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It is often essential to measure the human intelligence so as to provide special attention to the deficient ones. Being an abstract concept it is absurd to think of expressing its magnitude in numbers. However, expressing in terms of imaginary units psychologists could visualize to accord ranks and quantify the intelligence. The intention of measuring intelligence originated ever since the era of Chinese emperors during 2200 BC when it was attempted to measure the differentiations in the cognitive abilities among humans through the large scale aptitude tests. The work of Francis Galton during late 19th Century was considered as the first modern attempt to test the intelligence. During the first part of 20th century the Binet-Simon scale is devised after the names of Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon. In the later part of 1930s David Wechsler propounded the concept of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and later…
"Binet pioneers intelligence testing: 1905" Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/databank/entries/dh05te.html Accessed on 8 February, 2005
'History of Intelligence Testing & Ways of Calculating IQ" (20 December, 2003) Retrieved from http://www.wilderdom.com/intelligence/IQHistoryCalcuate.html
Accessed on 8 February, 2005
"Intelligence quotient" Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligence_quotient Accessed on 8 February, 2005
Intelligence -- Nature/Nurture Debate
In psychological terms, intelligence can be defined as "the general mental ability involved in calculating, reasoning, perceiving relationships and analogies, learning quickly, storing and retrieving information, using language fluently, classifying, generalizing, and adjusting to new situations" ("intelligence," 2013). However, interest in and importance of emotional intelligence has flourished in recent years because of which general and applied psychology has made emotional intelligence a standardized concept (Antonakis, Ashkanasy & Dasborough, 2009). Emotional Intelligence is, on the other hand, "the ability to perceive accurately, appraise, and express emotion; the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and the ability to reflectively regulate emotions in ways that promote emotional and intellectual growth" (Salovey & Sluyter, 1997, p. 23).
In simple words, it is an individual's ability and skill to recognize and assess his/her emotional responses when…
America's Deep, Dark Secret. (2007, December 5). CBSNews. Retrieved November 18, 2013, from http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-18560_162-614728.html
Antonakis, J., Ashkanasy, N.M., & Dasborough, M.T. (2009). Does Leadership Need Emotional Intelligence?.The Leadership Quarterly, 20(2), 247-261. Print.
Camille, A. (2005, March). I Can See Clearly Now: How We Come into the World Is Not How We Must Remain. An Encounter with Jesus Can Be Life-Changing for the Physically and Spiritually Blind. U.S. Catholic, 70, 3. Retrieved November 18, 2013, from http://www.questia.com /read/1G1-129170131/i-can-see-clearly-now-how-we-come-into-the-world
Engs, R.C. (2005). The Eugenics Movement: An Encyclopedia. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. Print.
Intelligence and achievement are very different. Intelligence is a measure of one's aptitude, or ability, which is in essence a measure of potential. It is actually only a measure of potential in one skill area -- the cognitive. Intelligence testing is usually focused on things like problem solving and pattern recognition. Intelligence testing continues to be an evolving field as well, with the definitions of intelligence being challenged and expanded, and different types of intelligence identified (Benson, 2003).
Intelligence, ultimately is an input, a measure of potential output. Output itself is measured in terms of achievement. It has been shown that intelligence is a predictor of achievement, certainly in academic settings (Colom & Mendoza, 2007). Some of the factors that contribute to whether or not intelligence translates to achievement include cognitive engagement and goal orientation -- high levels of those will result in a person outperforming someone who…
Benson, E. (2003). Intelligent intelligence testing. Monitor on Psychology Vol. 34 (2) 48.
Colom, R. & Mendoza, C. (2007). Intelligence predicts scholastic achievement irrespective of SES factors: Evidence from Brazil. Intelligence. Vol. 35 (2007) 243-251.
Deary, I., Strand, S., Smith, P., Fernandes, C. (2007). Intelligence and educational achievement. Intelligence. Vol. 35 (2007) 13-21.
Dupeyrat, C. & Marine, C. (2005). Implicit theories of intelligence, goal orientation, cognitive engagement and achievement: A test of Dweck's model with returning to school adults. Contemporary Educational Psychology. Vol. 30 (2005) 43-59.
The first of the two articles read in this article analysis on intelligence testing is called "ole of test motivation in intelligence testing," and was authored by Angela Lee Duckworth et al. This article links motivation as one of three highly important variables that is treated in intelligence testing. Significantly, the article references David Wechsler and his theory of intelligence a number of times in the text. A pair of studies were performed within this article, the first of which was a "random-effects meta-analysis of random-assignment laboratory experiments comparing IQ scores under incentivized and standard testing conditions" (Duckworth et al., 2011, 2). In the second, a number of boys were followed from their teenage years to adulthood to see what role motivation played in their academic and non-academic results (including grades as well as career achievements and criminal behavior) (Duckworth et al., 2001, 2). Both studies found that…
Duckworth, A.L., Quinn, P.D., Lynam, D.R., Loeber, R., Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2011). "Role of test motivation in intelligence testing." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in the United States of America. Retrieved from http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2011/04/19/1018601108
Gottfredson, L.S. (1998). "The general intelligence factor." Scientific American Presents, 9 (4), 24-29. Retrieved from
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test
Intelligence testing began in earnest in France. The French Government commissioned Alfred Binet in 1904 "to find a method to differentiate between children who were intellectually normal and those who were inferior." (Strydom and Du Plessis, 2004) This early form of intelligence testing was not scaled -- a child either passed or was placed into a special school where he or she would receive more appropriate instruction. (Strydom and Du Plessis, 2004) "Binet himself cautioned against misuse of the scale or misunderstanding of its implications." Its intention was not to be used as "a general device for ranking all pupils according to mental worth." Binet also noted "the scale, properly speaking, does not permit the measure of intelligence. (Strydom and Du Plessis, 2004) However, opinions began to change over time, and gradually the idea of a general intelligence quotient came to be in vogue. "Psychologists altered the…
Ford-Martin, Anne. (2004) "Stanford-Binet Intelligence scales." Copyright 2004. The Thomson Corporation. Retrieved October 26, 2004 from http://www.ehendrick.org/healthy/001268.htm
'Intelligence test." Encyclopedia Britannica from Encyclopedia Britannica Premium Service. Accessed October 26, 2004 at
Strydom, Jan & Susan Du Plessis. " IQ Test: Where Does It Come From and What Does It Measure?" Retrieved October 26, 2004 http://www.audiblox2000.com/dyslexia_dyslexic/dyslexia014.htm
Intelligence testing can be a useful means of measuring certain skills. However, intelligence tests are highly contextualized and also have the potential to be culturally biased. Although intelligence tests are “here to stay,” they can be administered, adapted, and used in ways that fairer and more representative of a diverse population (Ford, 2005). One of the ways intelligence testing can be culturally biased is that there are different types of intelligence, and some cultures favor some types more than others. According to Benson (2003), Western cultures—namely those located in North America and Western Europe—tend to favor categorization and rational debate over synthesis, collaboration, and complexity. Likewise, most non-Western cultures including those in Africa and Asia value social skills intelligence and also practical intelligence far more than Western societies (Benson, 2003). Cultural bias may also be evident in the ways children from families with high cultural capital may have access to…
Benson, E. (2003). Intelligence across cultures. Monitor in Psychology 34(2): 56.
Ford, D.Y. (2005). Intelligence testing and cultural diversity. The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented, Retrieved online: http://nrcgt.uconn.edu/newsletters/winter052/
Warne, R.T., Yoon, M. & Price, C.J. (2014). Exploring the various interpretations of test bias. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 20(4): 570-582.
Young, E. (2013). Intelligence testing: Accurate or extremely biased? Retrieved online: http://www.theneuroethicsblog.com/2013/09/intelligence-testing-accurate-or.html
(Literature eview of comparison of 5th edition of the Binet Scale to the WAIS III)
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Wechsler Intelligence Scales III
A vital part of psychology is the assessment of intelligence. Creation of socioeconomic background, various cultures, age and gender are part of today's testing. In this study, we compare the Stanford-Binet Fifth Edition (SB5) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales (WAIS-III) in terms of intelligence assessment tools (Silverman et al., 2010).
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Version five is the latest version of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales (SB5). There are five cognitive factors in SB5 - fluid reasoning, visual-spatial processing, knowledge or crystallized ability, working memory in both the verbal and the nonverbal domains and quantitative ability, (oid & Barram, 2004) and is based on a hierarchical cognitive model taken from Carroll's (1993) research.
The roots of the SB5 stems from the first intelligence test -- the Binet-Simon scale,…
Cohen, R., & Swerdlik, M. (2005). Psychological testing and assessment. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Georgas, J. (2003). Culture and children's intelligence. Amsterdam: Academic Press.
Georgas, J., & James Georgas.,. (2003). Culture and Children's Intelligence: Cross-cultural Analysis of the WISC-III. Academic Press.
