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Instead, by transferring budgetary control to the Director of National Intelligence, IRPA forced the various intelligence agencies to unite under a single, coherent leadership, if only to ensure the continued flow of funds towards their respective projects. As with any government endeavor, the inertia of the Intelligence Community is maintained only so long as ample funds are continually available, so by tethering intelligence agencies' funding to inter-agency cooperation coordination, the Intelligence Reform and errorism Prevention Act ensured that in the years following its passage, the Intelligence Community would be forced to work more closely, if only to ensure its own survival.
Project Parameters and Methodology
However, the passage of the Intelligence Reform and errorist Prevention Act does not represent the end of intelligence reform following the terrorist attacks of September 11th, but rather the beginning, and thus any consideration of the relative success or failure of intelligence reform must examine…… [Read More]
Commission's ecommendations on eforming the U.S. Intelligence Community
Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, the point that "things would never be the same" echoed throughout the country, and in some ways this has been true. Unfortunately, many observers also maintain that some things have not changed at all, especially the ability of the U.S. intelligence community to anticipate and prevent such attacks in the first place. Others, though, point to the numerous instances in which terrorist attacks have been preempted by timely action, as well as the death of Osama bin Laden as proof positive that things have indeed changed for the better. To determine who is right, this paper provides an analysis of the impact of the 9/11 Commission's recommendations on reforming the U.S. intelligence community in view of the major intelligence community components of the Intelligence eform and Terrorist Prevention Act, and the extent to which…… [Read More]
Iraq & Iran NIEs
The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 instituted the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI) (as well as the position of Director itself) and tasked it with coordinating intelligence gathering and dissemination between the disparate agencies of the IC. In 2007 the ODNI implemented Intelligence Community Directive (ICD) 203, which outlined analytical standards for the production of any intelligence product with the goal of ensuring that the IC recorded and shared data in rigorous, analytically sound way, and the implementation of these standards was one of the most important changes seen within the IC after the establishment of the ODNI itself. To understand the importance of these analytical standards not only in the creation of intelligence products but in the actions those products inform, one may compare and contrast the 2002 National Intelligence Estimate (NIE) on Iraq, which was prepared without concern…… [Read More]
After September 11th, President ush authorized the use of water boarding, as a way to gain knowledge of terrorist groups and their activities. The problem is that many of the civil rights-based groups believe that this is in violation of American law. When the people, who are interrogated (terrorists), are not American citizens and they want to do as much harm to the country as possible. Given the fact that these individuals, are more than likely hard core terrorists and posses knowledge about imminent terrorist activities, meant that the this technique would be utilized to obtain information. Even though this was successful and was used on limited number of people, the press and Congress continued to debate the issue. (Froomkin, 2010) This is troubling, because it undermines the activities of U.S. intelligence officials (who are trying to protect the nation). As they are inserted into a game of political chicken,…… [Read More]
This would create a reactionary agency which, rather than gathering intelligence to the extension of its security, would approach what would come to be known as the 'containment theory,' using whatever resources and tactics were at its disposal to deflect against the spread of communism.
At its time, the 1947 Act would be seen as projecting considerable vision. As one conservative think-tank reports on this idea, "until fairly recently, CIA considered its appropriate time horizon to be fairly long. It was, I believe, generally longer than the focus of either the Defense Intelligence Agency or the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR). The Directorate of Intelligence made forecasts in some areas that went out 20 years, and collectors and analysts tried to anticipate events 'over the horizon' -- situations policymakers did not then know they were likely to be worrying about in the future. CIA did this because…… [Read More]
Intelligence Community (IC) is the biggest and most multifaceted institution of its kind, consisting of sixteen semi-independent agencies with dissimilar, sometimes corresponding, spheres of accountability. Generally, it has demonstrated problematic to institute integrated direction over the IC. Ensuing major terrorist attacks like that of September 11, 2001, comprehensive intelligence restructurings were sanctioned, including legislature to authorize chief leadership by founding a Director of National Intelligence. Notwithstanding these modifications, opposition to central management still affects the IC to this day. The disaster in structural reform is poorly comprehended, as the literature does not intellectualize intelligence agencies predominantly as organizations.
The methodology recommended herein examines the progressive paths of agencies, which irradiates the organizational factors moving reform. Employing the structure of Historical Institutionalism in the new setting of intelligence agencies aids in explaining the difficulties seen in reform, posed by established interests and governmental cultures, damaging the realistic likelihood of centralized control…… [Read More]
Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), its creation and the different roles it plays. The duties of the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) are also highlighted in the paper. The paper also highlights the Intelligence eform Act of 2004 and the amendments that were made after the date of enactment. Lastly, the paper discusses the major components of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the roles played by them in order to guarantee the efficient running of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Central Intelligence Agency
The CIA is an independent agency, whose functions are not disrupted by the United States government without any necessity. This agency is dedicated towards providing national security intelligence to the senior policy makers of the United States of America. ("CIA vision, mission," 2013)
The Central Intelligence Agency, (CIA), is responsible for collecting and analyzing information in relation to the plans and strategies of the enemies…… [Read More]
S. directly. Evidently, the long-term objectives indirectly face the smooth running of the U.S. government. Priority should be given to those aspects that will pull the resources of the country to extreme levels. The U.S. As a super-power is privileged when tackling issues affecting other nations; it is mandated to help developing long-term solutions.
