Guilt Feelings: A Problem in History and Psychology. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp 229-249 from Jstor. The Scholarly Journal Archive.
More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).
In the arrangement of science there…
A Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cia/tradecraft_notes/contents.htm
Botkin, D.B. (2011). Absolute Certainty Is Not Scientific. Retreived from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204630904577058111041127168.html
Clauser, J. (2008). An introduction to intelligence research and analysis. Lanham, Maryland:
The Scarecrow Press.
While it is almost certain that intelligence ahs a neurological basis, the extent to which intelligence is determined by neurological and chemical changes is not fully understood. A recent study suggests that changing hormone levels prior to and during puberty have a large effect on intelligence; high salivary testosterone levels in ten-year-old boys showed a positive correlation with intelligence, but a negative correlation in twelve-year-olds (Shangguan & Shi 2009). This shows that intelligence can be quite fluid, and can even be affected quite differently by the same mechanisms. The exact nature of the changing influence testosterone seems to provide or signal is not known, but the correlation demands further study.
These three different research studies display very different theories of intelligence. In the first study, accepted methods of cognitive relationships with the environment are valid, if perhaps somewhat inaccurate at the extremes of the intelligence spectrum. The second study points…
CJ. (2009). "Working memory predicts learning outcomes." Psychologist 22910), pp. 827.
Shangguan, F. & Shi, J. (2009). "Puberty timing and fluid intelligence: A study of correlations between testosterone and intelligence in 8- to 12-year-old Chinese boys." Psychoneuroendocrinology 34(7), pp. 983-8.
Whitaker, S. & Wood, J. (2007). "The Distribution of Scaled Scores and Possible Floor Effects on the WISC-III and WAIS-III." Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, 21(2), pp. 136-41.
hile some in the intelligence community may have resented the intrusion of Congress and calls for transparency, the investigations and oversight gave the CIA and the intelligence community a stronger moral footing in the U.S. democracy (DeYoung and Pincus). In a nation in which freedom and open-ness are core values, the continuance of an intelligence community that operates outside of those bounds and values is ethically unacceptable. The long-term health of the intelligence community in the nation was predicated on those Congressional investigations of the 1970s, which successfully infused the U.S. intelligence community with some degree of a "conscience."
DeYoung, Karen and Pincus, alter. "CIA Releases Files on Past Misdeeds." ashington Post 27 June 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/26/AR2007062600861.html.
Van agenen, James S. "A Review of Congressional Oversight." Central Intelligence Agency. 14 Apr. 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/wagenen.html.
DeYoung, Karen and Pincus, Walter. "CIA Releases Files on Past Misdeeds." Washington Post 27 June 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/26/AR2007062600861.html .
Van Wagenen, James S. "A Review of Congressional Oversight." Central Intelligence Agency. 14 Apr. 2007. 15 Oct. 2007 https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/wagenen.html .
Genetic factors are responsible for almost everything that establishes the core of a particular individual. Almost all diseases and abnormalities are the result of our genetic predisposition such autism, neurofibromatosis and other genetic diseases. There are instances wherein part of a person's immunity, susceptibility and resistance to some infectious diseases are inherited and form part of his genes.
Our character and personality effect our emotions and sensation and is part of our genetic heritage. Lethargy and laziness is frequently inherited factor and thus, determines the input and other resources available from our environment. A human being who is too tired and lazy to learn will not profit as much from education as a highly motivated individual with the same level of intelligence.
The quality of output of our brain is dependent on the quality of the input of the system. However, it is the brain, governed by our body and…
Intelligence: Nature or Nurture (2006). Retrieved June 15, 2007 from http://www.rationality.net/intelligence.htm
Study ties genes, size of brain areas. Intelligence linked to quantity. (2001).
Retrieved June 16, 2007 at http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f= / c/a/2001/11/05/MN155262.DTL&type=science
The American Journal of Psychiatry. (2007). Retrieved June 16, 2007 From http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi
Intelligence Practical Exercise
Geospatial Intelligence Analysis
GEOINT which means Geospatial Intelligence is a system which is used to analyse an environment for intelligence and operational purposes. (GEOINT Analysis, 2017).