Li, Z. (2015). A Power Formula for the Mantel-Haenszel Test for Differential Item Functioning. Applied Psychological Measurement. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146621614568805
While it is almost certain that intelligence ahs a neurological basis, the extent to which intelligence is determined by neurological and chemical changes is not fully understood. A recent study suggests that changing hormone levels prior to and during puberty have a large effect on intelligence; high salivary testosterone levels in ten-year-old boys showed a positive correlation with intelligence, but a negative correlation in twelve-year-olds (Shangguan & Shi 2009). This shows that intelligence can be quite fluid, and can even be affected quite differently by the same mechanisms. The exact nature of the changing influence testosterone seems to provide or signal is not known, but the correlation demands further study.
These three different research studies display very different theories of intelligence. In the first study, accepted methods of cognitive relationships with the environment are valid, if perhaps somewhat inaccurate at the extremes of the intelligence spectrum. The second study points…
CJ. (2009). "Working memory predicts learning outcomes." Psychologist 22910), pp. 827.
Shangguan, F. & Shi, J. (2009). "Puberty timing and fluid intelligence: A study of correlations between testosterone and intelligence in 8- to 12-year-old Chinese boys." Psychoneuroendocrinology 34(7), pp. 983-8.
Whitaker, S. & Wood, J. (2007). "The Distribution of Scaled Scores and Possible Floor Effects on the WISC-III and WAIS-III." Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, 21(2), pp. 136-41.
colloquially individuals may think that some people are smarter than others, the more scientific term for the concept of being smart is intelligence. The notion of measuring a person's intelligence was first pursued in the early 1900s by Alfred Binet (Kamin, 1995). The French government was looking for a way in which to help predict which students would have the most difficulty in school (Kamin, 1995), so they hired Alfred Binet, who was a psychologist, to develop a test. Binet developed the first intelligence test, a version of which is still used today (Kamin, 1995). Intelligence testing really took off during World War I, when the U.S. army wanted a way to screen a high number of army recruits. This lead to the development of new forms of intelligence tests in order to determine which army recruits were of a higher intelligence and would be successfully in leadership roles (McGuire,…
Gupta, V. (1999). SPSS for Beginners. 1st Books Library.
Kamin, L.J. (1995). The pioneers of IQ testing. In Ressell Jacoby & Naomi Glauberman (Eds.), The Bell Curve Debate: History, Documents, Opinions. New York: Times Books.
McGuire, F. (1994). Army alpha and beta tests of intelligence. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Intelligence. New York: Macmillan.
Neisser, U. (1997). Rising scores on intelligence tests. American Scientist, 85, 440-447.
The concept of intelligence and the pactice (and pacticality) of testing fo intelligence has been one of the moe contovesial aeas of psychology and psychometics since the fist tests wee developed and administeed a centuy ago. Fa fom thee being a consensus in the scientific community on exactly what makes up intelligence, the list of chaacteistics that compise intelligence has instead been a matte of exteme and ongoing debate. Measuing intelligence in individuals has found an even geate shae of disageement and contovesy. Even when eseaches ae able to agee on what aspects should be measued to develop an accuate pictue of intelligence, the methods poposed and implemented fo testing these aeas have often been widely disputed. The contovesy suounding intelligence testing eached new heights in the ea of cultual divesity, as it became clea that the standad intelligence tests in use fo the bette pat of the…
references in four categories: introvert/extrovert, intuitive/sensing, thinking/feeling, and perceiving/judging. This test is closely related to both intelligence tests in certain ways, but completely unrelated in others. That is, both intelligence tests reflect the way each individual thinks -- their intellectual strengths and weaknesses -- to some degree. The Myers-Briggs personality type test reveals a great deal about the way an individual thinks and interacts with the world, but it does not predict how efficiently this occurs -- that is the realm of the intelligence tests. Both types of tests can be used to measure someone's capabilities and proclivities to aid in employment placement or in psychological testing, to determine where problems might lie or how they might best be handled.
These issues lead to what could be some major ethical issues with both types of test. Given the fact that some bias is inherent to even the most carefully designed test, the use of either (or both) intelligence or personality tests to determine suitability for employment could be viewed as ethically unacceptable in terms of discriminatory practices. Online testing is somewhat less fraught with ethical considerations, as it is (or should be) assumed that tehse tests are not fully accurate measures and are taken more for reasons of personal enjoyment. The fact that many tests try to sell you things, or claim to be incredibly accurate, does diminish the harmlessness somewhat, but our culture should know no to trust everything on the web.
Intelligence testing should not be required for candidates prior to running for public office.
Firstly, the assumption that higher traditional measures of intelligence will result in better governance is highly debatable and flawed. Second, the ability to govern may be better determined by a measurement of emotional intelligence, rather than standard IQ measurements. Third, moral character may be a better measure of the ability to govern than intelligence.
Americans often complain that the nature of our democratic government leads to the election of individuals whose intelligence levels leave a great deal to be desired. Clearly, the actions of a great many public officials give credence to this claim. e have only to think of the, the indiscreet and inappropriate sexual shenanigans of Gary Hart, and the infamous inability of Dan Quayle to spell potato correctly as evidence of this assertion. In response to these criticisms, many Americans have begun to…
Gardner, Howard. Frames of Mind. New York: Basic Book Inc., 1983.
The author of this report is asked to answer three general questions about intelligence. The first question asks for the general underpinnings and genesis of the discussions about intelligence including what was suggested by Binet as well as the general definition and formulations of the intelligence quotient, or IQ. The second question and discussion is about the challenges to the definition of intelligence as offered and suggested by Gardner, Spearman and others. Finally, there is to be an evaluation of which definitions could or should be use as the basis for intelligence testing.
Binet was indeed one of the pioneers of the intelligence and intelligence-measuring field. His contributions to the early discussions of intelligence are mentioned in the work of Cicciola et al. (2014). Cicciola talks about the genesis of the intelligence quotient instrument and the general concept of intelligence. He notes that the names involved in that…
Cicciola, E., Foschi, R., & Lombardo, G.P. (2014). Making up intelligence scales: De
Sanctis's and Binet's tests, 1905 and after. History Of Psychology, 17(3), 223-
Dale, B.A., Finch, M.H., Mcintosh, D.E., Rothlisberg, B.A., & Finch, W.H. (2014).
More and more deep analysis can clarify the internal dynamics of the matter being studied, and in the long run to prediction, known as estimation. The reason for intelligence analysis is to make known to a precise decision maker the necessary significance of selected target information. Analysts should start with established facts, apply specialist knowledge in order to produce plausible but less certain findings, and even predict when the forecast is appropriately qualified. Analysts should not, however, engage in fortune telling that has no foundation in fact (Heuer, 1999). Not only is it poor science to claim absolute truth, but it also leads to the kind of destructive and distrustful debate we've had in last decade about global warming. The history of science and technology suggests that such absolutism on both sides of a scientific debate doesn't often lead to practical solutions (Botkin, 2011).
In the arrangement of science there…
A Compendium of Analytic Tradecraft Notes. (1997). Retrieved from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/cia/tradecraft_notes/contents.htm
Botkin, D.B. (2011). Absolute Certainty Is Not Scientific. Retreived from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204630904577058111041127168.html
Clauser, J. (2008). An introduction to intelligence research and analysis. Lanham, Maryland:
The Scarecrow Press.
Perceptions of Intelligence
Intelligence is a concept that has numerous meanings across time, geography and culture. Typically, most of the definitions connect some sort of skill, plan or understanding of concepts, new things, etc. -- and the way that knowledge is combined with other ideas to form something new or adaptive. Numerous psychologists and neurologists continue to debate the differing types of intelligence and the ways individuals combine them to form a unique (and individual) basis for the way they view the world (Garlick, 2010). Creative intelligence, for instance, is the way individuals perceive their universe -- the world around them, and how that changes. Of course, because of the differences in the way people perceive their world, and the differences in the way and manner the external world is constructed, all individuals may be creative in one way or another. For instance, imagine how creative it was for our…
Yuri Bronfenbrenner. (2005, September 26). Retrieved from Cornell University News:
Benjamin, L. (2009). The Birth of American Intelligence Testing. Monitor on Psychology.
40(1): Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/monitor/2009/01/assessment.html
Explain the Global Ability Index and when to use it
The alternative global score, the General Ability Index (GAI) is calculated when the test-taker "meets certain criteria that involve variability with respect to the cognitive factors of working memory and processing speed" (Cheramie 2008). For example, learning-disabled children often have lower levels of processing speed, thus the GAI is an acceptable scoring alternative to the usual method which does take memory and processing speed into account when norming the results.