Long-term also implies that the impacts and effects need to be widespread in order to maintain balance and ensure the prosperity of all sectors is recognized. The above long-term objectives are issues that need time and resources in order to be able to resolve the issue that affects the stability of these countries among other issues. The Soviet Union, for example, is crying to have political relations with ussia. This means that the military forces will be deployed to this country. However, the negotiation process is hefty and requires time and adequate resources in order to…… [Read More]
The historical experiences of Cuba, Chile, Turkey, and even the Iran Contra affair fueled the discussions over a tighter control exercised over the Agency's structure and strategies. However, the Cold War demanded for secret operations especially taking into account the high degree of uncertainty that characterized the political environment at the time. The ideological confrontation between the West and Communist forces was often defused on the territories of third parties and the advantage of information and influence played a crucial role.
The period following the Watergate scandal weighted heavily on the evolution of the CIA. Richard Nixon, along with his Secretary of State, Kissinger was the proponents of an increased power given to the CIA because the presidential control could thus be exercised without any legislative hindrance from the Congress. The 1971 presidential decision to gather the budgets of all national intelligence services under a single unitary one was just…… [Read More]
In 1953, Congress amended the National Security Act to provide for the appointment of a Deputy Director of the CIA by the President with Senate's advice and consent. Commissioned officers of the armed forces, active or retired, could not occupy the top two positions at the same time (CIA).
Intelligence Reform Needed
Countless reorganizations of the intelligence community since the end of the Cold War have not produced satisfactory results (Harris 2002). U.S. intelligence counterterrorist programs have certainly made record achievements, such as the thwarting of planned attacks on New York's Lincoln and Holland tunnels in 1993 and against airports on the West Coast in the eve of the millennium. ut reforms are quite needed. The first is to provide warning. The most difficult task of the intelligence officer is to provide warning. The intelligence community also needs a more risk-taking and failure-tolerant management approach. Safeguarding national security means putting…… [Read More]
EOGANIZATION OF THE U.S. INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY
The eorganization, Challenges, and Problems of the U.S. Intelligence Community 9/11 Attacks
The proposal to restructure the intelligence community through the creation of DNI was floated for long before 9/11. The Commission's recommended for National Counterterrorism Center that represented virtual approaches of bridging executive branch departments and implementing interagency coordination. Later, Congress enacted a bill, and the president signed Intelligence eform and Terrorism Prevention Act that led to the implementation of the recommendations. This study analyzes the rationale behind and legal provisions concerning the reorganization. The associated problems and challenges are also identified.
First, the reforms aimed at equipping the U.S. intelligence community with strategies to prevent Intelligence failures. The debate within the abilities of the DNI to induce preventative intelligence failures that focus on powers awarded and denied to such official capacities. Psychological failures happen as analysts cope with inherent uncertainties of evidence…… [Read More]
Central Intelligence Agency
The civilian intelligence agency of United States has given the name of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The fundamental objective of this agency is to collect, assess and publicize foreign intelligence that provides national security intelligence assessment to the senior United States policy makers. The CIA is also involved in secret agenda at the request of President of United States.[footnoteRef:1]The establishment of CIA was in succession of the Office of Strategic Service (OSS) being operative in World War II. [1: Caroline Wilbert. "How the CIA Works." Available from http://people.howstuffworks.com/cia.htm; accessed Aug 3rd 2011]
On the government side CIA works fundamentally with the House Permanent select Committee on Intelligence and the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. These two committees and the Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs and Armed Services committee are responsible to authorize the CIA's program and oversee the CIA. The funding and budgeting system of the CIA…… [Read More]
Terrorism in recent years has hit an all-time high. Affecting millions of people, radical groups and organizations see terrorism as a favored tactic or approach for bringing to fruition their extreme ideological agendas both domestically and internationally. Terrorism globally chose the United States and other western countries to target in their extremist agendas. The United States government became aware of terrorist efforts after the September 11 attacks. Since then the U.S. has devoted time and resources into developing a counterterrorism and intelligence framework in order to respond to any ongoing and future terrorist attacks/activity.
Counterterrorism refers to the processes that consist of the offensive measures taken to avoid, deter, forestall, and react to terrorism. The United States regarded counterterrorism missions as distinctive operations by clandestine, undercover, or low discernibility means. Counterterrorism presently is categorized as a fundamental task for the United States government. The government has fashioned or redefined distinct…… [Read More]
In an ever increasingly complex governmental infrastructure, the importance of communication, mission and strategy are of the utmost importance. The Department of Defense (DOD) and all of its law enforcement agencies are in a pervasive struggle to attain both accurate and actionable intelligence in order to perform their duties to the best of their capabilities and intentions.
The purpose of this research paper is to explore the failure of the intelligence process due to extraneous levels of bureaucratic organization. This essay will attempt to explain the many failures of the Department of Defense law enforcement entities as a result of this type of organization.
