Terrorism in recent years has hit an all-time high. Affecting millions of people, radical groups and organizations see terrorism as a favored tactic or approach for bringing to fruition their extreme ideological agendas both domestically and internationally. Terrorism globally chose the United States and other western countries to target in their extremist agendas. The United States government became aware of terrorist efforts after the September 11 attacks. Since then the U.S. has devoted time and resources into developing a counterterrorism and intelligence framework in order to respond to any ongoing and future terrorist attacks/activity.
Counterterrorism refers to the processes that consist of the offensive measures taken to avoid, deter, forestall, and react to terrorism. The United States regarded counterterrorism missions as distinctive operations by clandestine, undercover, or low discernibility means. Counterterrorism presently is categorized as a fundamental task for the United States government. The government has fashioned or redefined distinct sources to perform higher levels of offensive measure in order to combat terrorism.
To conceptualize a Counterterrorism and Intelligence Framework featuring a vigorous intelligence system as well as tactically well-organized counterterrorism procedures three important agencies must work together in order to deliver proper execution of the designed framework. The FBI, CIA, and the Department of Defense forming a unified unit will be best at tackling terrorism. To do this policy changes must take place. This essay is meant to provide recommendations and possible updates in policy in order to form a more cohesive and effective framework.
Public safety remains a major worry in the last few decades as terrorism happens globally and more often than ever before. Situations like public events, especially in crowded cones like an urban environment, provides the perfect setting for a terrorist attack. A recent one would be the Boston Marathon Bombing. During these vulnerable times, it is important to keep the public protected as well as have a precise plan to rescue and control the public in the instance of a terrorist attack. For public safety to remain a priority against potential dangers, it is of highest importance to recognize existing gaps, outline priorities and concentrate on emergent approaches to address such threats.
The framework must aim at providing adequate risk planning, decision support, and threats response and assessment. Threats may be identified in form of CBRNE or Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear and Explosive technologies and weapons. In order manage and assess possible risks of these kinds of attacks, a framework must develop with a new agency with people from the three biggest law enforcement agencies, FBI, CIA, and the DOD. This is because these people once chosen will have the time and resources to dedicate solely on counterterrorism and intelligence. There are plenty of people working in those three agencies that will be better suited as specialists. It will reduce spending because new additions to the new agencies will already have previous training, and it will allow for smoother communication within the agency itself and other agencies since the people chosen would have experience with each.
The framework must include feigning terrorist attacks, other elements like crowd behaviors, and safety or police guards' rescue missions to allow the agency participants additional training in readiness and response. The physiognomies of crowd behaviors are displayed based on social science study findings including virtual environment experiments researchers and programmers made with real human participants. An article about behavioral characteristics states founded on age and gender, a person has a dissimilar behavioral characteristic. The framework in the article is based on agent-based modeling and swarm intelligence "which allows us to create a large number of people with specific behavioral characteristics. Different test scenarios can be created by importing or creating 3D urban environments and putting certain terrorist attacks (such as bombs or toxic gas) on specific locations and time-lines" (Park, Tsang, Sun & Glasser, 2012, p. 23).
Another thing to note is the alterations made to the "Five Eyes" intelligence communities. "Since 9/11, extensive intelligence reform has brought many changes to the "Five Eyes" intelligence communities. For example, one major theme in the reform agenda has been to "fuse" intelligence more effectively within intelligence agencies and across communities" (Walsh, 2015, p. 123). Essentially what FVEY refers to is an intelligence alliance...
Originating in WWII at the time of the Atlantic Charter laid out objectives for a post-war world. Now that terrorism has become rampant in certain parts of the world even in the United States, it is important to open up avenues for reform (in terms of communication) between these five countries, perhaps even include countries near the United States like Mexico. Mexico has a lot of terrorist activity and drug cartel activity within its borders.
Since there will only be one agency will people from the CIA, FBI, and DOD, these members will participate in communication and collaboration with their previous agencies in instances that require more manpower. Tools like satellite phones, hidden cameras, microphones, all of these can help in acquiring in intelligence covertly while doing investigations domestically or internationally, especially within the countries of Five Eyes. It is important to include foreign diplomacy in a framework intended to reform policy. Especially because other countries acquire their intelligence through national agencies.