Discuss the main uses for the WAIS-IV and WISC-IV
All forms of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales are standardized tests, "meaning that as part of the test design, they were administered to a large representative sample of the target population, and norms were determined from the results" (Encyclopedia of Children's Health, 2010). All IQ tests are limited in their ability to describe the individual's full range of ability and should be…
Cheramie, Gail M., Mary E. Stafford, & Sarah S. Mire. (2008). The WISC-IV General Ability
Index in a non-clinical sample. Graduate Journal of Education and Human
Development. 2.2. Retrieved February 03, 2010 at http://www.scientificjournals.org/journals2008/articles/1416.pdf
Groth-Marnat, Gary. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. Wiley.
American writers from both the antebellum South and the North commented on the great differences between the white people in the two regions (Ibid; Samuda).
Note though, the table data below regarding the percentage of males who completed high school by race, 1940-1980, which will provide data for further discussion regarding utilization of testing to stratify recruits:
Table 1 -- Males 18-21 Who Completed High School By Percentile
(Source: Binkin, p.94)
How is it that tests designed to measure information that was given in school could be administered to populations who did not even attend school? And, when one takes population and demographic statistics into account, this historical bias deepens. At the outbreak of World War I, for instance, African-Americans were about 11% of the general population, and the Selective Service draft…
Benjamin, L. (2009). "The Birth of American Intelligence Testing." Monitor on Psychology. 40(1): Cited inL
Binkin, M., et.al. (1982). Blacks in the Military. Brookings Institution Press.
Black, E. (2004). War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America's Campaign to Create
The opposing side, which sports a more eclectic set of disciplinary backgrounds and prides itself on a more sophisticated and inclusive perspective, divides human abilities into broad classes -- logical, spatial, interpersonal, verbal, etc. -- and labels each class an "intelligence." The two sides then proceed to talk past each other. (Casse, 1998, p. 33)
The resulting controversy then falls back to the idea of socio-cultural differences, and race/gender/culture/environment. (Skidmore & Aagaard, 2004, p. 304) Casse claims that by differing on core definitions of intelligence scientists are not good at comparing anything but data or defining concepts,
Scientists make bad dictionary writers and worse philosophers. Their main skills are in constructing experiments and generating explanations for what they observe. Neither of these endeavors requires agreement on what the words involved "mean" in any deep or absolute sense, only on ways of converting the elements of the theory at issue into…
Casse, D. (1998, August). IQ since "The Bell Curve." Commentary, 106, 33.
Intelligence. (2004). In the Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Daly, W.C. (1997). Some Mentally Retarded Children Can Benefit from Placement with Peers. Education, 117(4), 553.
Figueroa, R.A. (1989). Psychological Testing of Linguistic-Minority Students: Knowledge Gaps and Regulations. Exceptional Children, 56(2), 145.
Culturally Biased Intelligence Assessment
Intelligence assessments have existed since the early twentieth century and have continued to be a topic of debate. We all know full well that intelligence assessment is critical to the type if academic success that we achieve in life. One of the primary tools used to assess intelligence is the IQ test. However, the intelligence quotient test has been under scrutiny for decades because it is believed to harbor culturally biased precepts.
The purpose of this discussion is to explore the cultural bias' that exist in intelligence quotient testing. We will begin with a literary review which will start by explaining the definition of cultural bias in testing and the historical implications. We will explain the origins of the IQ test and the reasons why the cultural bias exist. Our discussion will then focus on how cultural bias in intelligence assessment has produced historical implications.
Educators Should Require Evidence. (1999). Phi Delta Kappan, 81(2), 132.
Enriching the Focus on ethnicity and race. (1998). APA Monitor. VOLUME 29, NUMBER 3 - March 1998 www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=95784671
Alexander, K.L. (1997). Public Schools and the Public Good. Social Forces, 76(1), 1-30.
Evolution of the Concept of Intelligence
The concept of IQ is relatively recent, despite the widespread cultural tendency to regard intelligence as a discrete and measurable category that has existed since time began. Intelligence tests were initially constructed with a relatively straightforward purpose -- to discern which children could flourish in the rigid French school system. After the French government passed a law requiring all French children attend school, it commissioned Alfred Binet and his colleague Theodore Simon to identify which children exhibited cognitive deficits. Binet focused upon skills that were not necessarily 'taught' to children, such as "attention, memory and problem-solving skills," to ensure that children from more privileged backgrounds did not have an advantage on the test (Cherry 2010). Binet also created a distinction between children able to answer more advanced questions only older children were capable of solving and average children. "Based on this observation, Binet suggested…
Bensen, Etienne. (2003). Intelligent intelligence testing. APA Monitor, 34(2): 48.
Retrieved July 9, 2011 at http://www.apa.org/monitor/feb03/intelligent.aspx
Cherry, Kendra. (2011). History of intelligence testing. Retrieved July 9, 2011 at http://psychology.about.com/od/psychologicaltesting/a/int-history.htm
Gardner's multiple intelligences. (2006). Personality and Individual Differences.
psychological testing and its uses in practical situations. This essay will examine the intelligence test, as means to help illuminate how these assessments can be used for in a given situation. Specifically, this essay will examine how these intelligence tests can be used in the workplace for human resources purpose such as hiring and promotion.
The role of psychological testing is to provide a tool to further evaluate the mental frame work of an individual. While there are several types of these assessments such as screening, personality and achievement, this essay will examine how intelligence testing can be utilized in the workplace. Intelligence testing attempts to measure the ability of a person's ability to understand the world around them in their environment. These tests use questions that measures the intellectual potential of the person being evaluated and does not reflect a total or comprehensive model of one's totally…
Flynn, J.R. (1987). Massive IQ gains in 14 nations: What IQ tests really measure. Psychological bulletin, 101(2), 171.
Framingham, J. (2011). Types of Psychological Testing. Psych Central. Retrieved on September 26, 2014, from http://psychcentral.com/lib/types-of-psychological-testing/0005924
Richardson, K. (2002). What IQ tests test. Theory & Psychology, 12(3), 283-314. Retrieved from http://www.swisswuff.ch/files/richardson2002whatiqteststest.pdf
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV)
The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV, Pearson Assessments, 2012) was designed to evaluate cognitive functioning in adults aged 16 to 90. The WAIS-IV is the most recent updated version (released in 2008) of the most commonly administered intelligence test for adolescents and adults (Canivez, 2010). The test has its roots in the Wechsler -- Bellevue Intelligence Scale (Wechsler, 1939). David Wechsler, a psychologist who was dissatisfied with the standard of intelligence testing of the times, based his original tests on his notion of intelligence as "the global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and deal effectively with the environment" (Wechsler, 1939, p. 229). All versions of the WAIS attempt to measure general intelligence and other facets of intelligence via the administration of numerous subtests. Each of these subtests is an estimate of a particular cognitive…
Canivez, G., L. (2010). Test review of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Fourth Edition. In R.A. Spies, J.F. Carlson, & K.F. Geisinger (Eds.), The eighteenth mental measurements yearbook (pp. 684-688). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.
Frazier, T.W., & Youngstrom, E.A. (2007). Historical increase in the number of factors measured by commercial tests of cognitive ability: Are we overfactoring? Intelligence, 35(2), 169-182.
Pearson Assessments. (2012). Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV):
Assessment and information. Retrieved July 28, 2014, from http://www.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en-us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=015-8980-808
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Stanford -- Binet Intelligence Scales
Analysis of Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Stanford -- Binet Intelligence
Present use of Stanford -- Binet Intelligence and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
esults from Studies
The performance IQ
Assessment of Intellectual Functioning
Psychological testing -- also known as the psychological assessment -- is basically the foundation of how psychologists are able to get a better understanding a person and their behavior. It is a process of problem solving for many professionals -- to try and regulate the core components of a person's psychological or mental health difficulties, personality, IQ, or some other element. It is likewise some kind of process that aids and identifies not just flaws of a person, but also all of their strengths. Psychological testing are done to measure a person's performance at a particular point in time. Psychologists discuss about an individual's…
Arrigo, B.A. (2009). Police corruption and psychological testing: A strategy for preemployment screening. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 12(3), 23-45.
Emerson, E., Einfeld, S., & Stancliffe, R.J. (2010). The mental health of young children with intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 45(21), 21-34.
Gonzalez-Gordon, R.G., Salvador-Carulla, L., Romero, C., Gonzalez-Saiz, F., & Romero, D. (2012). Feasibility, reliability and validity of the Spanish version of Psychiatric Assessment Schedule for Adults with Developmental Disability: A structured psychiatric interview for intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 21(6), 111-120.
Maeda, S., Kita, F., Miyawaki, T., & Takeuchi. (2012). Assessment of patients with intellectual disability using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health to evaluate dental treatment tolerability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 24(9), 253-259.
In the spaces provided beneath the flowchart, list the term that corresponds with the definition in each box.
ABC/123 Version X
Copyright © XXXX by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Hopper, C. How memory works. PowerPoint. etrieved from:
Computing IQ Essay
Consider the following scenario:
Kara is 10 years old. She has been given an intelligence test. Her mental age is 13.
According to Sternberg, what is Kara's IQ? Conduct research and interpret her score.