In order to understand this argument, this essay will first look at the problem itself and try to identify the root cause of these failures. Past failures of intelligence gathering will be examined to help contextualize the argument and give credence to the idea…… [Read More]
U.S. intelligence community is always expected to perform its duties according to some specified guidelines. This study examines the three themes found in the Pfeffer and Salancik book, "The External Control of Organizations," as applied to the U.S. Intelligence Community (IC). The paper reveals how the themes are applicable to the IC and their potential benefits to the IC. It is evident that the identified have proven to be useful to the community, as it has enabled it to adapt to the changing paradigms within the intelligence community.
First theme: the importance of the environment or the social context of organizations for understanding what decisions were made about issues ranging from whom to hire, the composition of boards of directors, and what alliances and mergers to seek.
From this theme, the leading obstacle in the realization of accountability in the U.S. intelligence community is the prerequisite of secrecy…… [Read More]
U.S. Intelligence Stategy Histoy
The United States has always been a county that pided itself on the excellence of its militay excellenc and pecision. The defense and national foces have been at the heat of militay intelligence thoughout the yeas stating with 2001, in Septembe. Many govenment agencies, fo example, have joined foces with moe taditional militay foces to help combat both mino cime foces with those of a moe sophisticated body of cime thoughtout the United States and the wold. A histoical examination of the vaious elements elated to U.S. intelligence duing militay intense times eveal that moe attention to social o human concens duing the times involved might have ceated a geate dive towads caing fo those left destitute by a focus on militay o social concens duing Wold Wa II, the militay inquiies of the 1970s, and the invasion of Iaq stated in 2003. When examining the…… [Read More]
Domestic Intelligence Agency
The Necessity of Establishing a New Domestic Intelligence Agency
In response to a call for a new Domestic Intelligence Agency, the FI National Press Office released a statement in 2006 that indicated the strides the ureau had made in "becoming" an "intelligence-driven organization" since 9/11.
The letter's intent was to show the illogicality of those wishing to "tear apart the ureau" in order to "start a new agency." As Assistant Director of the FI, John Miller asked, "How long would it take this new agency to get rolling? A year? Two? What would it use for a database? How would it address privacy and civil liberties? How long would it take the officers of this new agency to develop trusting relationships with America's 18,000 local law enforcement agencies?"
Miller's questions were both pertinent and revealing of precisely what a successful Domestic Intelligence Agency would require. Even the…… [Read More]
U.S. intelligence refers to some of the most formidable and top intelligence available in the world. The United States has long led the way in the practice of gathering the most up-to -- the minute and esoteric intelligence regarding the actions of other countries, other armies and the other enemies. The current modern age has demonstrated the steady advancement in this regard of a range of sound technological tools which America has harnessed consistently for the effective pursuit of the most current and hard to gather intelligence.
The use of combat drones has been something that America has long used to gather intelligence and to engage in warfare with enemies or suspected enemies. However, in the last 12 months, the usage of drones has steadily decreased. "The number of drone strikes approved by the Obama administration on suspected terrorists has fallen dramatically this year, as the war with al…… [Read More]
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…… [Read More]
2006 Global Terrorism NIE
Like any intelligence product, the declassified Key Judgments of the 2006 National Intelligence Estimate "Trends in Global Terrorism: Implications for the United States" relies on certain explicit and implicit assumptions as a part of its analysis. Identifying these assumptions is crucial for evaluating the accuracy of any piece of analysis, and intelligence products in particular. Explicit assumptions may be identified by looking out for key words, while implicit assumptions require more in-depth consideration.
The explicit assumptions in the 2006 NIE are identified by certain key words which inform the reader that the following information is not verified fact, but rather based on an assumption, which itself may or may not be based on specific evidence. These key words include terms like "probably," "likely," "could," and "would," because all of these words signify that the statements being made are conditional, rather than definitive. In other instances, the…… [Read More]
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…… [Read More]
orking in the field of research analysis, a person must literally wade through thousands of pieces of information in order to determine the proper courses of action that should be undertaken under various circumstances. All research analysts work in either the government or in the private sector, most often in fields such as marketing wherein they acquire data based on consumers and consumption. From that data, they must determine what trends influence consumerism and how to best provide for their clients way that would induce consumers to purchase or utilize various goods and/or services (Roberts 2010). The governments of the world have always been responsible for accumulating and exposing information to the populations under their control. In the United States, there are laws which ensure that information is made available to any persons who demand it. Although, there is still information which is under the strict control of…… [Read More]
The man who first devised
the present mode of governing colleges in this country has done us more
injury than Benedict Arnold." (172) ayside's view would begin to reorient
Brown toward the prospect of staffing itself with professional educators
rather than clergy and men of influence.
The motive would be clear here, as the rising prominence in influence
and impulse of young students themselves would drive ayside and his
contemporaries to scrutinize college governance and administration as
processes separate from the priorities of education itself. The impact of
ayside's recognition would be the newfound scrutiny of decisions which
placed those unqualified in the areas of education in positions of power
and determination where education was concerned. Perhaps most troubling
amongst the outcomes of this orientation at America's universities was its
perpetuation of a class system. Those who had been elevated to places of
administrative oversight were typically wealthy elites whose…… [Read More]
Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job."
