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Instead, by transferring budgetary control to the Director of National Intelligence, IRPA forced the various intelligence agencies to unite under a single, coherent leadership, if only to ensure the continued flow of funds towards their respective projects. As with any government endeavor, the inertia of the Intelligence Community is maintained only so long as ample funds are continually available, so by tethering intelligence agencies' funding to inter-agency cooperation coordination, the Intelligence Reform and errorism Prevention Act ensured that in the years following its passage, the Intelligence Community would be forced to work more closely, if only to ensure its own survival.
Project Parameters and Methodology
However, the passage of the Intelligence Reform and errorist Prevention Act does not represent the end of intelligence reform following the terrorist attacks of September 11th, but rather the beginning, and thus any consideration of the relative success or failure of intelligence reform must examine…
Tidd, J.M. (2008). From revolution to reform: A brief history of U.S. Intelligence. SAIS Review, 28(1), 5-24.
United States Congress (2004). Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004.
Walker, D. United States Congress, Government Accountability Office. (2008). Intelligence reform: GAO Can Assist the Congress and the Intelligence Community on Management Reform Initiatives. Washington, DC: Government Accountability Office.
Commission's ecommendations on eforming the U.S. Intelligence Community
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the point that "things would never be the same" echoed throughout the country, and in some ways this has been true. Unfortunately, many observers also maintain that some things have not changed at all, especially the ability of the U.S. intelligence community to anticipate and prevent such attacks in the first place. Others, though, point to the numerous instances in which terrorist attacks have been preempted by timely action, as well as the death of Osama bin Laden as proof positive that things have indeed changed for the better. To determine who is right, this paper provides an analysis of the impact of the 9/11 Commission's recommendations on reforming the U.S. intelligence community in view of the major intelligence community components of the Intelligence eform and Terrorist Prevention Act, and the extent to which…
Divoli, V. (2011). The 'full access doctrine': Congress's constitutional entitlement to national security information from the Executive. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 34(2),
Intelligence CIO seeks to consolidate authority. (2006, April). National Defense, 90(629), 9.
Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. (2004). U.S. government printing office. Retrieved from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-108publ458/html/PLAW -
Iraq & Iran NIEs
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 instituted the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) (as well as the position of Director itself) and tasked it with coordinating intelligence gathering and dissemination between the disparate agencies of the IC. In 2007 the ODNI implemented Intelligence Community Directive (ICD) 203, which outlined analytical standards for the production of any intelligence product with the goal of ensuring that the IC recorded and shared data in rigorous, analytically sound way, and the implementation of these standards was one of the most important changes seen within the IC after the establishment of the ODNI itself. To understand the importance of these analytical standards not only in the creation of intelligence products but in the actions those products inform, one may compare and contrast the 2002 National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on Iraq, which was prepared without concern…
Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Analytic Standards. Intelligence Community
Directive 203 (ICD 203). June 21, 2007.
Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Iran: Nuclear Intentions and Capabilitites.
National Intelligence Estiamte. November, 2007.
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), its creation and the different roles it plays. The duties of the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) are also highlighted in the paper. The paper also highlights the Intelligence eform Act of 2004 and the amendments that were made after the date of enactment. Lastly, the paper discusses the major components of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the roles played by them in order to guarantee the efficient running of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Central Intelligence Agency
The CIA is an independent agency, whose functions are not disrupted by the United States government without any necessity. This agency is dedicated towards providing national security intelligence to the senior policy makers of the United States of America. ("CIA vision, mission," 2013)
The Central Intelligence Agency, (CIA), is responsible for collecting and analyzing information in relation to the plans and strategies of the enemies…
About CIA. (2013, January 10). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html
Canon, D. (1980). Intelligence and ethics: the CIA's covert operations. The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 4(2), 198-199. Retrieved from http://mises.org/journals/jls/4_2/4_2_6.pdf
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), (2003). National strategy for combating terrorism. Retrieved from Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) website: https://www.cia.gov/news-information/cia-the-war-on-terrorism/Counter_Terrorism_Strategy.pdf
Cia.gov (2009). Components of the CIA -- Central Intelligence Agency. [online] Retrieved from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/additional-publications/the-work-of-a-nation/cia-director-and-principles/components-of-the-cia.html.
S. directly. Evidently, the long-term objectives indirectly face the smooth running of the U.S. government. Priority should be given to those aspects that will pull the resources of the country to extreme levels. The U.S. As a super-power is privileged when tackling issues affecting other nations; it is mandated to help developing long-term solutions.
Long-term also implies that the impacts and effects need to be widespread in order to maintain balance and ensure the prosperity of all sectors is recognized. The above long-term objectives are issues that need time and resources in order to be able to resolve the issue that affects the stability of these countries among other issues. The Soviet Union, for example, is crying to have political relations with ussia. This means that the military forces will be deployed to this country. However, the negotiation process is hefty and requires time and adequate resources in order to…
Bruce, J. & Bennett, M. (2008). "Foreign Denial and Deception: Analytical Imperatives,"
Analyzing Intelligence: Origins, Obstacles, and Innovations. Washington, DC:
Burch, J. (2008). The Domestic Intelligence Gap: Progress Since 9/11? Homeland Security
The historical experiences of Cuba, Chile, Turkey, and even the Iran Contra affair fueled the discussions over a tighter control exercised over the Agency's structure and strategies. However, the Cold War demanded for secret operations especially taking into account the high degree of uncertainty that characterized the political environment at the time. The ideological confrontation between the West and Communist forces was often defused on the territories of third parties and the advantage of information and influence played a crucial role.
The period following the Watergate scandal weighted heavily on the evolution of the CIA. Richard Nixon, along with his Secretary of State, Kissinger was the proponents of an increased power given to the CIA because the presidential control could thus be exercised without any legislative hindrance from the Congress. The 1971 presidential decision to gather the budgets of all national intelligence services under a single unitary one was just…
Alexandrovna, Larisa, Muriel Kane. New documents link Kissinger to two 1970s coups. June 26, 2007, accessed 15 October 2007, available at http://rawstory.com/news/2007/Intelligence_officers_confirm_Kissinger_role_in_0626.html
An Intelligence Community Primer. 2007, accessed 15 October 2007, available at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/wmd/pdf/appendix_c_fm.pdf
Federation of American Scientists. Aspin-Brown Commission on the Role and Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community. The Need to Maintain an Intelligence Capability. 1996, accessed 15 October 2007, available at http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/int005.html
Goodman, Melvin a. "CIA: The Need for Reform." Foreign Policy in Focus, February 15, 2001.
In 1953, Congress amended the National Security Act to provide for the appointment of a Deputy Director of the CIA by the President with Senate's advice and consent. Commissioned officers of the armed forces, active or retired, could not occupy the top two positions at the same time (CIA).
Intelligence Reform Needed
Countless reorganizations of the intelligence community since the end of the Cold War have not produced satisfactory results (Harris 2002). U.S. intelligence counterterrorist programs have certainly made record achievements, such as the thwarting of planned attacks on New York's Lincoln and Holland tunnels in 1993 and against airports on the West Coast in the eve of the millennium. ut reforms are quite needed. The first is to provide warning. The most difficult task of the intelligence officer is to provide warning. The intelligence community also needs a more risk-taking and failure-tolerant management approach. Safeguarding national security means putting…
BBC. Bush Pledge Over U.S. Intelligence. BBC News: British Broadcasting Company,
2009. Retrieved on May 29, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4396457.stm
CIA. History of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency, 2007. Retrieved on May 30, 2009cia.html" http://www.cia.gov/kids-page/6-12th - grade/operation-history/history-of-the-cia.html
Harris, James W. The Path to Intelligence Reform: "Changes in the Intelligence Craft
Central Intelligence Agency
The civilian intelligence agency of United States has given the name of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The fundamental objective of this agency is to collect, assess and publicize foreign intelligence that provides national security intelligence assessment to the senior United States policy makers. The CIA is also involved in secret agenda at the request of President of United States.[footnoteRef:1]The establishment of CIA was in succession of the Office of Strategic Service (OSS) being operative in World War II. [1: Caroline Wilbert. "How the CIA Works." Available from http://people.howstuffworks.com/cia.htm; accessed Aug 3rd 2011]
On the government side CIA works fundamentally with the House Permanent select Committee on Intelligence and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. These two committees and the Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs and Armed Services committee are responsible to authorize the CIA's program and oversee the CIA. The funding and budgeting system of the CIA…
Wilbert, Caroline,: How the CIA works," Available at http://people.howstuffworks.com/cia.htm . Internet; accessed 3rd August 2011
Kent, Sherman, "Kent Centers Occasional Papers 2004." Available at https://www.cia.gov/library/kent-center-occasional-papers/pdf/OPV3No1.pdf . Internet, accessed 3rd August 2011
Hennessey, Kathleen, "Petraeus Confirmed as CIA Director." American Forces Press Service, Department of Defense (2011-07-01) Available at. http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=64540 . Internet; access, 3rd August 2011
Mazzetti, Mark "C.I.A. Tells of Changes for Its Internal Inquiries." New York Times, (February 2, 2008). Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/02/washington/02intel.html . Internet; accessed, 3rd Aug 2011
Terrorism in recent years has hit an all-time high. Affecting millions of people, radical groups and organizations see terrorism as a favored tactic or approach for bringing to fruition their extreme ideological agendas both domestically and internationally. Terrorism globally chose the United States and other western countries to target in their extremist agendas. The United States government became aware of terrorist efforts after the September 11 attacks. Since then the U.S. has devoted time and resources into developing a counterterrorism and intelligence framework in order to respond to any ongoing and future terrorist attacks/activity.