Kara's IQ is 130. One formulation of an intelligence quotient is that of mental age and a child with a superior mental age to her actual years thus has a higher IQ. "Sternberg's discussions on intelligence are very different from a lot of others because he appears to think that other than a static score, intelligence is somewhat malleable and should…
Lane, C. (20008). Gardner's multiple intelligences. The Distance Learning Technology Resource Guide. Retrieved from: http://www.tecweb.org/styles/gardner.html
McLeod, S. A. (2010). Long-term memory. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/long-term-memory.html McLeod, S. A. (2014). Classical Conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/classical-conditioning.html
McLeod, S. A. (2015). Skinner - operant conditioning. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from www.simplypsychology.org/operant-conditioning.html
Paik, H. (2001). One intelligence or many? Alternative approaches to cognitive abilities. Personality Research.
Because of the difficulties he analyzed in a testtaker's response to a task, he called for more complex measurements of intellectual ability than previously undertaken.
Wechsler built upon these views, compiling a more complete definition of intelligence but as parochial as that examined by Sternberg. "Intelligence, operationally defined, is the aggregate or global capacity of the individually to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal with his environment." (235)
Wechsler critically added that intelligence is not just the sum of the abilities included in the definition, but it is something only understandable by the measurement of the various aspects of those abilities. (235) Likewise, he added that an individual's ability to perceive and respond to social, moral, and aesthetic values contributed to a personality of intelligence.
Examining the cognitive process of young children, Piaget found that intelligence was an evolving process of a certain adaptation to the outside world.…
Charles Spearman was the first to develop techniques that measured "intercorrelations" between different tests of intelligence. The development of these theories lead to the evolution of the two-factor theory of intelligence, in which he postulated that the existence of a general intellectual ability factor that can and is tapped by all other mental abilities such as linguistic, mechanical, and arithmetic abilities. (238) Spearman instituted tests that measured the magnitude of this general intelligence and concluded that the higher the general intelligence, the greater a subject's overall intelligence would be. (237)
Spearman's work led directly to the development of multi-intelligence models, like those of Guilford (1967), that attempt to explain the varied types of identifiable intelligence witnessed throughout the general population. Evolving from the discussion of intelligence as a general idea accepted by the lay population but without real definition, psychologists from Sternberg to Spearman attempted to decipher the popular idea of intelligence, capture it within an acceptable definition, and understand its origins, growth, possibilities, and application. Each scientist presented a new way to examine the nebulous idea, mollifying its uncertain nature with an infusion of definition and standards, shedding light on the wholly inconspicuous concept of brilliance.
Cohen and Swerdlik, Jay and Mark E. Psychological Testing and Assessment. 6th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2005.
Testing Materials) -- Sensitive in Nature
Do Not Copy, Print, Transmit, or Save Unless Specifically Authorized
The desired End State of the Allies here is complete control of North Africa from the Atlantic (in the west) to the Red Sea (in the east).
The primary obstacle at present to achieving this End State is fairly easily described: the Axis has control of the Mediterranean Sea with small exceptions on the far east and west of the sea. (The British hold Alexandria and the Suez Canal on the eastern Mediterranean, and hold the island of Malta and the straits of Gibraltar in the western Mediterranean.) Due to Axis control of southern Europe -- including, crucially, the Italian peninsula and Sicily -- the Axis has reliable SLOC and ALOC into the central portion of North Africa, where their troops are presently stationed in the Western Desert. Nobody (neither Allies nor…
The standard IQ tests based on the work of Alfred Binet and Lewis Terman are also based on the idea of a single-ability measure of intelligence.
The idea of a single g factoring intelligence, however, has numerous critics. As early as 1938, psychologist L.L. Thurstone criticized the narrowness of Spearman's model. Thurstone argued that mental abilities such as verbal comprehension, spatial visualization and reasoning were distinct forms of intelligences that should be considered separate from one another (Huffman 2003).
Howard Gardner, a cognitive theorist, pursued this idea further by proposing a theory of multiple intelligences. Gardner devised a criteria of eight intelligences, including linguistic skills, bodily-kinesthetic skills and logical-mathematical skills. According to Gardner, people can have different profiles of intelligence, meaning that they can have challenges in some areas but exhibit strengths in others. Because of these different forms of intelligence, Gardner proposed that people also have distinct…
Huffman, Karen. 2003. Psychology in Action. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
police adopted intelligence-Led policing? What are the problems associated with its implementations?
Over time, policing methods have advanced, with the most recent strategy in improving response time of police being intelligence-led policing (or ILP). ILP is still in its initial developmental stages, is still not wholly understood, and has not yet been adopted by all agencies (Taylor, Kowalyk and Boba 2007). Studying police managers' views and attitudes can help recognize obstacles. Depending on findings of research, when initiating this strategy, top police officers obtain the information required for foreseeing problems and understanding supervisors' mind-set. Strategy transformations spring from shifts in objectives. For instance, London's Metropolitan police was organized by Sir obert Peel for focusing not on response, but on prevention of crime (Johnson 1988). Improvements were generated through technological advances like automobiles and telephones. These improvements served to lessen response time, as well as expand an officer's patrol coverage (Phillips…
Anderson, R 1994, "Intelligence-led policing: A British perspective," in A Smith(ed) Intelligence-led policing: International perspective on policing in the 21st Century, Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement intelligence Analyst.
Anderson, R 1997, "Intelligence-led policing: A British Perspective," In Intelligence-led policing: International Perspective on policing in the 21st Century: Lawrenceville, NJ: International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analyst.
Bennett, T 1994, 'Community policing on the ground: developments in Britain,' in D.P. Rosenbaum(ed) The challenge of community policing: Testing the promises, Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage.
Carter, DL and Carter, JG 2009, "Intelligence-Led Policing: Conceptual and Functional Considerations for Public Policy," Criminal Justice Policy Review 20, no. 3: 310-325
Over the years, there have been discussions surrounding the issue of intelligence and how it can be measured as well as what parameters determined who is more intelligent than the other. Controversy has surrounded the definition and measurement of intelligence and many scholars have opined that the controversy is mainly based on the fact that historically intelligence has been defined on the grounds of how much one knows rather than how well one processes (Fagan J.F., 2000:Pp1). IQ has been defined in perspective of how much an individual knows in relation to the age mates. This has been faulted several times and hence this paper will highlight some of the theories that have been historically used to define intelligence, the biases in the testing of intelligence and the controversies that have surrounded the entire aspect of intelligence.
On of the major theorists in intelligence is Galton, indeed, he is…
Golstein H., (2012). Francis Galton, measurement, psychometrics and social progress. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.bristol.ac.uk/cmm/team/hg/full-publications/2012/Galton.pdf
Fagan J.F., (2000). A Theory of Intelligence as Processing: Implication for Society. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.psy.cmu.edu/~rakison/fagan.pdf
Kane H. & Brand C., (2003). The Importance of Spearman's g as a Psychometric, Social, and Educational Construct. The Occidental Quarterly. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from https://www.toqonline.com/archives/v3n1/TOQv3n1Kane-Brand.pdf
McGraw Kevin, (2009). Evolution of CHC Theory of Intelligence and Assessment. Retrieved August 31, 2014 from http://www.ibapnet.org.br/congresso2009/material/chctimeline2.pdf
Psychological tests are an important aspect of clinical psychology. Psychological tests are normally administered by professional psychologists as a way of learning fact on how people function or in predicting their future. The paper will look at the definition of the term test, give a description of the major categories of tests while identifying the major uses and users of these tests. There will also be comparing and contrasting the concepts of validity and reliability and a discussion of how they affect the psychological testing field.
Definition of tests
A test or examination is defined as an assessment aimed at measuring the knowledge, aptitude, skill, physical fitness or classification in other different topics. Tests can be administered orally, by use of a paper, computer or in the confinement of a specific area which requires the person taking the test to physically perform a specific set of skills. Tests…
Renate, R. (2010).The Real Difference between Reliability and Validity. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8481668_real-difference-between-reliability-validity.html
Dority, J. (2011).Five Common Types of Psychological Tests. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/101417-five-common-types-psychological-tests/
Edu.com. (2009).psychological Testing. Retrieved September 14, 2013 from http://users.ipfw.edu/abbott/120/PsychTesting.html
Psychological Testing: Establishing Diversity
Psychological testing is the backbone of how psychologists are able to gain a higher level of understanding regarding human beings and how/why they act as they do. Good psychological exams can help tremendously in the task of problem-solving and in getting a better snapshot of a person's psychological or mental health issues while identifying strengths and weaknesses. Furthermore, a precise psychological exam helps to exam an individual's precise point in time in a mode which examines their present-functioning in terms of test data. There are a range of psychological tests which are available, many of which are the results of decades and decades of research and procedures. The four main types of psychological tests are as follows: clinical interviews, assessment of intellectual functioning, personality assessment, and then behavioral assessments.