Describe the Environment: Collect key data that defines the precise destination for the planned mission. Geographical, government and cultural limitations must be established. In most cases, the gathered data could consist of vectors, heights, natural landmarks such as rivers, mountains etc., longitude and latitude locations and several others. All these are the basic requirements of the GEOINT invention.
Outline the Effects of The Environment: Elaborate thoroughly on the mission location identified in the previous step. Locate and define its natural state, any existing structures and its cultural atmosphere. Account for all possible factors that might have an effect on a mission in the location such as roads, people, buildings, plants, climate, language, government, cultural divides or social factors. Add this new…
Ali Rathore, S. (2016). Brussels Attack - Lessons Learned. A JOURNAL OF THE INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR POLITICAL VIOLENCE AND TERRORISM RESEARCH.
Brown, G., Carlyle, M., Salmeron, J., & Wood, K. (2005). Analyzing the Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructure to Attack and Planning Defenses. Tutorials inOperations Research, 102 - 123.
GEOINT Analysis. (2017). Retrieved from National Geospatial Intelligence Agency: https://www.nga.mil/ProductsServices/GEOINTAnalysis/Pages/default.aspx
International Nuclear Safety Group. (2010). The Interface Between Safety and Security at Nuclear Power Plants. Vienna: International Atomic Energy Agency.
intelligence analysis process have been discussed. This paper puts light on what basically is intelligence analysis and how can it be improved. It discusses ways via which intelligence analysis can be made more focused and more effective. It puts light on how better sharing and provision of information, collection and analysis of correct data and fact and figures can benefit the intelligence analysis process.
This paper also puts light on different psychological issues that are being faced by intelligence analysts and it also examines the ways through which analysts can overcome such hurdles.
Before discussing how to improve intelligence analysis it is necessary to have proper understanding of the terms intelligence and analysis. Intelligence can be defined as an information which has added value in it whereas analysis is a process via which you can evaluate your intelligence, it helps you to understand a situation and then to…
Federation of American Scientists. (1996). Improving Intelligence Analysis. USA: FAS. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/int012.html .
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crimes. (2011). Criminal Intelligence. New York: UNODC. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.unodc.org/documents/organized-crime/Law-Enforcement/Criminal_Intelligence_for_Analysts.pdf .
Heuer, R.J. (1999). Psychology of Intelligence Analysis. USA: Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 21, 2012 from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/books-and-monographs/psychology-of-intelligence-analysis/PsychofIntelNew.pdf .
Heuer, R.J. (2005). Limits of Intelligence Analysis. Retrieved November 20, 2012 from http://www.worldaffairsboard.com/attachments/staff-college/20727d1273228985-ebo-sod-limits-intelligence-analysis-fpri-winter-2005-heurer-.pdf.
Charles Spearman and his General Intelligence Theory
Spearman, a British psychologist, noted that individuals whose score on one mental ability test was excellent tended to maintain an impressive score in other tests as well (Nevid, 2012). On the other hand, those whose score on one cognitive test was unimpressive tended to perform badly in other tests administered. It is on the strength of this observation that Spearman concluded that being a general cognitive ability, intelligence could be expressed numerically or measured. In the words of Nevid (2012, p. 247), "he reasoned there must be an underlying general factor of intelligence that allows people to do well on mental tests, a factor he labeled 'g' for general intelligence."
It is, however, important to note that Spearman was also convinced that in addition to "g," intelligence included some other abilities that contributed "to performance on individual tests" (Nevid, 2012, p. 274).…
Comer, R. & Gould, E. (2012). Psychology Around Us (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Nevid, J. (2012). Psychology: Concepts and Applications (4th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Stenberg, R. (2008). Cognitive Psychology (5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Weiner, I.B. (2012). Handbook of Psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.
Because of the difficulties he analyzed in a testtaker's response to a task, he called for more complex measurements of intellectual ability than previously undertaken.