Counterterrorism refers to the processes that consist of the offensive measures taken to avoid, deter, forestall, and react to terrorism. The United States regarded counterterrorism missions as distinctive operations by clandestine, undercover, or low discernibility means. Counterterrorism presently is categorized as a fundamental task for the United States government. The government has fashioned or redefined distinct…
Jensen, T. (2014). National Responses to Transnational Terrorism: Intelligence and Counterterrorism Provision. Journal of Conflict Resolution. doi:10.1177/0022002714545221
Park, A., & Tsang, H. (2015). A Systematic Approach to Develop a Computational Framework for Counter-terrorism and Public Safety. tsas.ca. Retrieved 12 March 2015, from http://library.tsas.ca/media/TSASWP14-09_Park-Tsang.pdf
Park, A., Tsang, H., Sun, M., & Glasser, U. (2012). An agent-based model and computational framework for counter-terrorism and public safety based on swarm intelligence. Security Informatics, 1(1), 23. doi:10.1186/2190-8532-1-23
Walsh, P. (2015). Building Better Intelligence Frameworks through Effective Governance. International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 28(1), 123. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08850607.2014.924816#.VQRQL47F9j8
In an ever increasingly complex governmental infrastructure, the importance of communication, mission and strategy are of the utmost importance. The Department of Defense (DOD) and all of its law enforcement agencies are in a pervasive struggle to attain both accurate and actionable intelligence in order to perform their duties to the best of their capabilities and intentions.
The purpose of this research paper is to explore the failure of the intelligence process due to extraneous levels of bureaucratic organization. This essay will attempt to explain the many failures of the Department of Defense law enforcement entities as a result of this type of organization.
In order to understand this argument, this essay will first look at the problem itself and try to identify the root cause of these failures. Past failures of intelligence gathering will be examined to help contextualize the argument and give credence to the idea…
Chesney, R. (2011). Military-Intelligence Convergence and the Law of Title 10/Title 50 Debate. J. Nat'l Sec. L. & Pol'y, 5, 539.
Clapper, J. (2011). How 9/11 Transformed the Intelligence Community. The Wall Street Journal 7 Sep 2011. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424053111904537404576554430822300352
Foust, J. (2013). Throwing the Intelligence Community Under the Bus. Beacon Journal 29 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.beaconreader.com/joshua-foust/throwing-the-intelligence-community-under-the-bus
Gusterson, H. (2011). Atomic Escapism? American Scientist, Jan -- Feb 2011. Retrieved from http://www.americanscientist.org/bookshelf/pub/atomic-escapism
U.S. Intelligence Stategy Histoy
The United States has always been a county that pided itself on the excellence of its militay excellenc and pecision. The defense and national foces have been at the heat of militay intelligence thoughout the yeas stating with 2001, in Septembe. Many govenment agencies, fo example, have joined foces with moe taditional militay foces to help combat both mino cime foces with those of a moe sophisticated body of cime thoughtout the United States and the wold. A histoical examination of the vaious elements elated to U.S. intelligence duing militay intense times eveal that moe attention to social o human concens duing the times involved might have ceated a geate dive towads caing fo those left destitute by a focus on militay o social concens duing Wold Wa II, the militay inquiies of the 1970s, and the invasion of Iaq stated in 2003. When examining the…
r, intelligence analysts had grossly underestimated Japanese capabilities and intentions, revealing a tendency to misunderstand Japanese actions by looking at them with American cultural biases. After the war, the resolve of America's leaders "never again" to permit another Pearl Harbor largely prompted the establishment of a centralized intelligence structure.
America's entrance into World War II created an immediate need for intelligence to support the warfighter. While the Army and the Navy maintained their own intelligence capabilities, none were prepared to provide the kind of support needed.1 To bolster this effort, the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was created in June 1942, under the recently established Joint Chiefs of Staff to succeed the Coordinator of Information. William Donovan remained in charge of the reorganized unit. In addition to assuming the analytical role of its predecessor, the OSS was chartered to carry out clandestine operations against the Axis powers on a worldwide scale. It was not, however, readily accepted by the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), who remained skeptical of the value of OSS activities, and the new unit faced strong competition from the FBI and the Army's intelligence organization.
Usually glamorized as the dashing operations arm of the U.S. Army (with its well-known espionage exploits with the Resistance in Europe), the OSS' contribution to intelligence production has gone largely unnoticed. It was, however, one of the seven major intelligence producers and was an important training ground for a generation of intelligence analysts, as well as operatives. Decidedly different than the British system, the OSS established the tradition of putting analysts and operatives in the same organization. The difficulties, however, that the OSS had in establishing itself within the JCS structure reaffirmed
Domestic Intelligence Agency
The Necessity of Establishing a New Domestic Intelligence Agency
In response to a call for a new Domestic Intelligence Agency, the FI National Press Office released a statement in 2006 that indicated the strides the ureau had made in "becoming" an "intelligence-driven organization" since 9/11.
The letter's intent was to show the illogicality of those wishing to "tear apart the ureau" in order to "start a new agency." As Assistant Director of the FI, John Miller asked, "How long would it take this new agency to get rolling? A year? Two? What would it use for a database? How would it address privacy and civil liberties? How long would it take the officers of this new agency to develop trusting relationships with America's 18,000 local law enforcement agencies?"
Miller's questions were both pertinent and revealing of precisely what a successful Domestic Intelligence Agency would require. Even the…
Burch, James. "A Domestic Intelligence Agency for the United States? A Comparative
Analysis of Domestic Intelligence Agencies and Their Implications for Homeland Security, Homeland Security Affairs 3, No. 2 (June 2007).
CNN. "U.S. policymakers mull creation of domestic intelligence agency, CNN.com, Oct
20, 2008, http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/10/20/domestic.intelligence.agency / (accessed July 8, 2013).
U.S. intelligence refers to some of the most formidable and top intelligence available in the world. The United States has long led the way in the practice of gathering the most up-to -- the minute and esoteric intelligence regarding the actions of other countries, other armies and the other enemies. The current modern age has demonstrated the steady advancement in this regard of a range of sound technological tools which America has harnessed consistently for the effective pursuit of the most current and hard to gather intelligence.