However, since psychological tests emerged within the field, the issue of diversity in psychological testing was an…
Cherry, K. (2013). What Is the Rorschach Inkblot Test? Retrieved from About.com: http://psychology.about.com/od/rindex/g/rorschach-ink.htm
Reynolds, C., & Suzuki, L. (2003). Bias in Psychological Assessment. Retrieved from wileypub.com: http://lp.wileypub.com/HandbookPsychology/SampleChapters/Volume10.pdf
Wakefield, H., & Underwager, R. (n.d.). The application of images in child abuse investigations.
Retrieved from http://www.tc.umn.edu/~under006/Library/Images.html
As emotionally intelligent employees are reportedly more content, conscientious and committed in the workplace, businesses and organizations are repeatedly advised to recruit and retain these individuals. Abraham (2006), nevertheless, reports that the strongest findings emerging from her study was.".. The effect of job control on emotional intelligence." She contends that emotionally intelligent employees will not just naturally thrive in their workplace; that the work environment needs to provide independence in decision making for employees to succeed.
Aims and Objectives
To explore concepts encapsulated in and related to EQ testing, through intensive research and appropriate assessment of collected data.
esearch for this project proposes to increase understanding of EQ testing, as well as, complementary components.
Each objective presented in this proposal reflects an area of interest which will be expounded upon. As Objective 5, however, mirrors a primary consideration, plans are to include numerous samplings of related studies.
Abraham, Rebecca. "The Role of Job Control as a Moderator of Emotional Dissonance and Emotional Intelligence -- Outcome Relationships.(Statistical Data Included)," the Journal of Psychology, March 1, 2000.
Bar-on, Reuven Ph.D (2005). "The World's First Scientific Measure of Emotional Intelligence."(2006). PEN Psychodiagnostics [26 September 2006]. http://www.eqiq.nl/eqivol.htm .
Before You Start Your Fruit and Fibre Diet You Should Speak to This Man. (2005, February 9). Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales), p. 12.
Measurement and Statistics
Intelligence: Definition and assessment
Two major interpretations of intelligence exist -- the concept of 'general intelligence,' which is often pitted against the concept of 'multiple intelligences.' For many years, it was though that only one kind of intelligence existed, known as the 'g-factor,' or general intelligence. "In recent decades, psychologists have devoted much effort to isolating that general factor, which is abbreviated g, from the other aspects of cognitive ability gauged in mental tests" (Gottfredson 2010). However, some researchers such as Howard Gardner have attempted to reframe the g-factor and advocate that intelligence is a multi-faceted concept.
Intelligence tests are often contrasted against personality tests, in which different characteristics are viewed to exist as unrelated to one another. For example, in a standard Myers-Briggs personality test, a person can be 'extroverted' and a 'judging' type or 'introverted' and a 'judging' type. Different personality characteristics do not necessarily…
Achievement tests. (2011). Institute of Mental Measurements. Retrieved June 9, 2011 at http://www.unl.edu/buros/bimm/html/index01.html
Becker, Kirt. (2003). History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales. Houghton-Mifflin.
Retrieved June 8, 2011 at http://www.assess.nelson.com/pdf/sb5-asb1.pdf
Gilman, Linda. (2001). Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Intelligence Theory.
The Impact and Importance of Psychological Testing
Defining Psychological Testing
A test is defined as a method or procedure for critical evaluation or as a means of establishing the quality, truth, or presence of something. (Webster's Dictionary, 2011). According to the American Educational Research Association (AERA), the National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) and the American Psychological Association (APA) (1999), psychological test or psychological testing is a discipline most frequently characterized by the use of behavior samples in order to assess various psychological constructs such as the emotional and cognitive functioning of individuals. The psychological test itself is an instrument most often designed to measure constructs that are not observed, and often involve a series of problems or tasks that the participant or respondent must solve. These tests can resemble questionnaires; however, what makes psychological tests different is that they require the respondents' maximum cognitive performance (AERA,…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and Psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
Cohen, r., & Swerdlik, M. (2009). Psychological testing and assessment. McGraw-Hill.
Meeker, W., & Escobar, L. (1998). Statistical methods for reliability data. Hoboken, New Jersey: Wiley.
Messick, S. (1995). Validity of psychological assessment: Validation of inferences from person's responses and performances as scientific inquiry into score meaning. American Psychologist, 50, 741-749.
2001 1. Then, they could sort taxonomically. In other words, one man's 'smart' is another man's 'dopey', concepts that have little to do with the "intelligence" IQ tests are designed to measure. This is certainly, as well, a clear indication of how completely IQ tests are based in a narrow range of cultural norms. Indeed, they could be viewed as impoverished measures for failing to account for the values, intellectual and otherwise, of any society except the well-defined, homogenized and 'unjuicy' western society that invented the tests. Sternberg et al. concluded that, regarding IQ tests, "scores from tests used in cultures or subcultures other than those for which the tests were specifically created are suspect, and probably of doubtful validity in many if not most cases (2001 1).
What about race?
The myths about race and IQ go back a long way, to a time before IQ tests. Philosophers Hume,…
Keita, L. (1999). Why Race Matters: Race Differences and What They Mean. The Western Journal of Black Studies, 23(1), 65. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Reeve, C.L. (2002). Race and Intelligence: Separating Science from Myth. Personnel Psychology, 55(3), 778+. Retrieved April 21, 2005, from Questia database,
Projective Testing on Children - Advantages of Different Techniques
So many different factors are involved in prediction of how a child might grow up, what his or her proclivities will be, and whether that child will be predisposed to violence. Often, cultural and socio-economic conditions will play a huge role. For instance, a child who has been beaten by a father is more likely to beat his own children or his spouse. Or, a child growing up in a dangerous, crime-infested inner-city neighborhood is likely to follow in the footsteps of the wrong role models.
But over the years, several tests grounded in various hard and social sciences like psychology, psychiatry, biology, economics, sociology and political economy have emerged to offer credible projective testing for children.
Lawrence Frank set the stage for projective testing in 1939: "When people try to understand vague or ambiguous unstructured stimuli, the interpretation they produce…
" (2001) Atkins-urnett relates that a "key index of competence in childhood and adolescence" is 'peer competence'. Stated is that: "Relationships with peers, as measured by sociometric indicators are strong indicators of both concurrent and future adaptive functioning." (2001) Longitudinal studies all show that there are similar characteristics "among resilient children: strong sense of competence and self-efficacy, well-liked by peers and adults, reflective rather than impulsive, use of flexible coping strategies, internal locus of control and good intellectual skills" (urnett-Atkins, 2001)
The work of Qualter, Gardner and Whiteley (2007) entitled: "Emotional Intelligence: Review of Research and Educational Implications" states that there is: "...continuing controversy over how to define and measure EI, and how significant the concept of EI is in predicting various aspects of life success. Two predominant perspectives are those adopting an Ability EI and a Trait EI approach." (Qualter, Gardner, and Whiteley, 2007) Emotional Intelligence has been portrayed…
Bar-on, R. (in press). Emotional and Social Intelligence: Insights from the Emotional
Berry, D.J.; Bridges, L.J.; and Zaslow, M.J. (2004) Early Childhood Measures Profiles. Prepared by Child Trends: Washington DC. www.childtrends.org.
Boyatzis, R.E. (1994). Stimulating self-directed learning thought the Managerial Assessment and Development Course, Journal of Management Eduaction,18(3), 304-323.
Chapman, B.P. And Hayslip, B. (2005) Incremental Validity of a Measure of Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Personality Assessment. Vol. 85 No. 2. 2005.
When one hears the phrase "psychological testing" one might be inclined to think of a test to determine one's mental health, a test that could tell someone whether she or he was crazy or not. But psychological testing is hardly so clear-cut, nor does it deal with the highly subjective subject of sanity. Psychological tests instead measure a range of qualities and potentials, including one's aptitude for various kinds of jobs, one's IQ, one's cognitive functioning, one's ideal occupation, and one's personality type. There are also specific psychological tests for certain mental illnesses, such as depression. In this paper I will briefly describe the different types of psychological tests before addressing the concepts of validity and reliability.
All psychological tests share the basic criteria of any type of test. Tests are sets of either exercises or questions (or some combination of the two) that are used in a…
Janda, L. (2009). Psychological testing: Theory and application. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Kline, T. (2005). Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. Los Angeles: Sage Publications.
Maruish, M. (2001). Psychological testing in the age of managed behavioral healthcare. NJ:
Cognitive Ability Testing
Psychological testing or psychological assessment is the strategy that psychologists use to determine the core component of individual personality, cognitive ability and IQ (intelligence quotient). It is the process of identifying individual strengths and weakness. In essence, cognitive ability is one of the important strategies for the psychological assessment. Traditionally, cognitive ability assessment primarily involves the use of pencil and paper to determine a wide range of individual abilities that include problem solving, intellectual functioning, language skills, and memory. With the advanced development of information technology, there is an increase in the use of computer technology to carry out the assessment. The cognitive testing uses both qualitative and quantitative approach to determine individual cognitive ability, and the results are interpreted based on the normative data collected.