Kinesthetic learners also tend to absorb information when given a great deal of tactile stimulation. I will explore this in greater detail below.
Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways. This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he (a visual learner) might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her.
It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…… [Read More]
Chinese lives within the context of modern Chinese history
Communist China has undergone a profound change over the past fifty years regarding its economy: from a primarily controlled and planned state it has shifted to what is, in effect, capitalism in everything but in name only. This marks a major change from the ideological purity demanded during the Maoist era. During the Cultural Revolution, the entire nation was subjected to an ideological cleansing. Intellectuals and people deemed 'counterrevolutionary' in their ideology were sent to work in the countryside to be reeducated. This seems a far cry from the modern Chinese landscape, which is largely dominated by signs of capitalism spanning from name brand clothing to fast food establishments.
However, although economically China has undergone a great deal of progress, politically it is very repressive of those who would defy the dictates of the state. Dissents such as the artist Ai…… [Read More]
Culturally Biased Intelligence Assessment
Intelligence assessments have existed since the early twentieth century and have continued to be a topic of debate. We all know full well that intelligence assessment is critical to the type if academic success that we achieve in life. One of the primary tools used to assess intelligence is the IQ test. However, the intelligence quotient test has been under scrutiny for decades because it is believed to harbor culturally biased precepts.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the cultural bias' that exist in intelligence quotient testing. We will begin with a literary review which will start by explaining the definition of cultural bias in testing and the historical implications. We will explain the origins of the IQ test and the reasons why the cultural bias exist. Our discussion will then focus on how cultural bias in intelligence assessment has produced historical implications.
We…… [Read More]
honored one, I offer this comment with grave regret that it shall even be received, for in his Excellency's well intentioned attempt to seek the advice of the more sagacious residents of Kyoto and Edo, he is playing into the hands of the barbarians whose own societies are marked with the spilled blood of noble rulers, instigated when words of dissent were expressed in writing. The Americans, whose black ships now dot the horizon in the Bay of Uraga, are presently ruled by the descendents of that generation that penned a doctrine of disloyalty and dissent in their effort to justify the chaos that gave them advantage in their homeland.
The subject before us is not one that should be given over to public scrutiny. This consideration of proper course is not an entertainment, not an exercise of intellect, as over time became the case of the Forty-seven Ronin. In…… [Read More]
Chinese Internet Culture
Decades after the reforms of Deng Xiaoping known as the "Four Modernizations," "a focus on development of agriculture, industry, science and technology and the military" (The University of Michigan. N.D.); China in 2011, grapples with the multiple dilemmas of internet information access, personal freedom, and government control over content. The rise of digital media, web access, and information availability over the past two decades has spread around the globe encompassing the world's second largest economy. As economic freedom continues to slowly evolve in China, so too does the call from its citizens for unfettered access to internet technology and content become more pervasive. The Chinese internet culture is particularly fascinating due to this inherent dichotomy between government control over content and individual demands for information access. How China's leadership confronts the challenges of information dissemination will be critical to China's long-term economic, social, and political future.
March…… [Read More]
Educators as far back as Aristotle have attempted to determine the most optimal approach to teaching and learning. Any theory of learning must take a constellation of factors into consideration. Evidence-based research on the different components of learning theory, effective instruction, and learning environments abound, yet the one commonality is that individual differences are pivotal to the success of any approach. Additionally, even if perfect learning environments could be created, learning must be applicable to the world outside of the classroom. Indeed, that it its ultimate purpose. In this paper, this author will explore the characteristics of the backwards mapping, or designing for understanding, Common Core State Standards, both of which are integrative frameworks that promote efficient learning and effective teaching.
Learning Theory and Its Importance
A primary consideration of learning theorists is how to effectively address individual differences. Consider that from the 18th century and earlier, learning…… [Read More]
9/11 and the ITPA
Under the National Security Act of 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was charged with the task of coordinating all national intelligence activities within the U.S. government. One major reason for this change was the failure of coordination and analysis across the intelligence agencies in predicting the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. Indeed, so glaring were the failures to 'connect the dots' in determining the intentions of the Japanese that they gave rise to at least as many conspiracy theories as the September 11 attacks, such as the idea that Franklin oosevelt knew about the attack in advance and permitted it to happen so the U.S. would enter the Second World War. In practice, the coordination of intelligence activities never really occurred, and many similar failures occurred in the future, such as the CIA's inability to predict the outbreak of the Korean War or…… [Read More]
Breach of Faith
Over the course of twenty-two years, from 1979 to 2001, Robert Hanssen participated in what is possibly the most severe breach of national intelligence in the United States' history. hrough a combination of skill and sheer luck, Hanssen was able to pass critical information from his job at the FBI to Soviet and later Russian intelligence agencies, information that may have contributed to the capture and execution of a number of individuals. Hanssen's case is particularly interesting because it takes place over the course of two decades that included the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the internet age, and as such examining the various means by which Hanssen was able to breach security offers extra insight into the security threats, new and old, that face those tasked with protecting sensitive government information. Ultimately, the Hanssen case reveals a number of ongoing vulnerabilities concerning…… [Read More]
There's a substantial gap between the notions presented by the 9/11 Commission on inadequate imagination and its suggested solutions. It's unlikely that the primary modifications can help create analytical solutions in a limited amount of time. The advancement of national intelligence centres is really a pricey solution and idea that rests on impractical belief in the impartiality and just approach of the policymakers. The requirement of a bigger and much more diverse community of experts may, perversely, lower the standard of their work. And there's really no point in anticipating that the DCI could be more in a position to encourage imagination when he's no longer the principal intelligence consultant (ovner and Long, 2005).