Wechsler built upon these views, compiling a more complete definition of intelligence but as parochial as that examined by Sternberg. "Intelligence, operationally defined, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individually to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal with his environment." (235)
Wechsler critically added that intelligence is not just the sum of the abilities included in the definition, but it is something only understandable by the measurement of the various aspects of those abilities. (235) Likewise, he added that an individual's ability to perceive and respond to social, moral, and aesthetic values contributed to a personality of intelligence.
Examining the cognitive process of young children, Piaget found that intelligence was an evolving process of a certain adaptation to the outside world.…
Charles Spearman was the first to develop techniques that measured "intercorrelations" between different tests of intelligence. The development of these theories lead to the evolution of the two-factor theory of intelligence, in which he postulated that the existence of a general intellectual ability factor that can and is tapped by all other mental abilities such as linguistic, mechanical, and arithmetic abilities. (238) Spearman instituted tests that measured the magnitude of this general intelligence and concluded that the higher the general intelligence, the greater a subject's overall intelligence would be. (237)
Spearman's work led directly to the development of multi-intelligence models, like those of Guilford (1967), that attempt to explain the varied types of identifiable intelligence witnessed throughout the general population. Evolving from the discussion of intelligence as a general idea accepted by the lay population but without real definition, psychologists from Sternberg to Spearman attempted to decipher the popular idea of intelligence, capture it within an acceptable definition, and understand its origins, growth, possibilities, and application. Each scientist presented a new way to examine the nebulous idea, mollifying its uncertain nature with an infusion of definition and standards, shedding light on the wholly inconspicuous concept of brilliance.
Cohen and Swerdlik, Jay and Mark E. Psychological Testing and Assessment. 6th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.
intelligence theories of Charles Spearman and Howard Gardner. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
There have been many ideas presented to the world about the theory or intelligence and while some of them have received lukewarm reviews there are two in which the world took a long hard look and decided they might be possible. It is interesting to note that the theories of Charles Spearman and Howard Gardner do not have a lot in common yet they are each respected as possible explanations for the human intelligence.
The theory of Howard Gardner of intelligence is based in the belief that there are actually multiple types of intelligence and rather than narrow the areas of measurement to one or two the world should recognize and encourage all seven of the intelligence factors.
According to Gardner the seven distinct areas of intelligence include (Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory…
Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory (accessed 6-12-2003)
Multiple Intelligences (H. Gardner) (accessed 6-12-2003)
intelligence unit that is secure and maintained at all times is an absolute necessity for operational reasons. Explain in detail why this is so important.
Security is probably the single most important factor that prevents the intelligence unit from applying information technology more effectively. Security is essential for intelligence unit. When it comes to IT, approach is not "risk management," but "risk exclusion."
There are some very specialized electronic security threats that could apply, so it may be that a secure PDA needs to be developed and provided. In intelligence unit the presence of sensitive but unclassified information could cause serious concern over information bypassing safeguards on tiny solid state disk equivalents, which can fit into pens. This problem can be addressed by requiring the devices to store information in encrypted form, and using biometric identification.
An intelligence unit can be secured, but the security both has to be built-in,…
Heye, Steve, and Lancman, Steve n.d. Vendors As Allies: How to Evaluate Viability, Service, and Commitment. Retrieved Oct 9, 2011 from http://www.idealware.org/articles/vendors-allies-how-evaluate-viability-service-and-commitment .
Kendall, Kenneth, and Julia Kendall (2005). Systems Analysis and Design. 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
McLeod, Raymond, Jr., and George Schell Sumner (2004). Management Information Systems. 9th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Valacich, Joseph, Joey George, and Jeffrey Hoffer (2004). Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Emotions affect how memories are processed, stored, and retrieved, which also impacts how learning takes place. Perhaps more importantly, emotions impact cognitive processes and learning. Neuroscience shows the ways thoughts are processed depends on one's cultural context and also emotional states. Thinking styles may be also linked to the learning process, as Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, and thinking styles are themselves related to cultural variables. The ways people process information therefore has to do with social learning as well as emotional learning and memory. Certain types of emotions may be more conducive to specific types of learning styles or learning behaviors. Emotions can also promote synchronized or chaotic neurological responses. These findings have implications for classroom design and pedagogy.