Objective of this study is to carry out the assessment of cognitive ability of students and non-students using the Cognitive Abilities…
Aiken, L.R. & Groth-Marnat, G. (2006). Psychological assessment and Psychological testing, (12th ed.).Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. ISBN: 0205457428.
Bermingham D, Hill RD, Woltz D, Gardner MK (2013) Cognitive Strategy Use and Measured Numeric Ability in Immediate- and Long-Term Recall of Everyday Numeric Information. PLoS ONE 8(3).
Lakin, J.M. (2012).Multidimensional ability tests in the linguistically and culturally diverse students: The Evidence of the measurement invariance. Learning and Individual Differences. 22(3):397-403.
Lohman, D.F. (2006). The Woodcock-Johnson III and the Cognitive Abilities Test (Form 6): A Concurrent Valid Study. University of Iowa.
In 1953, Congress amended the National Security Act to provide for the appointment of a Deputy Director of the CIA by the President with Senate's advice and consent. Commissioned officers of the armed forces, active or retired, could not occupy the top two positions at the same time (CIA).
Intelligence Reform Needed
Countless reorganizations of the intelligence community since the end of the Cold War have not produced satisfactory results (Harris 2002). U.S. intelligence counterterrorist programs have certainly made record achievements, such as the thwarting of planned attacks on New York's Lincoln and Holland tunnels in 1993 and against airports on the West Coast in the eve of the millennium. ut reforms are quite needed. The first is to provide warning. The most difficult task of the intelligence officer is to provide warning. The intelligence community also needs a more risk-taking and failure-tolerant management approach. Safeguarding national security means putting…
BBC. Bush Pledge Over U.S. Intelligence. BBC News: British Broadcasting Company,
2009. Retrieved on May 29, 2009 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4396457.stm
CIA. History of the CIA. Central Intelligence Agency, 2007. Retrieved on May 30, 2009cia.html" http://www.cia.gov/kids-page/6-12th - grade/operation-history/history-of-the-cia.html
Harris, James W. The Path to Intelligence Reform: "Changes in the Intelligence Craft
The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.
Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.
Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…
Ashton, S.R. "Keeping a Foot in the Door: Britain's China Policy, 1945 -- 50." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (2004): 79-94.
Bjorge, Gary J. "The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 1 (2010):
Boyd, James. "Japanese Cultural Diplomacy in Action: The Zenrin ky? okai in Inner Mongolia,
A psychologist named Ulric Nessier believes that flashbulb memories are formed because they represent an intersection of historical and personal trajectories, and this makes them events that people want to retell and rehearse again and again. t is through these rehearsals and retellings that inaccuracies manage to creep in, and as they are reinforced through repeated retellings they become just as much a part of the memories as the actual events. That is, retelling the flashbulb memory to others is the same as rehearsing the memory, or reliving it to a certain degree, and when there are inaccurate elements in this reliving they eventually become as firmly entrenched in the memory of the true-life event as the factual memories. This explains why so many people remember seeing both planes hit on 9/11 when this was actually impossible.
For this assignment, completed the test found at http://www.intelligencetest.com/, after searching…
For this assignment, I completed the test found at http://www.intelligencetest.com/ , after searching the term "intelligence test" at askjeeves.com. While many of the questions did seem to be fairly accurate ways of gauging intelligence in certain areas, such as pattern recognition or mathematical abilities, many of the questions seemed to depend on knowledge that would have to be acquired prior to taking the test. While this information was fairly basic for the most part, it was easy to see that someone who simply hadn't been exposed to the facts would be gauged as having a lower intelligence than they might actually possess based on this feature of the test. While I feel that I possessed the knowledge that was required in these certain items on the test, this reflects the cultural bias that exists in many intelligence tests, and arguably in all intelligence tests. It also calls into question the definition of intelligence as it is defined in various intelligence tests, including this one.
As far as how it felt to take this test, I actually found it kind of exciting -- especially when I was pretty sure (or positive) that I had the right answer. Many of the items appeared incredibly easy, while others were less so, and the fact that I didn't get a perfect score means that the test obviously had some items that were more difficult than I thought. I was very eager to see my results, and throughout the test I found it difficult to concentrate only on the questions/items as they were presented because I kept wondering what each specific item was supposed to measure and what my answer would say about my intelligence. Ultimately, I don't think any internet-administered test that takes a maximum of fifteen minutes to complete can accurately assess anyone's intelligence, so I do not have a great deal of faith in my score, but the experience was definitely fun and made taking the test worthwhile.
Intelligence and emotional intelligence are, nevertheless, compelling topics for discussion and research. Impacting the psychology of an individual, intelligence affects communication style and the ability to deal with conflict. Solving problems creatively depends on intelligence, and even the ability to deal with stress might also be related to emotional intelligence (Hein 2005). All types of intelligence affect learning styles, learning aptitude, personal interests, and even memory. Emotional intelligence can become what is commonly known as "street smarts," the intelligence that enables individuals to manage social relationships regardless of their ability to solve math problems.
BBC (2004). "Hot Topics: Intelligence." etrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/hottopics/intelligence/index.shtml
Hein, S. (2005). "Definition of Emotional Intelligence." etrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://eqi.org/eidefs.htm
Huitt, W. (2002). Intelligence. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. etrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/intell.html.
Machek, G. (2003). The ole of Standardized Intelligence Measures in Testing for Giftedness.…
BBC (2004). "Hot Topics: Intelligence." Retrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/hottopics/intelligence/index.shtml
Hein, S. (2005). "Definition of Emotional Intelligence." Retrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://eqi.org/eidefs.htm
Huitt, W. (2002). Intelligence. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/intell.html .
Machek, G. (2003). The Role of Standardized Intelligence Measures in Testing for Giftedness. Human Intelligence. Retrieved Feb 12, 2007 at http://www.indiana.edu/~intell/giftednessTesting.shtml
In recent years, many researchers have been attracted by the topic of emotional intelligence (EI) and leadership style. Their interest in the area is based on claims that effective leadership style and Emotional Intelligence are linked. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to examine the relationship between Emotional Intelligence and leadership style giving emphasis to transformational in organizations and countries by incorporating the concept of organizational culture. The future existence of agencies has been determined primarily by their ability to adapt to continuous change. As such, the study also looks into unveiling the actual role of gender in determining leadership style and Emotional Intelligence as effective areas of organizational behavior. In concluding the research, the study looks at limitations and gives recommendations for further studies in this field.
Emotional intelligence has been defined as the ability to monitor one's own and others' feelings and emotions because it is a…
The Teacher’s Role in A Multiple Intelligence Learning Environment
The role of the teacher in a multiple intelligence learning environment is transformed from the normal learning environment in that the teacher no longer stands in front of the classroom and lectures to the student. In multiple intelligence, the teacher's role is to observe the students from different perspectives, develop the curriculum for the students, find activities that assist the students to learn based on their individual smarts, and plan the design of the lessons (Ba? & Beyhab, 2017). Teachers are no longer required to present their lessons using the traditional methods, but rather in a wide array of ways like using music, art activities, multimedia, role play, and many more. This allows the teacher to be keen on the students and have a different group of students all learning the same subject and topic using different methods based on the…
Nature of Intelligence
In the world of global diversity, creativity, sustainability and computer technologies it seems hard not to assume that the multiple theory of intelligence is preferable to the more general one. Naturalistic, verbal, musical and interpersonal examples of this type of thinking seem more aligned with the way we see the universe today (ardner, H., 2003).
On the other hand, the educational system in the country is acting as if it believes the model of general intelligence is necessary for academic success. The movement toward young people being taught highly standardized school subjects so that they can all take similar tests matches this assumption because it allows for using scientific tools to measure achievement and one's supposed intelligence. It was this philosophy that allowed Spearman and others to first use their ideas of finding common personal characteristics to identify intelligence (ottfredson, 1998). Eventually this would be the foundation…
Gardner, H. (2003). Multiple Intelligences after twenty years. Harvard School of Education. Viewable at http://pzweb.harvard.edu/pis/hg_mi_after_20_years.pdf.
Gottfredson, L. (1998). The General Intelligence Factor. Scientific America. Viewable at http://www.udel.edu/educ/gottfredson/reprints/1998generalintelligencefactor.pdf .
Sternberg, R.J. (2007). Wisdom, Intelligence, and Creativity Synthesized. New York: Cambridge University Press.
I truly take an interest in what other people have to say, so this helps them to feel respected because they can tell I am not just going through the motions. I tend to live by the principle of the golden rule, that is, 'do unto others as you would have them do unto you.' I believe that great leadership is based on this principle, both in attitude and in action.