More realistic and logical plans within the Commission report are directly and indirectly proportional to the imagination problem; included in this are growing the FBI's intelligence abilities and mandating standardized DOD and DHS risk…… [Read More]
The United States of America's PATIOT Act (formally the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Interpret and Obstruct Terrorism Act) was a hurriedly created legislation against terrorism reacting to the terror attack on September 11, 2001. Little debate and oversight was given to the large, complex law by the Congress and President George W. Bush signed it into law on October 26, 2001. PATIOT offers sweeping surveillance, and search to both domestic officers and foreign intelligence agencies and removes many checks and balances that initially gave the courts the chance to make sure that the powers were never abused. The developing PATIOT and follow-up legislation (Gouvin, 2003) threaten the basic rights of most Americans.
The United States of America PATIOT Act, also known as USAPA brought in several legislative amendments that had a significant increase on the investigative and surveillance powers of…… [Read More]
Y. National Guard, which had been conducting a vigorous recruiting campaign (Troy 24). According to this author, "The Sixty-ninth was drafted into the Regular Army and was proud to be selected New York's representative in the newly formed Forty-second Division, the 'Rainbow Division,' where it was redesignated the 165th Regiment" (Troy 24). These events as much as any other were responsible for providing Donovan with both the experience as well as the recognition that would help propel him into future leadership positions. In this regard, Troy reports that, "It remained 'the old Sixty-ninth,' however, and for the better part of his twenty-two months of service Donovan was the commander of its First Battalion. It was in that capacity, a lieutenant colonel, that he saw combat, was several times wounded, and demonstrated such outstanding qualities of leadership and moral courage that he emerged from the war with 'more medals than any…… [Read More]
This essay reviews the relevant literature to provide a background on Edward Snowden and how his high-profile actions adversely affected the work of the National Security Agency (NSA). An analysis of what the NSA was doing prior to the leaks and how it collects intelligence information now is followed by an examination concerning what Snowden leaked and why. Finally, a discussion concerning whether the U.S. government violated Snowden’s constitutional rights is followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning this issue in the conclusion.
Background of the Issue
Beginning in June 2013, Edward Snowden, a computer analyst working for the National Security Agency began leaking thousands of classified documents. These classified documents were disclosed to the Guardian and alleged that the NSA routinely gathered telephonic metadata from telecommunications companies, allowing them to scrutinize American citizens’ Internet activities (Morrison, 2014). According to Francheschi-Bicchierai (2014), among the thousands of…… [Read More]
DOJ Policy Changes
The plethora of commentary regarding the terrorist attacks that occurred on 9/11 has created much confusion. The overwhelming quality of the circumstances altered the collective psyche of America in deep and profound ways. In many cases these changes have provided solutions, problems and more questions.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss how 9/11 changed criminal justice policies in the United States. The essay will argue that although there have been many worthwhile and successful alterations, a small portion of the policies have provided more questions than answers. To help illuminate this hypothesis, this essay will analyze many of these changes that have been implemented and evaluate them from a new perspective.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is essentially responsible for enforcing and promoting the ideas of justice, fairness and retribution. In a ten-year retrospective of their own accomplishments and principles regarding…… [Read More]
The Homeland Security Appropriations Act supplies a total of four billion for state and local assistance agendas. State-based formula grants are financed at one and half billion, including four hundred million for law enforcement, with necessities directing the utilization of the per capita formula. The all hazards Emergency Management Performance Grant program is financed at one hundred and eighty million. Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) grants are also made available. The bill provides a total of three hundred and fifteen million in transportation security grants. Firefighter assistance grants are financed at seven hundred and fifteen million, including sixty five million for hiring (Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act of 2005, 2004). All of these regulations have placed increased burden on both state and local governments to carry out the tasks that have been placed on them by the approval of these acts.