The use of combat drones has been something that America has long used to gather intelligence and to engage in warfare with enemies or suspected enemies. However, in the last 12 months, the usage of drones has steadily decreased. "The number of drone strikes approved by the Obama administration on suspected terrorists has fallen dramatically this year, as the war with al…
Aljazeera.com. (2013, October). U.S. 'drone strike' kills senior Shabab members. Retrieved from aljazeera.com: http://www.aljazeera.com/news/africa/2013/10/drone-strike-kills-senior-shabab-members-20131028184651994308.html
BBC. (2013, October). Pakistan says drones killed 67 civilians since 2008. Retrieved from BBC.co.uk: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-24742037
FAS.org. (n.d.). Military Intelligence Satellites. Retrieved from Fas.org: https://www.fas.org/irp/imint/docs/rst/Intro/Part2_26e.html
Galbraith, P. (2013, October). NSA spying on Europe gives the U.S. more intelligence, but not better. Retrieved from Theguardian.com: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/oct/29/nsa-spying-europe-us-intelligence
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
2006 Global Terrorism NIE
Like any intelligence product, the declassified Key Judgments of the 2006 National Intelligence Estimate "Trends in Global Terrorism: Implications for the United States" relies on certain explicit and implicit assumptions as a part of its analysis. Identifying these assumptions is crucial for evaluating the accuracy of any piece of analysis, and intelligence products in particular. Explicit assumptions may be identified by looking out for key words, while implicit assumptions require more in-depth consideration.
The explicit assumptions in the 2006 NIE are identified by certain key words which inform the reader that the following information is not verified fact, but rather based on an assumption, which itself may or may not be based on specific evidence. These key words include terms like "probably," "likely," "could," and "would," because all of these words signify that the statements being made are conditional, rather than definitive. In other instances, the…
Office of the Director of National Intelligence. (2006) Declassified key judgments of the national intelligence estimate "trends in global terrorism: implications for the United States."
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…
Ashton, S.R. "Keeping a Foot in the Door: Britain's China Policy, 1945 -- 50." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (2004): 79-94.
Bjorge, Gary J. "The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 1 (2010):
Boyd, James. "Japanese Cultural Diplomacy in Action: The Zenrin ky? okai in Inner Mongolia,
orking in the field of research analysis, a person must literally wade through thousands of pieces of information in order to determine the proper courses of action that should be undertaken under various circumstances. All research analysts work in either the government or in the private sector, most often in fields such as marketing wherein they acquire data based on consumers and consumption. From that data, they must determine what trends influence consumerism and how to best provide for their clients way that would induce consumers to purchase or utilize various goods and/or services (Roberts 2010). The governments of the world have always been responsible for accumulating and exposing information to the populations under their control. In the United States, there are laws which ensure that information is made available to any persons who demand it. Although, there is still information which is under the strict control of…
Baker, Seth M. (2011). "Information is Overrated." HappenChance. Word Press.
"Freedom of Information FAQS." (2011).
McKellar, Ian (2011). "We Already Have Information, Why do We Need More Data?" Word
The man who first devised
the present mode of governing colleges in this country has done us more
injury than Benedict Arnold." (172) ayside's view would begin to reorient
Brown toward the prospect of staffing itself with professional educators
rather than clergy and men of influence.
The motive would be clear here, as the rising prominence in influence
and impulse of young students themselves would drive ayside and his
contemporaries to scrutinize college governance and administration as
processes separate from the priorities of education itself. The impact of
ayside's recognition would be the newfound scrutiny of decisions which
placed those unqualified in the areas of education in positions of power
and determination where education was concerned. Perhaps most troubling
amongst the outcomes of this orientation at America's universities was its
perpetuation of a class system. Those who had been elevated to places of
administrative oversight were typically wealthy elites whose…
Rudoph, F. (1990). The American College and University. Dartmouth
Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job."
Kinesthetic learners also tend to absorb information when given a great deal of tactile stimulation. I will explore this in greater detail below.
Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways. This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he (a visual learner) might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her.
It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…
Sternberg, R.J. (1996). Successful intelligence. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Trudeau, F. & Shephard, R. (2008) Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 5: 10.
Vyse, Stuart (2005). Where do fads come from? In Jacobson, Foxx & Mulick. Controversial therapies for developmental disabilities. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Chinese lives within the context of modern Chinese history
Communist China has undergone a profound change over the past fifty years regarding its economy: from a primarily controlled and planned state it has shifted to what is, in effect, capitalism in everything but in name only. This marks a major change from the ideological purity demanded during the Maoist era. During the Cultural Revolution, the entire nation was subjected to an ideological cleansing. Intellectuals and people deemed 'counterrevolutionary' in their ideology were sent to work in the countryside to be reeducated. This seems a far cry from the modern Chinese landscape, which is largely dominated by signs of capitalism spanning from name brand clothing to fast food establishments.
However, although economically China has undergone a great deal of progress, politically it is very repressive of those who would defy the dictates of the state. Dissents such as the artist Ai…
Ai Weiwei: Never Sorry. PBS. 16 Dec 2013. 14 Dec 2013.
Young and Restless in China. PBS. 14 Dec 2013.
Culturally Biased Intelligence Assessment
Intelligence assessments have existed since the early twentieth century and have continued to be a topic of debate. We all know full well that intelligence assessment is critical to the type if academic success that we achieve in life. One of the primary tools used to assess intelligence is the IQ test. However, the intelligence quotient test has been under scrutiny for decades because it is believed to harbor culturally biased precepts.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the cultural bias' that exist in intelligence quotient testing. We will begin with a literary review which will start by explaining the definition of cultural bias in testing and the historical implications. We will explain the origins of the IQ test and the reasons why the cultural bias exist. Our discussion will then focus on how cultural bias in intelligence assessment has produced historical implications.
Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132.
Enriching the Focus on ethnicity and race. (1998). APA Monitor. VOLUME 29, NUMBER 3 - March 1998 www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=95784671
Alexander, K.L. (1997). Public Schools and the Public Good. Social Forces, 76(1), 1-30.
Should e Fear Artificial Intelligence TechnologyIntroductionArtificial intelligence technology and implementations are generating a lot of buzz, both for their possibilities and for the potential threats they may offer. Artificial intelligence applications are various, and the opportunities are vast; and owing to current advances in computer hardware, several AI algorithms already outperform today\\\'s specialists(Mannino et al.,5). Robots are already influencing our day-to-day activities. AI is being used in many applications such as search engines, self-driven cars, and even drones. In addition, AI continues to pose fundamental questions to society, such as views on using AI in the military arena.As AI capacity improves, its field of application will continue to grow. Futuristic and former journalist of The ashington Post, Dominic Basulto, sums up this when he talks about \\\'existential reward\\\' in an article on \\\"why the world\\\'s most intelligent people should not be so afraid of artificial intelligence.\\\" He claims that it…
Works CitedBasulto, Dominic. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Why the World\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s Most Intelligent People Shouldn\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'t Be so Afraid of Artificial Intelligence.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Washington Post, 20 Jan. 2015, www.washingtonpost.com/news/innovations/wp/2015/01/20/why-the-worlds-most-intelligent-people-shouldnt-be-so-afraid-of-artificial-intelligence.Lawson, Dominic. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"I for One Welcome the Rise of the Robots. They Can Do the Work While I Play.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Comment | The Sunday Times, 20 Mar. 2016, www.thetimes.co.uk/article/i-for-one-welcome-the-rise-of-the-robots-they-can-do-the-work-while-i-play-xwv2ttv2d.Mannino, Adriano, et al. \\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Artificial intelligence: Opportunities and risks.\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"Policy Papers of the Effective Altruism Foundation2 (2015): 1-16.
honored one, I offer this comment with grave regret that it shall even be received, for in his Excellency's well intentioned attempt to seek the advice of the more sagacious residents of Kyoto and Edo, he is playing into the hands of the barbarians whose own societies are marked with the spilled blood of noble rulers, instigated when words of dissent were expressed in writing. The Americans, whose black ships now dot the horizon in the Bay of Uraga, are presently ruled by the descendents of that generation that penned a doctrine of disloyalty and dissent in their effort to justify the chaos that gave them advantage in their homeland.
The subject before us is not one that should be given over to public scrutiny. This consideration of proper course is not an entertainment, not an exercise of intellect, as over time became the case of the Forty-seven Ronin. In…
Chinese Internet Culture
Decades after the reforms of Deng Xiaoping known as the "Four Modernizations," "a focus on development of agriculture, industry, science and technology and the military" (The University of Michigan. N.D.); China in 2011, grapples with the multiple dilemmas of internet information access, personal freedom, and government control over content. The rise of digital media, web access, and information availability over the past two decades has spread around the globe encompassing the world's second largest economy. As economic freedom continues to slowly evolve in China, so too does the call from its citizens for unfettered access to internet technology and content become more pervasive. The Chinese internet culture is particularly fascinating due to this inherent dichotomy between government control over content and individual demands for information access. How China's leadership confronts the challenges of information dissemination will be critical to China's long-term economic, social, and political future.