Helping Others Solve Problems
"A problem is the difference between your current and desired conditions." Therefore solving a problem means closing this gap by aligning where you want to be with where you are. Leaders are in a position to help other people move from point a to point B. In an effective and efficient manner. Unfortunately, some leaders find it difficult to find a balance between helping too much and helping too little. According to the article "Problem…
Calano, James and Selzman, Jeff. "Move from Management to Leadership" Newsweek, 145.14 (2006): 45-48
Dubrin, Andrew J. Coaching and Mentoring Skills, 2005
Stein, S.J. And Book, H.E. The EQ Edge: Emotional Intelligence and Your Success, 2006
Weidenkiller, Keith. "The Right Stuff? Able Leadership is the Best Practice." Film International Journal, 110.2 (2007): 23
Are more encouraged by praise that is delivered physically rather than verbally -- such as by a handshake or a pat on the back rather than by a verbal "good job."
Kinesthetic learners also tend to absorb information when given a great deal of tactile stimulation. I will explore this in greater detail below.
Kinesthetic learners are generally better at expressing themselves in concrete ways. This includes expressing emotions. When kinesthetic learners interact with people who are primarily visual learners there may be significant gaps between the two in how emotions are expressed and understood. For example a kinesthetic learner might offer to change the spark plugs in her boyfriend's car while he (a visual learner) might well prefer to have gotten a card with a romantic poem in it from her.
It should be easy to see from this brief overview of the traits of a kinesthetic learner why…
Sternberg, R.J. (1996). Successful intelligence. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Trudeau, F. & Shephard, R. (2008) Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance. International journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity 5: 10.
Vyse, Stuart (2005). Where do fads come from? In Jacobson, Foxx & Mulick. Controversial therapies for developmental disabilities. NJ: Lawrence Earlbaum Associates.
Teachers must test. It is one method of evaluating progress and determining individual student needs. More than two hundred and fifty million standardized tests are administered each year to forty four million students who attend American elementary and secondary schools (Ysseldyke et al. 1992). Testing is only part of the broader conception of assessment. Testing is the sampling of behavior in students to obtain scores (quantitative indexes) or relative standing. In addition teachers and other school personnel assess or collect data through classroom observations, interviews with students' family members or care-givers. Psychological and psycho-educational tests are used in schools to help to identify types and bases and the extent of a student's learning difficulty or school adjustment problem. The assessment is used to make decisions about students.
At a curricular level, tests help to determine the effectiveness of a particular instructional intervention. Teachers give tests before and after…
Shepard, Lorrie A. (1994). The challenges of assessing young children appropriately. Phi Delta Kappan. Vol 76 No.3 206-212.
Taylor, K. And Walton, S. (2001). Testing pitfalls. Guiding students through taking standardized tests. Instructor Magazine October 2001.
Ysseldyke, James E. et al. (1992) Critical issues in special education. Houghton Mifflin Company. Boston, MA.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Individual Psychological Testing in the Workplace
Faced with an ever increasing competitive business environment, many employers are turning to employment testing as a way to improve their workforces. Every organization wants to ensure that they hire the right person. Job applicants may submit an effective resume and perform well during an interview, but they usually highlight only positive attributes. Psychological testing has been identified as one way of ensuring that the business picks an applicant who is a perfect fit for the position and actually can do the work required. Physiological tests have been validated by experts as a very good indicator of an applicant's working style. Testing potential employees can increase the chances that a company chooses the right person for a job, reduce turnover and their by lower training costs.
Specific Psychological Testing used in the Workplace
Personality tests are self-report measures…
American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National
Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association
American Psychological Association. (2011). Rights and responsibilities of test takers:
guidelines and expectations. American Psychological Association (APA). Retrieved June
e. between 85 and 115) on a normal bell-shaped distribution.
An abbreviated four-subtest version of the WAIS-III (called the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI)) has been released enabling clinicians to perform a validated verbal, performance and full-scale IQ in approximately 30 minutes.
Some clinicians use the WAIS with psychiatric illness or brain injury in order to assess impediments in cognitive reasoning, but use of the WAIS in this connection is controversial. The WAIS is also used as an instrument on a neurologically impaired population in order to link regions of the brain to specific variables of reasoning, as well as to gauge regions and extent of affected neural matter (the digit span, for instance, may be used to test attention and/or memory). Oftentimes, however, the WAIS- NI (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-evised) is a preferred neuropsychological instrument. The WAIS was developed for average, brain-healthy individuals, and separate norms, patterned on…
AERA, APA, & NCME. (2004). Standards for educational and psychological testing (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: AERA.
Axelrod, B.N. & Ryan, J.J. (2000). Prorating Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III summary scores. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56, 807 -- 11.
Hess, Allen K., (2001). [Review of the test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.)]. Mental Measurements Yearbook (15th ed.). Retrieved April 12, 2005, from Mental Measurements Yearbook database.
Rogers, Bruce G., (2001). [Review of the test Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (3rd ed.)]. Mental Measurements Yearbook (15th ed.). Retrieved April 12, 2005, from Mental Measurements Yearbook database.
These studies show that while EI is being integrated into the British educational policy, many concrete steps still have to be taken to make full use of EI skills.
Evidence in favor of Emotional Literacy
There is growing scholarly evidence that shows definitive links between higher emotional intelligence (EI) and overall success in life. For instance, ubin (1999) in his study found that students with high EI skills are less likely to indulge in violent and aggressive acts and more likely to be social. Similarly, Ciarrochi, Chan and Chaputi (2000) in their study found that adolescents with high EI skills show empathy and understanding. In the same way, other scholars too have found positive relationships between high EI and disengagement with use of alcohol and tobacco (Trinidad and Johnson, 2002; Trinidad, Unger, Chou and Anderson Johnson, 2004). Furnham and Petrides (2003) found that students with high EI are generally happy…
Antidote. 2008. Campaign for Emotional Literacy. Available at http://www.antidote.org.uk
Bastian, V.A., Burns, N.R. And Nettelbeck, T. 2005. Emotional Intelligence Predicts Life Skills, but not as well as Personality and Cognitive Abilities. Personality and Individual Differences, 39, pp. 1135-45.
Ciarrochi, J.V., Chan, a.Y.C. And Caputi, P. 2000. A Critical Evaluation of the Emotional Intelligence Construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 28, pp. 1101-13.
Ciarrochi, J.V., Deane, F.P. And Anderson, S. 2002. Emotional Intelligence Moderates the Relationship Between Stress and Mental Health. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, pp. 197-209.
Who would you most like to invite?
hat is very difficult, since I just started reading about all the people who are doing wonderful things today around the world. I know I want to meet someone about astronomy and also computers.
hank you for your interview. Do you have any last words?
Only that no one should give up on their interests because they feel lesser of a man from someone else. We all have something special inside us.
PARY for BENJAMIN BANNEKER
he party (8:00-11:00pm) is going to be held at NASA in Florida, of course, with Michael Griffin, administrator, welcoming everyone. he theme is space, so we have piped in all the music that has been written about space -- classical up to modern and movie themes. he decorations all are space related -- big neon planets and stars. We are keeping the room somewhat dark, so they…
The party (8:00-11:00pm) is going to be held at NASA in Florida, of course, with Michael Griffin, administrator, welcoming everyone. The theme is space, so we have piped in all the music that has been written about space -- classical up to modern and movie themes. The decorations all are space related -- big neon planets and stars. We are keeping the room somewhat dark, so they glow, but bright enough so people can talk. In addition to Griffin, Steve Jobs from Apple Computer; Steve Hawking, physicist; Al Gore, global warming; Maya Angelou, African-American author; General Collin Powell; Dave Chappelle, comedian, to add some humor to this serious bunch; Tupac (2Pac) Shakur for some up-to-date music; and Johnny Depp, 2007 "People's Choice" award winner; and Ellen DeGeneres, for TV and comedy (also "People's Choice" award winner).
All invited will have had a chance to learn about Banneker, so they can welcome him in their own way. Each will have ten minutes to do something special for him, that relates to his/her own background. For example, the comedians will roast Banneker and Angelou will read one of her poems.
The food will be an international buffet, so Banneker can get a taste of global treats and learn more about the rest of the world. The night will end with Banneker getting a special award -- a brand new computer-chip driven chiming clock.
Appreciative Inquiry (AI)
The concept AI (Appreciative Inquiry) is a participatory approach that energizes organizations, and engages people actively in order to create successful changes, capture positive experience among stakeholders and stimulate successful changes. Typically, appreciative inquiry has become an effective tool to enhance organizational effectiveness using clients' relationships, business partnering, team work and effective communication. Part of the business objectives of the project management are to solve business problem as well seizing opportunities using the collaborative relationships and partnerships. Moreover, the project management objective is to facilitate achievements in order to achieve desired results and outcomes. (Mathiassen, & Napier, 2013). The appreciative inquiry is a traditional problem to solve problem, identifying possibilities and generate collective image in order to develop a better future.