Wealth means far more than just possession of material goods. As Zhang & Sternberg (2010) point out, capital refers not only to assets in the traditional sense but also…
According to him, a theory of intelligence can be adequately mapped with three components: analytic (academic) intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence. This theory accounts for both cognition and context is also referred as Sternberg's "triarchic" theory of human intelligence.
According to Sternberg, intelligence has three aspects. These are not multiple intelligences, as in Gardner's scheme. Where Gardner viewed the various intelligences as separate and independent, Sternberg posited three integrated and interdependent aspects of intelligence. These aspects relate intelligence to what goes on internally within a person, to what goes on in the external world, and to experience, which mediates between the internal and external worlds.
The first aspect consists of the cognitive processes and representations that form the core of all thought. Sternberg distinguished three kinds of processes: those involved in deciding what to do and in deciding how well it was done, those involved in doing what one…
Integrated agreements will assist in targeting the maximum federal funding at the greatest risk counties, cities and states where through the addition of more funds, security of citizens will be increased (U.S. Congress 2010). U.S. Department of Homeland Security should uphold on what it considers being right. It should be firm on actions vital to the country's ability to respond to such issues. It should issue a mandate on funding for the activities, interoperable communications and should not ignore its own requirements. As a result, local and state governments will succeed in achieving interoperable communications (Studeman, 2002).
The DHS must ensure that localities and states attain a certain degree of appropriate interoperable communications. Activities and actions should be given proper funding. In addition, Department of Homeland Security should allow local and state governments to be flexible and make decisions on how they intend to achieve the standard. The DHS enterprise…
Pincus, W. (2007). An Admonition on Intelligence. New York: ProQuest
US Congress (2010). Congressional Record, V. 153, Pt. 1, January 4, 2007 to January 17, 2007.
New York: Government Printing Office
Studeman, M. (2002). Strengthening the Shield: U.S. Homeland Security Intelligence. Kingston:
Successful Simulation of Intelligence is Essentially Equivalent to the Possession of Intelligence
Researchers have been attempting to develop artificial intelligence for more than a half century now, but it has become increasingly apparent that intelligence is a multidimensional construct that is incredibly difficult or perhaps even impossible to truly simulate. As the review that follows below will demonstrate, the assertion that successful simulate of intelligence is essential equivalent to the possession of intelligence is erroneous due to the multidimensionality of intelligence as well as its other nebulous qualities that preclude successful simulation being the essential equivalent to the possession of intelligence (Pogio & Meyers, 2016). This paper reviews the relevant literature to show that the Turing test and Chinese Room argument fail to provide an adequate response to this claim. Finally, a discussion concerning whether the successful simulation of human reasoning is in principle possible and whether the answer to…
This includes a general description of how to incorporate activities based on multiple intelligences into the classroom, and the benefits and importance of doing so. A diversified curriculum will be far more likely to meet all learners' needs, rather than just promoting and developing the types of intelligence that have been traditionally recognized and encouraged in Western schools. This means making curricula both "intelligence rich" by promoting and developing all types of intelligence, and "intelligence fair" by making sure that learning opportunities and assessment methods take the different intelligences into account. This can often mean providing choice in the activities to be performed, as well as in the ways to complete them, as well as offering many different activities even when they don't match a particular student's proclivities, specifically to develop some of their weaker intelligences.
Knowledge is most useful when it is practical, and though there is a great…
police adopted intelligence-Led policing? What are the problems associated with its implementations?
Over time, policing methods have advanced, with the most recent strategy in improving response time of police being intelligence-led policing (or ILP). ILP is still in its initial developmental stages, is still not wholly understood, and has not yet been adopted by all agencies (Taylor, Kowalyk and Boba 2007). Studying police managers' views and attitudes can help recognize obstacles. Depending on findings of research, when initiating this strategy, top police officers obtain the information required for foreseeing problems and understanding supervisors' mind-set. Strategy transformations spring from shifts in objectives. For instance, London's Metropolitan police was organized by Sir obert Peel for focusing not on response, but on prevention of crime (Johnson 1988). Improvements were generated through technological advances like automobiles and telephones. These improvements served to lessen response time, as well as expand an officer's patrol coverage (Phillips…
Anderson, R 1994, "Intelligence-led policing: A British perspective," in A Smith(ed) Intelligence-led policing: International perspective on policing in the 21st Century, Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement intelligence Analyst.