Bristow, M. (June 8, 2010). China Defends Internet Censorship. BBC News. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8727647.stm
Carr, D. (March 28, 2010). Not Creating Content. Just Protecting it. The New York
Times. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/29/business/media/29carr.html?_r=1&ref=sergeybrin
CNN: Larry King Live. (June 5, 2005). Encore Presentation: An Interview with Richard
Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.
Learning Theory and Its Importance
A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annuals Rev. Psychology, 51(2), 1-26. Retrieved from http://moodle2.cs.huji.ac.il/nu14/pluginfile.php/179670/mod_resource/content/1/Bandura_2001.pdf
Brown, D. (2014). Opening classroom doors to collaborative learning. The Education Digest, 79(7), 19-22. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1506936575?accountid=12085
Fine, L., & Myers, J.W. (2004). Understanding students with Asperger's syndrome. Phi Delta Kappa Fastbacks, (520), 3-39. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/203654515?accountid=12085
Griswold, D.E., Barnhill, G.P., Brenda, S.M., Hagiwara, T., & Simpson, R.L. (2002). Asperger syndrome and academic achievement. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(2), 94. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/205061045?accountid=12085
9/11 and the ITPA
Under the National Security Act of 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was charged with the task of coordinating all national intelligence activities within the U.S. government. One major reason for this change was the failure of coordination and analysis across the intelligence agencies in predicting the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. Indeed, so glaring were the failures to 'connect the dots' in determining the intentions of the Japanese that they gave rise to at least as many conspiracy theories as the September 11 attacks, such as the idea that Franklin oosevelt knew about the attack in advance and permitted it to happen so the U.S. would enter the Second World War. In practice, the coordination of intelligence activities never really occurred, and many similar failures occurred in the future, such as the CIA's inability to predict the outbreak of the Korean War or…
Best, R.A. And A. Cumming. (2011). "Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals." Congressional Research Service. 7-7500, January 12, 2011.
Fingar, T. (2008). "Analytic Transformation: Unleashing the Potential of a Community of Analysts." Office of the Director of National Intelligence, September 1, 2008.
Hearing of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. (2007). Progress on Intelligence Reform, January 23, 2007.
Progress on Intelligence Reform. (2007). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Statement to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, January 23, 2007.
Breach of Faith
Over the course of twenty-two years, from 1979 to 2001, Robert Hanssen participated in what is possibly the most severe breach of national intelligence in the United States' history. hrough a combination of skill and sheer luck, Hanssen was able to pass critical information from his job at the FBI to Soviet and later Russian intelligence agencies, information that may have contributed to the capture and execution of a number of individuals. Hanssen's case is particularly interesting because it takes place over the course of two decades that included the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the internet age, and as such examining the various means by which Hanssen was able to breach security offers extra insight into the security threats, new and old, that face those tasked with protecting sensitive government information. Ultimately, the Hanssen case reveals a number of ongoing vulnerabilities concerning…
The first substantial action that could be taken to help ensure future breaches do not occur is a reorganization of the FBI's security and intelligence functions. The Webster Commission compared the FBI's organization of its security functions with the rest of the Intelligence Community and found that, "in sharp contrast to other agencies," the FBI's security and intelligence functions "are fragmented, with security responsibilities spread across eight Headquarters divisions and fifty-six field offices" (Webster, 2002, p. 4). This fragmentation of security functions dramatically increases the likelihood of a breach because it means that the overall security apparatus is that much more porous, with adequate, lacking, or inconsistent oversight depending on particular Headquarters or field office.
To combat this phenomenon, the Webster Commission recommended that the Bureau establish an Office of Security tasked with, among other things, consolidating security functions under a senior executive" in order to "prompt management to focus on security, resolve conflicts between operational and security objectives, and foster Headquarters and field coordination" (Webster, 2002, p. 4). The FBI did not establish an Office of Security, which would have meant a high level office reporting directly to the deputy director, but rather in 2005 established the National Security Branch, a lower-level division responsible for Counterterrorism, Counterintelligence, Intelligence, and Weapons of Mass Destruction (Holder, 2011, & FBI, 2012). Even with the consolidation of these security-related functions under one Branch, the FBI's security functions still remain fragmented and ultimately lacking. For example, while Counterintelligence and Intelligence are both divisions of the National Security Branch, a Security Division still remains under the control of the Associate Deputy Director. Furthermore, the Bureau still lacks one of the most important assets recommended by the Webster Commission: a unit dedicated to information system security, clearly an important aspect of overall security considering that much of Hanssen's success depended on being able to use the FBI's automated databases without fear of being flagged for suspicious behavior, or even identified at all (Webster, 2002, p. 4).
Just as the FBI's security issues prior to Hanssen's arrest were microcosmic of the larger problems facing the Intelligence Community prior to the attacks of September 2001, so too is the FBI's failure to institute necessary reforms while exacerbating existing problems microcosmic of the difficulties facing the Intelligence Community in its attempts to institute the intelligence reforms passed in the wake of 9/11. Though the FBI's National Security Branch was born out of a presidential directive and the Office of the Director of National Intelligence out of an act of Congress, both organizations represent attempts to fix security and intelligence
There's a substantial gap between the notions presented by the 9/11 Commission on inadequate imagination and its suggested solutions. It's unlikely that the primary modifications can help create analytical solutions in a limited amount of time. The advancement of national intelligence centres is really a pricey solution and idea that rests on impractical belief in the impartiality and just approach of the policymakers. The requirement of a bigger and much more diverse community of experts may, perversely, lower the standard of their work. And there's really no point in anticipating that the DCI could be more in a position to encourage imagination when he's no longer the principal intelligence consultant (ovner and Long, 2005).
More realistic and logical plans within the Commission report are directly and indirectly proportional to the imagination problem; included in this are growing the FBI's intelligence abilities and mandating standardized DOD and DHS risk…
Blin, A. (1968). The United States Confronting Terrorism. Monash University under Part VB of the Copyright Act 1968.
Gatehouse, Jonathan. Are We Having Fun Yet? Macleans, December 10, 2004.
Jasparro, Christopher. Low-level criminality linked to transnational terrorism. Jane's Intelligence Review, 1 May 2005.
Osborne, D. Out of Bounds -- Innovation and Change in Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysis. Joint Military Intelligence College, 2006.
The United States of America's PATIOT Act (formally the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Interpret and Obstruct Terrorism Act) was a hurriedly created legislation against terrorism reacting to the terror attack on September 11, 2001. Little debate and oversight was given to the large, complex law by the Congress and President George W. Bush signed it into law on October 26, 2001. PATIOT offers sweeping surveillance, and search to both domestic officers and foreign intelligence agencies and removes many checks and balances that initially gave the courts the chance to make sure that the powers were never abused. The developing PATIOT and follow-up legislation (Gouvin, 2003) threaten the basic rights of most Americans.
The United States of America PATIOT Act, also known as USAPA brought in several legislative amendments that had a significant increase on the investigative and surveillance powers of…
Condon, S. (June 2, 2015). NSA surveillance reform bill now law. CBS News. Retrieved from http://www.cbsnews.com/news/senate-passes-nsa-reform-bill-the-usa-freedom-act / on 22 March 2016
Gouvin, Eric J. (2003). Bringing Out the Big Guns: The U.S.A. PATRIOT Act, Money Laundering and the War on Terrorism. Baylor Law Review 55: 955.
Liu, Edward C. (2011). Amendments to FISA Extended to 2015. Congressional Research Service.
Michaels, C. William. (2005). No Greater Threat: America Since September 11 and the Rise of the National Security State. Algora Publishing.
Y. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign (Troy 24). According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the 165th Regiment" (Troy 24). These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions. In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…
About Us. (2007). Central Intelligence Agency. [Online]. Available: https://www.cia.gov/about-cia/index.html .
Donovan, William J. Preface to the Ultimate Weapon, Oleg Anisimov, Chicago: Regnery Publishing, Inc., 1953.
Ford, Corey. Donovan of OSS. Boston: Little, Brown, 1970.
Heidekinq, Jurgen, Christof Mauch and Marc Frey. American Intelligence and the German Resistance to Hitler: A Documentary History. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1996.