Setting up and examining a game-theoretic model to research the suggestions of national intelligence collecting for the establishment of domestic (defensive) counterterrorism should be included when two or more countries face a common transnational terrorist threat. One such example are the bombings in the subways of London and NYC. It is demonstrated that, relative to a standard case where all intelligence is identified by both countries, national intelligence collecting frequently leads to augmented disorganizations in counterterrorism provision. Through extension of the main model with a communication phase, one could explore differences in information that may trail from national intelligence collecting will be overwhelmed by intelligence sharing. "If verifiable sharing is a viable option for each country, then full credible intelligence sharing can happen in equilibrium. On the other hand, if only cheap talk communication is possible, then it cannot (Jensen, 2014).
The Department of Homeland Security which would be the agency receiving the policy reform recommendations. The three main points that need to be highlighted is collaboration with other countries in regards to communication of information. Only high priority information should be communicated across the allied nations within the group and an addition of Mexico may help increase augmented surveillance of potential terrorist activity. As earlier presented, too much information sharing may overload the national agencies. So by only sharing high priority risks, and training in communication and collaboration through the United States own national agencies, it will improve overall communication and efficacy of information shared.
Breaking down the three main agencies, the CIA, FBI, and DOD, and picking people from each agency that specialize in terrorist or intelligence gathering will allow the one additional agency to devote time and energy only on counter-terrorism and intelligence, leaving the national agencies time to spend on domestic issues like crime and so forth.
One specialized agency may also help prevent leaks that sometimes occur during communication between agencies and even on an international level. Policy makes often face ethical dilemmas. Therefore providing a framework that focuses on efficacy and practicality will deliver a better option of change and reform. "The framework is a first step in identifying common principles that could be used develop an ethically informed set of policy guidelines to help decision makers better navigate between citizen's two basic rights: security and privacy" (Walsh & Miller, 2015).
The other and last recommendation is giving priority to specific threats and allotting resources and additional training to prepare and react to such threats.
This kind of immediate and coordinated response requires careful planning and protocols, with the participation of local law enforcement and emergency management authorities. At the same time, incorporating currently available technologies in these strategic response plans and protocols opens a new way to handle chaotic incidents in an effective and systematic manner (Park & Tsang, 2015, p. 2)
Counter-terrorism ingenuities wish to develop operative and efficient policies and tools in order to organize against, avert, and respond to an extensive assortment of terrorist threats, comprising CBRNE, chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive threats. Providing funding for mics, personalized hidden cameras, satellite phones, and even software to encrypt outgoing information will help minimize leaks and keep everyone updated on information gathered from the network or on the field.
In conclusion, it is important to realize the extent of reform and policy change needed to restore peace and safety in regards to terrorism. The United States is facing increasing terrorist threats with the latest being the Boston Marathon Bombing. Some of these terrorist threats come from the most unlikely sources. Therefore, creating one agency with specialized agents will help combat such a problem.
Jensen, T. (2014). National Responses to Transnational Terrorism: Intelligence and Counterterrorism Provision. Journal of Conflict Resolution. doi:10.1177/0022002714545221
Park, A., & Tsang, H. (2015). A Systematic Approach to Develop a Computational Framework for Counter-terrorism and Public Safety. tsas.ca. Retrieved 12 March 2015, from http://library.tsas.ca/media/TSASWP14-09_Park-Tsang.pdf
Park, A., Tsang, H., Sun, M., & Glasser, U. (2012). An agent-based model and computational framework for counter-terrorism and public safety based on swarm intelligence. Security Informatics, 1(1), 23. doi:10.1186/2190-8532-1-23
Walsh, P. (2015). Building Better Intelligence Frameworks through Effective Governance. International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, 28(1), 123. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/08850607.2014.924816#.VQRQL47F9j8
Walsh, P., & Miller, S. (2015). Rethinking 'Five Eyes' Security Intelligence Collection Policies and Practice Post Snowden. Intelligence and National Security. Retrieved from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02684527.2014.998436#.VQRQSI7F9j8
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