Fact Sheet: Department of Homeland…… [Read More]
Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools equired to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism is the extended terminology that refers to the U.S.A. Patriot Act which, following the events of 9/11 was passed by the Senate immediately and almost unanimously. When the Pentagon and the World Trade Center were attacked in 2001, concerns over national security and America's susceptibility to terrorist threats emerged more so as the country remained baffled at what had just happened. Governmental figures needed to address people's concerns and overall, the issue of law enforcement being able to prevent such attacks from ever happening again. With Assistant Attorney General Viet Dinh having authored the act shortly after the events and upon reviewing existing practices and methodologies, Jim Sensenbrenner, member of the epublican Party, presented it to Congress. It should be noted that, generally, the Patriot Act is embedded in America's history of electronic surveillance that emerged…… [Read More]
(Olson, 1999) the feminist theory is when you are making the arguments that the social structure in place is unfair or targeting a particular group of people. The critical legal studies theory is when you are looking beyond the issues of civil liberties and are instead focused on if the action is effective in supporting particular rights. The moral theory is when you are arguing that the best way to interpret the law is based upon what is best for society using: case precedent, established legal principals and the law. Intellectual capitalism is when you are arguing that freedom of speech is the best way for the minority of having their voices heard. Where, you are using the different actions to justify that the government could be stifling this free speech, which is leading the activity in question. The over regulation theory is when the federal / state government will…… [Read More]
Through experience, the FBI has acquired insights into the fact that there are no dividing lines distinguishing foreign intelligence, terrorist and criminal activities. Foreign intelligence, terrorism, and criminal organizations and activities are interdependent and interrelated (Abele, 2005). Files belonging to the FBI are full of investigation cases where the sharing of information between criminal intelligence, counterintelligence, and counterterrorism investigations is essential to the ability of the FBI. This is in regards to the protection of the nation from criminal activities, foreign intelligence activity, and terrorists. Some investigations beginning as counterintelligence investigations end up becoming criminal cases. In some cases, the FBI initiates the counterterrorism, counterintelligence, or parallel criminal cases in maximizing their ability to conduct effective investigations. This has helped in addressing and identifying various threats to the U.S. hence implementing protective measures to protect vulnerable methods and sources. The success in the provision of accurate assessments of intelligence threats…… [Read More]
In the contemporary world, terrorists are groups or individuals who use covert warfare to press for political, social, or cultural reform. Rather than using the political process though, they believe that violence is the only way they can prove to the world that their cause is just -- and the psychological terror engendered will engage the world, if not in sympathy, then at least in acknowledgement and fear that their cause is just. For example, in the modern state of Israel, there is some type of incident almost every week. Palestinian terrorists often send suicide bombers into mass transit, restaurants, and schools; all in the name of making the game so violent that Israel will back down simply to stop the terror. This idea that violence will change political and social events often stems from a particular reading of Karl Marx -- in that terror will create and prolong…… [Read More]
FISA's recent rise to fame has been due to attempts by the Bush Administration to apply the law as justification for warrant-less wiretaps of U.S. citizens in apparent disregard of their Fourth Amendment protections. This issue will be examined in more detail below, however, it is important to first discuss some of the key court cases that help establish the Constitutionality of FISA. Specifically, this report will address three cases that directly feed into the Constitutional requirements of FISA: Olmstead v. U.S. (1928), Katz v. U.S. (1967), and U.S. v. U.S. (1972).
Olmstead v. U.S. (1928)
For the civil libertarian, the case of Olmstead v. U.S. (1928) is a nightmare violation of constitutionally guaranteed Fourth and Fifth Amendment rights. In the case, oy Olmstead was convicted of bootlegging during the Prohibition years of U.S. history. Without obtaining any kind of judicial approval, federal agents placed wiretaps in the building Olmstead…… [Read More]
The infant mortality rate is of 8.97 deaths per 1,000 live births. This rate places Kuwait on the 160th position on the chart of the CIA. The adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS is of 0.1 per cent.
In terms of economy, Kuwait is a relatively open, small and wealthy economy. It relies extensively on oil exports -- petroleum exports for instance account for 95 per cent of the total export revenues as well as for 95 per cent of the federal income. The Kuwaiti representatives have recently set the goal of increasing the oil production per day. Currently, Kuwait is facing the pressures of the internationalized economic crisis -- which however, due to recent economic surpluses in Kuwait, affects the economy to a lower extent.
Simultaneously with the increase in oil production, the Kuwaiti authorities are also focusing on diversifying the economic activities in the sense of supporting…… [Read More]
K-12 Curriculum and Instruction: Changing Paradigms in the 21st Century
This is not your grandfathers' economy or his educational paradigm however; today's curriculum still appears as such and therein lays a very significant and challenging problem that presents to today's educators and leaders. According to Sir Ken Robinson, "We have a system of education that is modeled on the interest of industrialism and in the image of it. Schools are still pretty much organized on factory lines -- ringing bells, separate facilities, specialized into separate subjects. We still educate children by batches." (rain Pickings, 2012) Make no mistake in the opinion of Robinson who believes that divergent thinking most emphatically is not "…the same thing as creativity" because according to Robinson in his work proposing a new educational paradigm. Indeed this is also spoken of in the work of Zeng-tian and Yu-Le in their work "Some Thoughts on Emergent Curriculum"…… [Read More]
aid President George W. ush in policy formulation. It is an all-inclusive paper dealing with a wide range of issues such as the American economy in general- discussing issues such as budget deficits, tax cuts, medical assistance and benefits for retired people, the weakening American dollar, allocations for the military, intelligence and homeland security, job growth and the regime and policies of free trade. With regards to security, it features the recent American initiate on the war on terrorism. The issue of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and nuclear proliferation are discussed quite at length.