This essay reviews the relevant literature to provide a background on Edward Snowden and how his high-profile actions adversely affected the work of the National Security Agency (NSA). An analysis of what the NSA was doing prior to the leaks and how it collects intelligence information now is followed by an examination concerning what Snowden leaked and why. Finally, a discussion concerning whether the U.S. government violated Snowden’s constitutional rights is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning this issue in the conclusion.
Background of the Issue
Beginning in June 2013, Edward Snowden, a computer analyst working for the National Security Agency began leaking thousands of classified documents. These classified documents were disclosed to the Guardian and alleged that the NSA routinely gathered telephonic metadata from telecommunications companies, allowing them to scrutinize American citizens’ Internet activities (Morrison, 2014). According to Francheschi-Bicchierai (2014), among the thousands of…
DOJ Policy Changes
The plethora of commentary regarding the terrorist attacks that occurred on 9/11 has created much confusion. The overwhelming quality of the circumstances altered the collective psyche of America in deep and profound ways. In many cases these changes have provided solutions, problems and more questions.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss how 9/11 changed criminal justice policies in the United States. The essay will argue that although there have been many worthwhile and successful alterations, a small portion of the policies have provided more questions than answers. To help illuminate this hypothesis, this essay will analyze many of these changes that have been implemented and evaluate them from a new perspective.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is essentially responsible for enforcing and promoting the ideas of justice, fairness and retribution. In a ten-year retrospective of their own accomplishments and principles regarding…
Baginski, M. (2005). Testimony to Congress Subcommittee on Crime Terrorism and Homeland Security, Washington DC, 19 April 2005. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/importance-of-usa-patriot-act-to-fbi-information-sharing
Blumenthal, R. (2013). FISA Court Secrecy Must End. Politico, 14 July 2013. Retrieved from http://www.politico.com/story/2013/07/fisa-court-process-must-be-unveiled-94127.html
Davis, L. et al. (2010). Long-Term Effects of Law Enforcement's Post 9/11 Focus on Counterterrorism and Homeland Security. Prepared for the National Institute of Justice by Rand Corporation, 2010. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/232791.pdf
Liu, E. (2013). Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act. Congressional Research Service, 8 April, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R42725.pdf
The Homeland Security Appropriations Act supplies a total of four billion for state and local assistance agendas. State-based formula grants are financed at one and half billion, including four hundred million for law enforcement, with necessities directing the utilization of the per capita formula. The all hazards Emergency Management Performance Grant program is financed at one hundred and eighty million. Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grants are also made available. The bill provides a total of three hundred and fifteen million in transportation security grants. Firefighter assistance grants are financed at seven hundred and fifteen million, including sixty five million for hiring (Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005, 2004). All of these regulations have placed increased burden on both state and local governments to carry out the tasks that have been placed on them by the approval of these acts.
Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland…
Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005. (2004). Retrieved
Homeland Security and Law Enforcement. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.policeemployment.com/resources/articles/homeland-security-law
Moss, Mitchell, Schellhamer, Charles and Berman, David A. (2009). The Stafford Act and Priorities for Reform. Retrieved from http://www.nyu.edu/ccpr/pubs/Moss_03.09.09.pdf
Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism is the extended terminology that refers to the U.S.A. Patriot Act which, following the events of 9/11 was passed by the Senate immediately and almost unanimously. When the Pentagon and the World Trade Center were attacked in 2001, concerns over national security and America's susceptibility to terrorist threats emerged more so as the country remained baffled at what had just happened. Governmental figures needed to address people's concerns and overall, the issue of law enforcement being able to prevent such attacks from ever happening again. With Assistant Attorney General Viet Dinh having authored the act shortly after the events and upon reviewing existing practices and methodologies, Jim Sensenbrenner, member of the epublican Party, presented it to Congress. It should be noted that, generally, the Patriot Act is embedded in America's history of electronic surveillance that emerged…
American Civil Liberties Union. (2009). Reclaiming patriotism: A call to reconsider the Patriot Act. Retrieved from https://www.aclu.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/safefree/patriot_report_20090310.pdf
Democratic Policy Committee. (2011). H.R. 514, Patriot Act extension. Legislative Bulletin. Retrieved from http://www.dpc.senate.gov/docs/lb-112-1-14.pdf
Henderson, N.C. (2002). The Patriot's Act impact on the government's ability to conduct electronic surveillance of ongoing domestic communications. Duke Law Journal, 52, 179-209. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1168&context=dlj
Roundy, M.D. (2006). The Wiretap Act -- Reconcilable differences: A framework for determining the "interception" of electronic communications following United States v. Councilman's rejection of the storage/transit dichotomy. Western New England Law Review, 28, 403-438. Retrieved from http://assets.wne.edu/164/19_note_Wiretap_.pdf
(Olson, 1999) the feminist theory is when you are making the arguments that the social structure in place is unfair or targeting a particular group of people. The critical legal studies theory is when you are looking beyond the issues of civil liberties and are instead focused on if the action is effective in supporting particular rights. The moral theory is when you are arguing that the best way to interpret the law is based upon what is best for society using: case precedent, established legal principals and the law. Intellectual capitalism is when you are arguing that freedom of speech is the best way for the minority of having their voices heard. Where, you are using the different actions to justify that the government could be stifling this free speech, which is leading the activity in question. The over regulation theory is when the federal / state government will…
Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts. (2010). Retrieved May 19, 2010 from Regulations.gov website: http://www.regulations.gov/search/Regs/home.html#documentDetail?R=0900006480aaf473
History of Anti-Money Laundering Laws. (n.d.). Retrieved May 19, 2010 from Treasury Department website: http://www.fincen.gov/news_room/aml_history.html
Olson, B. (1999). Application of American Legal Theories. Retrieved May 19, 2010 from Boston College website: http://www.bc.edu/bc_org/avp/law/st_org/iptf/commentary/content/1999122601.html
Schlick, a. (2010). A Third Way Legal Framework for Addressing Comcast Dilemma. Retrieved May 19, 2010 from FCC website: http://www.broadband.gov/third-way-legal-framework-for-addressing-the-comcast-dilemma.html
Through experience, the FBI has acquired insights into the fact that there are no dividing lines distinguishing foreign intelligence, terrorist and criminal activities. Foreign intelligence, terrorism, and criminal organizations and activities are interdependent and interrelated (Abele, 2005). Files belonging to the FBI are full of investigation cases where the sharing of information between criminal intelligence, counterintelligence, and counterterrorism investigations is essential to the ability of the FBI. This is in regards to the protection of the nation from criminal activities, foreign intelligence activity, and terrorists. Some investigations beginning as counterintelligence investigations end up becoming criminal cases. In some cases, the FBI initiates the counterterrorism, counterintelligence, or parallel criminal cases in maximizing their ability to conduct effective investigations. This has helped in addressing and identifying various threats to the U.S. hence implementing protective measures to protect vulnerable methods and sources. The success in the provision of accurate assessments of intelligence threats…
Abele, R.P. (2005). A user's guide to the U.S. Patriot Act and beyond. Lanham, MD: Univ. Press of America.
Alexander, Y., & Kraft, M. (2008). Evolution of U.S. counterterrorism policy. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.
Bidgoli, H. (2006). Handbook of Information Security Volume 2. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Dempsey, J.S., & Forst, L.S. (2012). An introduction to policing. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.
In the contemporary world, terrorists are groups or individuals who use covert warfare to press for political, social, or cultural reform. Rather than using the political process though, they believe that violence is the only way they can prove to the world that their cause is just -- and the psychological terror engendered will engage the world, if not in sympathy, then at least in acknowledgement and fear that their cause is just. For example, in the modern state of Israel, there is some type of incident almost every week. Palestinian terrorists often send suicide bombers into mass transit, restaurants, and schools; all in the name of making the game so violent that Israel will back down simply to stop the terror. This idea that violence will change political and social events often stems from a particular reading of Karl Marx -- in that terror will create and prolong…
Bamford, J. (2003). Body Of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency. New York: Random House.
Bolz, F.; Dudonis, K.; Schultz, D. (2005) The Counterterrorism Handbook: Tactics, Procedures, and Techniques. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis.