The appreciative inquiry model involves the following phases:
Phase I: Learning and Discovery
Phase II: Envisioning esults
Phase III: define and committing
Kloppenborg, T. (2011). Contemporary Project Management. Cengage Learning.
Mathiassen, L. & Napier, N.P. (2013). Exploring Win-Win Contracts: An Appreciative Inquiry into IT Project Management. Journal of Information Technology. Theory and Application. 14(3): 5-29.
EI and what it does?
Emotional Intelligence (EI) refers to the emotional, social, personal, and survival characteristics of the human. Intellectual intelligence refers to human acuity in the intellectual matters of the brain. EI avers that there is not lesser a caliber of intelligence in the emotional quotients of the human, for instance in the level of his/her social dealings and way that she responds to challenging situations.
A dictionary definition of EI may be: "noncognitive capabilities, competencies, and skills that influence one's ability to succeed in coping with environment demands and pressures." (What is EQ?).
Theory • Goleman (components of EI)
According to Goleman (1995), the importance of EI to the person in all circumstances in general, and to the workplace in particular is that EI predicts superior work performance 3 times more than IQ does. Goleman divides EI into five components: self-awareness (the ability to monitor one's own…
Competitive Intelligence eport: Barclaycard
Today, Barclaycard has grown from its relatively humble beginnings in 1966 to become one of the leading credit card companies in the United Kingdom with more than 10,000,000 cardholders as well as almost nine million cardholders abroad. Although the company has enjoyed a steady increase in the number of cardholders and Barclaycard has been a first mover in introducing new technologies into its business plan in recent years, this growth has not been without some problems and many of its customers are loudly complaining about poor or nonexistent customer service, exorbitant fees and faulty security measures. Taken together, it is clear that Barclaycard has done a few things right while managing to stumble over its success at others. To identify what the company has done right and wrong, this study provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature as well as various online sources…
Baird, R 2001, "Way to Starve the Sharks," New Statesman March 26, vol. 130, no. 4530, p. 37.
Barclaycard company profile 2009, Barclaycard. Available at http://www.barclaycard.com/templates/company_profile.html .
Maude, D, Raghunath, R, Sahay, A. & Sands, P, 2000, "Banking on the Device," The McKinsey Quarterly, p. 87.
Blake, S 2004, "Advertisements: From Hollywood, for Our Eyes Only," New Statesman October 11, vol. 133, no. 4709, p. 16.
What are the most important requisite skills required of organizational leaders? Why? How do effective and ineffective leadership behaviors affect employees both positively and negatively?
The most important skill of an organizational leader is to be able to motivate people, contrary to the assumption leadership is synonymous with telling people what to do in an authoritative fashion. Although in some limited instances, when a matter is urgent and followers are inexperienced, authoritarian leadership may be required, for the most part, people work best when they feel empowered to do so. According to Hersey-Blanchard leadership theory (2018), the four dominant modes of leadership include telling, selling, supporting and delegating. All too often, leaders assume that more telling is needed than actually is required. Employees need to be empowered and motivated to make positive choices to act autonomously, and even when they are inexperienced, coaching and mentorship is often more effective than…
Cultural Fairness of the Stanford-Binet-5 (SB5) Intelligence Scale
This paper reviews the literature to determine whether the Standford-Binet-5 (SB5) Intelligence Scale can be regarded as being culturally fair. A discussion concerning how creativity can be measured is followed by an assessment concerning whether people should be told their IQ scores and their rationale in support. Finally, a summary of the research concerning these issues is presented in the conclusion.
The SB5 can be used with virtually any age range spanning 2 years through 90 years+ (Machek, 2006). The updated SB5 also provides a number of useful measures, including a Full Scale score, Visual-Spatial Processing, Fluid easoning, Quantitative easoning Knowledge, and Working Memory together with scales for verbal and nonverbal performance comparisons (Machek, 2006). Even one of the designers of the SB5, though, concedes that the results of this intelligence quotient (IQ) test must be carefully evaluated and interpreted by recognizing…
Machek, G. (2006, Summer). Individually Administered Intelligence Tests. Human Intelligence. Retrieved from http://www.intelltheory.com/intelligenceTests.shtml .
Mendoza-Denton, R. (2014, Fall). A social psychological perspective on the achievement gap in standardized test performance between white and minority students: Implications for assessment. The Journal of Negro Education, 83(4), 465-470.
Roid, G. H. & Shaughnessy, M. F. (2009, December). An interview with Gale Roid about the Stanford-Binet 5. North American Journal of Psychology, 7(3), 1.
Wynder, M. (2008, July). Motivating creativity through appropriate assessment: Lessons for management accounting educators. e-Journal of Business Education and Scholarship Teaching, 2(2), 12-15.
Psychological Tests and Measurements
The issue of cultural bias in the various mental tests has been followed by controversies over many decades and to the present time still elicits debates across the academic spectrum. The controversy or conflict is not just limited to the cognitive ability tests alone but spreads wide to the IQ test. The IQ test in particular has elicited myriad of debates, has seen court cases filed and received its fair share of criticism. However, in as much as these IQ tests and other standardized tests have been widely criticized, they still remain to be the best tools that America has for gauging both aptitude and achievement. There are several reasons why these tests can be considered unfair to culture or not sensitive to culture, one of the reasons is that the content of these tests are geared towards the majority experiences and the values common among…
Cizek G.J., (n.d). Achievement Testing in U.S. Schools: Putting Standardized Test to the Test. Retrieved November 9, 2015 from http://edex.s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/publication/pdfs/cizek_7.pdf
Reynolds C.R. & Suzuki L.A., (2015). Bias in Psychological Assessment: An Empirical Review and Recommendations. Retrieved November 9, 2015 from http://lp.wileypub.com/HandbookPsychology/SampleChapters/Volume10.pdf
tests are regularly used nowadays to measure intelligence Alfred Binet and Theodore Simon invented in 1905 what has come to be acknowledged as the first scale. This initial test was aimed at ?identifying children who were mildly or perhaps more seriously retarded? (Mackintosh, 2011, p. 5) by evaluating their performance and delegating specific task sets so as any average child pertaining to a given age group could solve approximately 50% of the test. Thus, based on the number of tasks that a child could solve, the scale ?would classify children's levels of mental functioning. (Urbina, 2011, p. 23). For example, if a six years old was able to solve 50% of the test that had been delegated to this particular age group, his mental age was set at six years old. f he was able to solve above the average expectation, then he would have been attributed a superior mental…
It is acknowledged unanimously that tests would be ?designed so that the mean score is 100 points, and the standard deviation is 15 points. (Shalizi, 2009, para. 2) Older versions of Binet's scale are subject to a standard deviation of 16 (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 301). Thus, it is considered that individuals falling under the average value display or are subject to intellectual deficit while those above are intellectually superior. The mean score which is subject to intelligence testing is known as the deviation IQ and was introduced in the 1960 revised version of the Stanford-Binet Scale as ?simply a standard score? ((Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 294) ?ascertained by evaluating the standard deviation of mental age for a representative sample at each age level. (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2013, p. 294)
III. Verbal vs. Performance Properties of the Modern Binet and Wechsler Scales
We stated earlier that there are various tests which measure intelligence and we have already spoken of Binet's contributions in this respect. However, there is another name which is often related to significant and effective scales of intelligence testing. David Wechsler proposed his first scale in 1939 for adults and ten years later, for children. It has even been argued that Wechsler developed subtests prior to the Binet-Simon scale (Boake, 2002, p. 383). Wechsler's first scale was designed in 1939 for adults and revised for publishing in 1955, being subject to subsequent revisions (Crawford
Human Figure Drawing
Testing has become an integral part of psychological theory and practice. Rooted in historical perspectives and heated conversation of principles, wagering purpose and ethics, it involves the statistical conceptualizations of psychometrics and the connection of the validity of a test to the reality of a person. The field of psychological testing is characterized by the use of small samples to apply larger generalizations to a specific individual; samples of behavioral trends combine with observations over a limited time in which performance of prescribed tasks is compared to a the pre-studied responses of members of a norm group. These responses, compiled and analyzed before compared to the studied individual, are often crafted into statistical tables that allow the evaluator to compare the behavior of the specific person to the range of responses given by the norm group and make appropriate personality discussions therein. A common type of psychological…
Plubraarn and Theermonparp, p. S615.
Sturner, R.A., Rothbaum, F., Visintainer, M., Wolfer, J. "The Effects of Stress on Children's Human Figure Drawings." Journal of Clinical Psychology. Vol. 36, No. 1. January,1980. p. 324.
Wang, H., Ericsson, K., Winblad, B., Fratiglioni, L. "The Human Figure Drawing Test as a Screen for Dementia in the Elderly: A Community-Based Study." Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics. Vol. 27, No. 1. August, 1998. p. 25.