Another aspect listed in the paper is the 'future', as it was viewed from the era of the Vietnam War. The relevance of the cold war is also outlined as a great American victory. Compelling issues such as the role of oil, OPEC, the Middle East and the socio-political and economic situation after the incidents…… [Read More]
Throughout history, police management has experienced numerous changes because of the various significant changes that have continued to occur in the society. The emerging trends have contributed to the development of new policing governance, which has had considerable implications for police management. Towards the end of the 20th Century, the governmental police reforms have contributed to an end to public policing, a claim that is regarded as extrapolated towards a certain extreme. However, in light of the changes that have occurred in the recent past, it's evident that public policing has not come to an end but that the monopoly of public policing has come to an end. As a result, the dominance of public policing that characterized the 19th and 20th centuries is no longer a characteristic of the modern era. Actually, the emerging diverse totality of public policing is a reflection of the so-called post-modern period.…… [Read More]
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…… [Read More]
S. mainland. The court can reject the procedures only if it finds the plan for complying with the law as "clearly erroneous." The program may also continue for a year although the law is scheduled for renewal in six months. Warrant-less eavesdropping may begin immediately and ahead of the security court approval of the procedures (Savage).
Spur of the Moment and Secret Order
Weeks after the 9/11 attacks, President ush signed a secret order, which authorized NSA to wiretap international phone calls and emails without a court order (Savage 2007).
It was expressly prohibited by the 1978 warrant law. President ush claimed that war-time powers authorized him to bypass that law. In January this year, the Attorney General said that the program was brought under the supervision of the national security court. A judge allowed some form of surveillance to continue. Several months ago, however, another judge ruled that the…… [Read More]
Demystifying the Title 10-Title 50 Debate: Distinguishing Military Operations, Intelligence Activities & Covert Action." The hypothesis that is presented at the outset of the article is that even though Congressional leaders have attempted to "redefine military preparatory operations as intelligence activities," those efforts are "legally and historically unsupportable" (all, 2011, p. 85). Moreover, the author expresses in the Abstract that Congress should "revise its antiquated oversight structure" to more accurately reflect the military's "integrated and interconnected world" (all, 85). all, who served as legal consultant for the U.S. Special Operations Command Central between 2007 and 2009, certainly has the experience and the insider's knowledge of this issue, and it comes through in his narrative. This is a unique study and the author's thesis and concerns are spelled out thoroughly.
The author begins the piece noting that Navy SEALS killed Osama bin Laden in May, of 2011, which is public knowledge…… [Read More]
Murray characterizes educational romantics as people who believe that the academic achievement of children is determined mainly by the opportunities they receive and has little to do with their intellectual capacity. Educational romantics believe the current K-12 education system is in need of vast improvement.
Murray describes two types of educational romantics, one set on the Left and one on the ight, and differentiates between the two thusly:
"Educational romantics of the Left focus on race, class, and gender. It is children of poor parents, and girls whose performance is artificially depressed, and their academic achievement will blossom as soon as they are liberated from the racism, classism, and sexism embedded in American education. Those of the ight see public education as an ineffectual monopoly, and think that educational achievement will blossom when school choice liberates children from politically correct curricula and obdurate teachers' unions (Murray, 2008)."
Both of these…… [Read More]
Ross (1988) notes the development of Romanticism in the late eighteenth century and indicates that it was essentially a masculine phenomenon:
Romantic poetizing is not just what women cannot do because they are not expected to; it is also what some men do in order to reconfirm their capacity to influence the world in ways socio-historically determined as masculine. The categories of gender, both in their lives and in their work, help the Romantics establish rites of passage toward poetic identity and toward masculine empowerment. Even when the women themselves are writers, they become anchors for the male poets' own pursuit for masculine self-possession. (Ross, 1988, 29)
Mary ollstonecraft was as famous as a writer in her day as her daughter. Both mother and daughter were important proponents of the rights of women both in their writings and in the way they lived and served as role models for other…… [Read More]
These measures included laws, which denied services to undocumented residents, alerted police to assume ICE functions, penalized for employers who hired the aliens, and made English the official language. In Arizona, ordinary citizens were encouraged to report businesses, which hired suspicious foreign-looking persons. Hispanics were the major targets of this xenophobia because they were believed to be the major law violators. Statistics showed that there were approximately 12 million undocumented immigrants, most of them Latinos or Hispanics, in the U.S. The national bias against them showed up in studies, which considered only them in determining how much they were costing the country in services. ut did they really drain the economy? A spokesman for the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission did not think so. A 2004 study on "foreign-born" citizens of Virginia alone concluded that Asians outnumbered Hispanics. The Commission found that these "foreign-born" citizens were not a huge…… [Read More]
America's War on Terrorism since the attacks of eptember 11th, 2001.