Anderson, R 1997, "Intelligence-led policing: A British Perspective," In Intelligence-led policing: International Perspective on policing in the 21st Century: Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analyst.
Bennett, T 1994, 'Community policing on the ground: developments in Britain,' in D.P. Rosenbaum(ed) The challenge of community policing: Testing the promises, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.
Carter, DL and Carter, JG 2009, "Intelligence-Led Policing: Conceptual and Functional Considerations for Public Policy," Criminal Justice Policy Review 20, no. 3: 310-325
Ian J. And Dr., Geoff (2005). Reaction time explains IQ's association with death, Psychological Science. American Psychological Association, 16:1, 64-69
As all learning, on the basis of one's composite mental ability structure, can be thought of as a puzzle that is intricately formatted on the basis of one's neurological, physiological, psychological, and sociological parts, and, when blended together, produce a healthy functioning individual. Therefore, before an understanding is garnered as to how learning comes about, or the variables that affect its outcome, one must first understand the concept of intelligence. Most individuals, professional or lay, have an almost intuitive idea of what constitutes that which we call intelligence. Broadly defined intelligence is an individual's total ability to solve problems. The more complex the problem the more it is thought that the individual possess a higher level of intelligence. Unfortunately, however, most definitions do not differentiate intelligence as general ability or…
The standard IQ tests based on the work of Alfred Binet and Lewis Terman are also based on the idea of a single-ability measure of intelligence.
The idea of a single g factoring intelligence, however, has numerous critics. As early as 1938, psychologist L.L. Thurstone criticized the narrowness of Spearman's model. Thurstone argued that mental abilities such as verbal comprehension, spatial visualization and reasoning were distinct forms of intelligences that should be considered separate from one another (Huffman 2003).
Howard Gardner, a cognitive theorist, pursued this idea further by proposing a theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner devised a criteria of eight intelligences, including linguistic skills, bodily-kinesthetic skills and logical-mathematical skills. According to Gardner, people can have different profiles of intelligence, meaning that they can have challenges in some areas but exhibit strengths in others. Because of these different forms of intelligence, Gardner proposed that people also have distinct…
Huffman, Karen. 2003. Psychology in Action. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
gathering and using knowledge as a basis for making decisions in formal settings is an old one. If one is to gain advantage over their rivals, it is essential to gather updated knowledge that is also accurate with regard to what they intend to do and their capabilities. The principle applies across a wide range of fields including military strategies, politics, criminal intelligence circles and business. Further, it is a continually evolving process. It has been changing in response to socio-cultural factors, higher advanced analytical skill requirements, organizational demands, and even technology. Review of the roots of intelligence and the analytical procedures as a pre-occupation and profession is a consultative activity. Such analysis of the background of intelligence processes helps us to understand the past, the present and help anticipate the future. We also learn, in the process, that intelligence gathering is an ever evolving field. Consequently, if the practice…
CIA. (n.d.). Signals Intelligence Activities. Retrieved from cia.gov: https://www.cia.gov/library/reports/Policy-and-Procedures-for-CIA-Signals-Intelligence-Activities.pdf
Erickson, M. H. (1929). Study of the Relationship Between Intelligence and Crime. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology.
Manget, F. F. (2006). INTELLIGENCE AND THE CRIMINAL LAW SYSTEM. STANFORD LAW AND POLICY REVIEW, 415.
Ratcliffe, J. H. (2007). Integrated Intelligence and Crime Analysis. Police Foundation.
Battle of the Atlantic
The changing nature of America's involvement in orld ar II is an interesting strategic story because the American people were weary of war and during the time Hitler was taking over one European nation after another. After the attack on Pearl Harbor of course Americans were fully ready to go to war with Japan. But the situation in Europe was not as well defined as far as American involvement. And the Battle of the Atlantic was, in reality, a "…battle to deliver supplies" and in fact "…the future prosecution of the war" depended on the success of this battle (www.ibibilo.org). This paper reviews the strategies employed by the U.S. And Great Britain, the technologies used, and other aspects of the Battle of the Atlantic.
hy was the Battle of the Atlantic important?