Booth, K. And T. Dunne, eds. (2002). Worlds in Collision: Terror and the Future of Global Order.
Palgrave.Kiras, C. (2007). The Critical Role of Interagency Cooperation. In J.Forest, ed. Countering Terrorism and Insurgency in the 21st Century. Westport, CT: Praeger.
FISA's recent rise to fame has been due to attempts by the Bush Administration to apply the law as justification for warrant-less wiretaps of U.S. citizens in apparent disregard of their Fourth Amendment protections. This issue will be examined in more detail below, however, it is important to first discuss some of the key court cases that help establish the Constitutionality of FISA. Specifically, this report will address three cases that directly feed into the Constitutional requirements of FISA: Olmstead v. U.S. (1928), Katz v. U.S. (1967), and U.S. v. U.S. (1972).
Olmstead v. U.S. (1928)
For the civil libertarian, the case of Olmstead v. U.S. (1928) is a nightmare violation of constitutionally guaranteed Fourth and Fifth Amendment rights. In the case, oy Olmstead was convicted of bootlegging during the Prohibition years of U.S. history. Without obtaining any kind of judicial approval, federal agents placed wiretaps in the building Olmstead…
Fein, B. (2007, March). Presidential authority to gather foreign intelligence. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 37(1), pp. 23-36.
Katz v. United States. (1967). FindLaw for Legal Professionals. Retrieved March 25, 2008, at http://laws.findlaw.com/us/389/347.html
Malooly, D.J. (1998, Winter). Physical searches under FISA: a constitutional analysis. American Criminal Law Review, 35(2), pp. 411-424.
Olmstead v. United States (1928). The Oyez Project. Retrieved March 25, 2008, at http://www.oyez.org/cases/1901-1939/1927/1927_493/
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…
Agency, Kuwait News. "Blair's "Kuwait Vision." 15 March 2010. Zawya.com. .
Al-Ansari, H. And S. AL-Enezi. "Health Sciences Libraries in Kuwait." Bulletin of the Medical Library Association 89.3 (2001): 287-93.
Al-Awadhi, Olusi, Al-Saeid, Moussa, et.al. "Incidence of Musculoskeletal Pain in Adult Kuwaitis." Annals of Saudi Medicine 25.6 (2005): 459=62.
Al-Baho, A. "Resident's Guide to the Curriculum for Training in Family Medicine." December 2008. Kuwait Institute for Medical Specialization. .
K-12 Curriculum and Instruction: Changing Paradigms in the 21st Century
This is not your grandfathers' economy or his educational paradigm however; today's curriculum still appears as such and therein lays a very significant and challenging problem that presents to today's educators and leaders. According to Sir Ken Robinson, "We have a system of education that is modeled on the interest of industrialism and in the image of it. Schools are still pretty much organized on factory lines -- ringing bells, separate facilities, specialized into separate subjects. We still educate children by batches." (rain Pickings, 2012) Make no mistake in the opinion of Robinson who believes that divergent thinking most emphatically is not "…the same thing as creativity" because according to Robinson in his work proposing a new educational paradigm. Indeed this is also spoken of in the work of Zeng-tian and Yu-Le in their work "Some Thoughts on Emergent Curriculum"…
Anderson, C. (nd) Presenting and Evaluating Qualitative Research: Strengths and Limitations of Qualitative Research. University of Nottingham, Nottingham, United Kingdom. Medscape. Retrieved from: http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/731165_3
ASCD 1999, The Human Brain: An ASCD Professional Enquiry Kit. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, Va..
Bailey, J. 2001, 'Technology and change in education', [http://bbh.usd451.k12.ks.us/staff/faculty/chgtech/change.html] (accessed May 2003).
Barrett, R. 1999, 'Middle schooling: A challenge for policy and curriculum', Education Horizons, 5 (3), 6-9.
aid President George W. ush in policy formulation. It is an all-inclusive paper dealing with a wide range of issues such as the American economy in general- discussing issues such as budget deficits, tax cuts, medical assistance and benefits for retired people, the weakening American dollar, allocations for the military, intelligence and homeland security, job growth and the regime and policies of free trade. With regards to security, it features the recent American initiate on the war on terrorism. The issue of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and nuclear proliferation are discussed quite at length.
Another aspect listed in the paper is the 'future', as it was viewed from the era of the Vietnam War. The relevance of the cold war is also outlined as a great American victory. Compelling issues such as the role of oil, OPEC, the Middle East and the socio-political and economic situation after the incidents…
Bush's tax cut' Retrieved from;
http://amateurpundit.hypermart.net/features107_bushtaxing.htm Accessed on March 5, 2004
Economy: Job Creation' Retrieved from;
http://ipsnews.net/africa/interna.asp?idnews=22469 Accessed on March 5, 2004
Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…
Cope, S., Leishman, F. & Starie, P. (1997). Globalization, New Public Management and the Enabling State: Futures of Police Management. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 10(6), 444-460.
"Cooperation Agreement between the Government of Canada and the European Police Office."
(n.d.). Europol. Retrieved December 8, 2012, from https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/flags/canada.pdf
Forcese, D. (2002). Police: current issues in Canadian law enforcement. Kemptville, Ontario:
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
S. mainland. The court can reject the procedures only if it finds the plan for complying with the law as "clearly erroneous." The program may also continue for a year although the law is scheduled for renewal in six months. Warrant-less eavesdropping may begin immediately and ahead of the security court approval of the procedures (Savage).
Spur of the Moment and Secret Order
Weeks after the 9/11 attacks, President ush signed a secret order, which authorized NSA to wiretap international phone calls and emails without a court order (Savage 2007).
It was expressly prohibited by the 1978 warrant law. President ush claimed that war-time powers authorized him to bypass that law. In January this year, the Attorney General said that the program was brought under the supervision of the national security court. A judge allowed some form of surveillance to continue. Several months ago, however, another judge ruled that the…
Bush, George W. The Protect America Act of 2007. National Security Agency, September 19, 2007. Retrieved on October 23, 2007 at http://www.lifeandliberty.gov/docs/bush-disc-paa07.pdf
Fact Sheet: the Protect America Act of 2007. The White House News: the White House, August 5, 2007.
Murray characterizes educational romantics as people who believe that the academic achievement of children is determined mainly by the opportunities they receive and has little to do with their intellectual capacity. Educational romantics believe the current K-12 education system is in need of vast improvement.
Murray describes two types of educational romantics, one set on the Left and one on the ight, and differentiates between the two thusly:
"Educational romantics of the Left focus on race, class, and gender. It is children of poor parents, and girls whose performance is artificially depressed, and their academic achievement will blossom as soon as they are liberated from the racism, classism, and sexism embedded in American education. Those of the ight see public education as an ineffectual monopoly, and think that educational achievement will blossom when school choice liberates children from politically correct curricula and obdurate teachers' unions (Murray, 2008)."
Both of these…
Bluestone, B. (2001, December 10). The inequality express. The American Prospect. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://prospect.org/article/inequality-express
Bowles, S. & Gintis, H. (1976). Education and inequality. In Schooling in capitalistic America: Educational reform and contraditions of economic life. New York: Basic Books Inc., 347-352. Retrieved April 23, 2013, from http://homepage.smc.edu/delpiccolo_guido/Soc1/soc1readings/education%20and%20inequality_final.pdf
Kozol, J. (1991). Savage inequalities. New York: Random House.
Murray, C. (2008). The age of educational romanticism. The New Criterion, Vol. 26, Issue 9, 35-42. Retrieved April 20, 2013, from http://ehis.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=3&sid=c1982738-7db5-4e79-a111-f63982ce3e61%40sessionmgr111&hid=106
Demystifying the Title 10-Title 50 Debate: Distinguishing Military Operations, Intelligence Activities & Covert Action." The hypothesis that is presented at the outset of the article is that even though Congressional leaders have attempted to "redefine military preparatory operations as intelligence activities," those efforts are "legally and historically unsupportable" (all, 2011, p. 85). Moreover, the author expresses in the Abstract that Congress should "revise its antiquated oversight structure" to more accurately reflect the military's "integrated and interconnected world" (all, 85). all, who served as legal consultant for the U.S. Special Operations Command Central between 2007 and 2009, certainly has the experience and the insider's knowledge of this issue, and it comes through in his narrative. This is a unique study and the author's thesis and concerns are spelled out thoroughly.