America's war on Terrorism since 9/11 has largely been conducted in intensifying domestic security in all areas. The highlight has been capturing Osama bin Laden, followed by a phased extraction of the American Army out of Iraq. Nonetheless, security alert is on an all-time high and Defense receives a high proportion of fiscal allocation and focus.
government has also stepped up its surveillance system constructing a highly intricate and controversial eavesdropping data-system base that is run by the National ecurity Agency and contains trillions of e-mails, web searches and commercial transactions." (McGregor 2011)). A similar system, on as massive a scale, will almost be complete in an Antonio, Texas. Both of these systems support the NA's headquarters in Fort Meade, Maryland and house everything "from records of phone calls to and from Iran to credit card purchases by potential…… [Read More]
U.S. INVADED IRAQ IN 2003
Why U.S. Invade Iaq 2003
invasion of Iaq has a numbe of foceful effects that elate to the influence of the 9/11 occuence in the county. The then U.S. pesident who happened to have been Pesident Bush pushed fo the U.S. invasion of Iaq amidst the actions that Saddam had done to the U.S. In most avenues of pefomance, it is clea that the U.S. attack on Iaq was bought unde an infuiated situation. The demand fo the U.S. To invade Iaq came fom the sensitive eactions and elations between Bush and the then Iaq pesident Hussein. Many nations in the wold have engaged in wa and not because of the ideological diffeences. Rathe, the invasions and conflicts that have been expeienced in many nations ae elated to the geneal balance of powe. Many of the nations that have been expeiencing the ugency to be…… [Read More]
& Severinsson, E. (2008). "Emotionally intelligent nurse leadership: a literature review study." Journal of nursing management 16(5), p. 565-77.
In an examination of other primary studies on the subject, these researchers found emotional intelligence to be a prominent feature of nurse leadership as judged by nurses. wide array of studies with highly varied aims reached similar conclusions in this general area.
shkanasy, N. & Dasborough, M. (2003). "Emotional wareness and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Teaching." Journal of Education for Business 79(1), pp. 18-22.
study of the effect of adding emotional content to undergraduate leadership courses showed the benefits of such education on emotional intelligence levels as measured through direct tests. Individual emotional intelligence was predictive of individual success, whereas general interest in emotions was more predictive of team successes.
Barbuto, J. & burbach, M. (2006). "The Emotional Intelligence of Transformational Leaders: Field Study of Elected Officials." The Journal of Social…… [Read More]
These people can use what they have done in their lives to better understand what they will do in the classroom. This makes sense, and should not be discounted. However, if someone is illiterate and cannot read the material at all, doing well on tests and completely comprehending what is being discussed seems as though it would be an almost impossible task. It would certainly cause a lot of frustration and aggravation on the part of the student, and likely on the part of the teacher, as well. With this being the case, it seems unrealistic for Pogson and Tennant to indicate that adult learners who are not literate can get through education programs that are designed for literate individuals just based on their practical or life experience.
3. What reasons can you think of as to why it might not "fit" you?
This particular idea would not fit me…… [Read More]
Technology, a very familiar phenomenon of modern world, is continuously enhancing its ways towards comforts and luxuries. New thoughts and ideas are coming with every passing second, and what started as only a blurred vision, now became a necessity for all mankind. These have become a need of today's society making the society very much involved in these technological reforms. Several debates have been made on the topic that although the level of our technology keeps on improving day by day, but do all of these hi-tech gadgets give us the proper advantages? Are we really aware of the two different sides of the same mirror, or are we just so much accustomed to all such things around us that we don't bother to look upon the other side? Amongst these debates, two of the very famous are classical McDermott vs. Mesthene debate of 1960s and contemporary debate of Joy…… [Read More]
According to the authors, this can be done if employees are given a sense of importance in the organizations. Knowledge workers are already short in supplies and most competing rivals also compete to get the best human resource in terms of knowledge workers. It is therefore essential for any organization to retain this highly skilled part of their workforce and in order to do that organizations must eliminate the autocratic elements and give the employees more say in the organization.
The shortage in supply of specialized knowledge workforce has not only made this type of labor more expensive but also more immobile and difficult to acquire. High employee turnovers with this type of labours can therefore be threatening to organization's sustainable management and long-term success. The company should be more flexible with its bureaucracy. It should allow more decentralization as far as functional and regional departments are concerned (Ireland &…… [Read More]
attitudes and values of high school students. eforms to the high school system in the United States are also explained. Additionally, the reason why students need not be involved in the planning of reforms is elucidated.
High School Students: their Attitudes and Values
Of a crucial age, climbing a milestone, conscious to their fullest with no fear of prospects, high school students have interested researchers and policy makers for centuries. They have quite a few common traits -- they behave as individuals of their own age group in a rather full-fledged way. They are go-getting to achieve their independence, they are show-offs, impressionable persons desiring to be their best (something to be learned) and to suit the times they live in. Their self-esteem is fragile and they are pretty sensitive to criticism, attention, and dilemmas, for instance, within their families.
Students from different socioeconomic backgrounds behave differently as has been…… [Read More]
TANF Time Limits
The Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, or TANF for short, is one of the more controversial and maligned or one of the most lauded and touted social safety net programs in the United States. Whether it is praised or denigrated depends a lot on who is doing the talking and what their motivations are. TANF has turned in a political football on a scale that dovetails quite nicely with the words of awls (1985) when it was noted in an essay of that author that there are sometimes periods (some of them quite long in duration) that are bereft and full of political divisiveness and vitriol (awls, 1985).
History of TANF & its Predecessor
A bulk of the TANF program is to provide cash-based payments to needy families who are living in destitution or are otherwise in stark financial peril and how those funds are allocated, to…… [Read More]