The importance of winning this battle -- which the allies won, with an enormous…
Allied Communications Intelligence (2000) Battle of the Atlantic, Vol. I. December 1942-
May 1945. The U-Boat and Allied Naval Communication Intelligence. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://www.ibiblio.org .
Destroyer Escort Historical Museum. (2001). Destroyer Escorts in the Atlantic. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://www.ussslater.org .
Hickman, K. (2014). World War II: Battle of the Atlantic. About.com. Retrieved February 25,
The concept of intelligence and the pactice (and pacticality) of testing fo intelligence has been one of the moe contovesial aeas of psychology and psychometics since the fist tests wee developed and administeed a centuy ago. Fa fom thee being a consensus in the scientific community on exactly what makes up intelligence, the list of chaacteistics that compise intelligence has instead been a matte of exteme and ongoing debate. Measuing intelligence in individuals has found an even geate shae of disageement and contovesy. Even when eseaches ae able to agee on what aspects should be measued to develop an accuate pictue of intelligence, the methods poposed and implemented fo testing these aeas have often been widely disputed. The contovesy suounding intelligence testing eached new heights in the ea of cultual divesity, as it became clea that the standad intelligence tests in use fo the bette pat of the…
references in four categories: introvert/extrovert, intuitive/sensing, thinking/feeling, and perceiving/judging. This test is closely related to both intelligence tests in certain ways, but completely unrelated in others. That is, both intelligence tests reflect the way each individual thinks -- their intellectual strengths and weaknesses -- to some degree. The Myers-Briggs personality type test reveals a great deal about the way an individual thinks and interacts with the world, but it does not predict how efficiently this occurs -- that is the realm of the intelligence tests. Both types of tests can be used to measure someone's capabilities and proclivities to aid in employment placement or in psychological testing, to determine where problems might lie or how they might best be handled.
These issues lead to what could be some major ethical issues with both types of test. Given the fact that some bias is inherent to even the most carefully designed test, the use of either (or both) intelligence or personality tests to determine suitability for employment could be viewed as ethically unacceptable in terms of discriminatory practices. Online testing is somewhat less fraught with ethical considerations, as it is (or should be) assumed that tehse tests are not fully accurate measures and are taken more for reasons of personal enjoyment. The fact that many tests try to sell you things, or claim to be incredibly accurate, does diminish the harmlessness somewhat, but our culture should know no to trust everything on the web.
Intelligence, Information Sharing, and the 9/11 Commission Report
Intelligence versus information
There two terms are fundamentally different for a number of reasons. The reason the terms are different can be decoded by investigating the ‘why’ from the information gathered. According to Lance (2017) the ‘how’ or ‘what’ is not important in decoding intelligence information. The resource needed to produce valued and true intelligence is by understanding why. The sole purpose any entity receives finished intelligence is to make it possible for the entity to make strategic, operational and tactical decisions with the information received. The media takes information received and takes steps towards transforming this information into stories hence creating actionable intelligence. In essence, according to Lance (2017) intelligence changes the how and what in information into when and why in the process of decision making. Information only becomes finished intelligence through detailed analysis of that information.
Tallmadge (2016) defines…
Intelligence testing should not be required for candidates prior to running for public office.
Firstly, the assumption that higher traditional measures of intelligence will result in better governance is highly debatable and flawed. Second, the ability to govern may be better determined by a measurement of emotional intelligence, rather than standard IQ measurements. Third, moral character may be a better measure of the ability to govern than intelligence.
Americans often complain that the nature of our democratic government leads to the election of individuals whose intelligence levels leave a great deal to be desired. Clearly, the actions of a great many public officials give credence to this claim. e have only to think of the, the indiscreet and inappropriate sexual shenanigans of Gary Hart, and the infamous inability of Dan Quayle to spell potato correctly as evidence of this assertion. In response to these criticisms, many Americans have begun to…
Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Book Inc., 1983.