The author begins the piece noting that Navy SEALS killed Osama bin Laden in May, of 2011, which is public knowledge…
Chesney, Robert. "Military-Intelligence Convergence and the Law of the Title 10/Title 50
Debate." Journal of National Security Law and Policy, Vol. 5 (2011).
Smart, Stephanie. "Event Summary: The bin Laden Operation -- The Legal Framework."
Retrieved September 16, 2012, from http://www.americanbar.org/...covert_action_event.authcheckdam.pdf .
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…
Alexander, Meena. Women in Romanticism. Savage, Maryland: Barnes & Noble, 1989.
Burke, Edmund. Reflections on the Revolution in France. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1987.
Cone, Carl B. Burke and the Nature of Politics. University of Kentucky, 1964.
Conniff, James. "Edmund Burke and His Critics: The Case of Mary Wollstonecraft" Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 60, No. 2, (Apr., 1999), 299-318.
These measures included laws, which denied services to undocumented residents, alerted police to assume ICE functions, penalized for employers who hired the aliens, and made English the official language. In Arizona, ordinary citizens were encouraged to report businesses, which hired suspicious foreign-looking persons. Hispanics were the major targets of this xenophobia because they were believed to be the major law violators. Statistics showed that there were approximately 12 million undocumented immigrants, most of them Latinos or Hispanics, in the U.S. The national bias against them showed up in studies, which considered only them in determining how much they were costing the country in services. ut did they really drain the economy? A spokesman for the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission did not think so. A 2004 study on "foreign-born" citizens of Virginia alone concluded that Asians outnumbered Hispanics. The Commission found that these "foreign-born" citizens were not a huge…
Galuszka, P. (2008). Hispanics bearing the brunt of xenophobia. Diverse Issues in Higher
Education: Cox, Matthews & Associates. Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mWMX/is_1_25/ai_n2491956?tag=content;col1
ICE (2008). About ICE. Immigration and Customs Enforcement: U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Retrieved on March 24, 2009 from http://www.ice.gov/about/index.htm
Marcucci, M.R. (2007). Marchers call for immigration reform. Oakland Tribune: ANG
America's War on Terrorism since the attacks of eptember 11th, 2001.
America's war on Terrorism since 9/11 has largely been conducted in intensifying domestic security in all areas. The highlight has been capturing Osama bin Laden, followed by a phased extraction of the American Army out of Iraq. Nonetheless, security alert is on an all-time high and Defense receives a high proportion of fiscal allocation and focus.
government has also stepped up its surveillance system constructing a highly intricate and controversial eavesdropping data-system base that is run by the National ecurity Agency and contains trillions of e-mails, web searches and commercial transactions." (McGregor 2011)). A similar system, on as massive a scale, will almost be complete in an Antonio, Texas. Both of these systems support the NA's headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland and house everything "from records of phone calls to and from Iran to credit card purchases by potential…
Some see U.S. policy after 9/11 as being driven by an ebullient arrogant stance of force rather than talk and by a hubris that came from their knocking down Saddam Hussein. McGregor (2011), however, concludes that "ten years after 9/11, the U.S. is war-weary and introspective in a way it has not been for a generation." The federal budget has been depleted, and the country is insecure. Nonetheless, positive things have occurred as a result. The different government departments have been brought together, new ones have been constructed, and old ones reformed. And the country is watched over as it has never been before.
McGregor, R (September 6, 2011) America after 9/11: A nation fixated with its security. Analysis http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/60886c9e-d892-11e0-8f0a-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2923vp4uc
U.S. INVADED IRAQ IN 2003
Why U.S. Invade Iaq 2003
invasion of Iaq has a numbe of foceful effects that elate to the influence of the 9/11 occuence in the county. The then U.S. pesident who happened to have been Pesident Bush pushed fo the U.S. invasion of Iaq amidst the actions that Saddam had done to the U.S. In most avenues of pefomance, it is clea that the U.S. attack on Iaq was bought unde an infuiated situation. The demand fo the U.S. To invade Iaq came fom the sensitive eactions and elations between Bush and the then Iaq pesident Hussein. Many nations in the wold have engaged in wa and not because of the ideological diffeences. Rathe, the invasions and conflicts that have been expeienced in many nations ae elated to the geneal balance of powe. Many of the nations that have been expeiencing the ugency to be…
references to the political, economic and ideological interests/purpose of the U.S., ignoring the reasons stated by the Bush administration and the Blair government. Mu-nchen, GRIN Verlag
GmbH. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:101:1-20100916742 .
Radu, M., & Arnold, A. (1990). The New insurgencies: Anticommunist guerrillas in the Third
World. New Brunswick, N.J: Transaction Publishers.
Roberts, J.E., & Army War College (U.S.). (2007). Winning the battle of ideas in the War on Terrorism. Carlisle Barracks, Pa: U.S. Army War College.
& Severinsson, E. (2008). "Emotionally intelligent nurse leadership: a literature review study." Journal of nursing management 16(5), p. 565-77.
In an examination of other primary studies on the subject, these researchers found emotional intelligence to be a prominent feature of nurse leadership as judged by nurses. wide array of studies with highly varied aims reached similar conclusions in this general area.
shkanasy, N. & Dasborough, M. (2003). "Emotional wareness and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Teaching." Journal of Education for Business 79(1), pp. 18-22.
study of the effect of adding emotional content to undergraduate leadership courses showed the benefits of such education on emotional intelligence levels as measured through direct tests. Individual emotional intelligence was predictive of individual success, whereas general interest in emotions was more predictive of team successes.
Barbuto, J. & burbach, M. (2006). "The Emotional Intelligence of Transformational Leaders: Field Study of Elected Officials." The Journal of Social…
A comparison of leadership styles in practical nursing situations in Finland shows how emotional intelligence compares to other leadership traits more clearly than the other studies included in this paper. The findings in regards to emotional intelligence, however, were remarkably similar, with increased motivation and cohesion the result of managerial emotional intelligence.
Wang, Y. & Huang, T. (2009). "The relationship of transformational leadership with group cohesiveness and emotional intelligence." Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 37(3), pp. 379-92.
The specific components of transformational leadership capabilities, with an emphasis on emotional intelligence, are discussed in this study. Effects on groups as well as individual performance made this study a unique inclusion.
These people can use what they have done in their lives to better understand what they will do in the classroom. This makes sense, and should not be discounted. However, if someone is illiterate and cannot read the material at all, doing well on tests and completely comprehending what is being discussed seems as though it would be an almost impossible task. It would certainly cause a lot of frustration and aggravation on the part of the student, and likely on the part of the teacher, as well. With this being the case, it seems unrealistic for Pogson and Tennant to indicate that adult learners who are not literate can get through education programs that are designed for literate individuals just based on their practical or life experience.
3. What reasons can you think of as to why it might not "fit" you?
This particular idea would not fit me…
Technology, a very familiar phenomenon of modern world, is continuously enhancing its ways towards comforts and luxuries. New thoughts and ideas are coming with every passing second, and what started as only a blurred vision, now became a necessity for all mankind. These have become a need of today's society making the society very much involved in these technological reforms. Several debates have been made on the topic that although the level of our technology keeps on improving day by day, but do all of these hi-tech gadgets give us the proper advantages? Are we really aware of the two different sides of the same mirror, or are we just so much accustomed to all such things around us that we don't bother to look upon the other side? Amongst these debates, two of the very famous are classical McDermott vs. Mesthene debate of 1960s and contemporary debate of Joy…
Bill Joy: Genomics, Nanotechnology and Robotics. Retrieved on 15/6/2012 from: http://www.counterbalance.net/gnr/index-frame.html
Brown, John S. And Duguid, Paul. Chapter 4. A Response to Bill Joy and the Doom-and- Gloom Technofuturists. Retrieved on 15/6/2012 from: http://www.aaas.org/spp/rd/ch4.pdf
Emannuel G. Mesthene vs. John McDermott. Retrieved on 15/6/2012 from: www.cs.sfu.ca/CC/320/mgabier/Mestene%?20vs%?20McDermott.ppt
James Burke Connections #1 - The Trigger Effect. Retrieved on 15/6/2012 from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WgOp-nz3lHg
attitudes and values of high school students. eforms to the high school system in the United States are also explained. Additionally, the reason why students need not be involved in the planning of reforms is elucidated.
High School Students: their Attitudes and Values
Of a crucial age, climbing a milestone, conscious to their fullest with no fear of prospects, high school students have interested researchers and policy makers for centuries. They have quite a few common traits -- they behave as individuals of their own age group in a rather full-fledged way. They are go-getting to achieve their independence, they are show-offs, impressionable persons desiring to be their best (something to be learned) and to suit the times they live in. Their self-esteem is fragile and they are pretty sensitive to criticism, attention, and dilemmas, for instance, within their families.
Students from different socioeconomic backgrounds behave differently as has been…
Barber, A. (1997. March). Rough language plagues schools, educators say. USA Today, pp 06D.
Committee for increasing high school students' engagement and motivation to learn. National Academies. Internet. http://www4.nas.edu/cp.nsf/Projects+_by+_PIN/BCYF-I-01-01-A?OpenDocument.Available on August 25, 2003.
Doyle, M. Failing to connect: Schools face increased pressure when students flunk classes. The Columbian, March 16, 2003, pp Front Page.
Educational reforms and students at risk: A review of the current state of the art. (1994. January). Internet. http://www.ed.gov/pubs/EdReformStudies/EdReforms/.Available on August 25, 2003.
TANF Time Limits
The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, or TANF for short, is one of the more controversial and maligned or one of the most lauded and touted social safety net programs in the United States. Whether it is praised or denigrated depends a lot on who is doing the talking and what their motivations are. TANF has turned in a political football on a scale that dovetails quite nicely with the words of awls (1985) when it was noted in an essay of that author that there are sometimes periods (some of them quite long in duration) that are bereft and full of political divisiveness and vitriol (awls, 1985).
History of TANF & its Predecessor
A bulk of the TANF program is to provide cash-based payments to needy families who are living in destitution or are otherwise in stark financial peril and how those funds are allocated, to…
Alcoff, Linda. "The Problem of Speaking For Others." Cultural Critique 20.1 (1992): 5-
Burns, M. (2010, October 28). Welfare Reform Failing Poor Single Moms, Books Claim. Pacific Standard - Politics, Health, Economy, Environment, Culture, Education. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from http://www.psmag.com/politics/welfare-reform-failing-poor-single-mothers-24778/
CDSS. (2013, April 16). Child Welfare Services Stakeholder Group Questions and Answers. CA CDSS. Retrieved April 16, 2013, from http://www.cdss.ca.gov/cdssweb/PG51.htm
Sealing Up the Cracks
Security in a Post-9/11 World
On September 11, 2001, America was changed forever. From out of the ruins of the World Trade Center, and over the unmarked graves of nearly three thousand innocent people, a new world took shape. It was a world in which the citizens of the United Sates found themselves suddenly vulnerable to the murderous plots of a handful of fanatics. A trip to the mall, a drive over a bridge, a meeting at the office: an everyday event could spell disaster. Americans were discovering for the first time what so many around the globe had known for years, that the scenes of daily life could become the settings of terror. ut what was to be done? Were the people of the United States to spend their lives looking over their shoulders? Was the free and open society so cherished by each and…
American Civil Liberties Union. "USA Patriot Act Boosts Government Powers While Cutting Back on Traditional Checks and Balances." American Civil Liberties Union Freedom Network: In Congress. American Civil Liberties Union. November 1, 2001.
Ashcroft, John, Attorney General of the United States. "Reorganization and Mobilization of the Nation's Justice and Law Enforcement Resources." Address given November 8, 2001. http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/speeches/2001/agcrisisremarks11_08.htm
EFF Analysis of the Provisions of the U.S.A. PATRIOT Act that Relate to Online Activities." Electronic Frontier Foundation. October 31, 2001. http://www.eff.org/Privacy/Surveillance/Terrorism_militias/20011031_eff_usa_patriot_analysis.html
Evoy, Susan. Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility. "Comments on Legislative Proposals to Protect National Security and Their Impact on the Communications Infrastructure." October, 2001.
Other Congressional Democrats too are withdrawing their support of the president, including Senator Paul Kirk, Jr. Of Massachusetts. Health care reform too has seen a parting of the ways for some Democrats and the president.
Health care reform was one of the primary issues President Obama focused on during his campaign. The historic vote in the House of epresentatives brought him one step closer to seeing this reform come to fruition. However, the vote revealed a significant decline in the president's support. Whereas all but one epublican voted for the bill, almost 20% of Democrats voted against Obama's flagship piece of legislation, allowing to pass by a very slim 220-215 vote ("Final vote," 2009). The Senate has yet to vote on the bill, but with a similar composition as the House, the vote is certainly to be close. Immigration reform too was a topic Obama espoused to voters along the…
Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA history). (2009). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.nyse.tv/dow-jones-industrial-average-history-djia.htm .
Final vote results for roll call [HIDDEN] (10 Oct 2002). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2002/roll455.xml .
Final vote results for roll call [HIDDEN] (7 Nov 2009). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2009/roll887.xml .
Groen, J. & Polivka, A. (Mar 2008). Hurricane Katrina evacuees. Monthly Labor Review Online, 131(3). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/03/art3exc.htm .
As this meme passed down through generations, it became more pervasive and it also became more complete. When slavery in the New World began, both blacks and whites were enslaved, black slaves could gain freedom, and slavery was not a condition of birth. However, as that changed, the memes surrounding African-Americans also changed. Not only were blacks seen as not equal to whites, but they were seen as incapable of becoming equal to whites. Therefore, when Jim Crow segregation was first challenged under the Fourteenth Amendment, the Supreme Court determined that separate facilities were not inherently unequal, despite overwhelming evidence that the facilities provided for African-Americans were factually inferior to those provided for whites. While this meme has been challenged by newer ideas and has, generally, not stood up to scientific, moral, and religious challenges, vestiges of it remain in almost every American person. As a result, many Americans, of…
Corrales, J. (1999) the politics of education reform: bolstering the supply and demand; overcoming institutional blocks. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World Bank
Web site: http://www1.worldbank.org/education/globaleducationreform/pdf/corrales.pdf
Catalano, J. (1996) Review: Richard Dawkins: books: the selfish gene. Retrieved January 19, 2008 from the World of Richard Dawkins
Web site: http://www.simonyi.ox.ac.uk/dawkins/WorldOfDawkins-archive/Dawkins/Work/Books/selfish.shtml
Undocumented tudents Equity to in-tate Tuition:
Reducing The Barriers
There exist policy ambiguities and variations at federal, state, and institutional levels related to undocumented student access to and success in higher education and this has created problems for these students. This study investigated specific policies and procedures to provide the resources and capital to assist undocumented students as well as reviewed key elements of showing the correlation of these difficulties with ethnic identity in access and equity to higher education that would help eliminate student's frustration. The study also illustrated that there is no accountability system surrounding the success of undocumented student's postsecondary education divide significant structure. Three research questions guided the study; a) Without the fundamental requirements met how will undocumented students achieve their goal to attain a degree, and seek a rewarding career? b) Is it unjust to extradite an illegal alien who has been living a constructive…
Scott, W.R. (2004). Institutional theory: Contributing to a theoretical research program. Retrieved from http://icos.groups.si.umich.edu/Institutional%20Theory%20Oxford04.pdf
Spickard, P. (2007). Almost all aliens: Immigration, race, and colonialism in American history and identity. New York, NY: Routledge.
Taylor, E. (2009). The foundations of critical race theory in education: An introduction. In E. Taylor, D. Gillborn & G. Ladson-Billings (Eds.), Foundations of critical race theory in education (pp. 1-13). New York, NY: Routledge.
Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security
The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.
On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, arack Obama…
CNN Wire Staff. (2011) "Bin Laden killing caps decade-long manhunt." CNN Asia. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/02/bin.laden.dead/index.html?hpt=T2
Cook, Martin L. (2001) Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare. Department of Command, Leadership, and Management. U.S. Army War College. May 3, 2011 http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/PhilForum/Terrorism/Cook.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Michigan Dept. Of State Police v. Sitz. 1990. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0496_0444_ZS.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Terry v. Ohio. 1967. May 3, 2011 http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0392_0001_ZS.html